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ANTS AND ANTS BASED
      ROUTING


           Varun Chopra,
ECE, Apeejay College of Engineering
E-mail: varunchopra.apj@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
• Ad-hoc wireless sensor networks - active
  research topic.
• Sensor networks characteristics are
   – Embedded routers,
   – dynamic networks,
   – resource-constrained nodes,
   – and unreliable and asymmetric links.
• Ant routing has shown good performance for
  communication networks.
ABSTRACT
• A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a
  collection of mobile nodes which communicate
  over radio.
• Advantages
  – No existing infrastructure required therefore
    suitable for temporary communication links.
• Disadvantages
  – Communication is difficult to organize due to
    frequent topology changes
ABSTRACT
• British Telecom aware of the necessity to modernize
  and improve phone service have reduced hardware
  used by 100 times while increasing network capacity
  one hundredfold. They still need a smarter way.
• Who are they going to call? Ants. That's right. Ants.
• British Telecom came to conclusion that ants handle
  such problems better than humans.
• A disrupted ant colony appears to have an amazing
  capacity to re-align itself and get back to the normal
  routine almost immediately.
COST EFFECTIVE
• What do those ants know that we don't?
• It is estimated that the cost of overhauling its
  phone network the traditional way
   – rewriting software,
   – replacing switches,
   – swapping copper wires with higher-capacity optical
     fiber
• It could take $46 billion. Spending $4 billion a
  year, it would take more than a decade to finish
  the job.
• And by then, it would be out of date.
SWARM INTELLIGENCE

• Ant algorithms are a class of swarm intelligence.
• Ant algorithms try to map the solution capability
  of ant colonies to mathematical and engineering
  problems.
• Ants display collectively intelligent behaviour
  when foraging for food or fighting off predators.
• Each ant in the colony acts in a rather simple way,
  but together they end up doing something clever,
  like discovering the shortest path between their
  ant hill and a food source.
DID YOU KNOW ?
• 8,800 known Ant species (Wilson)
• Combined weight more than the combined
  weight of all humans
• Can carry up to 20 times their body weight
• Work in teams to lift heavy objects
• Brains largest amongst insects
• Same processing power as an Apple Mac II
DID YOU KNOW ?
• Ants brain 250,000 cells (Human brain 10
  billion cells)
• Average size one-millionth human size
• Send their senior citizens to war (Humans
  send their young!) – Edward Wilson
• Capable of finding shortest path to food
HOW ANTS FIND FOOD
PHEROMONES
• Many species of ants communicate with their
  nest-mates using chemical scents known as
  pheromones.
• Pheromones can be used in many ways by ants
  and other animals, but we are most interested in
  how ants use pheromones to direct each other
  through their environment.
• This task is closely related to the problem of
  directing the flow of information through a
  network
HOW ANTS FIND FOOD
• Consider a colony of ants that is searching for food.
• Casual observation reveal that ants often walk in a
  straight line between their anthill and the food source.
• The concept of an "army" of ants marching has been a
  popular culture, and most people have seen this
  particular behaviour first-hand.
• Marching in a straight line, which is usually the shortest
  route, seems like an obvious solution to the problem of
  efficient food transportation, and we might pass it off
  as uninteresting.
HOW ANTS FIND FOOD
• Suppose that an ant colony starts out with no
  information about the location food in the
  environment.
• The human strategy in this case would be to send out a
  "search party" to comb the surrounding area - the
  scouts who find food can bring some back to the
  home-base and inform the others about where the
  food is.
• Ants do search for food by walking randomly, which is
  similar to the human "combing" approach, but two
  issues prevent ants from implementing a human-style
  search party directly.
HOW ANTS FIND FOOD
• First, how can an ant scout, upon discovering
  food, find its way back to the nest?
• Second, even if a scout makes it back to the
  nest, how can it inform the other ants about
  the food's location?
• The answers lie in a clever use of pheromones.
FINDING HOME PROBLEM
• To solve the "finding home" problem, each ant
  leaves a trail of pheromone as it looks for
  food.
• In the following example pictures, the
  pheromone trail left by each wandering ant is
  shown in transparent red.
TELLING OTHERS PROBLEM
• When an ant finds food, it can follow its own
  pheromone trail back to the nest.
• This is similar to leaving a trail of bread
  crumbs through the woods to find your way
  back home.
• On the way back to the nest, the ant solves
  the "telling others" problem by laying down
  more pheromone, creating a trail with an even
  stronger scent.
TELLING OTHERS PROBLEM
• In the following picture, ant A reaches the
  food first and then follows its own trail back to
  the nest, while the other three ants keep
  wandering.
ROUTING WISDOM FROM ANTS
• When other ants run into a trail of
  pheromone, they give up their own search
  and start following the trail.
• In the following picture, ant D discovers the
  double-strength trail left by ant A and starts to
  follow it.
ROUTING WISDOM FROM ANTS
• Ant C encounters the single-strength trail left
  by D and follows that trail, which will
  eventually lead to A's trail as well.
• Ant B eventually discovers its own route to the
  food source that is completely disconnected
  from the routed used by A.
ROUTING WISDOM FROM ANTS
• If a pheromone trail leads an ant back to the
  nest with empty jaws, it turns around and
  follows the trail in the opposite direction.
• Once an ant reaches the food, it grabs a piece
  and turns around, following the same trail
  back to the nest.
• On the way back, an ant reinforces the trail by
  laying down more pheromone.
ROUTING WISDOM FROM ANTS
• In the following picture, ant C joins A's trail
  but follows it the wrong direction, reaching
  the nest empty-jawed.
• Ant B follows its own trail back to the nest. It
  never comes in contact with the more direct
  trail that the other ants are using.
ROUTING WISDOM FROM ANTS
• A and D carry food back to the nest along the
  established route. Once they reach the food,
  they grab a piece and turn around, following
  the same trail back to the nest.
• On the way back, they reinforce the trail by
  laying down more pheromone.
SMART ANTS
• We have explained how ants find food in the
  first place, but how do they find the shortest
  route to the food?
• One more detail helps to answer this
  question: ants prefer to follow the trails with
  the strongest pheromone scent.
• Shorter route between the nest and the food
  are completed faster by each ant that takes
  them.
SMART ANTS
• For example, if ant X is travelling along a 10-
  meter path to the food repeatedly, and ant Y is
  travelling along a different 20-meter path
  repeatedly, ant X will make twice as many trips in
  an hour as ant Y.
• Thus, ant X will lay twice as much pheromone on
  its trail as ant Y.
• Given the choice, ants will prefer the strongly-
  scented 10-meter path over the more weakly-
  scented 20-meter path.
SMART ANTS
• When B deposits food at the nest and sets out
  for another trip, it discovers the strongly-
  scented path used by the other ants and
  abandons its own path.
• At this point, all four ants are using the path
  discovered by ant A to carry food between the
  source and the nest.
ANT-BASED ROUTING
• The ant approach to route-finding is quite different
  from the way humans navigate their environment.
• We would visually study the environment as a whole
  and try to "plan" the best route ahead of time.
• Of course, the ant method has advantages over our
  "high level" approach.
• For example, the ant method works fine in complete
  darkness.
• When it comes to navigating without visual cues,
  humans are comparatively helpless.
ANT-BASED ROUTING
 • The ant method into simple rules :
CONDITION                  ACTION
Not carrying food not on   walk randomly lay pheromone
pheromone trail

Not carrying food on       follow pheromone trail lay more
pheromone trail            pheromone

Reach home without food turn around follow trail in
on pheromone trail      opposite direction
Reach food             pick up food pick up food turn
                       around follow trail in opposite
                       direction
Carrying food          follow trail lay more
                       pheromone

Reach home with food   deposit food
                       turn around follow trail in
                       opposite direction
CONCLUSION
• MANET uses algorithms that allow
  constructing and maintaining wireless
  communications network for a large number
  of mobile hosts in an environment subject to
  substantial and unpredictable changes.
• So we can conclude that Ants based routing
  would just be the solution.
Ants and ants based routing

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Ants and ants based routing

  • 1. ANTS AND ANTS BASED ROUTING Varun Chopra, ECE, Apeejay College of Engineering E-mail: varunchopra.apj@gmail.com
  • 2. ABSTRACT • Ad-hoc wireless sensor networks - active research topic. • Sensor networks characteristics are – Embedded routers, – dynamic networks, – resource-constrained nodes, – and unreliable and asymmetric links. • Ant routing has shown good performance for communication networks.
  • 3. ABSTRACT • A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes which communicate over radio. • Advantages – No existing infrastructure required therefore suitable for temporary communication links. • Disadvantages – Communication is difficult to organize due to frequent topology changes
  • 4. ABSTRACT • British Telecom aware of the necessity to modernize and improve phone service have reduced hardware used by 100 times while increasing network capacity one hundredfold. They still need a smarter way. • Who are they going to call? Ants. That's right. Ants. • British Telecom came to conclusion that ants handle such problems better than humans. • A disrupted ant colony appears to have an amazing capacity to re-align itself and get back to the normal routine almost immediately.
  • 5. COST EFFECTIVE • What do those ants know that we don't? • It is estimated that the cost of overhauling its phone network the traditional way – rewriting software, – replacing switches, – swapping copper wires with higher-capacity optical fiber • It could take $46 billion. Spending $4 billion a year, it would take more than a decade to finish the job. • And by then, it would be out of date.
  • 6. SWARM INTELLIGENCE • Ant algorithms are a class of swarm intelligence. • Ant algorithms try to map the solution capability of ant colonies to mathematical and engineering problems. • Ants display collectively intelligent behaviour when foraging for food or fighting off predators. • Each ant in the colony acts in a rather simple way, but together they end up doing something clever, like discovering the shortest path between their ant hill and a food source.
  • 7. DID YOU KNOW ? • 8,800 known Ant species (Wilson) • Combined weight more than the combined weight of all humans • Can carry up to 20 times their body weight • Work in teams to lift heavy objects • Brains largest amongst insects • Same processing power as an Apple Mac II
  • 8. DID YOU KNOW ? • Ants brain 250,000 cells (Human brain 10 billion cells) • Average size one-millionth human size • Send their senior citizens to war (Humans send their young!) – Edward Wilson • Capable of finding shortest path to food
  • 9. HOW ANTS FIND FOOD PHEROMONES • Many species of ants communicate with their nest-mates using chemical scents known as pheromones. • Pheromones can be used in many ways by ants and other animals, but we are most interested in how ants use pheromones to direct each other through their environment. • This task is closely related to the problem of directing the flow of information through a network
  • 10. HOW ANTS FIND FOOD • Consider a colony of ants that is searching for food. • Casual observation reveal that ants often walk in a straight line between their anthill and the food source. • The concept of an "army" of ants marching has been a popular culture, and most people have seen this particular behaviour first-hand. • Marching in a straight line, which is usually the shortest route, seems like an obvious solution to the problem of efficient food transportation, and we might pass it off as uninteresting.
  • 11. HOW ANTS FIND FOOD • Suppose that an ant colony starts out with no information about the location food in the environment. • The human strategy in this case would be to send out a "search party" to comb the surrounding area - the scouts who find food can bring some back to the home-base and inform the others about where the food is. • Ants do search for food by walking randomly, which is similar to the human "combing" approach, but two issues prevent ants from implementing a human-style search party directly.
  • 12. HOW ANTS FIND FOOD • First, how can an ant scout, upon discovering food, find its way back to the nest? • Second, even if a scout makes it back to the nest, how can it inform the other ants about the food's location? • The answers lie in a clever use of pheromones.
  • 13. FINDING HOME PROBLEM • To solve the "finding home" problem, each ant leaves a trail of pheromone as it looks for food. • In the following example pictures, the pheromone trail left by each wandering ant is shown in transparent red.
  • 14. TELLING OTHERS PROBLEM • When an ant finds food, it can follow its own pheromone trail back to the nest. • This is similar to leaving a trail of bread crumbs through the woods to find your way back home. • On the way back to the nest, the ant solves the "telling others" problem by laying down more pheromone, creating a trail with an even stronger scent.
  • 15. TELLING OTHERS PROBLEM • In the following picture, ant A reaches the food first and then follows its own trail back to the nest, while the other three ants keep wandering.
  • 16. ROUTING WISDOM FROM ANTS • When other ants run into a trail of pheromone, they give up their own search and start following the trail. • In the following picture, ant D discovers the double-strength trail left by ant A and starts to follow it.
  • 17. ROUTING WISDOM FROM ANTS • Ant C encounters the single-strength trail left by D and follows that trail, which will eventually lead to A's trail as well. • Ant B eventually discovers its own route to the food source that is completely disconnected from the routed used by A.
  • 18. ROUTING WISDOM FROM ANTS • If a pheromone trail leads an ant back to the nest with empty jaws, it turns around and follows the trail in the opposite direction. • Once an ant reaches the food, it grabs a piece and turns around, following the same trail back to the nest. • On the way back, an ant reinforces the trail by laying down more pheromone.
  • 19. ROUTING WISDOM FROM ANTS • In the following picture, ant C joins A's trail but follows it the wrong direction, reaching the nest empty-jawed. • Ant B follows its own trail back to the nest. It never comes in contact with the more direct trail that the other ants are using.
  • 20. ROUTING WISDOM FROM ANTS • A and D carry food back to the nest along the established route. Once they reach the food, they grab a piece and turn around, following the same trail back to the nest. • On the way back, they reinforce the trail by laying down more pheromone.
  • 21. SMART ANTS • We have explained how ants find food in the first place, but how do they find the shortest route to the food? • One more detail helps to answer this question: ants prefer to follow the trails with the strongest pheromone scent. • Shorter route between the nest and the food are completed faster by each ant that takes them.
  • 22. SMART ANTS • For example, if ant X is travelling along a 10- meter path to the food repeatedly, and ant Y is travelling along a different 20-meter path repeatedly, ant X will make twice as many trips in an hour as ant Y. • Thus, ant X will lay twice as much pheromone on its trail as ant Y. • Given the choice, ants will prefer the strongly- scented 10-meter path over the more weakly- scented 20-meter path.
  • 23. SMART ANTS • When B deposits food at the nest and sets out for another trip, it discovers the strongly- scented path used by the other ants and abandons its own path. • At this point, all four ants are using the path discovered by ant A to carry food between the source and the nest.
  • 24. ANT-BASED ROUTING • The ant approach to route-finding is quite different from the way humans navigate their environment. • We would visually study the environment as a whole and try to "plan" the best route ahead of time. • Of course, the ant method has advantages over our "high level" approach. • For example, the ant method works fine in complete darkness. • When it comes to navigating without visual cues, humans are comparatively helpless.
  • 25. ANT-BASED ROUTING • The ant method into simple rules : CONDITION ACTION Not carrying food not on walk randomly lay pheromone pheromone trail Not carrying food on follow pheromone trail lay more pheromone trail pheromone Reach home without food turn around follow trail in on pheromone trail opposite direction
  • 26. Reach food pick up food pick up food turn around follow trail in opposite direction Carrying food follow trail lay more pheromone Reach home with food deposit food turn around follow trail in opposite direction
  • 27. CONCLUSION • MANET uses algorithms that allow constructing and maintaining wireless communications network for a large number of mobile hosts in an environment subject to substantial and unpredictable changes. • So we can conclude that Ants based routing would just be the solution.