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● Archiving 
and 
disseminating 
● sound 
archives 
– 
5: 
Collecting 
sound 
data 
for 
digital 
storage 
and 
dissemination 
Véronique Ginouvès, MMSH 
Maison méditerranéenne 
des sciences de l’homme 
veronique.ginouves@univ-amu.fr
Our 
program 
1. 
Processes 
and 
procedures 
in 
digitizing 
sound 
materials 
2. 
Managing 
sound 
data 
3. 
Analysis 
and 
treatment 
of 
sound 
data 
4. 
Valorising 
digital 
sound 
archives 
5. 
Collecting 
sound 
data 
for 
digital 
storage 
and 
dissemination
3. 
Collec0ng 
sound 
data 
for 
digital 
storage 
and 
dissemina0on 
1. How 
to 
create 
a 
ne 
w 
sound 
collection; 
2. 
Organizing 
field 
recordings 
and 
preparing 
a 
maintenance 
verification 
and 
control 
panel. 
3. Successful 
sound 
recording 
and 
recording 
interviews.
Why 
record 
? 
- Society is not founded uniquely on what is written; information is also 
transmitted orally : know-how, stories, songs, music, languages… 
- Paper archives are not sufficient in order to understand history: 
details of daily life, anecdotes, "secrets" ... allowing a better 
understanding of contexts... 
- History has been made as much by anonymous people (the 
"forgotten" people of history) as by those whose names we know or 
elites, each one brings indispensable complements to our knowledge, 
orally... 
- The reconstitution of the past is also done through representations 
given by witnesses or through their emotions... 
- The spoken word gives life to an event, a story, archives…
The preservation of sound recordings from the 
field in a central archive : What uses ? 
- Produce a document just like in written, audiovisuel, or iconographic ways 
- Rapidly and efficiently gather information avoid taking notes, a 
source for errors 
- Secure data that cannot be gathered other than orally 
linguistic practices, lived, affective, representations of symbols, or imaginary, 
sensitive subjects for which no printed archive exists, music that has never been 
transcribed 
- Give a voice to anonymous speakers 
- Fill in gaps in sources printed and photographic
Our 
programme 
- Methods of collecting 
- Recording interviews 
- Valorising interviews
Methods for preparing 
for speech collection 
− Define a problematic 
− Learn about one's subject 
− Choose "privileged" informers 
− Respond to the problematic with some 
hypotheses 
− Develop a "survey" table 
− Establish the physical or institutional 
entities charged with the collected 
archives and the interactions of the 
partners in the project 
− Prepare a use and diffustion for the 
archives
During preparation, these steps, because they are 
relational, may modify each other … 
According to a project's goals, means (human and 
financial), and partners, it can be more or less 
complex to put into place 
The writing of a set of specifications is crucial and 
necessary; we will construct one together during 
our time together.
Preparing one's survey 
Engaging in a survey is a parallel activity to the 
production of data. We are going to actively 
prepare this terrain.
Choosing our subject 
It is good practice to begin by being guided by a 
question, and then to pass from the theme to the 
survey question. 
=> by reformulating the question from readings and 
experience 
=> by limiting the "appropriate populations" 
=> The question should echo your own experience, 
journey, in order to become a real interview subject 
The path of our theme will be the object of our 
survey.
A question is always evolving 
During the course of your survey, the theme of 
the questions may change, but it is good practice 
to always regularly revisit and revise the main 
question : The survey can go off course, there 
may be periods of quick progress, or blockage. 
But: 
Field conditions will always dictate direction to the 
surveyor.
Particularities of the surveyor 
Personal family history 
Personal experiences 
Knowledge of foreign cultures 
Traveling practices 
Family relationships 
Knowledge of the field 
La place et le rôle du collecteur de témoignages oraux, Florence Descamps 
http://afas.revues.org/1514 ("The place and the role of the collector of oral 
testimony")
Conduct a survey by accepting 
strangeness as an asset 
= Reverse one's way of looking 
> The surest spirit of an ethnographic survey is 
one that is de-centered, in order to see the 
social world differently, in order to discover 
facts that are apparently banal, natural, 
obvious, reflecting social relations, history
Preparing the survey 
Knowing the domain of research 
=> document research 
- be part of a cumulative science 
- ask new questions 
- manifest your prejudices 
- draw up thematic files 
- avoid themes that are too large or too original
Preparing the survey 
2. Get familiarised with the terrain 
- learn the language of "your" population : job-talk 
(work language), social language, cultural 
language... 
- learn to detect the implicit of social life in the 
milieu of the survey, 
- avoid constructing theories too quickly 
because they could lead to hasty 
interpretations.
Preparing the survey 
3. Get informed 
- be permanently capable of talking about 
things that interest your witnesses, 
- strive to collect the maximum amount of 
information on your research theme ; be on the 
lookout !
Leaving for the survey... 
Bring a notebook -- not too thick and not too 
thin -- in order to keep transportable field notes 
Establish a file sharing account on line in order 
to be aware of what the team is doing.
The field journal 
Serves as a log for keeping up with the survey. 
Its qualities : precision, sense of detail, scrupulous 
honesty of a laboratory... Where, when, how, with 
whom... 
Certain of those pages will become a research 
journal : analyses, evolution of the subject, 
hypotheses doubts, pleasures... 
Try to keep information on the left side of a page, 
and analysis on the right side.
Assorted questions to ask in one's field 
journal... 
Why do I wish to lead this survey? 
What is my investment in the group I am surveying? 
What is my position(ality) in this universe and how might that 
position at least partially explain my own point of view? 
Do I feel comfortable or at ease with this group, or not? 
Whom do I find nice or not, and why? 
Am I becoming dependent on certain members of the group? 
Why? 
Would I just like to be elsewhere? 
.../...
The importance of the field journal 
Only the field notebook promises to transform a 
social experience into an ethnographic one. 
In order to break with your habits, to undo your 
original point of view, it is even more necessary to 
have noted something, which gives you the power 
to do so.
Should interviews be filmed? 
-­‐ 
Lag between what the 
witness is showing of 
herself and what she is 
saying, 
- Critical distance is more 
difficult, 
- "Total" recording of social 
life, 
- High cost, 
- Complicates rights for 
future broadcasting. 
- The witness "shows", 
- Best criticism of the 
source, 
- Facilitates later valorising.
The recording device 
A Digital recording device that allows the sound 
recording in the WAVE format = minimum 
44.1Hzt, 16 bits, the standard : 96Hzt/24 bits. 
A directional microphone or not (often not 
useful if a good quality microphone is 
integrated in the recording device). 
Memory on media that will be compatible with 
your equipment.
Preparing an interview for archival 
purposes : Taking care of the material 
aspects 
Be aware of : 
- the place of where the interview will be held, 
- its length, 
- the image of the interviewer, 
- the recording and preservation equipment, 
because the logic of document sustainability 
and perpetuity guides our efforts.
Consequences of the choice of 
place to record 
- Each place can produce interference in the mind 
of the witness, in terms of her conception of the 
exercise of oral archiving, at journalistic, heritage, 
wordly, pedagogic, confidential, professional 
registers... 
- Extinguish all noise! (telephone, outside 
conversations, pets, open windows...). 
- Envision your technical setup (electric plugs, 
taking notes, ...)
Self-appearance 
Becoming an "interviewer" is a new social 
role to take on.... 
Don't disguise yourself, 
be yourself: 
- Neutrality of one's allure, 
- Respect the typical rules of politeness 
and be punctual,
The time given for an interview 
Ideally : one or two hours ... be careful about digital 
mismanagement ;-) 
Choose a time of day when the witness is the most 
energetic and available, in terms of her personal 
or professional organisation. 
Follow a frequency of one or two meetings a week 
(if it is an oral history of a life story)
Recording sound 
- Quality of the recording device and the microphone, 
- Quality of the act of recording sound (orientation of the 
microphone, mastery of the recording device, verification of 
levels), 
- Quality of the recording format, 
- Quality of sound card, 
- Staying alert for sound disturbances during the interview, 
- Staying alert for electric charge on the recording device 
(battery ou transformer) 
- Systematic transfer of digital files and verification of their 
integrity at the end of each interview.
Presenting oneself at the beginning of an interview 
The uses of the word "survey" 
It is a term that is not neutral and can be 
associated with ideas that are perjorative: 
study, work, research are the most positive 
words but above all, take the time to explain 
your work, in particular if it involves a heritage 
survey for which you will later sign contracts for 
broadcast and use.
Always ask permission to record 
By asking your interviewee for her permission 
to record, you change the status of her words: 
you transform private speech (between the 
witness and you) into a public one, potentially 
audible to a third party, and thus, usable, 
quotable.
Some ethical rules 
- Never record without a person's knowledge, 
- Explain the context and objective of the survey to 
the interviewee, 
- Interrupt the recording is she asks for it, 
- Ask for permission to take photographs, 
- Never divulge the discussion with the interviewee to 
her acquaintances, 
- Sign the necessary licensing and distribution 
contracts for the recordings, just like those used for 
images.
The trailer for the interview 
The trailer identifies the file and avoids any kind of attribution 
error. It indicates: 
— the name of the interviewee, 
— the name of the interviewer (perhaps also her details, role, 
job), 
— the date and time of the interview (perhaps also the n°) 
— the site of the interview (home, office, institution...), 
— perhaps also, the purpose of the interview, and its framework 
(biographical, research, thematic, heritage survey for a deposit 
in an archive).
Conducting an interview 
Should an "interview guide" be used? 
Collecting objective data 
Knowing how to lead conversational exchange: 
- Strategies of listening 
- Strategies of intervention
Should an "interview guide" be 
used? 
Advantages : 
- it reassures the interviewee as well as the 
interviewers, 
- you structure the information in order to gather 
the material in a way that conforms to your 
problematic, 
- you can more easily make comparisons between 
different interviews, 
- it legitimates the quantitative conceptualisation of 
the interviews.
Should an "interview guide" be 
used? 
Disadvantages : 
- You will feel obligated to follow and respect 
your questions in order, 
- You might not be as attentive to what the 
interviewee is saying; 
- You may give the interviewee the impression 
that she is responding to a questionnaire, 
- The guide could lead you to stay locked in 
your subject.
Putting it into practice 
In a group, construct an "interview guide" 
around a theme you define together : your 
problematic 
Look for an interviewee in your immediate 
surroundings, present your project to her, 
and record her for 10 minutes on an already 
defined theme. 
Get the interviewee to sign licensing and 
distribution contracts for this recording.
Tools for planning a survey campaign 
Multiple tools exist : 
The WWWWWHHM method 
Who does What, Where, When, Why, How and 
How Much? 
Mental maps (Mind Mapping) in order to follow 
associations and links between thoughts. 
Examples of free Mind Mapping software programs 
Freemind or Xmind
Create an interview table from a mind 
map 
=> Visual representation of links and associations between thoughts
Create an interview table from a 
mind map 
Life story of someone involved in the 
independence of Tanzania
Do not forget to collect 
objective data 
While the lived experiences of interviewees is 
important, in order for these archives to make 
sense, we need to also obtain objective 
information which would be too difficult to get 
later: a person's age, their professional path, 
spoken languages, social origins... 
> Look for clues during the interview.
How to lead the interview 
- Listen to interviews on-line 
- Center the beginning interview on a particular point: 
the interviewee should know where you are going, 
- Manage the time of the interview, know how to find the 
time to receive trust, 
- Avoid giving an interpretation while posing a question, 
or asking embarrassing factual questions, or questions 
of opinions, 
- Do not cut off your interviewee; it is not you who is 
interesting, it is she.
Listening strategies 
The key to the methodology of interviewing is 
based on your listening technique. 
In this framework, listening produces meanings, 
implementing selection, inference, comparison 
operations against the goals of the interview. 
The decision to intervene must be made with full 
knowledge of the different types of intervention.
Fieldwork in Sociology by Howard 
Becker: Never ask "Why?" 
http://www.canal-u.tv/producteurs/ 
canal_socio_universite_paul_verlaine_metz/dossier_programmes/ 
trois_lecons_de_sociologie/ 
trois_lecons_de_sociologie_1_sur_le_travail_de_terrain 
Canal socio
Strategies of intervention 
- Instruct 
- Revive 
- Intervene
Strategies of intervention : 
instruct 
All interviews start with an opening instruction: it must 
be clear, and yet the field of responses wide enough 
for everyone to be able to express her responses. 
"I'd like you to tell me ... what it means for you" (get 
an opinion) 
"I'd like you to tell me how it happened ..." (get a 
narration) 
=> each instruction introduces a new theme, and 
structures the interview.
Strategies of intervention : 
revive 
Revival is a reactive action that is registered in the 
course of the informant's statements. 
- reiteration by echo: a simple reprise of the the last 
information given by the speaker, 
- reiteration by reflecting back with a modal prefix like 
"so you think that .... ", 
- interpretative revival : "so you fear that..." 
(be careful of the last two uses, they could create tension with 
the interviewee) 
… there are many more ...
Strategies of intervention : 
intervene 
> Intervening by contradicting the interviewee 
forces her to support the line of argument in her 
statements. 
Disadvantages: the interviewer is no longer 
neutral and gives an opinion or takes sides 
=> this strategy approaches journalism, and 
moves away from ethnographic questioning
Credits 
Slide 1 and 8: Sound archives Marceau Gast, MMSH, 
photogr. Laure Principaud, janvier 2010. 
Slide 1: Digitizing sound, MMSH, photogr. Serge 
Mercier, 2012. 
Slides 1 and more : July 12, 1967 in northwest 
Burundi, Sekere, Emile Mworoha and Jean-Pierre 
Chrétien 
Characters: Corinne Cassé, 2011 
Map of the brain by Roberta Faulhaber, plastic artist 
Translation by Richard Van Deusen <richard-at-copeia. 
fr>

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Archiving and disseminating sound archives – 5. Preparing, recording, archiving, and valorising interviews

  • 1. ● Archiving and disseminating ● sound archives – 5: Collecting sound data for digital storage and dissemination Véronique Ginouvès, MMSH Maison méditerranéenne des sciences de l’homme veronique.ginouves@univ-amu.fr
  • 2. Our program 1. Processes and procedures in digitizing sound materials 2. Managing sound data 3. Analysis and treatment of sound data 4. Valorising digital sound archives 5. Collecting sound data for digital storage and dissemination
  • 3. 3. Collec0ng sound data for digital storage and dissemina0on 1. How to create a ne w sound collection; 2. Organizing field recordings and preparing a maintenance verification and control panel. 3. Successful sound recording and recording interviews.
  • 4. Why record ? - Society is not founded uniquely on what is written; information is also transmitted orally : know-how, stories, songs, music, languages… - Paper archives are not sufficient in order to understand history: details of daily life, anecdotes, "secrets" ... allowing a better understanding of contexts... - History has been made as much by anonymous people (the "forgotten" people of history) as by those whose names we know or elites, each one brings indispensable complements to our knowledge, orally... - The reconstitution of the past is also done through representations given by witnesses or through their emotions... - The spoken word gives life to an event, a story, archives…
  • 5. The preservation of sound recordings from the field in a central archive : What uses ? - Produce a document just like in written, audiovisuel, or iconographic ways - Rapidly and efficiently gather information avoid taking notes, a source for errors - Secure data that cannot be gathered other than orally linguistic practices, lived, affective, representations of symbols, or imaginary, sensitive subjects for which no printed archive exists, music that has never been transcribed - Give a voice to anonymous speakers - Fill in gaps in sources printed and photographic
  • 6. Our programme - Methods of collecting - Recording interviews - Valorising interviews
  • 7. Methods for preparing for speech collection − Define a problematic − Learn about one's subject − Choose "privileged" informers − Respond to the problematic with some hypotheses − Develop a "survey" table − Establish the physical or institutional entities charged with the collected archives and the interactions of the partners in the project − Prepare a use and diffustion for the archives
  • 8. During preparation, these steps, because they are relational, may modify each other … According to a project's goals, means (human and financial), and partners, it can be more or less complex to put into place The writing of a set of specifications is crucial and necessary; we will construct one together during our time together.
  • 9. Preparing one's survey Engaging in a survey is a parallel activity to the production of data. We are going to actively prepare this terrain.
  • 10. Choosing our subject It is good practice to begin by being guided by a question, and then to pass from the theme to the survey question. => by reformulating the question from readings and experience => by limiting the "appropriate populations" => The question should echo your own experience, journey, in order to become a real interview subject The path of our theme will be the object of our survey.
  • 11. A question is always evolving During the course of your survey, the theme of the questions may change, but it is good practice to always regularly revisit and revise the main question : The survey can go off course, there may be periods of quick progress, or blockage. But: Field conditions will always dictate direction to the surveyor.
  • 12. Particularities of the surveyor Personal family history Personal experiences Knowledge of foreign cultures Traveling practices Family relationships Knowledge of the field La place et le rôle du collecteur de témoignages oraux, Florence Descamps http://afas.revues.org/1514 ("The place and the role of the collector of oral testimony")
  • 13. Conduct a survey by accepting strangeness as an asset = Reverse one's way of looking > The surest spirit of an ethnographic survey is one that is de-centered, in order to see the social world differently, in order to discover facts that are apparently banal, natural, obvious, reflecting social relations, history
  • 14. Preparing the survey Knowing the domain of research => document research - be part of a cumulative science - ask new questions - manifest your prejudices - draw up thematic files - avoid themes that are too large or too original
  • 15. Preparing the survey 2. Get familiarised with the terrain - learn the language of "your" population : job-talk (work language), social language, cultural language... - learn to detect the implicit of social life in the milieu of the survey, - avoid constructing theories too quickly because they could lead to hasty interpretations.
  • 16. Preparing the survey 3. Get informed - be permanently capable of talking about things that interest your witnesses, - strive to collect the maximum amount of information on your research theme ; be on the lookout !
  • 17. Leaving for the survey... Bring a notebook -- not too thick and not too thin -- in order to keep transportable field notes Establish a file sharing account on line in order to be aware of what the team is doing.
  • 18. The field journal Serves as a log for keeping up with the survey. Its qualities : precision, sense of detail, scrupulous honesty of a laboratory... Where, when, how, with whom... Certain of those pages will become a research journal : analyses, evolution of the subject, hypotheses doubts, pleasures... Try to keep information on the left side of a page, and analysis on the right side.
  • 19. Assorted questions to ask in one's field journal... Why do I wish to lead this survey? What is my investment in the group I am surveying? What is my position(ality) in this universe and how might that position at least partially explain my own point of view? Do I feel comfortable or at ease with this group, or not? Whom do I find nice or not, and why? Am I becoming dependent on certain members of the group? Why? Would I just like to be elsewhere? .../...
  • 20. The importance of the field journal Only the field notebook promises to transform a social experience into an ethnographic one. In order to break with your habits, to undo your original point of view, it is even more necessary to have noted something, which gives you the power to do so.
  • 21. Should interviews be filmed? -­‐ Lag between what the witness is showing of herself and what she is saying, - Critical distance is more difficult, - "Total" recording of social life, - High cost, - Complicates rights for future broadcasting. - The witness "shows", - Best criticism of the source, - Facilitates later valorising.
  • 22. The recording device A Digital recording device that allows the sound recording in the WAVE format = minimum 44.1Hzt, 16 bits, the standard : 96Hzt/24 bits. A directional microphone or not (often not useful if a good quality microphone is integrated in the recording device). Memory on media that will be compatible with your equipment.
  • 23. Preparing an interview for archival purposes : Taking care of the material aspects Be aware of : - the place of where the interview will be held, - its length, - the image of the interviewer, - the recording and preservation equipment, because the logic of document sustainability and perpetuity guides our efforts.
  • 24. Consequences of the choice of place to record - Each place can produce interference in the mind of the witness, in terms of her conception of the exercise of oral archiving, at journalistic, heritage, wordly, pedagogic, confidential, professional registers... - Extinguish all noise! (telephone, outside conversations, pets, open windows...). - Envision your technical setup (electric plugs, taking notes, ...)
  • 25. Self-appearance Becoming an "interviewer" is a new social role to take on.... Don't disguise yourself, be yourself: - Neutrality of one's allure, - Respect the typical rules of politeness and be punctual,
  • 26. The time given for an interview Ideally : one or two hours ... be careful about digital mismanagement ;-) Choose a time of day when the witness is the most energetic and available, in terms of her personal or professional organisation. Follow a frequency of one or two meetings a week (if it is an oral history of a life story)
  • 27. Recording sound - Quality of the recording device and the microphone, - Quality of the act of recording sound (orientation of the microphone, mastery of the recording device, verification of levels), - Quality of the recording format, - Quality of sound card, - Staying alert for sound disturbances during the interview, - Staying alert for electric charge on the recording device (battery ou transformer) - Systematic transfer of digital files and verification of their integrity at the end of each interview.
  • 28. Presenting oneself at the beginning of an interview The uses of the word "survey" It is a term that is not neutral and can be associated with ideas that are perjorative: study, work, research are the most positive words but above all, take the time to explain your work, in particular if it involves a heritage survey for which you will later sign contracts for broadcast and use.
  • 29. Always ask permission to record By asking your interviewee for her permission to record, you change the status of her words: you transform private speech (between the witness and you) into a public one, potentially audible to a third party, and thus, usable, quotable.
  • 30. Some ethical rules - Never record without a person's knowledge, - Explain the context and objective of the survey to the interviewee, - Interrupt the recording is she asks for it, - Ask for permission to take photographs, - Never divulge the discussion with the interviewee to her acquaintances, - Sign the necessary licensing and distribution contracts for the recordings, just like those used for images.
  • 31. The trailer for the interview The trailer identifies the file and avoids any kind of attribution error. It indicates: — the name of the interviewee, — the name of the interviewer (perhaps also her details, role, job), — the date and time of the interview (perhaps also the n°) — the site of the interview (home, office, institution...), — perhaps also, the purpose of the interview, and its framework (biographical, research, thematic, heritage survey for a deposit in an archive).
  • 32. Conducting an interview Should an "interview guide" be used? Collecting objective data Knowing how to lead conversational exchange: - Strategies of listening - Strategies of intervention
  • 33. Should an "interview guide" be used? Advantages : - it reassures the interviewee as well as the interviewers, - you structure the information in order to gather the material in a way that conforms to your problematic, - you can more easily make comparisons between different interviews, - it legitimates the quantitative conceptualisation of the interviews.
  • 34. Should an "interview guide" be used? Disadvantages : - You will feel obligated to follow and respect your questions in order, - You might not be as attentive to what the interviewee is saying; - You may give the interviewee the impression that she is responding to a questionnaire, - The guide could lead you to stay locked in your subject.
  • 35. Putting it into practice In a group, construct an "interview guide" around a theme you define together : your problematic Look for an interviewee in your immediate surroundings, present your project to her, and record her for 10 minutes on an already defined theme. Get the interviewee to sign licensing and distribution contracts for this recording.
  • 36. Tools for planning a survey campaign Multiple tools exist : The WWWWWHHM method Who does What, Where, When, Why, How and How Much? Mental maps (Mind Mapping) in order to follow associations and links between thoughts. Examples of free Mind Mapping software programs Freemind or Xmind
  • 37. Create an interview table from a mind map => Visual representation of links and associations between thoughts
  • 38. Create an interview table from a mind map Life story of someone involved in the independence of Tanzania
  • 39. Do not forget to collect objective data While the lived experiences of interviewees is important, in order for these archives to make sense, we need to also obtain objective information which would be too difficult to get later: a person's age, their professional path, spoken languages, social origins... > Look for clues during the interview.
  • 40. How to lead the interview - Listen to interviews on-line - Center the beginning interview on a particular point: the interviewee should know where you are going, - Manage the time of the interview, know how to find the time to receive trust, - Avoid giving an interpretation while posing a question, or asking embarrassing factual questions, or questions of opinions, - Do not cut off your interviewee; it is not you who is interesting, it is she.
  • 41. Listening strategies The key to the methodology of interviewing is based on your listening technique. In this framework, listening produces meanings, implementing selection, inference, comparison operations against the goals of the interview. The decision to intervene must be made with full knowledge of the different types of intervention.
  • 42. Fieldwork in Sociology by Howard Becker: Never ask "Why?" http://www.canal-u.tv/producteurs/ canal_socio_universite_paul_verlaine_metz/dossier_programmes/ trois_lecons_de_sociologie/ trois_lecons_de_sociologie_1_sur_le_travail_de_terrain Canal socio
  • 43. Strategies of intervention - Instruct - Revive - Intervene
  • 44. Strategies of intervention : instruct All interviews start with an opening instruction: it must be clear, and yet the field of responses wide enough for everyone to be able to express her responses. "I'd like you to tell me ... what it means for you" (get an opinion) "I'd like you to tell me how it happened ..." (get a narration) => each instruction introduces a new theme, and structures the interview.
  • 45. Strategies of intervention : revive Revival is a reactive action that is registered in the course of the informant's statements. - reiteration by echo: a simple reprise of the the last information given by the speaker, - reiteration by reflecting back with a modal prefix like "so you think that .... ", - interpretative revival : "so you fear that..." (be careful of the last two uses, they could create tension with the interviewee) … there are many more ...
  • 46. Strategies of intervention : intervene > Intervening by contradicting the interviewee forces her to support the line of argument in her statements. Disadvantages: the interviewer is no longer neutral and gives an opinion or takes sides => this strategy approaches journalism, and moves away from ethnographic questioning
  • 47. Credits Slide 1 and 8: Sound archives Marceau Gast, MMSH, photogr. Laure Principaud, janvier 2010. Slide 1: Digitizing sound, MMSH, photogr. Serge Mercier, 2012. Slides 1 and more : July 12, 1967 in northwest Burundi, Sekere, Emile Mworoha and Jean-Pierre Chrétien Characters: Corinne Cassé, 2011 Map of the brain by Roberta Faulhaber, plastic artist Translation by Richard Van Deusen <richard-at-copeia. fr>