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Antibiotic Resistance Essay
Antibiotic Resistance
Nicholas J. Ciotti
Nova Southeastern University
Biology 1510
Professor A. Hirons
March 28, 2011
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is when microorganisms, such as bacteria, are able to survive an exposure to antibiotics and these bacteria are now resistant to the
effects of these antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has been an issue since antibiotics were discovered. The fact that bacteria can become
resistant to our medical treatments such as antibiotics is a natural evolutionary process, but there are certain human contributions that definitely speed
up the process. For example, one of the main contributions that will be discussed is the problem of over prescription of the antibiotic drugs. The...show
more content...
Human Contributors to Resistance What are the real reasons behind the problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics? There is not really any clear–cut
answer to this question but there are some known factors that do contribute to the problem. Some of these include the overuse of antibiotics in
livestock, international travel that can spread resistant bacteria, and the biggest single factor across the globe appears to be the very problem of
misuse that Fleming warned of in 1945. Over prescription unnecessarily is still quite common today, and this is a primary contributor to the generation
of bacterial resistance (Stivers, 2007). One environment where bacteria are regularly exposed to antibiotics is in large livestock operations, where
producers very often treat their cows and other animals with drugs to prevent epidemics in the unsanitary and overcrowded conditions, which are
common in the livestock industry. The simple reason for this is that in the short term it is cheaper to drug up the animals with antibiotics than to keep a
clean living environment for them. Another big reason for these producers to drug up the animals is the fact that feeding antibiotics to the livestock
makes for larger animals. The problem occurs when bacteria in these animals survive the bombardment of antibiotics, and some always do, the
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Antibiotic Resistance Essay
"Antibiotic Resistance"
I. Abstract
When penicillin was first administered in 1943, it proved to be extraordinary at wiping out nasty cases of syphilis, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, and
meningitis infection. With the threat of these deadly infections in 'check,' pharmaceutical industries then cut back on their research to discover even
more effective antibiotics. This new–found medical confidence inspired patients to merrily run to the clinic to get penicillin prescriptions for everything
from nausea and diarrhea to running nose and sneezing, and doctors to happily prescribe the 'miracle drug.'
However, microorganisms are now evolving and developing unprecedented resistance to penicillin and other once potent drugs, like...show more
content...
A number of theoretical solutions to the problem will also be presented. The conclusion of the discussion will focus on which solutions should be used
and what we, as bystanders, can do to help prolong the lifespan of the current antibiotics.
II. Introduction and Background
How do antibiotics work?
The primary function of antibiotics is to help kill pathogens that threaten the health of the individual. They do this by getting inside of the
disease–causing organism and disrupting its vital processes. There are several ways to disrupt the processes, two major mechanisms will be discussed:
One way is to interfere with cell wall synthesis. Beta–lactams are the class of antibiotics that perform this function. Among the Beta–lactams are
penicillin and cephalosporin ("How do antibiotics work?" 1997). Another antibiotic mechanism is to interrupt protein synthesis. Tetracyclines and
erythromyocin function in this way ("How do antibiotics work?" 1997). They belong to a class of antibiotics named aminoglycerides.
Under normal conditions in bacteria, there is an equilibrium between the building (transpeptidation) and tearing down (autolysis) of cell walls. The
building of cell walls in bacteria is catalyzed by the enzyme transpeptidase. During antibiotic attack on cell wall synthesis, Beta–lactams bind to this
enzyme preventing its full function and causing a weak cell wall to be constructed.
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How Does Antibiotic Resistance Affect The Economy
Antimicrobial resistance might affect the economy in a variety of ways. One way that antimicrobial resistance might affect economy is by financially
affecting hospitals. To be specific, antibiotic resistance might increase the length of stay (LOS) and direct treatment costs among hospitalized patients,
so hospitals are bearing a high financial burden. Antonanzas, Lozano, and Torres (2004) found that the treatment of methicillin resistant S. aureus
(MRSA) infections increase the financial costs for hospitals, as a result of higher direct costs and longer LOS than those related to
methicillin–susceptible–susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) patients or MRSA–free patients. They found that the incremental length of stay (LOS) is in the
average of 2–10...show more content...
(2010) found that the treatment expenses related to methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection were significantly higher than those
related to methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection. For instance, they found that the average 6–month unadjusted costs for
patients who had MRSA infection were $34,657, while the unadjusted costs for patients who had MSSA infection were $15,923. The expected reason
for this matter is that patients infected with resistant infections might pay more extended hospital stays, laboratory tests, imaging tests, and for their
expensive antibiotics such as intravenous antibiotics. Also, MRSA infection is more likely to infect blood stream and lungs, which is very dangerous
and need extensive and expensive therapy. This financial burden might be very overwhelming for patients living in Low and/or Middle Income
Countries (LMICs) and with low health insurance coverage and high out–of–pocket (OOP) expenditure. Knowing the overwhelming economic impact
of antibiotic resistance is very important for policy makers and other stakeholders because they can develop strategies that reduce antibiotic resistance
and therefore minimize the financial expenses of the
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Antibiotic Resistance
Antibiotic resistance occurs when antibiotics are no longer effective in controlling bacterial growth. The phenomenon of antibiotic resistance can be
explained by the processes of selective pressure in which the strongest strains of bacteria survive antibiotic therapy, resulting in "superbugs" that are
resistant to almost every type of antibiotic available for use (Davies & Davies, 2010). Because of this, certain bacterial infections are evolving that
have no effective treatments. This resistance creates a threat to the common medicinal practices of today and can be seen as a global problem; perhaps
one of the world's most serious problems. The issue of antibiotic resistance is emerging rapidly as a result of a myriad of uniformed practices and
misuse of antibiotics.
The abuse of antibiotics is a threat to global health as we approach a post–antibiotic era. As of now, antibiotics are massively used for human
prescriptive reasons, as well as for food growth in livestock. As such, without effective antibiotics, health is...show more content...
To start with, antibiotic–resistant infections have been noted to double mortality and the costs of infection when compared to drug–susceptible strains of
bacteria (Holmberg, Solomon & Blake, 1987). Not only are antibiotic–resistant strains of bacteria more dangerous to humans, but they also place more
pressure on the healthcare system than non–resistant strains. Additionally, antibiotics used for growth in food animals can result in selective pressure,
thus increasing resistant strains of bacteria. Witte (2000) explained that using antibiotics in food animals can enter the human digestive tract when we
eat meat products and even certain antibiotics that are intended for animal use, and not human use, are becoming ineffective for certain strains of
bacteria. Ultimately, this implies that antibiotics used for animal growth are also leading to resistance in certain
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Paper On Antibiotic Resistance
Antibiotic resistance
Key facts
Antibiotic resistance is one of the greatest threats to global health, Food security and development.
Antibiotic resistance can affect anyone of any race, size and gender.
Antibiotic resistance takes place naturally, however misusing antibiotics can increase the process in animals and humans.
Infections can become harder to treat due to antibiotics used to treat the infection or diseases have become less effective.
Antibiotics are used to treat and prevent bacterial infection. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria no longer responds to the antibiotics. Antibiotic
resistance is a big threat and is rising to dangerous levels in all parts of the world. This is creating a major problem because the...show more content...
Due to the referencing of one of the main causes of a super bug. In this source there is a clear explanation of the effect that antibiotic resistance
causes and the increased risk that antibiotic resistance adds to the development of more untreatable infectious diseases. This information will be
useful because the source gives clear information on antibiotic resistance and the effects that it can lead to. This source is secondary research. This
is reliable because it is a fact sheet from the World Health Organization (WHO) website. "WHO" is a specialised agent of the United Nation that is
concerned with the international public health. The article was written in 2016 and therefore has up to date information. It is also reliable because
the author's purpose in this article was to inform readers on what antibiotic resistance is and the risks that it brings to the world. This source will be
of great use regarding my focus question because it gives good facts that will add good points in my essay. There are however a few limitations in
this source. One being that the grammar and diction used in the source is not very scientific. In the source the reader is informed on antibiotic
resistance and the risks that is brings however the source doesn't go in to great detail of what these risks are and how severe the effect is which is
another limitation in this
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Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance
When a bacteria is exposed to antibiotics, they are not always guaranteed to die. This is called antibiotic resistance. Sometimes antibiotics can only stop
the bacteria from multiplying (make it stagnate), and other times it causes the bacteria to multiply even more. These three results depend on antibiotic
concentration, bacterial mutation, and bacterial genetic exchange. One big factor in the resistance bacteria show towards antibiotics is antibiotic
concentration. Usually, if large amounts of an antibiotic are attacking a bacteria it will stop the multiplication process and even kill it off, but if there
is small amounts of antibiotic it will allow the bacteria to continue to spread. You can find many bacteria in a jelly–like biofilm which provides a shield
to them....show more content...
The bacteria can form the ability to completely remove the antibiotic from its cell.
3.The wall of the bacteria can create a barrier to keep the antibiotic from getting in.
4.The bacteria become accustomed to a new way of handling energy.
Scientists have to keep up with the bacteria's mutations, and it may require them making a new antibiotic for each one.
The third and final factor in bacterial resistance to antibiotics is bacterial genetic exchange. It is very common for bacteria to share genetic info
between cells even if the bacteria are not the same species. When this happens, genes and DNA get mixed into different species allowing more
mutations against the antibiotics.
The only way for scientists to know if the bacteria is going to resist their antibiotic is for them to perform tests. Even if the antibiotic proves to work in
their experiment, scientists can never tell when the bacteria is going to mutate and possibly gain new defenses that can deactivate their antibiotic.
Antibiotic concentration, bacterial mutation, and bacterial genetic exchange are all responsible for bacterial resistance against antibiotics, and make it
very difficult to create antibiotics against the
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Antibiotic Resistance: A Case Study
Antibiotics are commonly used to treat bacterial infections in both humans and animals however the overuse and inappropriate prescription of
antibiotics has caused a worldwide concern in antibiotic resistance (FDA, 2015). Antibiotic resistance is when bacteria is able to evolve in such a way
enabling the bacteria to survive in the conditions it is in, consequently causing antibiotics being ineffective to the patient (CDC, 2013). Due to this
issue implementations and actions have been taken to aid in the reduction of antibiotic resistance.
The way that bacteria becomes resistant to antibiotics can be in three ways which are; genetic mutation, gaining resistance from another bacteria and
some are naturally resistant. DNA mutation occurs spontaneously...show more content...
Individuals who use antibiotics for viral infections cause themselves more harm for the future as they are adding antibiotic resistance to themselves
(USA.gov 2015). Patients who are prescribed antibiotics for a bacterial infection cause themselves harm by not completing a course, resulting in the
weak bacteria to be killed and the remaining to gain resistance and survive to pass on their resistance (Mayo Clinic, 2014). To overcome this the UK
have a five year strategy. In order for the strategies to be effective cooperation from other organisations and partnerships is essential as infections can
be transferred from one country to another. One strategy aims to increase levels of hygiene, this is beneficial as infections are spread simply via little
contact made between an individual with an infection, and control of infection can also be achieved by monitoring food producing animals closely so
that infection is not spread from an animal to person as this releases new infections and so new resistant strains (Department of Health 2013:16
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Antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon in which germs evolve to be able to resist the action of drugs. This causes illnesses that were once easily curable
with antibiotics to become dangerous infections, requiring alternative medications or higher doses. With millions of deaths increasing every year,
antibiotic resistance has become one of the world's most pressing public health problems. This essay will explain the key causes of the emergence of
resistant bacteria, including antibiotic misuse, inappropriate prescribing and availability of few new antibiotics, and outline relevant effects of
antibiotic resistance.
Scientists have proved a direct relationship between antibiotic dosage and the emergence and spread of drug–resistant bacteria. Firstly, the overuse of
antibiotics clearly drives the evolution of resistance. In many countries where antibiotics are unregulated and can be bought without a prescription. The
lack of regulation leads to antibiotics being easily available, plentiful and cheap, which results in overuse. With the emergence of online shopping,
people in countries where antibiotics are regulated also can get antibiotics from foreign countries. Secondly, incorrectly prescribed antibiotics also
contribute to the promotion of resistant bacteria. Up to half of antibiotics used in humans are unnecessary and inappropriate. For example, a third of
people believe that antibiotics are effective for the common cold, and the common cold is the most common reason
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Antibiotic Resistance: A Modern Day Plague
Antibiotic Resistance
A modern day plague
Also known as superbugs, these bugs are resistant to our modern day antibiotics. People around the world are trying to figure out alternatives to this
plague. These bugs have evolved over years and years becoming stronger and passing down genes from generation to generation, To slowly become the
super bugs that they are known as today. Often these resistant genes are caused by overuse of antibiotics by humans and farm animals, but this is not
always true. Recently the ARS (the American Recorder Society) foundantibiotic resistance in prairie soils that had no human contact. Antibiotic
resistance is commonly viewed as a result of antibiotic overuse in humans and animals, Recently found antibiotic–resistant...show more content...
Sadly most recently there was a strain of Antibiotic resistant genes was transferred from human to animal, In this case it was a cow and about 7
people and a resistant strain of salmonella luckily no one died in this case. Although this is a step in the right direction we must keep the Industries and
the FDA's feet to the fire because without proper enforcement the producers could use similar amounts of antibiotics to "treat illness" in the livestock.
These are changes we need to make to prevent the epidemic of Antibiotic
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Antibiotic Resistance To Antibiotics
Antibiotic Resistance The increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is a growing problem that affects individuals on a global status. Antibiotic
resistance refers to the ability of bacteria to alter their genetic material and mutate to avoid destruction by antibiotic medications rendering the drugs
ineffective in fighting infection and disease. This resistance has had tragic effects as numerous of the resistant infections have resulted in death of the
host. Because of the severity of this condition, organizations and institutions across the globe have been working together to study and examine the
best strategies to combat these resistant bacteria or sometimes referred to as "superbugs". Many innovations have been proposed and implemented in
attempts to rid people of their infections. The discussion of which approaches are the most effective and cost efficient has been taking place for decades
and is still occurring today along with further investigations of alternatives to antibiotics altogether. Researchers are also attempting to understand what
has caused the problem of antibiotic resistance and how this problem has developed. Efforts to contest these bacteria are extremely important and it is
now up to the next generation of health care providers, researchers, and educators to implement the best ways to keep people healthy. There is much
speculation about what has caused the increased resistance of bacteria to antibiotics and how this problem has developed.
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Antibiotics Essay
Antibiotics have played a major role in our society thanks to Sir
Alexander Fleming's careful observations in 1928. Without it, many lives would be in danger due to infectious diseases.
Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by various species of microorganisms and other living systems that are capable in small concentrations of
inhibiting the growth of or killing bacteria and other microorganisms. These organisms can be bacteria, viruses, fungi, or animals called protozoa. A
particular group of these agents is made up of drugs called antibiotics, from the Greek word anti ("against") and bios
("life"). Some antibiotics are produced from living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and molds. Others are...show more content...
This assures that the bacteria are either killed or reduced enough in numbers so that the body can repel them. When too little antibiotic is taken, bacteria
can often develop methods to protect themselves against it . The next time the antibiotic is needed against these bacteria, it will not be effective.
Taking in Antibiotics.
To work against infecting organisms, an antibiotic can be applied externally, such as to a cut on the skin's surface, or internally, reaching the
bloodstream within the body. Antibiotics are made in several forms and given in different ways.
Topical. Topical application means "to a local area" such as on the skin, in the eyes, or on the mucous membrane. Antibiotics for topical use are
available in the form of powders, ointments, or creams.
Oral. Tablets, liquids, and capsules are swallowed. The antibiotic is released in the small intestine to be absorbed into the bloodstream.
Troches, or lozenges, are allowed to dissolve in the mouth, where the antibiotic is absorbed through the mucous membrane.
Parenteral. Applications outside the intestine are called parenteral.
One form is an injection, which can be subcutaneous (under the skin), intramuscular (into a muscle), or intravenous (into a vein). Parenteral
administration of an antibiotic is used when a physician requires a strong, quick concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream.
Manufacture.
Natural. At one
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The Health Threat of Antibiotic Resistance Essay
According the World Health Organization (WHO), antibiotic resistance is one of the world's greatest health threats to date (Haddox, 2013). In the
article, The Health Threat of Antibiotic Resistance, Gail Haddox (2013) discusses the danger antibiotic resistance poses in today's society and
strategies to prevent the expansion of antibiotic resistance. In Europe alone, an estimated 25,000 deaths have been attributed to multi–resistant
infections (Haddox, 2013). Common infections are now harder to treat due to the increased resistance to antibiotics across the world, in fact some are
becoming untreatable. Antibiotics should be treated like oil, a non–renewable resource (Haddox, 2013). There are four classifications of bacteria
antibiotics...show more content...
Most of the public have heard of broad–spectrum drugs, especially in terms of antibiotic resistance, because they fight a wide range of bacteria but
also kills normal flora in the gut (Haddox, 2013). The loss of this gut flora can lead to an abnormal growth of harmful bacteria such as clostridium
difficile (C–Diff). The four "C" antibiotics that have a high risk for patient to develop C–diff are clindamycin, cephalosporins, coamoxiclav, and
ciprofloxacin (Haddox, 2013). These antibiotics have the highest risk of leading to C–diff development, however all antibiotics increase a patient's
likelihood of a C–diff infection. This effect can last up to 12 weeks post antibiotic administration (Haddox, 2013). Less than 50 years after penicillin
was discovered, strains of bacteria were discovered to be resistant to antibiotics (Haddox, 2013). Over the years scientists have changed the structure
of the antibiotics to avoid this resistance, every time the bacteria adapts to overcome the changes. Bacteria divides as fast as 20 minutes and have
many different ways to adapt (Haddox, 2013). Bacteria pass their drug resistance between strains and species, causing antibiotics to be less effective to
all bacteria (Haddox, 2013). Eighty percent of antibiotic prescribing takes place in general practice (Haddox, 2013). Therefore, focus of limiting
antibiotic
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Antibiotic Resistance : Effect On Global Health
It is vital for the global community to recognize the dangers of antibiotic resistance and the importance of addressing it. According to the World Health
Organization (WHO), "antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today" (INSERT CITATION).
Before the development of antibiotics, infectious diseases, such as bacterial meningitis and strep throat, killed thousands of people, especially children,
a year. These once–fatal diseases are now easily treatable with antibiotics. However, the rise of antibiotic resistance threatens to make these diseases
fatal once again. Compounding the issue of increasing resistance is the slow development of new antibiotics. Only two new classes of antibiotics have
been developed and placed on the marker in the past few decades (Battle super bugs citation). Antibiotic resistance has tremendous implications for
global health and economics, as discussed in this section.
Antibiotic Resistance: Effect on Global Health Antibiotic resistance has a huge impact on global health. Antibiotic resistance threatens our ability to
treat infectious diseases, thereby leading to longer hospital stays, extra visits to the doctor, need for more expensive antibiotics to replace older, less
effective antibiotics, and lost work days. Most importantly, antibiotic resistance costs lives, particularly the lives of children living in developing
countries. Children are more susceptible to infectious diseases.
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Antibiotic Resistance Research Paper
Humans have come to rely on antibiotics for almost every illness known to man. The use of antibiotics has saved thousands of lives. However, our
reliance upon antibiotics may have to come to an end because, the bacteria that we use antibiotics on have begun to evolve. This is not a mere
epidemic. These are not just localized cases. This is a prevalent change all throughout the world. I can only picture two ways to overcome this attack.
One way is the reduction of antibiotic use. The other method is that we need to create new and improved antibiotics to surpass the evolved bacteria.
Marcelino Campos believes that, antibiotic resistance is a serious issue in which our medical systems need to find a solution (1). Understanding why
antibiotic resistance...show more content...
According to Hoffman and Outterson, the most deadly aspect to antibiotic resistance or ABR is when a patient at a hospital developing a strain of
a disease that is completely untreatable and lethal (6). In response to the overabundance of antibiotic use, many scientists believe that having a
stricter infection management system will help control the overuse of antibiotics. The main reasoning for stricter control is to help prevent
bacteria from having the chance to evolve in the the first place. Hoffman and Outterson believe that the best approach to finding a solution is to
have a collaboration of people from a variety of academic and professional jobs (6). With this collaboration of people, Hoffman and Outterson,
devised a three step approach to conquering ABR; this approach is Access, Conservation, and Innovation (6). The absence of access is a common
cause of death by resistant bacteria; scientists need to be given access to existing antibiotics so that they can devise possible solutions to ABR (6).
Conservation will neither prevent ABR nor cure it, but it will help slow down the spread of it; the third and final step is innovation (Hoffman and
Outterson 6). Innovation as stated by Hoffman and Outterson is the creation of new drugs and others ideas to fight off the evolved bacteria (6).
Hopefully with these new ideas, the world will work together to solve this crisis. If we do not find a solution, I fear for our
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Introduction Antibiotics are amongst the most important medical discoveries and their introduction represents a remarkable success story (Hedin,
2011). The term antibiotics literally means against life (Walsh, 2000). Thus antibiotics can be used against any microbe such as bacteria, viruses, fungi,
and protozoa. However, some people use the term to only apply to bacteria, but in this paper, the more appropriate term will be used.
Widespread use of antibiotics has been very controversial in the media as well in the general population. Due to these controversies, it is very
misunderstood to how antibiotics work leading to many patients in the hospital setting wanting to take them when it is not necessary or refusing to
take when it is necessary for their survival. Some of this controversy is due to antibiotic resistance, which has spread an alarming rate in the 21st century
(Walsh, 2000). Antibiotic resistance is the result of very strong bacteria or microbes that are resistant to the antibiotic prescribed and those microbes
accumulate overtime by their survival, reproduction and transfer, leading to increased levels of antibiotic resistance.
I have chosen this topic due to the controversies of using antibiotics due to antibiotic resistance....show more content...
There is a huge need for antibacterial drugs as infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide and the third leading cause of
death in developed countries (Projan, 2003). Over the past 60–70 years, most antibiotics have been discovered by screening of soil samples for natural
products that kill bacteria, including known pathogens, first on culture plates and then in animal infections (Walsh, 2000). There are three proven
targets for the main antibacterial drugs, bacterial cell all biosynthesis, bacterial protein synthesis, and bacterial DNA replication and
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Elsie Gutierrez
BIO 120 Lab Section 1315
14 October 2015
Title
Introduction
When an individual gets sick from a bacterial infection, antibiotics have undoubtedly changed the lives of many people by saving them from death
(Davies, 2010). Since the discovery of antibiotics, scientists have been finding ways to improve the effectiveness of antibiotics. For the past decades,
there's been an alarming increase of antibiotic resistance globally (Witte, 2006). Antibiotics should ideally get rid of infectious diseases but instead the
bacteria are finding ways to fight back. A bacterium that has persistently become more resistant to antibiotics is Staphylococcus aureus and is more
deadly compared to other disease causing bacteria (Naber, 2009). S. aureus is often found in hospitals and infects patients most frequently partly due to
the bacterium being found on one out of every two people (Bud, 2007 p. 118). This bring up the concern of bacterial resistance and the potency of
antibiotics in the future. How will scientists, physicians, or patients fight off bacterial infections if the bacteria are becoming resilient against the
medicine that should kill them? Even though bacteria are more resistant, antibiotics can still be effective towards the pathogenic bacteria. Penicillin has
been noted as the one of the most significant finding in medical history (Bud, 2007 p. 1). Since it's serendipitous discovery, penicillin is used to
combat illnesses in patients in a quick and efficient
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Antibiotic Resistance Crisis
"The Antibiotic Resistance Crisis" is an article on the National Center for Biotechology Information's website and consequently follows many of the
conventions expected of an online article. Before the main body of text is even shown, the author's name is written and link to further information
about the author is provided. This allows the reader to research what the author has published before and gain a better appreciation of their past work.
The article itself is single–columned and divided into a a series of headings and subheadings that help organize and divide the text into smaller pieces.
These pieces relate to the overall topic of how the overuse and misuse of antibiotics over the past century has led to the increasing ineffectiveness of
antibiotics against various strains of bacteria. Because the article is published by a scientific organization, it is a fairly...show more content...
The video format is rather unique and allows creators greater flexibility in presenting information to the audience. For example, SciShow utilizes a host
on screen who maintains eye contact with the camera and audibly relays information, thereby controlling the tone of the video and leaving far less
ambiguity to be figured out. Additionally, important concepts or key words appear in large bold letters, which serves to reinforce the sub–topic being
presented and make them more memorable. Slides with charts or added descriptions are spliced into the video to serve as supplementary material or
to explain how a process works. The video begins with a one–and–a–half minute discussion before a short animation with a standardized musical chime
that introduces the channel. The video is fairly humorous and lighthearted and contains many modern references and anecdotes. The outro is brief and
lists the names of the producers, host, editor, creative team, and
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Discussion
It is very important that for us to understand that antibiotic resistance is a serious matter and one that we are altering the natural course of. What
scientists may call excessive use of antibiotics creates a thriving environment for antibiotic resistant bacteria. A situation that may result in severe
consequences for humanity, and it is already an eminent problem in the fields of medicine. The Centers for Disease Control estimate that in United
States 70 percent of about 2 million people that have a bacterial infection every year, have one that is resistant to at least on common antibiotic. There
are more deaths in United States attributed to infections with invasive Methicillin–resistant Staphylococcus aureus (an example of antibiotic resistant
bacteria) than there are deaths caused by AIDS (cite grace). Now resistance in bacteria and prokaryotes is a natural process, it is survival of the
fittest and it will happen inevitably. The issue lays on the fact that we are speeding this process in many ways. To illustrate this point, we can discuss
the astonishing fact that 80 percent of all antibiotics sold are used in animals. That means that out of 16.4 million kilograms of antibiotics sold in
2009, 13.1 where sold for use by animals, and 3.3 million kilograms where sold to be used by people. Such massive use of antibiotics is definitely the
cause of the rising speed of antibiotic resistant bacteria. And there is a high possibility that taking caution in our use
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Antibiotic Resistance
Introduction
This article is about the determination of Antibiotic resistance that relies on the fitness effects of resistance elements in the absence of antibiotics.
Angst and Hall tentatively developed rifampicin–resistant and delicate Escherichia coli in drug–free environment, before measuring the impacts of new
resistance components on fitness in antibiotic free conditions. Streptomycin resistance changes had little fitness impacts in rifampicin–resistant
genotypes that had adjusts to antibiotic free environment , contrasted with the same genotypes without acclimatization. They watched a comparative
impact when resistance was encoded by a plasmid. Antibiotic sensitive microorganisms that acclimated to the same conditions indicated...show more
content...
Resistant microorganisms obtain extra helpful changes throughout advancement without antibiotic s that don't modify resistance straightforwardly
however may change the fitness impacts of new resistance transformations (Angst and Hall, 2013). It is critical that researchers study this theme on the
grounds that fitness impacts of resistance transformations frequently fluctuate relying upon the vicinity of other resistance changes on the same
genome. Furthermore, it is likewise essential to study this issue so as to minimize the development of microbes into antibiotic resistant superbugs that
could conceivably make a worldwide health crisis.
Methods
The researchers' theory is that antibiotic resistance goes through extra valuable transformations throughout development without antibiotic s that don't
adjust resistance specifically however may change the fitness impacts of new resistance changes. They saw that later work prescribes: fitness impacts
of resistance transformations regularly differ relying upon the vicinity of other resistance changes on the same genome, yet they also realized that,
resistance evolution will frequently be joined by the obsession of fixation of additional mutations that don't argue resistance however expand fitnes. One
experiment that they did to test their hypothesis was to tentatively advance
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Antibiotic Resistance Essay

  • 1. Antibiotic Resistance Essay Antibiotic Resistance Nicholas J. Ciotti Nova Southeastern University Biology 1510 Professor A. Hirons March 28, 2011 Abstract Antibiotic resistance is when microorganisms, such as bacteria, are able to survive an exposure to antibiotics and these bacteria are now resistant to the effects of these antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has been an issue since antibiotics were discovered. The fact that bacteria can become resistant to our medical treatments such as antibiotics is a natural evolutionary process, but there are certain human contributions that definitely speed up the process. For example, one of the main contributions that will be discussed is the problem of over prescription of the antibiotic drugs. The...show more content... Human Contributors to Resistance What are the real reasons behind the problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics? There is not really any clear–cut answer to this question but there are some known factors that do contribute to the problem. Some of these include the overuse of antibiotics in livestock, international travel that can spread resistant bacteria, and the biggest single factor across the globe appears to be the very problem of misuse that Fleming warned of in 1945. Over prescription unnecessarily is still quite common today, and this is a primary contributor to the generation of bacterial resistance (Stivers, 2007). One environment where bacteria are regularly exposed to antibiotics is in large livestock operations, where producers very often treat their cows and other animals with drugs to prevent epidemics in the unsanitary and overcrowded conditions, which are common in the livestock industry. The simple reason for this is that in the short term it is cheaper to drug up the animals with antibiotics than to keep a clean living environment for them. Another big reason for these producers to drug up the animals is the fact that feeding antibiotics to the livestock makes for larger animals. The problem occurs when bacteria in these animals survive the bombardment of antibiotics, and some always do, the
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  • 3. Antibiotic Resistance Essay "Antibiotic Resistance" I. Abstract When penicillin was first administered in 1943, it proved to be extraordinary at wiping out nasty cases of syphilis, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, and meningitis infection. With the threat of these deadly infections in 'check,' pharmaceutical industries then cut back on their research to discover even more effective antibiotics. This new–found medical confidence inspired patients to merrily run to the clinic to get penicillin prescriptions for everything from nausea and diarrhea to running nose and sneezing, and doctors to happily prescribe the 'miracle drug.' However, microorganisms are now evolving and developing unprecedented resistance to penicillin and other once potent drugs, like...show more content... A number of theoretical solutions to the problem will also be presented. The conclusion of the discussion will focus on which solutions should be used and what we, as bystanders, can do to help prolong the lifespan of the current antibiotics. II. Introduction and Background How do antibiotics work? The primary function of antibiotics is to help kill pathogens that threaten the health of the individual. They do this by getting inside of the disease–causing organism and disrupting its vital processes. There are several ways to disrupt the processes, two major mechanisms will be discussed: One way is to interfere with cell wall synthesis. Beta–lactams are the class of antibiotics that perform this function. Among the Beta–lactams are penicillin and cephalosporin ("How do antibiotics work?" 1997). Another antibiotic mechanism is to interrupt protein synthesis. Tetracyclines and erythromyocin function in this way ("How do antibiotics work?" 1997). They belong to a class of antibiotics named aminoglycerides. Under normal conditions in bacteria, there is an equilibrium between the building (transpeptidation) and tearing down (autolysis) of cell walls. The building of cell walls in bacteria is catalyzed by the enzyme transpeptidase. During antibiotic attack on cell wall synthesis, Beta–lactams bind to this enzyme preventing its full function and causing a weak cell wall to be constructed.
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  • 5. How Does Antibiotic Resistance Affect The Economy Antimicrobial resistance might affect the economy in a variety of ways. One way that antimicrobial resistance might affect economy is by financially affecting hospitals. To be specific, antibiotic resistance might increase the length of stay (LOS) and direct treatment costs among hospitalized patients, so hospitals are bearing a high financial burden. Antonanzas, Lozano, and Torres (2004) found that the treatment of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections increase the financial costs for hospitals, as a result of higher direct costs and longer LOS than those related to methicillin–susceptible–susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) patients or MRSA–free patients. They found that the incremental length of stay (LOS) is in the average of 2–10...show more content... (2010) found that the treatment expenses related to methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection were significantly higher than those related to methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection. For instance, they found that the average 6–month unadjusted costs for patients who had MRSA infection were $34,657, while the unadjusted costs for patients who had MSSA infection were $15,923. The expected reason for this matter is that patients infected with resistant infections might pay more extended hospital stays, laboratory tests, imaging tests, and for their expensive antibiotics such as intravenous antibiotics. Also, MRSA infection is more likely to infect blood stream and lungs, which is very dangerous and need extensive and expensive therapy. This financial burden might be very overwhelming for patients living in Low and/or Middle Income Countries (LMICs) and with low health insurance coverage and high out–of–pocket (OOP) expenditure. Knowing the overwhelming economic impact of antibiotic resistance is very important for policy makers and other stakeholders because they can develop strategies that reduce antibiotic resistance and therefore minimize the financial expenses of the Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 6. Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic resistance occurs when antibiotics are no longer effective in controlling bacterial growth. The phenomenon of antibiotic resistance can be explained by the processes of selective pressure in which the strongest strains of bacteria survive antibiotic therapy, resulting in "superbugs" that are resistant to almost every type of antibiotic available for use (Davies & Davies, 2010). Because of this, certain bacterial infections are evolving that have no effective treatments. This resistance creates a threat to the common medicinal practices of today and can be seen as a global problem; perhaps one of the world's most serious problems. The issue of antibiotic resistance is emerging rapidly as a result of a myriad of uniformed practices and misuse of antibiotics. The abuse of antibiotics is a threat to global health as we approach a post–antibiotic era. As of now, antibiotics are massively used for human prescriptive reasons, as well as for food growth in livestock. As such, without effective antibiotics, health is...show more content... To start with, antibiotic–resistant infections have been noted to double mortality and the costs of infection when compared to drug–susceptible strains of bacteria (Holmberg, Solomon & Blake, 1987). Not only are antibiotic–resistant strains of bacteria more dangerous to humans, but they also place more pressure on the healthcare system than non–resistant strains. Additionally, antibiotics used for growth in food animals can result in selective pressure, thus increasing resistant strains of bacteria. Witte (2000) explained that using antibiotics in food animals can enter the human digestive tract when we eat meat products and even certain antibiotics that are intended for animal use, and not human use, are becoming ineffective for certain strains of bacteria. Ultimately, this implies that antibiotics used for animal growth are also leading to resistance in certain Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 7. Paper On Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic resistance Key facts Antibiotic resistance is one of the greatest threats to global health, Food security and development. Antibiotic resistance can affect anyone of any race, size and gender. Antibiotic resistance takes place naturally, however misusing antibiotics can increase the process in animals and humans. Infections can become harder to treat due to antibiotics used to treat the infection or diseases have become less effective. Antibiotics are used to treat and prevent bacterial infection. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria no longer responds to the antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is a big threat and is rising to dangerous levels in all parts of the world. This is creating a major problem because the...show more content... Due to the referencing of one of the main causes of a super bug. In this source there is a clear explanation of the effect that antibiotic resistance causes and the increased risk that antibiotic resistance adds to the development of more untreatable infectious diseases. This information will be useful because the source gives clear information on antibiotic resistance and the effects that it can lead to. This source is secondary research. This is reliable because it is a fact sheet from the World Health Organization (WHO) website. "WHO" is a specialised agent of the United Nation that is concerned with the international public health. The article was written in 2016 and therefore has up to date information. It is also reliable because the author's purpose in this article was to inform readers on what antibiotic resistance is and the risks that it brings to the world. This source will be of great use regarding my focus question because it gives good facts that will add good points in my essay. There are however a few limitations in this source. One being that the grammar and diction used in the source is not very scientific. In the source the reader is informed on antibiotic resistance and the risks that is brings however the source doesn't go in to great detail of what these risks are and how severe the effect is which is another limitation in this Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 8. Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance When a bacteria is exposed to antibiotics, they are not always guaranteed to die. This is called antibiotic resistance. Sometimes antibiotics can only stop the bacteria from multiplying (make it stagnate), and other times it causes the bacteria to multiply even more. These three results depend on antibiotic concentration, bacterial mutation, and bacterial genetic exchange. One big factor in the resistance bacteria show towards antibiotics is antibiotic concentration. Usually, if large amounts of an antibiotic are attacking a bacteria it will stop the multiplication process and even kill it off, but if there is small amounts of antibiotic it will allow the bacteria to continue to spread. You can find many bacteria in a jelly–like biofilm which provides a shield to them....show more content... The bacteria can form the ability to completely remove the antibiotic from its cell. 3.The wall of the bacteria can create a barrier to keep the antibiotic from getting in. 4.The bacteria become accustomed to a new way of handling energy. Scientists have to keep up with the bacteria's mutations, and it may require them making a new antibiotic for each one. The third and final factor in bacterial resistance to antibiotics is bacterial genetic exchange. It is very common for bacteria to share genetic info between cells even if the bacteria are not the same species. When this happens, genes and DNA get mixed into different species allowing more mutations against the antibiotics. The only way for scientists to know if the bacteria is going to resist their antibiotic is for them to perform tests. Even if the antibiotic proves to work in their experiment, scientists can never tell when the bacteria is going to mutate and possibly gain new defenses that can deactivate their antibiotic. Antibiotic concentration, bacterial mutation, and bacterial genetic exchange are all responsible for bacterial resistance against antibiotics, and make it very difficult to create antibiotics against the Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 9. Antibiotic Resistance: A Case Study Antibiotics are commonly used to treat bacterial infections in both humans and animals however the overuse and inappropriate prescription of antibiotics has caused a worldwide concern in antibiotic resistance (FDA, 2015). Antibiotic resistance is when bacteria is able to evolve in such a way enabling the bacteria to survive in the conditions it is in, consequently causing antibiotics being ineffective to the patient (CDC, 2013). Due to this issue implementations and actions have been taken to aid in the reduction of antibiotic resistance. The way that bacteria becomes resistant to antibiotics can be in three ways which are; genetic mutation, gaining resistance from another bacteria and some are naturally resistant. DNA mutation occurs spontaneously...show more content... Individuals who use antibiotics for viral infections cause themselves more harm for the future as they are adding antibiotic resistance to themselves (USA.gov 2015). Patients who are prescribed antibiotics for a bacterial infection cause themselves harm by not completing a course, resulting in the weak bacteria to be killed and the remaining to gain resistance and survive to pass on their resistance (Mayo Clinic, 2014). To overcome this the UK have a five year strategy. In order for the strategies to be effective cooperation from other organisations and partnerships is essential as infections can be transferred from one country to another. One strategy aims to increase levels of hygiene, this is beneficial as infections are spread simply via little contact made between an individual with an infection, and control of infection can also be achieved by monitoring food producing animals closely so that infection is not spread from an animal to person as this releases new infections and so new resistant strains (Department of Health 2013:16 Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 10. Antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon in which germs evolve to be able to resist the action of drugs. This causes illnesses that were once easily curable with antibiotics to become dangerous infections, requiring alternative medications or higher doses. With millions of deaths increasing every year, antibiotic resistance has become one of the world's most pressing public health problems. This essay will explain the key causes of the emergence of resistant bacteria, including antibiotic misuse, inappropriate prescribing and availability of few new antibiotics, and outline relevant effects of antibiotic resistance. Scientists have proved a direct relationship between antibiotic dosage and the emergence and spread of drug–resistant bacteria. Firstly, the overuse of antibiotics clearly drives the evolution of resistance. In many countries where antibiotics are unregulated and can be bought without a prescription. The lack of regulation leads to antibiotics being easily available, plentiful and cheap, which results in overuse. With the emergence of online shopping, people in countries where antibiotics are regulated also can get antibiotics from foreign countries. Secondly, incorrectly prescribed antibiotics also contribute to the promotion of resistant bacteria. Up to half of antibiotics used in humans are unnecessary and inappropriate. For example, a third of people believe that antibiotics are effective for the common cold, and the common cold is the most common reason Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 11. Antibiotic Resistance: A Modern Day Plague Antibiotic Resistance A modern day plague Also known as superbugs, these bugs are resistant to our modern day antibiotics. People around the world are trying to figure out alternatives to this plague. These bugs have evolved over years and years becoming stronger and passing down genes from generation to generation, To slowly become the super bugs that they are known as today. Often these resistant genes are caused by overuse of antibiotics by humans and farm animals, but this is not always true. Recently the ARS (the American Recorder Society) foundantibiotic resistance in prairie soils that had no human contact. Antibiotic resistance is commonly viewed as a result of antibiotic overuse in humans and animals, Recently found antibiotic–resistant...show more content... Sadly most recently there was a strain of Antibiotic resistant genes was transferred from human to animal, In this case it was a cow and about 7 people and a resistant strain of salmonella luckily no one died in this case. Although this is a step in the right direction we must keep the Industries and the FDA's feet to the fire because without proper enforcement the producers could use similar amounts of antibiotics to "treat illness" in the livestock. These are changes we need to make to prevent the epidemic of Antibiotic Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 12. Antibiotic Resistance To Antibiotics Antibiotic Resistance The increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is a growing problem that affects individuals on a global status. Antibiotic resistance refers to the ability of bacteria to alter their genetic material and mutate to avoid destruction by antibiotic medications rendering the drugs ineffective in fighting infection and disease. This resistance has had tragic effects as numerous of the resistant infections have resulted in death of the host. Because of the severity of this condition, organizations and institutions across the globe have been working together to study and examine the best strategies to combat these resistant bacteria or sometimes referred to as "superbugs". Many innovations have been proposed and implemented in attempts to rid people of their infections. The discussion of which approaches are the most effective and cost efficient has been taking place for decades and is still occurring today along with further investigations of alternatives to antibiotics altogether. Researchers are also attempting to understand what has caused the problem of antibiotic resistance and how this problem has developed. Efforts to contest these bacteria are extremely important and it is now up to the next generation of health care providers, researchers, and educators to implement the best ways to keep people healthy. There is much speculation about what has caused the increased resistance of bacteria to antibiotics and how this problem has developed. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 13. Antibiotics Essay Antibiotics have played a major role in our society thanks to Sir Alexander Fleming's careful observations in 1928. Without it, many lives would be in danger due to infectious diseases. Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by various species of microorganisms and other living systems that are capable in small concentrations of inhibiting the growth of or killing bacteria and other microorganisms. These organisms can be bacteria, viruses, fungi, or animals called protozoa. A particular group of these agents is made up of drugs called antibiotics, from the Greek word anti ("against") and bios ("life"). Some antibiotics are produced from living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and molds. Others are...show more content... This assures that the bacteria are either killed or reduced enough in numbers so that the body can repel them. When too little antibiotic is taken, bacteria can often develop methods to protect themselves against it . The next time the antibiotic is needed against these bacteria, it will not be effective. Taking in Antibiotics. To work against infecting organisms, an antibiotic can be applied externally, such as to a cut on the skin's surface, or internally, reaching the bloodstream within the body. Antibiotics are made in several forms and given in different ways. Topical. Topical application means "to a local area" such as on the skin, in the eyes, or on the mucous membrane. Antibiotics for topical use are available in the form of powders, ointments, or creams. Oral. Tablets, liquids, and capsules are swallowed. The antibiotic is released in the small intestine to be absorbed into the bloodstream. Troches, or lozenges, are allowed to dissolve in the mouth, where the antibiotic is absorbed through the mucous membrane. Parenteral. Applications outside the intestine are called parenteral. One form is an injection, which can be subcutaneous (under the skin), intramuscular (into a muscle), or intravenous (into a vein). Parenteral administration of an antibiotic is used when a physician requires a strong, quick concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream. Manufacture.
  • 14. Natural. At one Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 15. The Health Threat of Antibiotic Resistance Essay According the World Health Organization (WHO), antibiotic resistance is one of the world's greatest health threats to date (Haddox, 2013). In the article, The Health Threat of Antibiotic Resistance, Gail Haddox (2013) discusses the danger antibiotic resistance poses in today's society and strategies to prevent the expansion of antibiotic resistance. In Europe alone, an estimated 25,000 deaths have been attributed to multi–resistant infections (Haddox, 2013). Common infections are now harder to treat due to the increased resistance to antibiotics across the world, in fact some are becoming untreatable. Antibiotics should be treated like oil, a non–renewable resource (Haddox, 2013). There are four classifications of bacteria antibiotics...show more content... Most of the public have heard of broad–spectrum drugs, especially in terms of antibiotic resistance, because they fight a wide range of bacteria but also kills normal flora in the gut (Haddox, 2013). The loss of this gut flora can lead to an abnormal growth of harmful bacteria such as clostridium difficile (C–Diff). The four "C" antibiotics that have a high risk for patient to develop C–diff are clindamycin, cephalosporins, coamoxiclav, and ciprofloxacin (Haddox, 2013). These antibiotics have the highest risk of leading to C–diff development, however all antibiotics increase a patient's likelihood of a C–diff infection. This effect can last up to 12 weeks post antibiotic administration (Haddox, 2013). Less than 50 years after penicillin was discovered, strains of bacteria were discovered to be resistant to antibiotics (Haddox, 2013). Over the years scientists have changed the structure of the antibiotics to avoid this resistance, every time the bacteria adapts to overcome the changes. Bacteria divides as fast as 20 minutes and have many different ways to adapt (Haddox, 2013). Bacteria pass their drug resistance between strains and species, causing antibiotics to be less effective to all bacteria (Haddox, 2013). Eighty percent of antibiotic prescribing takes place in general practice (Haddox, 2013). Therefore, focus of limiting antibiotic Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 16. Antibiotic Resistance : Effect On Global Health It is vital for the global community to recognize the dangers of antibiotic resistance and the importance of addressing it. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today" (INSERT CITATION). Before the development of antibiotics, infectious diseases, such as bacterial meningitis and strep throat, killed thousands of people, especially children, a year. These once–fatal diseases are now easily treatable with antibiotics. However, the rise of antibiotic resistance threatens to make these diseases fatal once again. Compounding the issue of increasing resistance is the slow development of new antibiotics. Only two new classes of antibiotics have been developed and placed on the marker in the past few decades (Battle super bugs citation). Antibiotic resistance has tremendous implications for global health and economics, as discussed in this section. Antibiotic Resistance: Effect on Global Health Antibiotic resistance has a huge impact on global health. Antibiotic resistance threatens our ability to treat infectious diseases, thereby leading to longer hospital stays, extra visits to the doctor, need for more expensive antibiotics to replace older, less effective antibiotics, and lost work days. Most importantly, antibiotic resistance costs lives, particularly the lives of children living in developing countries. Children are more susceptible to infectious diseases. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 17. Antibiotic Resistance Research Paper Humans have come to rely on antibiotics for almost every illness known to man. The use of antibiotics has saved thousands of lives. However, our reliance upon antibiotics may have to come to an end because, the bacteria that we use antibiotics on have begun to evolve. This is not a mere epidemic. These are not just localized cases. This is a prevalent change all throughout the world. I can only picture two ways to overcome this attack. One way is the reduction of antibiotic use. The other method is that we need to create new and improved antibiotics to surpass the evolved bacteria. Marcelino Campos believes that, antibiotic resistance is a serious issue in which our medical systems need to find a solution (1). Understanding why antibiotic resistance...show more content... According to Hoffman and Outterson, the most deadly aspect to antibiotic resistance or ABR is when a patient at a hospital developing a strain of a disease that is completely untreatable and lethal (6). In response to the overabundance of antibiotic use, many scientists believe that having a stricter infection management system will help control the overuse of antibiotics. The main reasoning for stricter control is to help prevent bacteria from having the chance to evolve in the the first place. Hoffman and Outterson believe that the best approach to finding a solution is to have a collaboration of people from a variety of academic and professional jobs (6). With this collaboration of people, Hoffman and Outterson, devised a three step approach to conquering ABR; this approach is Access, Conservation, and Innovation (6). The absence of access is a common cause of death by resistant bacteria; scientists need to be given access to existing antibiotics so that they can devise possible solutions to ABR (6). Conservation will neither prevent ABR nor cure it, but it will help slow down the spread of it; the third and final step is innovation (Hoffman and Outterson 6). Innovation as stated by Hoffman and Outterson is the creation of new drugs and others ideas to fight off the evolved bacteria (6). Hopefully with these new ideas, the world will work together to solve this crisis. If we do not find a solution, I fear for our Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 18. Introduction Antibiotics are amongst the most important medical discoveries and their introduction represents a remarkable success story (Hedin, 2011). The term antibiotics literally means against life (Walsh, 2000). Thus antibiotics can be used against any microbe such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. However, some people use the term to only apply to bacteria, but in this paper, the more appropriate term will be used. Widespread use of antibiotics has been very controversial in the media as well in the general population. Due to these controversies, it is very misunderstood to how antibiotics work leading to many patients in the hospital setting wanting to take them when it is not necessary or refusing to take when it is necessary for their survival. Some of this controversy is due to antibiotic resistance, which has spread an alarming rate in the 21st century (Walsh, 2000). Antibiotic resistance is the result of very strong bacteria or microbes that are resistant to the antibiotic prescribed and those microbes accumulate overtime by their survival, reproduction and transfer, leading to increased levels of antibiotic resistance. I have chosen this topic due to the controversies of using antibiotics due to antibiotic resistance....show more content... There is a huge need for antibacterial drugs as infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide and the third leading cause of death in developed countries (Projan, 2003). Over the past 60–70 years, most antibiotics have been discovered by screening of soil samples for natural products that kill bacteria, including known pathogens, first on culture plates and then in animal infections (Walsh, 2000). There are three proven targets for the main antibacterial drugs, bacterial cell all biosynthesis, bacterial protein synthesis, and bacterial DNA replication and Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 19. Elsie Gutierrez BIO 120 Lab Section 1315 14 October 2015 Title Introduction When an individual gets sick from a bacterial infection, antibiotics have undoubtedly changed the lives of many people by saving them from death (Davies, 2010). Since the discovery of antibiotics, scientists have been finding ways to improve the effectiveness of antibiotics. For the past decades, there's been an alarming increase of antibiotic resistance globally (Witte, 2006). Antibiotics should ideally get rid of infectious diseases but instead the bacteria are finding ways to fight back. A bacterium that has persistently become more resistant to antibiotics is Staphylococcus aureus and is more deadly compared to other disease causing bacteria (Naber, 2009). S. aureus is often found in hospitals and infects patients most frequently partly due to the bacterium being found on one out of every two people (Bud, 2007 p. 118). This bring up the concern of bacterial resistance and the potency of antibiotics in the future. How will scientists, physicians, or patients fight off bacterial infections if the bacteria are becoming resilient against the medicine that should kill them? Even though bacteria are more resistant, antibiotics can still be effective towards the pathogenic bacteria. Penicillin has been noted as the one of the most significant finding in medical history (Bud, 2007 p. 1). Since it's serendipitous discovery, penicillin is used to combat illnesses in patients in a quick and efficient Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 20. Antibiotic Resistance Crisis "The Antibiotic Resistance Crisis" is an article on the National Center for Biotechology Information's website and consequently follows many of the conventions expected of an online article. Before the main body of text is even shown, the author's name is written and link to further information about the author is provided. This allows the reader to research what the author has published before and gain a better appreciation of their past work. The article itself is single–columned and divided into a a series of headings and subheadings that help organize and divide the text into smaller pieces. These pieces relate to the overall topic of how the overuse and misuse of antibiotics over the past century has led to the increasing ineffectiveness of antibiotics against various strains of bacteria. Because the article is published by a scientific organization, it is a fairly...show more content... The video format is rather unique and allows creators greater flexibility in presenting information to the audience. For example, SciShow utilizes a host on screen who maintains eye contact with the camera and audibly relays information, thereby controlling the tone of the video and leaving far less ambiguity to be figured out. Additionally, important concepts or key words appear in large bold letters, which serves to reinforce the sub–topic being presented and make them more memorable. Slides with charts or added descriptions are spliced into the video to serve as supplementary material or to explain how a process works. The video begins with a one–and–a–half minute discussion before a short animation with a standardized musical chime that introduces the channel. The video is fairly humorous and lighthearted and contains many modern references and anecdotes. The outro is brief and lists the names of the producers, host, editor, creative team, and Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 21. Discussion It is very important that for us to understand that antibiotic resistance is a serious matter and one that we are altering the natural course of. What scientists may call excessive use of antibiotics creates a thriving environment for antibiotic resistant bacteria. A situation that may result in severe consequences for humanity, and it is already an eminent problem in the fields of medicine. The Centers for Disease Control estimate that in United States 70 percent of about 2 million people that have a bacterial infection every year, have one that is resistant to at least on common antibiotic. There are more deaths in United States attributed to infections with invasive Methicillin–resistant Staphylococcus aureus (an example of antibiotic resistant bacteria) than there are deaths caused by AIDS (cite grace). Now resistance in bacteria and prokaryotes is a natural process, it is survival of the fittest and it will happen inevitably. The issue lays on the fact that we are speeding this process in many ways. To illustrate this point, we can discuss the astonishing fact that 80 percent of all antibiotics sold are used in animals. That means that out of 16.4 million kilograms of antibiotics sold in 2009, 13.1 where sold for use by animals, and 3.3 million kilograms where sold to be used by people. Such massive use of antibiotics is definitely the cause of the rising speed of antibiotic resistant bacteria. And there is a high possibility that taking caution in our use Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 22. Antibiotic Resistance Introduction This article is about the determination of Antibiotic resistance that relies on the fitness effects of resistance elements in the absence of antibiotics. Angst and Hall tentatively developed rifampicin–resistant and delicate Escherichia coli in drug–free environment, before measuring the impacts of new resistance components on fitness in antibiotic free conditions. Streptomycin resistance changes had little fitness impacts in rifampicin–resistant genotypes that had adjusts to antibiotic free environment , contrasted with the same genotypes without acclimatization. They watched a comparative impact when resistance was encoded by a plasmid. Antibiotic sensitive microorganisms that acclimated to the same conditions indicated...show more content... Resistant microorganisms obtain extra helpful changes throughout advancement without antibiotic s that don't modify resistance straightforwardly however may change the fitness impacts of new resistance transformations (Angst and Hall, 2013). It is critical that researchers study this theme on the grounds that fitness impacts of resistance transformations frequently fluctuate relying upon the vicinity of other resistance changes on the same genome. Furthermore, it is likewise essential to study this issue so as to minimize the development of microbes into antibiotic resistant superbugs that could conceivably make a worldwide health crisis. Methods The researchers' theory is that antibiotic resistance goes through extra valuable transformations throughout development without antibiotic s that don't adjust resistance specifically however may change the fitness impacts of new resistance changes. They saw that later work prescribes: fitness impacts of resistance transformations regularly differ relying upon the vicinity of other resistance changes on the same genome, yet they also realized that, resistance evolution will frequently be joined by the obsession of fixation of additional mutations that don't argue resistance however expand fitnes. One experiment that they did to test their hypothesis was to tentatively advance Get more content on HelpWriting.net