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ARCHITECTURAL PHYLOSPHY
GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS
PRESENTED BY :VARDHA GROVER
M.ARCH
HCA-SEM 1
JAMIA MILIA ISLAMIA
GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS
Natural geographical features consist of landforms and ecosystems. For example, terrain types,
physical factors of the environment) are natural geographical features. Conversely, human
settlements or other engineered forms are considered types of artificial geographical features.
MAJOR TYPES OF LANDFORMS
1)
MOUNTAINS 2) HILLS 3) PLATEAUS 4) PLAINS
1) GLACIERS 2) CANYONS 3) CAVES 4) BEACHES
MINOR TYPES OF LANDFORMS
ENGINEERED
FORMS
5) ISLANDS 6) PENINSULA 7) INTHMUS 8) PENINSULA
CONTINENT OCEANS
Figure 1: Images above shows the different types of landforms
SOURCE: www.youtube.com/watch?v=BsqKTJtK_vw
MOUNTAIN HILLS
VALLEYS ISLANDS
Note : In this slide we are limiting ourselves to landforms
DIVISION OF EARTH
Traditionally the earth is divided into 7
continents i.e.
1. Asia
2. Africa
3. North America
4. South America
5. Antarctica
6. Europe
7. Australia
Oceans are the large salty water between the
continents. Although all of the oceans are
connected to each other, making them big one
ocean.
Meanwhile divide them into 5 smaller
oceans.i.e.
1. Arctic ocean
2. Atlantic ocean
3. India
4. Pacific
5. Southern oceans.
Together, the oceans cover almost the 70
percent of the earth.
Figure 1: Map showing the different continents and oceans
SOURCE: www.youtube.com/watch?v=BsqKTJtK_vw
Figure 2: Map showing the different continents and oceans
SOURCE: www.youtube.com/watch?v=BsqKTJtK_vw
FORMATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES
OF PHYSICAL FEATURES
India is a large landmass formed during the
different geological periods which has
influenced her relief.
Figure 4: Map shows how India moved apart from the Australian
plate towards the European plate.
SOURCE:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GF-eRHBbJu8&t=11s
• CONSTANT PHYSICAL CHANGE IN THE
FORMATION OF INDIA.
• Besides the geological formations, a number of
processes such as weathering, erosion and
deposition have created and modified the
relief to its present form.
• Scientists came up with the “Theory of
tectonics”, According to this theory, the crust
of the earth has been formed out of seven major
and some minor plates.
• Change of textures or appearance of soil of
rocks over a long period of time. It can be due
to running water, wind activity, glaciers etc.
• The movement of such plates results in building
up of stress within the plates and the
continental rocks above, leading to folding,
faulting and volcanic activities.
GONDWANA LAND
• The movement of these plates have changed
the position and size of the continents over
million of years.
• The oldest landmass,(the peninsula) was a part
of godwana land, which includes
India,Australia,South Africa and South
America as a single landmass.
• The crust broke into number of piece sand
everything stated drifting apart.
Figure 5: Map shows how all the continents which were before a big
landmass ,got distributed.
SOURCE:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GF-eRHBbJu8&t=11s
Due to the collision ,the sedimentary rocks which were
accumulated in the geosyncline known as the tethus
were folded to form the mountain system of western Asia
and Himalayas.
MAJOR PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS
The physical features of India can be grouped
under the following physiographic divisions:
1. The Himalayan Mountain
2. The northern Plains
3. The peninsular Plateau
4. The Indian Desert
5. The coastal Plains
6. The Islands
1.THE MOUNTAINS AND HILLS
• They are formed when rocky layers are pushed
together from upsides forcing the land up in the
middle.
• They can also be formed by the volcanic
activities i.e. When lava and other materials are
built up on the surface.
Indigenous Architecture
• Type of architecture in which the dwellings and
the structures directly responded to the
topography and climate of the region.
• Built using the locally available materials.
• Emerged out of the hard necessities of the
place and the lifestyle.
• Built by user themselves without professional
architects.
• They are dwellings that are a product of
traditional customs and practice.
Factors which influence the architecture of
that place
1. Topography
2. Climate
3. Materials and resources
4. Users and life style
5. Construction technology
6. Culture and traditions
7. Natural hazards
Figure 5: Part Map showing the regions having the mountains in india
SOURCE:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GF-eRHBbJu8&t=11s
Major problems that are faced during the
planning are as follows :
• Frequent and Seismic tremor
• soil erosion and land slides.
• Suitable orientation on the hill slopes.
• Existence of tall shoddy trees and dense forest
area, which obstruct the winter sun
• Limitations on the height of the building due to
earthquake risk.
• Difficulty in the cutting and the filling process.
• Non-availability and transportation problems of
construction materials
Because of the
existence of forest,
the most
prominent
material of
construction is
WOOD
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND PLANNING : STEPPED CONTOURS
Design considerations in hills require extra sensitivity and care because of the delicate nature of
terrain and ecosystem. Unlike plains, here a new dimension or a height variation to the ground poses
additional problem to the entire exercise.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND PLANNING : STEPPED CONTOURS
PHYSICAL PLANNING
• Gentle slopes are required i.e Slope of the
ground should not be more than 30º
especially to avoid damage during severe
earthquakes.
• Less excavation is required
• Foundation should not rest on filled up
ground.
• The orientation of the houses is to maximize
the penetration of the sun rays.
• The stress is also laid on the preservation of
the green cover.
• Felling of trees is avoided as far as possible.
• Site susceptible to high winds, storms, floods
and landslides should be avoided.
• Terrace should have proper slope for
efficient drainage i.e between 1:30 to 1:50
slope.
• Minimum clearance of 1.0 m to 1.5 m should
be given between the hill face and the
building wall to avoid dampness and also for
proper light and ventilation.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND PLANNING :PHYSICAL PLANNING
The planning on the hills is very restrictive as compared to the plains. The major factors that govern
the planning are topography, climatic conditions, orientation, traffic movement, available usable
spaces, sources of water supply, natural drains and paths.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND PLANNING : SETTLEMENT PATTERN
Architecture of hilly areas can broadly divided into 4 broad categories
1. Architecture of houses ,Pattern of small settlements
2. Temple architecture
3. Palaces
4. Granaries
Temple is at the heart of the most settlements and usually sited at the highest spot. The surrounded
area of the temple is mainly used during festivals and religious gatherings by the inhabitants of
particular village.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND PLANNING : CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES
AND MATERIALS
1) KATH KHUNI TECHNIQUE
• Made of alternate courses of dry stone masonry and wood without cementing mortar.
• Layering and inter locking timber and stone provides strength, stability and flexibility
(Earthquake resistant).
• These heavy walls allow a good thermal insulation by providing high time-lag of more than 8
hours.
• This makes the interior of the house cooler in summer and warm in winter for maximum part of
the year.
• Dry masonry construction allow stones to undulate within a flexible wooden frame work to allow
energy of earthquake to disperse.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND PLANNING : CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES
AND MATERIALS
1) Foundation :
• Stone plinth – 0.6 – 1 meters for two storey
buildings. 3 meters for tower temples.
• The upper floors are made of timber planks
and timber-joints
2) Flooring :
• On ground level mud & cow-dung were used
for flooring above the plinth made of random
rubble masonry. The upper floors are made of
timber planks and timber joists
3) Kitchen :
Kitchen made of mud, placed at center which
helps in keeping the indoor warm.
4) Balconies:
Cantilevered balcony resting on stone wall
Wooden members supports it to provide stability.
5) Courtyard:
Sunny courtyard to perform various activities
during day time.
6) Roofing :
Pitched roof with locally available timber.
Slate used for roof covering. Below the roof a
ceiling is constructed with timber.
The light-weight roof construction and the air
between the roofing and attic-floor provided a
very good thermal insulation against the passage
of heat.
Low pitched roof provides a good solution to
drain off the rain-water/ snow from the
dwellings

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Architecture Philosophy_ Geological Conditions_Factors affecting architecture

  • 1. ARCHITECTURAL PHYLOSPHY GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS PRESENTED BY :VARDHA GROVER M.ARCH HCA-SEM 1 JAMIA MILIA ISLAMIA
  • 2. GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS Natural geographical features consist of landforms and ecosystems. For example, terrain types, physical factors of the environment) are natural geographical features. Conversely, human settlements or other engineered forms are considered types of artificial geographical features. MAJOR TYPES OF LANDFORMS 1) MOUNTAINS 2) HILLS 3) PLATEAUS 4) PLAINS 1) GLACIERS 2) CANYONS 3) CAVES 4) BEACHES MINOR TYPES OF LANDFORMS ENGINEERED FORMS 5) ISLANDS 6) PENINSULA 7) INTHMUS 8) PENINSULA CONTINENT OCEANS Figure 1: Images above shows the different types of landforms SOURCE: www.youtube.com/watch?v=BsqKTJtK_vw MOUNTAIN HILLS VALLEYS ISLANDS Note : In this slide we are limiting ourselves to landforms
  • 3. DIVISION OF EARTH Traditionally the earth is divided into 7 continents i.e. 1. Asia 2. Africa 3. North America 4. South America 5. Antarctica 6. Europe 7. Australia Oceans are the large salty water between the continents. Although all of the oceans are connected to each other, making them big one ocean. Meanwhile divide them into 5 smaller oceans.i.e. 1. Arctic ocean 2. Atlantic ocean 3. India 4. Pacific 5. Southern oceans. Together, the oceans cover almost the 70 percent of the earth. Figure 1: Map showing the different continents and oceans SOURCE: www.youtube.com/watch?v=BsqKTJtK_vw Figure 2: Map showing the different continents and oceans SOURCE: www.youtube.com/watch?v=BsqKTJtK_vw
  • 4. FORMATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF PHYSICAL FEATURES India is a large landmass formed during the different geological periods which has influenced her relief. Figure 4: Map shows how India moved apart from the Australian plate towards the European plate. SOURCE:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GF-eRHBbJu8&t=11s • CONSTANT PHYSICAL CHANGE IN THE FORMATION OF INDIA. • Besides the geological formations, a number of processes such as weathering, erosion and deposition have created and modified the relief to its present form. • Scientists came up with the “Theory of tectonics”, According to this theory, the crust of the earth has been formed out of seven major and some minor plates. • Change of textures or appearance of soil of rocks over a long period of time. It can be due to running water, wind activity, glaciers etc. • The movement of such plates results in building up of stress within the plates and the continental rocks above, leading to folding, faulting and volcanic activities.
  • 5. GONDWANA LAND • The movement of these plates have changed the position and size of the continents over million of years. • The oldest landmass,(the peninsula) was a part of godwana land, which includes India,Australia,South Africa and South America as a single landmass. • The crust broke into number of piece sand everything stated drifting apart. Figure 5: Map shows how all the continents which were before a big landmass ,got distributed. SOURCE:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GF-eRHBbJu8&t=11s Due to the collision ,the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the geosyncline known as the tethus were folded to form the mountain system of western Asia and Himalayas. MAJOR PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS The physical features of India can be grouped under the following physiographic divisions: 1. The Himalayan Mountain 2. The northern Plains 3. The peninsular Plateau 4. The Indian Desert 5. The coastal Plains 6. The Islands
  • 6. 1.THE MOUNTAINS AND HILLS • They are formed when rocky layers are pushed together from upsides forcing the land up in the middle. • They can also be formed by the volcanic activities i.e. When lava and other materials are built up on the surface. Indigenous Architecture • Type of architecture in which the dwellings and the structures directly responded to the topography and climate of the region. • Built using the locally available materials. • Emerged out of the hard necessities of the place and the lifestyle. • Built by user themselves without professional architects. • They are dwellings that are a product of traditional customs and practice. Factors which influence the architecture of that place 1. Topography 2. Climate 3. Materials and resources 4. Users and life style 5. Construction technology 6. Culture and traditions 7. Natural hazards Figure 5: Part Map showing the regions having the mountains in india SOURCE:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GF-eRHBbJu8&t=11s Major problems that are faced during the planning are as follows : • Frequent and Seismic tremor • soil erosion and land slides. • Suitable orientation on the hill slopes. • Existence of tall shoddy trees and dense forest area, which obstruct the winter sun • Limitations on the height of the building due to earthquake risk. • Difficulty in the cutting and the filling process. • Non-availability and transportation problems of construction materials Because of the existence of forest, the most prominent material of construction is WOOD
  • 7. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND PLANNING : STEPPED CONTOURS Design considerations in hills require extra sensitivity and care because of the delicate nature of terrain and ecosystem. Unlike plains, here a new dimension or a height variation to the ground poses additional problem to the entire exercise.
  • 8. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND PLANNING : STEPPED CONTOURS
  • 9. PHYSICAL PLANNING • Gentle slopes are required i.e Slope of the ground should not be more than 30º especially to avoid damage during severe earthquakes. • Less excavation is required • Foundation should not rest on filled up ground. • The orientation of the houses is to maximize the penetration of the sun rays. • The stress is also laid on the preservation of the green cover. • Felling of trees is avoided as far as possible. • Site susceptible to high winds, storms, floods and landslides should be avoided. • Terrace should have proper slope for efficient drainage i.e between 1:30 to 1:50 slope. • Minimum clearance of 1.0 m to 1.5 m should be given between the hill face and the building wall to avoid dampness and also for proper light and ventilation. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND PLANNING :PHYSICAL PLANNING The planning on the hills is very restrictive as compared to the plains. The major factors that govern the planning are topography, climatic conditions, orientation, traffic movement, available usable spaces, sources of water supply, natural drains and paths.
  • 10. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND PLANNING : SETTLEMENT PATTERN Architecture of hilly areas can broadly divided into 4 broad categories 1. Architecture of houses ,Pattern of small settlements 2. Temple architecture 3. Palaces 4. Granaries Temple is at the heart of the most settlements and usually sited at the highest spot. The surrounded area of the temple is mainly used during festivals and religious gatherings by the inhabitants of particular village.
  • 11. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND PLANNING : CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES AND MATERIALS 1) KATH KHUNI TECHNIQUE • Made of alternate courses of dry stone masonry and wood without cementing mortar. • Layering and inter locking timber and stone provides strength, stability and flexibility (Earthquake resistant). • These heavy walls allow a good thermal insulation by providing high time-lag of more than 8 hours. • This makes the interior of the house cooler in summer and warm in winter for maximum part of the year. • Dry masonry construction allow stones to undulate within a flexible wooden frame work to allow energy of earthquake to disperse.
  • 12. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND PLANNING : CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES AND MATERIALS 1) Foundation : • Stone plinth – 0.6 – 1 meters for two storey buildings. 3 meters for tower temples. • The upper floors are made of timber planks and timber-joints 2) Flooring : • On ground level mud & cow-dung were used for flooring above the plinth made of random rubble masonry. The upper floors are made of timber planks and timber joists 3) Kitchen : Kitchen made of mud, placed at center which helps in keeping the indoor warm. 4) Balconies: Cantilevered balcony resting on stone wall Wooden members supports it to provide stability. 5) Courtyard: Sunny courtyard to perform various activities during day time. 6) Roofing : Pitched roof with locally available timber. Slate used for roof covering. Below the roof a ceiling is constructed with timber. The light-weight roof construction and the air between the roofing and attic-floor provided a very good thermal insulation against the passage of heat. Low pitched roof provides a good solution to drain off the rain-water/ snow from the dwellings