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TOPIC
BIOSYNTHESIS OF SERINE
PRESENTED BY
• ANUP DULAL
• KRISHNA MAYA SHARMA
• SANGMIT LEPCHA
• PRADEEP SUBBA
• CHRISTINA PRADHAN
• PEM TENZING BHUTIA
• DIWAS MANGER
• KARMA DORJEE SHERPA
•
ASSIGNMENT ON
PHARMACOGNOSY & PHYTOCHEMISTRY-II
INTRODUCTION
 Serine is a non-essential amino acid that has a polar hydroxyl
group in its side chain. It has a role in protein synthesis and is a
precursor of essential compounds such as Glycine,
Phosphatidylserine, Sphingomyelin, and D-serine.
 CHEMICAL FORMULA : C3H7NO3
 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE :
 IUPAC NAME : 2-Amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid
 MOLAR MASS : 105.09 g/mol
ESSENTIAL AND NON-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
• Essential Amino Acid: It is an amino acid that an organism needs to ingest
because it is necessary for nutrition and cannot be synthesized in the body.
It is also known as an indispensable amino acid.
• Non-essential Amino Acid: Any of the various amino acids that are required for
normal health and growth, which can be synthesized within the body or
derived in the body from essential amino acids.
ESSENTIAL NON-ESSENTIAL
1. Histidine (H) Alanine (A)
2. Isoleucine (I) Aspartic Acid (D)
3. Leucine (L) Asparagine (N)
4. Lysine (K) Glutamic Acid (E)
5. Methionine(M) Serine (S)
6. Phenyalanine (F) Selenocysteine (U)
7. Threonine (T) Pyrrolysine (O)
8. Tryptophan (W)
9. Valine (V)
BIOSYNTHESIS OF SERINE
 Plants have three different pathways for
serine biosynthesis.
1. Phosphorylated Pathway
2. Non-Phosphorylated (Glycerate)
Pathway
3. Photorespiratory Pathway
BIOSYNTHESIS
PHOSPHORYLATED PATHWAY
3-Phosphoglycerate 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate
SERINE O-Phosphoserine
L-Glutamate
2-Oxoglutarate
3-phosphoglycerate
dehydrogenase (PGDH)
3-phosphoserine
Aminotransferase(PSAT)
3-phosphoserine
phosphatase(PSP)
STEP-1
STEP-2
STEP-3
STEP-1
 In this step the Hydroxyl groups of 3-Phosphoglycerate is
oxidized to form 3-Phosphohydroxy pyruvate. The enzyme
involved in this reaction is 3-Phophoglycerate
dehydrogenase.
 In this reaction NAD gets converted into NADH + H+
STEP-2
 Here in this step 3-Phosphohydroxypyruvate gets
converted into O-Phosphoserine with the help of enzyme
3-Phosphoserine Aminotransferase.
 In this reaction Glutamate replace =O by amino group in
Phosphohydroxypyruvate resulting in the formation of O-
Phosphoserine.
STEP-3
 In the final step O-Phosphoserine gets converted into
Serine with the help of enzyme 3-Phosphoserine
phosphatase (PSP).
 In this reaction Phosphoserine phosphatase removes the
phosphate group from O-phosphoserine with the water
molecules this resulting the formation of serine.
METABOLISM OF SERINE
1. Serine is involved in one-carbon metabolism. It donates Methylene (-
CH2) moiety to tetrahydrofolate (THF).
Serine Glycine
On decarboxylation (PLP dependent) serine forms Ethanolamine,
which is a precursor for Choline synthesis.
2. Serine participates in transamination reactions. It undergoes
deamination to form Pyruvate.
Serine Pyruvate
Serine hydroxymethyl transferase (PLP)
THF CH2 -THF
Serine dehydratase
PLP, NH3
+
USES:
1. Serine is used in the treatment of diabetes.
2. Serine is also used to develop mental health and cognition.
3. Insomnia: Early research in healthy people unhappy with their sleep
shows that taking L-serine helps them fall asleep, and improve sleep
quality .
4. Taking D-serine improves anxiety and depression in people with PTSD.
5. Taking L-serine is linked to slower progression of Lou Gehrig's disease
(amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS).
SIGNIFICANCE:
1. Serine is significant in targeting amino acid metabolism for cancer therapy.
2. It prevents high-fat diet induced oxidative stress by activating the expression of
glutathione synthesis related genes.
3. It helps in glucose metabolism in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.
4. Serine is important in metabolism in that it participates in the
biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines.
5. D-serine is being studied in rodents as potential treatment for Schizophrenia.
REFERENCES:
 Ros, R., Muñoz-Bertomeu, J., & Krueger, S. (2014).
Serine in plants: biosynthesis, metabolism, and
functions. Trends in plant science, 19(9), 564-569.
 Ros, Roc, Jesús Muñoz-Bertomeu, and Stephan
Krueger. "Serine in plants: biosynthesis,
metabolism, and functions." Trends in plant
science 19, no. 9 (2014): 564-569.
 El-Hattab AW. Serine biosynthesis and transport
defects. Mol Genet Metab. 2016;118(3):153-159.
doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2016.04.010
Anup

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Anup

  • 1. TOPIC BIOSYNTHESIS OF SERINE PRESENTED BY • ANUP DULAL • KRISHNA MAYA SHARMA • SANGMIT LEPCHA • PRADEEP SUBBA • CHRISTINA PRADHAN • PEM TENZING BHUTIA • DIWAS MANGER • KARMA DORJEE SHERPA • ASSIGNMENT ON PHARMACOGNOSY & PHYTOCHEMISTRY-II
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  Serine is a non-essential amino acid that has a polar hydroxyl group in its side chain. It has a role in protein synthesis and is a precursor of essential compounds such as Glycine, Phosphatidylserine, Sphingomyelin, and D-serine.  CHEMICAL FORMULA : C3H7NO3  CHEMICAL STRUCTURE :  IUPAC NAME : 2-Amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid  MOLAR MASS : 105.09 g/mol
  • 3. ESSENTIAL AND NON-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS • Essential Amino Acid: It is an amino acid that an organism needs to ingest because it is necessary for nutrition and cannot be synthesized in the body. It is also known as an indispensable amino acid. • Non-essential Amino Acid: Any of the various amino acids that are required for normal health and growth, which can be synthesized within the body or derived in the body from essential amino acids. ESSENTIAL NON-ESSENTIAL 1. Histidine (H) Alanine (A) 2. Isoleucine (I) Aspartic Acid (D) 3. Leucine (L) Asparagine (N) 4. Lysine (K) Glutamic Acid (E) 5. Methionine(M) Serine (S) 6. Phenyalanine (F) Selenocysteine (U) 7. Threonine (T) Pyrrolysine (O) 8. Tryptophan (W) 9. Valine (V)
  • 4. BIOSYNTHESIS OF SERINE  Plants have three different pathways for serine biosynthesis. 1. Phosphorylated Pathway 2. Non-Phosphorylated (Glycerate) Pathway 3. Photorespiratory Pathway
  • 5. BIOSYNTHESIS PHOSPHORYLATED PATHWAY 3-Phosphoglycerate 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate SERINE O-Phosphoserine L-Glutamate 2-Oxoglutarate 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) 3-phosphoserine Aminotransferase(PSAT) 3-phosphoserine phosphatase(PSP) STEP-1 STEP-2 STEP-3
  • 6. STEP-1  In this step the Hydroxyl groups of 3-Phosphoglycerate is oxidized to form 3-Phosphohydroxy pyruvate. The enzyme involved in this reaction is 3-Phophoglycerate dehydrogenase.  In this reaction NAD gets converted into NADH + H+
  • 7. STEP-2  Here in this step 3-Phosphohydroxypyruvate gets converted into O-Phosphoserine with the help of enzyme 3-Phosphoserine Aminotransferase.  In this reaction Glutamate replace =O by amino group in Phosphohydroxypyruvate resulting in the formation of O- Phosphoserine.
  • 8. STEP-3  In the final step O-Phosphoserine gets converted into Serine with the help of enzyme 3-Phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP).  In this reaction Phosphoserine phosphatase removes the phosphate group from O-phosphoserine with the water molecules this resulting the formation of serine.
  • 9. METABOLISM OF SERINE 1. Serine is involved in one-carbon metabolism. It donates Methylene (- CH2) moiety to tetrahydrofolate (THF). Serine Glycine On decarboxylation (PLP dependent) serine forms Ethanolamine, which is a precursor for Choline synthesis. 2. Serine participates in transamination reactions. It undergoes deamination to form Pyruvate. Serine Pyruvate Serine hydroxymethyl transferase (PLP) THF CH2 -THF Serine dehydratase PLP, NH3 +
  • 10. USES: 1. Serine is used in the treatment of diabetes. 2. Serine is also used to develop mental health and cognition. 3. Insomnia: Early research in healthy people unhappy with their sleep shows that taking L-serine helps them fall asleep, and improve sleep quality . 4. Taking D-serine improves anxiety and depression in people with PTSD. 5. Taking L-serine is linked to slower progression of Lou Gehrig's disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS). SIGNIFICANCE: 1. Serine is significant in targeting amino acid metabolism for cancer therapy. 2. It prevents high-fat diet induced oxidative stress by activating the expression of glutathione synthesis related genes. 3. It helps in glucose metabolism in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. 4. Serine is important in metabolism in that it participates in the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines. 5. D-serine is being studied in rodents as potential treatment for Schizophrenia.
  • 11. REFERENCES:  Ros, R., Muñoz-Bertomeu, J., & Krueger, S. (2014). Serine in plants: biosynthesis, metabolism, and functions. Trends in plant science, 19(9), 564-569.  Ros, Roc, Jesús Muñoz-Bertomeu, and Stephan Krueger. "Serine in plants: biosynthesis, metabolism, and functions." Trends in plant science 19, no. 9 (2014): 564-569.  El-Hattab AW. Serine biosynthesis and transport defects. Mol Genet Metab. 2016;118(3):153-159. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2016.04.010