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90780 Describe properties of
particles and thermochemical
        principles 2010

   The paper broken up into question
                 parts
90780 Q1 2010
QUESTION ONE
(a) Complete the following table.

  Symbol         Electron configuration
  Ca
  Cr
  Mn2+
90780 Q1 2010
QUESTION ONE
(b) Explain why calcium has only one oxidation state,
other than zero, while manganese has several different
oxidation states. .
90780 Q1 2010
QUESTION ONE
(c) Match the atoms and ions in the table below to the
radii given.
99 pm        137 pm      197 pm


 Ca    Ca2+   Mn        Justify your answer
90780 Q2 2010
QUESTION 2
(a) Complete the table by:
(i) drawing Lewis diagrams for the two molecules
(ii) drawing the shape of each molecule
(iii) giving the name of the shape of each molecule.
    Molecule            SF4     XeF4

    Lewis diagram




    Diagram of shape




    Name of shape
90780 Q2 2010
(b) Discuss the fact that although both SF4 and XeF4
have four bonds around the central atom, the molecules
have different shapes and polarities.
90780 Q3 2010

QUESTION THREE
(a) (i) Write the equation for which the enthalpy change is
    the enthalpy of formation, Δf H°, for zinc oxide.

(a) (ii) Zinc oxide is formed when zinc sulfide is heated in air.
2ZnS(s) + 3O2(g) → 2ZnO(s) + 2SO2(g)

Calculate the enthalpy change, ΔrH°, for this reaction, using
the following data.
Δf H° (ZnS(s)) = –200 kJ mol–1
Δf H° (ZnO(s)) = –348 kJ mol–1
Δf H° (SO2(g)) = –297 kJ mol–1
90780 Q3 2010
(b) The equation for the combustion of ethanol
is:
CH3CH2OH(g) + 3O2(g) → 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(g) ΔrH° = –
1379 kJ mol–1
Calculate the bond enthalpy for the O–H bond
using the enthalpy of the reaction above and the
bond enthalpy data in the table.
     Bond               Bond enthalpy / kJ mol–1
     C-H                +412
     C-O                +360
     O=O                +496
     C-C                +348
     C=O                +743
90780 Q4 2010
(a) (i) Write the equation for which the enthalpy
    change is the enthalpy of fusion, ΔfusH°, for
    zinc sulfide.

(ii) Give a reason why ΔfusH° is always greater
than zero.
90780 Describe properties of particles
 and thermochemical principles Q4
                2010
(b) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and propane
(CH3CH2CH3) have similar molar masses but
ethanol is a liquid at room temperature, while
propane is a gas.
Identify the types of intermolecular forces for
each of these substances and explain why
ethanol has a higher boiling point than propane.
90780 Q4 2010
  © Account for the difference in the boiling
  points of the two substances in the table below
  by comparing all the intermolecular forces.
Name                  Structure      Boiling Point / °C


butan-1-ol            CH3CH2CH2CH2OH 117.7


2-methylpropan-2-ol                  82.6

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AS 90780 2010 particles and thermochemistry

  • 1. 90780 Describe properties of particles and thermochemical principles 2010 The paper broken up into question parts
  • 2. 90780 Q1 2010 QUESTION ONE (a) Complete the following table. Symbol Electron configuration Ca Cr Mn2+
  • 3. 90780 Q1 2010 QUESTION ONE (b) Explain why calcium has only one oxidation state, other than zero, while manganese has several different oxidation states. .
  • 4. 90780 Q1 2010 QUESTION ONE (c) Match the atoms and ions in the table below to the radii given. 99 pm 137 pm 197 pm Ca Ca2+ Mn Justify your answer
  • 5. 90780 Q2 2010 QUESTION 2 (a) Complete the table by: (i) drawing Lewis diagrams for the two molecules (ii) drawing the shape of each molecule (iii) giving the name of the shape of each molecule. Molecule SF4 XeF4 Lewis diagram Diagram of shape Name of shape
  • 6. 90780 Q2 2010 (b) Discuss the fact that although both SF4 and XeF4 have four bonds around the central atom, the molecules have different shapes and polarities.
  • 7. 90780 Q3 2010 QUESTION THREE (a) (i) Write the equation for which the enthalpy change is the enthalpy of formation, Δf H°, for zinc oxide. (a) (ii) Zinc oxide is formed when zinc sulfide is heated in air. 2ZnS(s) + 3O2(g) → 2ZnO(s) + 2SO2(g) Calculate the enthalpy change, ΔrH°, for this reaction, using the following data. Δf H° (ZnS(s)) = –200 kJ mol–1 Δf H° (ZnO(s)) = –348 kJ mol–1 Δf H° (SO2(g)) = –297 kJ mol–1
  • 8. 90780 Q3 2010 (b) The equation for the combustion of ethanol is: CH3CH2OH(g) + 3O2(g) → 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(g) ΔrH° = – 1379 kJ mol–1 Calculate the bond enthalpy for the O–H bond using the enthalpy of the reaction above and the bond enthalpy data in the table. Bond Bond enthalpy / kJ mol–1 C-H +412 C-O +360 O=O +496 C-C +348 C=O +743
  • 9. 90780 Q4 2010 (a) (i) Write the equation for which the enthalpy change is the enthalpy of fusion, ΔfusH°, for zinc sulfide. (ii) Give a reason why ΔfusH° is always greater than zero.
  • 10. 90780 Describe properties of particles and thermochemical principles Q4 2010 (b) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and propane (CH3CH2CH3) have similar molar masses but ethanol is a liquid at room temperature, while propane is a gas. Identify the types of intermolecular forces for each of these substances and explain why ethanol has a higher boiling point than propane.
  • 11. 90780 Q4 2010 © Account for the difference in the boiling points of the two substances in the table below by comparing all the intermolecular forces. Name Structure Boiling Point / °C butan-1-ol CH3CH2CH2CH2OH 117.7 2-methylpropan-2-ol 82.6