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ALVAR ALTO
AASHNA ARORA
ARUNIMA GANGULI
NIKITA BANSAL
TANVI GUPTA
•ALVAR ALTO WAS BORN IN KUORTANE, FINLAND.
•IN 1916 HE ENROLLED TO STUDY ARCHITECTURE AT
THE HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF
TECHNOLOGY,GRADUATING IN 1921.
•IN 1923 HE RETURND TO JYVASKYLIA,WHERE HE
OPENED HIS FIRST ARCHITECTURAL OFFICE.
•JYVASKYLA WOULD BECOME A NOTABLE CITY FOR HIS
ARCHITECTURE, WITH MORE BUILDING DESIGNED BY
HIM IN ANY OTHER CITY.
EARLY LIFE
•HIS DESIGN PHILOSPHY WAS INFLUENCED BY NATURE AND
ORGANIC MATERIAL.
•HE DESIGNED VASES WITH CURVILINEAR BASES AND
STRIAGHT SIDES FOR SAVOY RESTAURANT-TURKU.
•WITH HIS INNOVATIVE DESIGNS AND NATURE FORMS,HE
CHANGED THE COURSE OF DESIGN TOWARDS
ORGANIC MODERNISM.
•THE BEAUTY OF HIS WORK IS HIDDEN IN HIS DESIGN
APPROACH OF FUNCTIONALISM BUT WITH STRONG
CONNECTION
•TO ORGANIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAN,NATURE AND
BUILDINGS.
•HE COORDINATED THESE THREE COMPONENTS AND
CREATED A SYNRTHESIS OF LIFE IN MATERIALIZED FORM.
•HE DESIGNED IN VERY DIFFERENT SCALES-RANGING FROM
BUILDINGS,TOWN
PLANS,FURNITURE,GLASSWARE,JEWELLERY AND OTHER
FORMS OF ART.
DESIGN PHILOSPHIES
EARLY CAREER –
CLASSICISM
EARLY CAREER –
FUNCTIONALISM
MID CAREER-
EXPERIMENTATION
MATURE CAREER –
MONUMENTALISM
•HE USED WOOD INSTEAD OF METAL FOR HIS
FURNITURE.
•STARTED TO PRODUCE INNOVATIVE PLYWOOD CHAIRS
IN 1930S.
•BUILT PAINIO SANATORIUM IN 1930s.
•FOUNDED ARTEL,A FURNITURE DESIGN COMPANY IN
1935 WITH HIS WIFE AND COLLEAGES.
•HIS IDEAS HAD STRONG INFLUENCE ON DESIGNERS
OF PERIOD SUCH AS CHARLES AND RAY EARNES
LOUNGE
CHAIR (1931)
CHILDREN’S
STOOL (1935)
WORKERS CLUB (1924)
ARCHITECTURAL SYLE: NORDIC CLASSICAL
FEATURES:
• DISCONTINUOUS GLAZING ON ALL FOUR SIDES AT
ENTRANCE LEVEL.
• THIS BUILDING HOUSES A RESTAURANT AND A COFFEE BAR
WHICH SUPPORTS THE AUDITORIUM ABOVE.
• HE EMPLOYS VARIOUS CLASSICAL DEVICES:
1. CIRCULAR ATRIUM
2. DORIC COLUMNS
3. PALLADIAN WINDOW
4. CARTOUCHES TO DECORATE
THE STUCCOES WALL FRONT FACADE
PALLADIAN WINDOW
GROUND FLOOR PLAN
B.
A.
A. B. STAR SHAPED LAMPS
DORIC COLUMNS
FIRST FLOOR PLAN
C.
C VIEW OF INSIDE
D.
SECOND FLOOR PLAN
A
A’
SECTION AA’ D
• IMPLIED SYMMETRY ON THE LONGER ELEVATION BUT ITS
SYMMETRICAL ON THE SHORTER SIDES.
• THE ELEMENTS OF THE BUILDING ARE EITHER SQUARES
OR MULTIPLE OF SQUARES.
• THE PALLADIAN WINDOW IS SYMMETRICALLY PLACED
RELATIVE TO THE AUDITORIUM.
• VERNACULAR TIMBER DETAILING FOR THE STAIRS
LONGER SIDE OF FAÇADE
SHORTER SIDE OF FAÇADE
PAIMIO SANATORIUM (1929-33)
ARCHITECTURAL SYLE: FUNCTIONALISM
FEATURES:
• USES RCC FRAME WITH INFILL BEING AN
INSULATING BRICK CAVITY WALL WHICH IS THEN
RENDERED AN PAINTED WHITE.
• FREE FORM CANTILEVERED CANOPY.
• EXPOSED LIFT SHAFT ON THE EXTERNAL
WALL.
EXPOSED LIFT SHAFT
SUN TRAPPED BALCONIES
ARE CANTILEVERED FROM
THE TAPERING RCC FRAME.
FREE FROM CANTILEVERED CANOPY
PAIMIO SANATORIUM IS A FORMER TUBERCULOSIS
SANATORIUM IN PAIMIO.THE BUILDING WAS COMPLETED
IN 1932, AND SOON AFTER RECEIVED CRITICAL ACCLAIM
BOTH IN FINLAND AND ABROAD. THE BUILDING SERVED
EXCLUSIVELY AS A TUBERCULOSIS SANATORIUM UNTIL THE
EARLY 1960S, WHEN IT WAS CONVERTED INTO A GENERAL
HOSPITAL. TODAY THE BUILDING IS PART OF THE TURKU
UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL. THE SANATORIUM WAS
NOMINATED TO BECOME A UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE
SITE.
• ORIENTATION: SOUTH OF THE BALCONIES AND THE ROOF TOP
SUNDECK WAS DETERMINED BY THE DEDICATION TO THE
SUPPOSED “HEALING “ POWERS OF THE SUN.
• WEST: DOCTORS HOUSES; NORTH : STAFF FLATS.
• PLAN WAS MEANT TO BE FUNCTIONALLY ZONED AND
BIODYNAMICAL ALIGNED TO THE COMPASS SO THAT THE
DIRECTION OF EACH WING WAS DEFINED ACCORDING TO ITS
REQUIREMENTS FOR SUNSHINE AND VIEW.
SITE PLAN GROUND FLOOR PLAN
VIEW OF SANATORIUM
A CONTINUOUS SUNDECK THAT
RUNS OVER THE PATIENT WING IS
PROTECTED WITH RCC CANOPY TO
REDUCE SOLAR GAIN.
DINING ROOM WAS AN ENCLOSED
MEZZANINE SUSPENDED FROM
STEEL HANGERS FORM ABOVE.
IT HAD A LOT OF NATURAL LIGHT
DUE TO DOUBLE-HEIGHT
WINDOWS, THE SUN BLINDS
OUTSIDE PREVENTED GLARE.
EACH PATIENT HAD THEIR OWN WALL
MOUNTED CUPBOARD AND BASIN.
DOOR HANDLES DESIGNED TO PREVENT
COAT SLEEVES FROM BEING CAUGHT IN
THEM.
MAIN
STAIRCASE
HAS NATURAL
LIGHT WHICH
IS FURTHER
ENHANCED BY
THE YELLOW
COLOR OF
THE STAIRS.
THE LAMPS WERE PLACED CLOSE TO THE
WALL ABOVE THE BED SO AS TO NOT SHINE
DIRECTLY INTO THE PATIENTS EYES.
CHAIR SHOWN IN PICTURE WAS SPECIALLY
DESIGNED BY ALVAR ALTO FOR
PATIENTS.THIS CHAIR HELPED THE SITTER
TO BREATHE MORE EASILY
VILLA MAIREA(1939)
VILLA MAIREA IS A VILLA, GUEST-HOUSE, AND
RURAL RETREAT DESIGNED FOR HARRY AND
MAIRE GULLICHSEN IN NOORMARKKU ,FINLAND.
THE GULLICHSENS WERE A WEALTHY COUPLE
AND MEMBERS OF THE AHLSTRÖM FAMILY. THEY
TOLD AALTO THAT HE SHOULD REGARD IT AS 'AN
EXPERIMENTAL HOUSE'. AALTO SEEMS TO HAVE
TREATED THE HOUSE AS AN OPPORTUNITY TO
BRING TOGETHER ALL THE THEMES THAT HAD
BEEN PREOCCUPYING HIM IN HIS WORK TO THAT
POINT BUT HAD NOT BEEN ABLE TO INCLUDE
THEM IN ACTUAL BUILDINGS
ARCHITECTURAL SYLE:EXPERIMENTATION
FEATURES:
EXTERIOR
• THE COURTYARD OF THE VILLA WAS INSPIRED
BY THE ORGANIZATION OF VERNACULAR
FARMSTEAD.
• THE MASSING WAS INSPIRED BY THE FALLING
WATERS BY FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT.
WEST ELEVATION FRONT ELEVATION
VIEW
SIDE ELEVATION
GROUND FLOOR PLAN
B
F
G
C
C
E
H
D
C C HC
I K
K
H
K
L
FIRST FLOOR PLAN
• A – DINING ROOM
• B – SAUNA
• C – LIVING ROOM
• D- LIBRARY
• E - STUDIO
• F - STAFF
• G - KITCHEN
• H- RESTROOM
• I – CHILDREN PLAY AREA
• J – GUEST WING
• K – CHILDREN’S ROOM
• L - MASTER BEDROOM
• THE INTERIORS
FOLLOW THE GRID
OF 2850 X 2850 M
TEAK CLAD LIVING ROOM
PROJECTS FORWARD TO CREATE
SHALLOW BALCONIES THAT
LEAD ON TO THE PRINCIPLE
BEDROOM ABOVE.
THE MAIN ENTRANCE TO THE – THE
DOOR IS APPROACHED UNDER A TWO
LEVEL CANOPY SUPPORTED BY
COMPOUND TIMBER COLUMN AND
SCREENED BY MINIATURE FOREST OF
POLES.
MAIN STAIRCASE INSPIRED
BY JAPANESE BAMBOO
SCREENS.
RATTAN – WRAPPED COLUMNS
CONTINUE TO EVOKE THE FINNISH.
•TO ENTER THIS INNER SANCTUM, COLUMNS
ARE MADE TO RESEMBLE TREE TRUNKS ARE
LOCATED AT CERTAIN POINTS TO CREATE THE
IMPRESSION SIMILAR TO THAT OF EMERGING
THROUGH THE FRINGES OF A FOREST CLEARING.
•SCREENING BY VERTICAL POLES HELP TO
DIFFERENTIATE THE INTERLINKED SPACES.
BAKER HOUSE (1947-48)
•THE SITE IS LOCATED ON A HEAVILY-TRAFFICKED STREET ALONG THE CHARLES RIVER.
IN ORDER TO AVOID AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE THE DISTURBING VIEW OUT ONTO THIS
STREET, A CURVING PLAN FORM WAS CHOSEN.
•BY THIS MEANS, NO ROOM WAS ORIENTED AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE STREET AND
ITS TRAFFIC. IT IS WELL KNOWN HOW MUCH MORE TRANQUIL IT IS TO LOOK, FOR
EXAMPLE, FROM A DIAGONAL LINE OF SIGHT OUT OF THE WINDOWS OF A MOVING
TRAIN AT THE PASSING LANDSCAPE.
ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES
SERPENTINE SHAPE: THE S-CURVE PLAN OF THE BUILDING INCREASES THE SURFACE AREA OF THE SOUTH (CHARLES RIVER)-
FACING SIDE OF THE DORM. BECAUSE OF THIS SHAPE, APPROXIMATELY 90% OF THE ROOMS HAVE A RIVER AND SKYLINE
VIEW.
BRICKS: THE WALLS AND FACADE OF BAKER ARE RED BRICK.
"MOON GARDEN": THE "MOON GARDEN" REFERS TO THE ROOF OF THE TWO-STORY DINING HALL, WHICH IS PUNCTUATED
BY CYLINDRICAL SKYLIGHTS.
FIREPLACE: THE LARGE FIREPLACE IS THE CENTERPIECE OF THE FIRST FLOOR GATHERING AREA.
ROOFDECK: A GREAT PLACE TO VIEW THE BOSTON SKYLINE, WATCH THE JULY 4TH FIREWORKS, AND DROP A PIANO FROM.
WEST LOUNGES: THE LARGEST AND LIVELIEST LOUNGES ON EACH FLOOR ARE ON THE WEST SIDE OF THE DORM, NEAR TO
MOST OF THE DOUBLES, TRIPLES, AND QUADS.
PLAN
ISOMETRIC VIEW

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ARCHITECT ALVAR ALTO AND HIS WORKS

  • 1. ALVAR ALTO AASHNA ARORA ARUNIMA GANGULI NIKITA BANSAL TANVI GUPTA
  • 2. •ALVAR ALTO WAS BORN IN KUORTANE, FINLAND. •IN 1916 HE ENROLLED TO STUDY ARCHITECTURE AT THE HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY,GRADUATING IN 1921. •IN 1923 HE RETURND TO JYVASKYLIA,WHERE HE OPENED HIS FIRST ARCHITECTURAL OFFICE. •JYVASKYLA WOULD BECOME A NOTABLE CITY FOR HIS ARCHITECTURE, WITH MORE BUILDING DESIGNED BY HIM IN ANY OTHER CITY. EARLY LIFE •HIS DESIGN PHILOSPHY WAS INFLUENCED BY NATURE AND ORGANIC MATERIAL. •HE DESIGNED VASES WITH CURVILINEAR BASES AND STRIAGHT SIDES FOR SAVOY RESTAURANT-TURKU. •WITH HIS INNOVATIVE DESIGNS AND NATURE FORMS,HE CHANGED THE COURSE OF DESIGN TOWARDS ORGANIC MODERNISM. •THE BEAUTY OF HIS WORK IS HIDDEN IN HIS DESIGN APPROACH OF FUNCTIONALISM BUT WITH STRONG CONNECTION •TO ORGANIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAN,NATURE AND BUILDINGS. •HE COORDINATED THESE THREE COMPONENTS AND CREATED A SYNRTHESIS OF LIFE IN MATERIALIZED FORM. •HE DESIGNED IN VERY DIFFERENT SCALES-RANGING FROM BUILDINGS,TOWN PLANS,FURNITURE,GLASSWARE,JEWELLERY AND OTHER FORMS OF ART. DESIGN PHILOSPHIES EARLY CAREER – CLASSICISM EARLY CAREER – FUNCTIONALISM MID CAREER- EXPERIMENTATION MATURE CAREER – MONUMENTALISM •HE USED WOOD INSTEAD OF METAL FOR HIS FURNITURE. •STARTED TO PRODUCE INNOVATIVE PLYWOOD CHAIRS IN 1930S. •BUILT PAINIO SANATORIUM IN 1930s. •FOUNDED ARTEL,A FURNITURE DESIGN COMPANY IN 1935 WITH HIS WIFE AND COLLEAGES. •HIS IDEAS HAD STRONG INFLUENCE ON DESIGNERS OF PERIOD SUCH AS CHARLES AND RAY EARNES LOUNGE CHAIR (1931) CHILDREN’S STOOL (1935)
  • 3. WORKERS CLUB (1924) ARCHITECTURAL SYLE: NORDIC CLASSICAL FEATURES: • DISCONTINUOUS GLAZING ON ALL FOUR SIDES AT ENTRANCE LEVEL. • THIS BUILDING HOUSES A RESTAURANT AND A COFFEE BAR WHICH SUPPORTS THE AUDITORIUM ABOVE. • HE EMPLOYS VARIOUS CLASSICAL DEVICES: 1. CIRCULAR ATRIUM 2. DORIC COLUMNS 3. PALLADIAN WINDOW 4. CARTOUCHES TO DECORATE THE STUCCOES WALL FRONT FACADE PALLADIAN WINDOW GROUND FLOOR PLAN B. A. A. B. STAR SHAPED LAMPS DORIC COLUMNS FIRST FLOOR PLAN C. C VIEW OF INSIDE
  • 4. D. SECOND FLOOR PLAN A A’ SECTION AA’ D • IMPLIED SYMMETRY ON THE LONGER ELEVATION BUT ITS SYMMETRICAL ON THE SHORTER SIDES. • THE ELEMENTS OF THE BUILDING ARE EITHER SQUARES OR MULTIPLE OF SQUARES. • THE PALLADIAN WINDOW IS SYMMETRICALLY PLACED RELATIVE TO THE AUDITORIUM. • VERNACULAR TIMBER DETAILING FOR THE STAIRS LONGER SIDE OF FAÇADE SHORTER SIDE OF FAÇADE
  • 5. PAIMIO SANATORIUM (1929-33) ARCHITECTURAL SYLE: FUNCTIONALISM FEATURES: • USES RCC FRAME WITH INFILL BEING AN INSULATING BRICK CAVITY WALL WHICH IS THEN RENDERED AN PAINTED WHITE. • FREE FORM CANTILEVERED CANOPY. • EXPOSED LIFT SHAFT ON THE EXTERNAL WALL. EXPOSED LIFT SHAFT SUN TRAPPED BALCONIES ARE CANTILEVERED FROM THE TAPERING RCC FRAME. FREE FROM CANTILEVERED CANOPY PAIMIO SANATORIUM IS A FORMER TUBERCULOSIS SANATORIUM IN PAIMIO.THE BUILDING WAS COMPLETED IN 1932, AND SOON AFTER RECEIVED CRITICAL ACCLAIM BOTH IN FINLAND AND ABROAD. THE BUILDING SERVED EXCLUSIVELY AS A TUBERCULOSIS SANATORIUM UNTIL THE EARLY 1960S, WHEN IT WAS CONVERTED INTO A GENERAL HOSPITAL. TODAY THE BUILDING IS PART OF THE TURKU UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL. THE SANATORIUM WAS NOMINATED TO BECOME A UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE. • ORIENTATION: SOUTH OF THE BALCONIES AND THE ROOF TOP SUNDECK WAS DETERMINED BY THE DEDICATION TO THE SUPPOSED “HEALING “ POWERS OF THE SUN. • WEST: DOCTORS HOUSES; NORTH : STAFF FLATS. • PLAN WAS MEANT TO BE FUNCTIONALLY ZONED AND BIODYNAMICAL ALIGNED TO THE COMPASS SO THAT THE DIRECTION OF EACH WING WAS DEFINED ACCORDING TO ITS REQUIREMENTS FOR SUNSHINE AND VIEW. SITE PLAN GROUND FLOOR PLAN VIEW OF SANATORIUM
  • 6. A CONTINUOUS SUNDECK THAT RUNS OVER THE PATIENT WING IS PROTECTED WITH RCC CANOPY TO REDUCE SOLAR GAIN. DINING ROOM WAS AN ENCLOSED MEZZANINE SUSPENDED FROM STEEL HANGERS FORM ABOVE. IT HAD A LOT OF NATURAL LIGHT DUE TO DOUBLE-HEIGHT WINDOWS, THE SUN BLINDS OUTSIDE PREVENTED GLARE. EACH PATIENT HAD THEIR OWN WALL MOUNTED CUPBOARD AND BASIN. DOOR HANDLES DESIGNED TO PREVENT COAT SLEEVES FROM BEING CAUGHT IN THEM. MAIN STAIRCASE HAS NATURAL LIGHT WHICH IS FURTHER ENHANCED BY THE YELLOW COLOR OF THE STAIRS. THE LAMPS WERE PLACED CLOSE TO THE WALL ABOVE THE BED SO AS TO NOT SHINE DIRECTLY INTO THE PATIENTS EYES. CHAIR SHOWN IN PICTURE WAS SPECIALLY DESIGNED BY ALVAR ALTO FOR PATIENTS.THIS CHAIR HELPED THE SITTER TO BREATHE MORE EASILY
  • 7. VILLA MAIREA(1939) VILLA MAIREA IS A VILLA, GUEST-HOUSE, AND RURAL RETREAT DESIGNED FOR HARRY AND MAIRE GULLICHSEN IN NOORMARKKU ,FINLAND. THE GULLICHSENS WERE A WEALTHY COUPLE AND MEMBERS OF THE AHLSTRÖM FAMILY. THEY TOLD AALTO THAT HE SHOULD REGARD IT AS 'AN EXPERIMENTAL HOUSE'. AALTO SEEMS TO HAVE TREATED THE HOUSE AS AN OPPORTUNITY TO BRING TOGETHER ALL THE THEMES THAT HAD BEEN PREOCCUPYING HIM IN HIS WORK TO THAT POINT BUT HAD NOT BEEN ABLE TO INCLUDE THEM IN ACTUAL BUILDINGS ARCHITECTURAL SYLE:EXPERIMENTATION FEATURES: EXTERIOR • THE COURTYARD OF THE VILLA WAS INSPIRED BY THE ORGANIZATION OF VERNACULAR FARMSTEAD. • THE MASSING WAS INSPIRED BY THE FALLING WATERS BY FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT. WEST ELEVATION FRONT ELEVATION VIEW SIDE ELEVATION
  • 8. GROUND FLOOR PLAN B F G C C E H D C C HC I K K H K L FIRST FLOOR PLAN • A – DINING ROOM • B – SAUNA • C – LIVING ROOM • D- LIBRARY • E - STUDIO • F - STAFF • G - KITCHEN • H- RESTROOM • I – CHILDREN PLAY AREA • J – GUEST WING • K – CHILDREN’S ROOM • L - MASTER BEDROOM • THE INTERIORS FOLLOW THE GRID OF 2850 X 2850 M TEAK CLAD LIVING ROOM PROJECTS FORWARD TO CREATE SHALLOW BALCONIES THAT LEAD ON TO THE PRINCIPLE BEDROOM ABOVE. THE MAIN ENTRANCE TO THE – THE DOOR IS APPROACHED UNDER A TWO LEVEL CANOPY SUPPORTED BY COMPOUND TIMBER COLUMN AND SCREENED BY MINIATURE FOREST OF POLES. MAIN STAIRCASE INSPIRED BY JAPANESE BAMBOO SCREENS. RATTAN – WRAPPED COLUMNS CONTINUE TO EVOKE THE FINNISH. •TO ENTER THIS INNER SANCTUM, COLUMNS ARE MADE TO RESEMBLE TREE TRUNKS ARE LOCATED AT CERTAIN POINTS TO CREATE THE IMPRESSION SIMILAR TO THAT OF EMERGING THROUGH THE FRINGES OF A FOREST CLEARING. •SCREENING BY VERTICAL POLES HELP TO DIFFERENTIATE THE INTERLINKED SPACES.
  • 9. BAKER HOUSE (1947-48) •THE SITE IS LOCATED ON A HEAVILY-TRAFFICKED STREET ALONG THE CHARLES RIVER. IN ORDER TO AVOID AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE THE DISTURBING VIEW OUT ONTO THIS STREET, A CURVING PLAN FORM WAS CHOSEN. •BY THIS MEANS, NO ROOM WAS ORIENTED AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE STREET AND ITS TRAFFIC. IT IS WELL KNOWN HOW MUCH MORE TRANQUIL IT IS TO LOOK, FOR EXAMPLE, FROM A DIAGONAL LINE OF SIGHT OUT OF THE WINDOWS OF A MOVING TRAIN AT THE PASSING LANDSCAPE. ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES SERPENTINE SHAPE: THE S-CURVE PLAN OF THE BUILDING INCREASES THE SURFACE AREA OF THE SOUTH (CHARLES RIVER)- FACING SIDE OF THE DORM. BECAUSE OF THIS SHAPE, APPROXIMATELY 90% OF THE ROOMS HAVE A RIVER AND SKYLINE VIEW. BRICKS: THE WALLS AND FACADE OF BAKER ARE RED BRICK. "MOON GARDEN": THE "MOON GARDEN" REFERS TO THE ROOF OF THE TWO-STORY DINING HALL, WHICH IS PUNCTUATED BY CYLINDRICAL SKYLIGHTS. FIREPLACE: THE LARGE FIREPLACE IS THE CENTERPIECE OF THE FIRST FLOOR GATHERING AREA. ROOFDECK: A GREAT PLACE TO VIEW THE BOSTON SKYLINE, WATCH THE JULY 4TH FIREWORKS, AND DROP A PIANO FROM. WEST LOUNGES: THE LARGEST AND LIVELIEST LOUNGES ON EACH FLOOR ARE ON THE WEST SIDE OF THE DORM, NEAR TO MOST OF THE DOUBLES, TRIPLES, AND QUADS. PLAN ISOMETRIC VIEW