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APPROACHES IN
TEACHING
MATHEMATICS
INQUIRY TEACHING
Inquiry Teaching involves providing learners with
content-related problems that serve as the foci for class

research activities. The teacher provides/presents a problem
then the learners identify the problem.
THE STEPS IN THE PROCESS OF
INQUIRY
• Present discrepant event or specific problematic situation.
• Encourage observation for developing a statement of research
objectives
• Ask students for observation and explanation

• Encourage the testing of the hypothesis
• Develop tentative conclusion and generalization

• Debrief the process
DEMONSTRATION APPROACH
Demonstration Approach is a teaching strategy in

which the teacher engages “in a learning task other
than just talking about it”.
DISCOVERY APPROACH
Discovery Learning is “International Learning” . Both the

teacher and the learner play active roles in discovery learning
depending upon on the role that the teacher plays, this can

range from guided discovery (needs strict supervision) to free or
pure discovery (very little supervision needed)
Steps of lesson planning were adopted as given by Carin and
Surd (1981)
1) Statement of the problem.
2) Previous knowledge.
3) Concept to be developed.
4) Specific objectives.
5) Teaching aids.
6) Presentation.
7) Questions of Discussion.

8) Investigative activities of students.
9) Observation table made by the
students.
10) Generalization
11) Open questions.
12) Teacher activity.
MATH-LAB APPROACH
The Mathematics Laboratory Approach is a
method of teaching whereby children in small
groups work through an assignment/task card, learn

and discover mathematics for themselves.
PRACTICAL WORK APPROACH (PWA)
The learners in this approach, manipulate concrete
objects and/or perform activities to arrive at a conceptual
understanding of phenomena, situation, or concept. The
environment is a laboratory where the natural
events/phenomena can be subjects of mathematical or
scientific investigations.
INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION
USING MODULES
The application of Individualized Instruction permits the learners to
progress by mastering steps through the curriculum at his/her own rate
and independently of the progress of other pupils.
BRAINSTORMING
It is a teaching strategy in which the teacher elicits
from the learners as many ideas as possible but refrains
from evaluating them until all possible ideas have been
generated.
BRAINSTORMING USUALLY

OCCURS IN 4 PHASES
1) problem identification,
2) idea generation,

3) idea evaluation, and
4) solution implementation and evaluation.
PROBLEM-SOLVING
Problem-solving can best be defined as a learner-directed
strategy in which learners “think patiently and analytically about

complex situations in order to find answers to questions”. A
problem is defined as a “situation in which you are trying to

reach some goal, and must find means for getting there”.
COOPERATIVE LEARNING
Cooperative learning is helpful in eliminating
competition among learners. It encourages them to
work together towards common goals. It fosters

positive intergroup attitudes in the classroom.
INTEGRATIVE TECHNIQUE
The Integrated Curriculum Mode (Integrative teaching to
some) is both a “method of teaching and a way of

organizing the instructional program so that many subject
areas and skills provided in the curriculum can be linked
to one another”.

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Approaches in teaching mathematics

  • 2. INQUIRY TEACHING Inquiry Teaching involves providing learners with content-related problems that serve as the foci for class research activities. The teacher provides/presents a problem then the learners identify the problem.
  • 3. THE STEPS IN THE PROCESS OF INQUIRY • Present discrepant event or specific problematic situation. • Encourage observation for developing a statement of research objectives • Ask students for observation and explanation • Encourage the testing of the hypothesis • Develop tentative conclusion and generalization • Debrief the process
  • 4. DEMONSTRATION APPROACH Demonstration Approach is a teaching strategy in which the teacher engages “in a learning task other than just talking about it”.
  • 5.
  • 6. DISCOVERY APPROACH Discovery Learning is “International Learning” . Both the teacher and the learner play active roles in discovery learning depending upon on the role that the teacher plays, this can range from guided discovery (needs strict supervision) to free or pure discovery (very little supervision needed)
  • 7. Steps of lesson planning were adopted as given by Carin and Surd (1981) 1) Statement of the problem. 2) Previous knowledge. 3) Concept to be developed. 4) Specific objectives. 5) Teaching aids. 6) Presentation. 7) Questions of Discussion. 8) Investigative activities of students. 9) Observation table made by the students. 10) Generalization 11) Open questions. 12) Teacher activity.
  • 8. MATH-LAB APPROACH The Mathematics Laboratory Approach is a method of teaching whereby children in small groups work through an assignment/task card, learn and discover mathematics for themselves.
  • 9. PRACTICAL WORK APPROACH (PWA) The learners in this approach, manipulate concrete objects and/or perform activities to arrive at a conceptual understanding of phenomena, situation, or concept. The environment is a laboratory where the natural events/phenomena can be subjects of mathematical or scientific investigations.
  • 10. INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION USING MODULES The application of Individualized Instruction permits the learners to progress by mastering steps through the curriculum at his/her own rate and independently of the progress of other pupils.
  • 11. BRAINSTORMING It is a teaching strategy in which the teacher elicits from the learners as many ideas as possible but refrains from evaluating them until all possible ideas have been generated.
  • 12. BRAINSTORMING USUALLY OCCURS IN 4 PHASES 1) problem identification, 2) idea generation, 3) idea evaluation, and 4) solution implementation and evaluation.
  • 13. PROBLEM-SOLVING Problem-solving can best be defined as a learner-directed strategy in which learners “think patiently and analytically about complex situations in order to find answers to questions”. A problem is defined as a “situation in which you are trying to reach some goal, and must find means for getting there”.
  • 14. COOPERATIVE LEARNING Cooperative learning is helpful in eliminating competition among learners. It encourages them to work together towards common goals. It fosters positive intergroup attitudes in the classroom.
  • 15. INTEGRATIVE TECHNIQUE The Integrated Curriculum Mode (Integrative teaching to some) is both a “method of teaching and a way of organizing the instructional program so that many subject areas and skills provided in the curriculum can be linked to one another”.