SlideShare a Scribd company logo
ARMS RACE AND ITS BEARING
ON REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN
SOUTH ASIA
A Region without Regionalism….
Failure in Trade and Finance
A disconnected region…….
Regionalism vs. Extra-regionalism
The Best Option and the Failure…
Post Independence Rivalries…….
Series of confrontations………
Arms Race…….
Asian context…..
Development of strategic arms…..
Development of strategic arms…..
Pakistan Nuclear Program
Introduction
The Indian and Pakistan legacy of
contradictions and disputes runs throughout
the history and it continues
The integration and incorporation in
common objectives such as Economic,
Political and Cultural wellbeing is challenged
in the modern day context largely due to
arms race
Cont..
History of the Program
program is dates back to 1950s’in which
obtained a dramatic acceleration in 1970s’
Pakistan established the Pakistan Atomic Energy
Commission (PAEC) in 1956 with an intention of
enhancing the Atomic program for peaceful means
Z A Bhutto, stating Pakistan intention on
overwhelm India in Arms race
Jammu and Kashmir issue always intensified in
the history
Potentials of the Program
encouraged by the Indian initiations of the nuclear
tests in 1998
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and highly
enriched Uranium
world’s most accelerated stockpiling of nuclear
weapons
Annual stockpiling 15 to 20 warheads which possesses
by 3.4 to 4.0 Metric tons of enriched Uranium
Potentials of the Program
Nuclear program, many nuclear export policies in the world
had been changed, and resultant unproductive progression
Assistance from other states, especially China late 1970s China
provided Pakistan with levels of nuclear and missile-related
assistance
1980s onwards, expertise to Iran North Korea, and Libya.
The Khan network was officially dismantled in 2004,
Tension and Nuclear Race
 “Credible minimum deterrent" against India
 After Indian conducted 5 tests in may 18,
Consequently Pakistan conducted series of tests on 28 same
month
 Commissioned its first plutonium production reactor
at Khushab, 11 kg of weapons-grade plutonium
Tension and Nuclear Race
Pakistan nuclear Program is solely
aimed at India “Parvez Musharaf”
“Economic strangling," or "domestic
destabilization."
Impact of Extra Regional Powers
Pakistan joined other members of the Board
of Governors in approving India's safeguards
agreement with the International Atomic
Energy Agency (IAEA) in August 2008
In response to the U.S.-India deal, Pakistan
sought to increase its civilian nuclear
cooperation with China.
Under a previous cooperation framework,
China supplied Pakistan with two pressurized
water reactors (PWR)
Recent Developments
In October 2015, Pakistan declared that it had
developed tactical nuclear weapons
On 24 March 2016, Pakistan announced that it
has ratified the Amendment to the Convention on
the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM)
Pakistan signed a deal with China to build an
additional 1100-MW PWR at Chashma
INDIAN NUCLEAR PRAGRAMME
“We must develop this atomic energy quite apart from war – indeed I think
we must develop it for the purpose of using it for peaceful purposes. ... Of
course, if we are compelled as a nation to use it for other purposes, possibly
no pious sentiments of any of us will stop the nation from using it that way”
Jawaharlal Nehru
First Prime Minister of India
 India's first successful nuclear bomb test on 18 May 1974
 Second nuclear bomb test on 11–13 May 1998
 The bomb was detonated on the army base at Rajasthan
SMILING BUDDHA & POKHRAN-II
OPERATION SHAKTI
Shakti
I
Shakti
II
Shakti
III
Shakti
V
Five nuclear devices were made during
Operation Shakti
Pressure by super powers during the Cold War ( 1945-1991)
Extra Regional Implications
U.S influence in South Asia
During Kashmir War (1948/1967)
Mutual Security Pact between USA and Pakistan-
1954
Sino- Indian war -1962
After 9/11 attack – 2001
Friendly Security Policy with India since the Govt. of
Bill Clinton.
Extra Regional Implications
Chinese interest in South Asia
Interest of other players- Russia/ Japan/ EU/
Australia
Pakistan- China Relations
Pakistan – USA Partnership.
India- Iran Relations
Relations with Muslim Community.
Extra Regional Implications
Indo –Pak Problem (Border Issues, Terrorism)
Indo –China Cold War
SAARC – Low profile..
BIMSTEC - Exclude Pakistan
Low profile of Intra Regional Import & Export
trade
Barriers of Regional Integration
Less implementation of Free Trade Agreements
Less Liberalization of Air Service
Barriers to Trade in Telecom service
Less transportation Services
Barriers of Regional Integration
World Nuclear Forces,” SIPRI Yearbook 2019 (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2019),
www.sipri.org.
"India," International Panel on Fissile Materials, www.fissilematerials.org.
"India," International Panel on Fissile Materials, www.fissilematerials.org.
Pradeep Kumar, “Kalpakkam Fast Breeder Test Reactor achieves 30 MW power
production,” The Times of India, 27 March 2018.
Rahi Gaikwad, “Pokhran-II: ‘No Scientific Basis for Doubts,’” The Hindu, 24 September
2009, www.thehindu.com.
Mika Kerttunen, ‘A Responsible Nuclear Weapons Power’ – Nuclear Weapons and Indian
Foreign Policy (Helsinki: National Defence University Department of Strategic and Defence
Studies, 2009) p. 152.
George Perkovich, India's Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1999).
References
Banik, N. (December 2008). Regional Integration and Trade Costs in South Asia. Tokyo::
Asian Development Bank Institute.
Premaratne**, A. B. (15 June 2018.). Regional Integration and Economic Growth in
Southeast Asia. School of Business and Economics, University of Brunei Darussalam,.
Rahman, S. H. (2012). Regional Integration and Economic Development in South Asia.
Cheltenham, UK • Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Saman Kelegama. (2012). Regional Trade Agreements in South. Colombo: Institute of
Policy Studies of Sri Lanka.
Sareen, R. S. (2020). INDIA’S LIMITED TRADE CONNECTIVITY WITH SOUTH ASIA.
Chanakyapuri, New Delhi: Brookings Institution India Center,.

More Related Content

What's hot

USA and Pakistan Relations- Ups and Downs
USA and Pakistan Relations- Ups and DownsUSA and Pakistan Relations- Ups and Downs
USA and Pakistan Relations- Ups and Downs
Freelanced
 
Pakistan Bangladesh Relations
Pakistan Bangladesh RelationsPakistan Bangladesh Relations
Pakistan Bangladesh Relations
Freelanced
 
Foreign Policy of Pakistan
Foreign Policy of PakistanForeign Policy of Pakistan
Foreign Policy of Pakistan
Ali Raza Jillani
 
Iran pakistan gas pipeline project.
Iran pakistan gas pipeline project.Iran pakistan gas pipeline project.
Iran pakistan gas pipeline project.
anwaar azad
 
Pak-Afghan Relations in post 9-11 era: A case study of Durand line security b...
Pak-Afghan Relations in post 9-11 era: A case study of Durand line security b...Pak-Afghan Relations in post 9-11 era: A case study of Durand line security b...
Pak-Afghan Relations in post 9-11 era: A case study of Durand line security b...
Bilal yousaf
 
Pakistan united sates relations
Pakistan united sates relationsPakistan united sates relations
Pakistan united sates relations
maria mano
 
Foreign policy of Pakistan
Foreign policy of PakistanForeign policy of Pakistan
Foreign policy of Pakistan
Waqar Haq
 
Pakistan Nuclear
Pakistan NuclearPakistan Nuclear
Pakistan Nuclear
Roshan3246
 
Nuclear Power and Its Conflict
Nuclear Power and Its ConflictNuclear Power and Its Conflict
Nuclear Power and Its Conflict
S Mahroosh Mazhar
 
Pakistan’s foreign policy
Pakistan’s foreign policyPakistan’s foreign policy
Pakistan’s foreign policy
Mohummad Arsalan
 
Foreign policy of Pakistan
Foreign policy of Pakistan Foreign policy of Pakistan
Foreign policy of Pakistan
NomanAhmed101
 
Foreign Policy of Pakistan Part 2
Foreign Policy of Pakistan Part 2Foreign Policy of Pakistan Part 2
Foreign Policy of Pakistan Part 2
Shahid Hussain Raja
 
Non traditional presentation
Non traditional  presentationNon traditional  presentation
Non traditional presentation
sohail ahmad
 
Foreign policy options for pakistan
Foreign policy options for pakistanForeign policy options for pakistan
Foreign policy options for pakistan
Qudsia Khan
 
Pak US relation 130411005046-phpapp01
Pak US relation 130411005046-phpapp01Pak US relation 130411005046-phpapp01
Pak US relation 130411005046-phpapp01
Asfand Hassan
 
Foreign policy of pakistan 2
Foreign policy of pakistan 2Foreign policy of pakistan 2
Foreign policy of pakistan 2
Hassaan Malhi
 
GEO POLITICAL, GEO GRAPHICAL IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTAN
GEO POLITICAL, GEO GRAPHICAL IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTANGEO POLITICAL, GEO GRAPHICAL IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTAN
GEO POLITICAL, GEO GRAPHICAL IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTAN
Learning Academy
 
History, function, achievements and failure in resolving issues of muslim wor...
History, function, achievements and failure in resolving issues of muslim wor...History, function, achievements and failure in resolving issues of muslim wor...
History, function, achievements and failure in resolving issues of muslim wor...
FaizaSaleem23
 
Pak us ties
Pak us tiesPak us ties
Pak us ties
Fakiha Rizvi
 
Geopolitical & Strategical Importance of Pakistan by Asad
Geopolitical & Strategical Importance of Pakistan by AsadGeopolitical & Strategical Importance of Pakistan by Asad
Geopolitical & Strategical Importance of Pakistan by Asad
اسد الر حمن
 

What's hot (20)

USA and Pakistan Relations- Ups and Downs
USA and Pakistan Relations- Ups and DownsUSA and Pakistan Relations- Ups and Downs
USA and Pakistan Relations- Ups and Downs
 
Pakistan Bangladesh Relations
Pakistan Bangladesh RelationsPakistan Bangladesh Relations
Pakistan Bangladesh Relations
 
Foreign Policy of Pakistan
Foreign Policy of PakistanForeign Policy of Pakistan
Foreign Policy of Pakistan
 
Iran pakistan gas pipeline project.
Iran pakistan gas pipeline project.Iran pakistan gas pipeline project.
Iran pakistan gas pipeline project.
 
Pak-Afghan Relations in post 9-11 era: A case study of Durand line security b...
Pak-Afghan Relations in post 9-11 era: A case study of Durand line security b...Pak-Afghan Relations in post 9-11 era: A case study of Durand line security b...
Pak-Afghan Relations in post 9-11 era: A case study of Durand line security b...
 
Pakistan united sates relations
Pakistan united sates relationsPakistan united sates relations
Pakistan united sates relations
 
Foreign policy of Pakistan
Foreign policy of PakistanForeign policy of Pakistan
Foreign policy of Pakistan
 
Pakistan Nuclear
Pakistan NuclearPakistan Nuclear
Pakistan Nuclear
 
Nuclear Power and Its Conflict
Nuclear Power and Its ConflictNuclear Power and Its Conflict
Nuclear Power and Its Conflict
 
Pakistan’s foreign policy
Pakistan’s foreign policyPakistan’s foreign policy
Pakistan’s foreign policy
 
Foreign policy of Pakistan
Foreign policy of Pakistan Foreign policy of Pakistan
Foreign policy of Pakistan
 
Foreign Policy of Pakistan Part 2
Foreign Policy of Pakistan Part 2Foreign Policy of Pakistan Part 2
Foreign Policy of Pakistan Part 2
 
Non traditional presentation
Non traditional  presentationNon traditional  presentation
Non traditional presentation
 
Foreign policy options for pakistan
Foreign policy options for pakistanForeign policy options for pakistan
Foreign policy options for pakistan
 
Pak US relation 130411005046-phpapp01
Pak US relation 130411005046-phpapp01Pak US relation 130411005046-phpapp01
Pak US relation 130411005046-phpapp01
 
Foreign policy of pakistan 2
Foreign policy of pakistan 2Foreign policy of pakistan 2
Foreign policy of pakistan 2
 
GEO POLITICAL, GEO GRAPHICAL IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTAN
GEO POLITICAL, GEO GRAPHICAL IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTANGEO POLITICAL, GEO GRAPHICAL IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTAN
GEO POLITICAL, GEO GRAPHICAL IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTAN
 
History, function, achievements and failure in resolving issues of muslim wor...
History, function, achievements and failure in resolving issues of muslim wor...History, function, achievements and failure in resolving issues of muslim wor...
History, function, achievements and failure in resolving issues of muslim wor...
 
Pak us ties
Pak us tiesPak us ties
Pak us ties
 
Geopolitical & Strategical Importance of Pakistan by Asad
Geopolitical & Strategical Importance of Pakistan by AsadGeopolitical & Strategical Importance of Pakistan by Asad
Geopolitical & Strategical Importance of Pakistan by Asad
 

Similar to Arms race and regional integration in South Asia

Pak china relations : Media & Current Affairs : Student Collaboration
Pak china relations : Media & Current Affairs : Student CollaborationPak china relations : Media & Current Affairs : Student Collaboration
Pak china relations : Media & Current Affairs : Student Collaboration
Ali Haider Saeed
 
China pak economic corridor
China pak economic corridorChina pak economic corridor
China pak economic corridor
Saqib Tanveer
 
China Pakistan Relations ideology and constitutional of Pakistan
China Pakistan Relations ideology and constitutional of PakistanChina Pakistan Relations ideology and constitutional of Pakistan
China Pakistan Relations ideology and constitutional of Pakistan
m03002756913
 
Pak China Relation
Pak China RelationPak China Relation
Pak China Relation
shahroz alam
 
pak china relations slides
 pak china relations slides pak china relations slides
pak china relations slides
Muhammad Abdur Rehman
 
CPEC
CPECCPEC
d5ITQK7pdR0U2eQK279 (1).pptx
d5ITQK7pdR0U2eQK279 (1).pptxd5ITQK7pdR0U2eQK279 (1).pptx
d5ITQK7pdR0U2eQK279 (1).pptx
salalsalem
 
Pak china relations
Pak china relationsPak china relations
Pak china relations
Qasim Azeem
 
China Pakistan Friendship and CPEC
China Pakistan Friendship and CPEC China Pakistan Friendship and CPEC
China Pakistan Friendship and CPEC
Zeeshan Akhtar
 
Cpec will galvanize industrailization and employment in pakistan
Cpec will galvanize industrailization and employment in pakistanCpec will galvanize industrailization and employment in pakistan
Cpec will galvanize industrailization and employment in pakistan
Ayesha Majid
 
Foreign policy of pakistan
Foreign policy of pakistanForeign policy of pakistan
Foreign policy of pakistan
MOHSIN GULAB TANWARI
 
pakchinapresentationfinal-161225083617.pdf
pakchinapresentationfinal-161225083617.pdfpakchinapresentationfinal-161225083617.pdf
pakchinapresentationfinal-161225083617.pdf
SohailRanjha1
 
Pak china relations
Pak china relationsPak china relations
Pak china relations
Areej Fatima
 
China investment notes
China investment notesChina investment notes
China investment notes
Qamar Adeel
 
pakistan
pakistanpakistan
Pak china economic corridor
Pak china economic corridorPak china economic corridor
Pak china economic corridor
zahoor malik
 
rising Pakistan <3
rising Pakistan <3rising Pakistan <3
rising Pakistan <3
momna khan
 
DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS-28 SEPTEMBER
DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS-28 SEPTEMBERDAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS-28 SEPTEMBER
DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS-28 SEPTEMBER
ShivangiThakur46
 
Complete cpec and bcim
Complete cpec and bcim Complete cpec and bcim
Complete cpec and bcim
mahee tori
 
Iran-Pakistan Relation: Impact on CPEC
Iran-Pakistan Relation: Impact on CPECIran-Pakistan Relation: Impact on CPEC
Iran-Pakistan Relation: Impact on CPEC
AJSSMTJournal
 

Similar to Arms race and regional integration in South Asia (20)

Pak china relations : Media & Current Affairs : Student Collaboration
Pak china relations : Media & Current Affairs : Student CollaborationPak china relations : Media & Current Affairs : Student Collaboration
Pak china relations : Media & Current Affairs : Student Collaboration
 
China pak economic corridor
China pak economic corridorChina pak economic corridor
China pak economic corridor
 
China Pakistan Relations ideology and constitutional of Pakistan
China Pakistan Relations ideology and constitutional of PakistanChina Pakistan Relations ideology and constitutional of Pakistan
China Pakistan Relations ideology and constitutional of Pakistan
 
Pak China Relation
Pak China RelationPak China Relation
Pak China Relation
 
pak china relations slides
 pak china relations slides pak china relations slides
pak china relations slides
 
CPEC
CPECCPEC
CPEC
 
d5ITQK7pdR0U2eQK279 (1).pptx
d5ITQK7pdR0U2eQK279 (1).pptxd5ITQK7pdR0U2eQK279 (1).pptx
d5ITQK7pdR0U2eQK279 (1).pptx
 
Pak china relations
Pak china relationsPak china relations
Pak china relations
 
China Pakistan Friendship and CPEC
China Pakistan Friendship and CPEC China Pakistan Friendship and CPEC
China Pakistan Friendship and CPEC
 
Cpec will galvanize industrailization and employment in pakistan
Cpec will galvanize industrailization and employment in pakistanCpec will galvanize industrailization and employment in pakistan
Cpec will galvanize industrailization and employment in pakistan
 
Foreign policy of pakistan
Foreign policy of pakistanForeign policy of pakistan
Foreign policy of pakistan
 
pakchinapresentationfinal-161225083617.pdf
pakchinapresentationfinal-161225083617.pdfpakchinapresentationfinal-161225083617.pdf
pakchinapresentationfinal-161225083617.pdf
 
Pak china relations
Pak china relationsPak china relations
Pak china relations
 
China investment notes
China investment notesChina investment notes
China investment notes
 
pakistan
pakistanpakistan
pakistan
 
Pak china economic corridor
Pak china economic corridorPak china economic corridor
Pak china economic corridor
 
rising Pakistan <3
rising Pakistan <3rising Pakistan <3
rising Pakistan <3
 
DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS-28 SEPTEMBER
DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS-28 SEPTEMBERDAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS-28 SEPTEMBER
DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS-28 SEPTEMBER
 
Complete cpec and bcim
Complete cpec and bcim Complete cpec and bcim
Complete cpec and bcim
 
Iran-Pakistan Relation: Impact on CPEC
Iran-Pakistan Relation: Impact on CPECIran-Pakistan Relation: Impact on CPEC
Iran-Pakistan Relation: Impact on CPEC
 

Recently uploaded

Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034
Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034
Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034
Congressional Budget Office
 
在线办理(西班牙UPV毕业证书)瓦伦西亚理工大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(西班牙UPV毕业证书)瓦伦西亚理工大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样在线办理(西班牙UPV毕业证书)瓦伦西亚理工大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(西班牙UPV毕业证书)瓦伦西亚理工大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
dj1cx4ex
 
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdfGUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdf
ProexportColombia1
 
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理
teeaszt
 
CBO's Immigration Projections - Presentation
CBO's Immigration Projections - PresentationCBO's Immigration Projections - Presentation
CBO's Immigration Projections - Presentation
Congressional Budget Office
 
一比一原版(uoit毕业证书)加拿大安大略理工大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uoit毕业证书)加拿大安大略理工大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(uoit毕业证书)加拿大安大略理工大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uoit毕业证书)加拿大安大略理工大学毕业证如何办理
vfefek
 
All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1
All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1
All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1
arushiyadavp11
 
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdfGUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdf
ProexportColombia1
 
Jabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & Prospeknya
Jabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & ProspeknyaJabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & Prospeknya
Jabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & Prospeknya
Tri Widodo W. UTOMO
 
UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024
UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024
UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024
Energy for One World
 
一比一原版(theauckland毕业证书)新西兰奥克兰大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(theauckland毕业证书)新西兰奥克兰大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版(theauckland毕业证书)新西兰奥克兰大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(theauckland毕业证书)新西兰奥克兰大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
odmqk
 
Draft CP-Baggao on Landslide final copyocx
Draft CP-Baggao on Landslide final copyocxDraft CP-Baggao on Landslide final copyocx
Draft CP-Baggao on Landslide final copyocx
DivineLapada
 
Spending in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, 2010 to 2021
Spending in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, 2010 to 2021Spending in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, 2010 to 2021
Spending in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, 2010 to 2021
Congressional Budget Office
 
The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...
The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...
The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...
ResolutionFoundation
 
EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024
EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024
EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024
Energy for One World
 
2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 43
2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 432024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 43
2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 43
JSchaus & Associates
 
ColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomics
ColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomicsColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomics
ColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomics
JuanFelipeHerrera4
 
The Power of Community Newsletters: A Case Study from Wolverton and Greenleys...
The Power of Community Newsletters: A Case Study from Wolverton and Greenleys...The Power of Community Newsletters: A Case Study from Wolverton and Greenleys...
The Power of Community Newsletters: A Case Study from Wolverton and Greenleys...
Scribe
 
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdfGUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdf
ProexportColombia1
 
一比一原版办理(UQ毕业证)昆士兰大学毕业证
一比一原版办理(UQ毕业证)昆士兰大学毕业证一比一原版办理(UQ毕业证)昆士兰大学毕业证
一比一原版办理(UQ毕业证)昆士兰大学毕业证
eesme1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034
Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034
Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034
 
在线办理(西班牙UPV毕业证书)瓦伦西亚理工大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(西班牙UPV毕业证书)瓦伦西亚理工大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样在线办理(西班牙UPV毕业证书)瓦伦西亚理工大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(西班牙UPV毕业证书)瓦伦西亚理工大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
 
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdfGUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdf
 
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理
 
CBO's Immigration Projections - Presentation
CBO's Immigration Projections - PresentationCBO's Immigration Projections - Presentation
CBO's Immigration Projections - Presentation
 
一比一原版(uoit毕业证书)加拿大安大略理工大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uoit毕业证书)加拿大安大略理工大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(uoit毕业证书)加拿大安大略理工大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uoit毕业证书)加拿大安大略理工大学毕业证如何办理
 
All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1
All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1
All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1
 
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdfGUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdf
 
Jabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & Prospeknya
Jabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & ProspeknyaJabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & Prospeknya
Jabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & Prospeknya
 
UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024
UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024
UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024
 
一比一原版(theauckland毕业证书)新西兰奥克兰大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(theauckland毕业证书)新西兰奥克兰大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版(theauckland毕业证书)新西兰奥克兰大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(theauckland毕业证书)新西兰奥克兰大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
Draft CP-Baggao on Landslide final copyocx
Draft CP-Baggao on Landslide final copyocxDraft CP-Baggao on Landslide final copyocx
Draft CP-Baggao on Landslide final copyocx
 
Spending in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, 2010 to 2021
Spending in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, 2010 to 2021Spending in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, 2010 to 2021
Spending in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, 2010 to 2021
 
The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...
The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...
The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...
 
EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024
EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024
EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024
 
2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 43
2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 432024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 43
2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 43
 
ColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomics
ColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomicsColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomics
ColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomics
 
The Power of Community Newsletters: A Case Study from Wolverton and Greenleys...
The Power of Community Newsletters: A Case Study from Wolverton and Greenleys...The Power of Community Newsletters: A Case Study from Wolverton and Greenleys...
The Power of Community Newsletters: A Case Study from Wolverton and Greenleys...
 
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdfGUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdf
 
一比一原版办理(UQ毕业证)昆士兰大学毕业证
一比一原版办理(UQ毕业证)昆士兰大学毕业证一比一原版办理(UQ毕业证)昆士兰大学毕业证
一比一原版办理(UQ毕业证)昆士兰大学毕业证
 

Arms race and regional integration in South Asia

  • 1. ARMS RACE AND ITS BEARING ON REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN SOUTH ASIA
  • 2. A Region without Regionalism….
  • 3. Failure in Trade and Finance
  • 6. The Best Option and the Failure…
  • 14. Introduction The Indian and Pakistan legacy of contradictions and disputes runs throughout the history and it continues The integration and incorporation in common objectives such as Economic, Political and Cultural wellbeing is challenged in the modern day context largely due to arms race Cont..
  • 15.
  • 16. History of the Program program is dates back to 1950s’in which obtained a dramatic acceleration in 1970s’ Pakistan established the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) in 1956 with an intention of enhancing the Atomic program for peaceful means Z A Bhutto, stating Pakistan intention on overwhelm India in Arms race Jammu and Kashmir issue always intensified in the history
  • 17. Potentials of the Program encouraged by the Indian initiations of the nuclear tests in 1998 Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and highly enriched Uranium world’s most accelerated stockpiling of nuclear weapons Annual stockpiling 15 to 20 warheads which possesses by 3.4 to 4.0 Metric tons of enriched Uranium
  • 18.
  • 19. Potentials of the Program Nuclear program, many nuclear export policies in the world had been changed, and resultant unproductive progression Assistance from other states, especially China late 1970s China provided Pakistan with levels of nuclear and missile-related assistance 1980s onwards, expertise to Iran North Korea, and Libya. The Khan network was officially dismantled in 2004,
  • 20.
  • 21. Tension and Nuclear Race  “Credible minimum deterrent" against India  After Indian conducted 5 tests in may 18, Consequently Pakistan conducted series of tests on 28 same month  Commissioned its first plutonium production reactor at Khushab, 11 kg of weapons-grade plutonium
  • 22.
  • 23. Tension and Nuclear Race Pakistan nuclear Program is solely aimed at India “Parvez Musharaf” “Economic strangling," or "domestic destabilization."
  • 24.
  • 25. Impact of Extra Regional Powers Pakistan joined other members of the Board of Governors in approving India's safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in August 2008 In response to the U.S.-India deal, Pakistan sought to increase its civilian nuclear cooperation with China. Under a previous cooperation framework, China supplied Pakistan with two pressurized water reactors (PWR)
  • 26. Recent Developments In October 2015, Pakistan declared that it had developed tactical nuclear weapons On 24 March 2016, Pakistan announced that it has ratified the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) Pakistan signed a deal with China to build an additional 1100-MW PWR at Chashma
  • 28.
  • 29. “We must develop this atomic energy quite apart from war – indeed I think we must develop it for the purpose of using it for peaceful purposes. ... Of course, if we are compelled as a nation to use it for other purposes, possibly no pious sentiments of any of us will stop the nation from using it that way” Jawaharlal Nehru First Prime Minister of India
  • 30.  India's first successful nuclear bomb test on 18 May 1974  Second nuclear bomb test on 11–13 May 1998  The bomb was detonated on the army base at Rajasthan SMILING BUDDHA & POKHRAN-II
  • 31. OPERATION SHAKTI Shakti I Shakti II Shakti III Shakti V Five nuclear devices were made during Operation Shakti
  • 32.
  • 33. Pressure by super powers during the Cold War ( 1945-1991) Extra Regional Implications
  • 34. U.S influence in South Asia During Kashmir War (1948/1967) Mutual Security Pact between USA and Pakistan- 1954 Sino- Indian war -1962 After 9/11 attack – 2001 Friendly Security Policy with India since the Govt. of Bill Clinton. Extra Regional Implications
  • 35. Chinese interest in South Asia Interest of other players- Russia/ Japan/ EU/ Australia Pakistan- China Relations Pakistan – USA Partnership. India- Iran Relations Relations with Muslim Community. Extra Regional Implications
  • 36. Indo –Pak Problem (Border Issues, Terrorism) Indo –China Cold War SAARC – Low profile.. BIMSTEC - Exclude Pakistan Low profile of Intra Regional Import & Export trade Barriers of Regional Integration
  • 37. Less implementation of Free Trade Agreements Less Liberalization of Air Service Barriers to Trade in Telecom service Less transportation Services Barriers of Regional Integration
  • 38. World Nuclear Forces,” SIPRI Yearbook 2019 (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2019), www.sipri.org. "India," International Panel on Fissile Materials, www.fissilematerials.org. "India," International Panel on Fissile Materials, www.fissilematerials.org. Pradeep Kumar, “Kalpakkam Fast Breeder Test Reactor achieves 30 MW power production,” The Times of India, 27 March 2018. Rahi Gaikwad, “Pokhran-II: ‘No Scientific Basis for Doubts,’” The Hindu, 24 September 2009, www.thehindu.com. Mika Kerttunen, ‘A Responsible Nuclear Weapons Power’ – Nuclear Weapons and Indian Foreign Policy (Helsinki: National Defence University Department of Strategic and Defence Studies, 2009) p. 152. George Perkovich, India's Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999). References
  • 39. Banik, N. (December 2008). Regional Integration and Trade Costs in South Asia. Tokyo:: Asian Development Bank Institute. Premaratne**, A. B. (15 June 2018.). Regional Integration and Economic Growth in Southeast Asia. School of Business and Economics, University of Brunei Darussalam,. Rahman, S. H. (2012). Regional Integration and Economic Development in South Asia. Cheltenham, UK • Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. Saman Kelegama. (2012). Regional Trade Agreements in South. Colombo: Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka. Sareen, R. S. (2020). INDIA’S LIMITED TRADE CONNECTIVITY WITH SOUTH ASIA. Chanakyapuri, New Delhi: Brookings Institution India Center,.