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An Unusual Lesson Maria Teresa Ciaffaroni [email_address] TESOL - Italy’s XXXII National Convention Nov 30 – Dec 1, 2007 PRIMARY ISSUES
Needs   Combine language and content   Tackle relevant and catching content Enhance motivation Practice integrated skills  Experience the target language at a deeper and, hopefully, more interesting level Develop higher level cognitive skills
Aims   To introduce different genres and types of texts To enhance  extensive reading skills To practice speaking in a meaningful context To increase passive and active vocabulary To develop high level cognitive skills To foster co-operation and autonomous learning
Get in the mood! You are going to listen to a story. To get ready for it you need to go back in time. Relax and try to visualize the following: What “Fairyland” meant to you when you were a child. What it was like. How you felt about it. 2. Look at the book cover the story is taken from. Does it match your “Fairyland” in any way? Compare ideas with a partner .
 
Listening! Listen to the first part of the story and try to picture as many details as you can in your mind. Write down the riddle your teacher is going to dictate then try to solve it. Imagine a working place for the people you have just heard about. Listen to a new passage from the story and check if you were right.  Draw a few details to illustrate the scene you have just heard about. Show your drawing to other students
Some more listening! Look at the signs below. What are they about? How can you tell? Jograffy! Jograffy! Jograffy! For today only all major land masses and oceans PLUS everything you need to kno about glassiers. One penny or All Major Vegetables accepted
Now listen to the rest of the story The Wonders of punctuation and Spelling Absolute Certainty about the Comma I before E completely Sorted Out The mystery of the Semi-Colon Revealed See the Impersonal (Small extra charge) Fun with Brackets Will accept vegetables, eggs and clean used clothing
Read and Check! In the story there are quite a few unusual facts How many do you remember? Complete the table below then check with a partner.   Any other unusual facts  How they get paid Who they offer their services to  Where they do it What they do What people look like
Prepare a notice for the history teacher. Try to make it as persuasive as possible. Show your notice to a partner Draw a picture of Jenny-Green-Teeth for the “Strange creatures” teacher you weren’t able to meet. Also prepare a short note to explain when and where you saw the monster. Ask the teacher what you want to know about Jenny. Compare both your note and picture with a partner.
What do you think the last sign means? Share ideas with a partner. I can teach you a lesson  You won't forget in a hurry !
Read and think ! In small groups choose one of the following statements from the story. What do you think it means? Compare ideas in the group. Report to the other groups. They sold what anyone needed but often didn’t want. They sold the key to the universe to people who didn’t even know it was locked. They taught children enough to shut them up, which was the main thing after all. She says it's thinking, but I don't know how you teach that. The Death of Kings through the Ages. Quite a lot of educational blood.
In small groups find out ideas the story conveys about the following. Compare your findings with some other group.  education  teachers  students teaching and learning Have you ever had a lesson you didn’t forget in a hurry? When did it happen? Who gave it to you? Share your experience with a partner.
Find out and try it off! Go through the story again and find as many examples as possible for the following: Descriptions of people Descriptions of places Other kinds of descriptions Do you make description in the same way in everyday language? Why/ why not? Compare ideas with a partner. Think about one of your former teachers.  What did (s)he look like? What did (s)he use to wear?
The  rest  of the UM
SLA principles Affective engagement principle i+1 principle Readiness to acquire  Language awareness
Affective engagement Language acquisition is more likely to occur if learners are effectively engaged in the learning process have a positive attitude towards the target language, the teachers, the materials and the activities feel relaxed, confident and successful are able to respond to the target language not only cognitively but also emotionally, as a whole person
Readiness to acquire Learners only learn what they are ready to learn Different learners are  rarely ready to learn a particular language point at the same time Input materials, language points, tasks and activities need to be as challenging and as varied as possible
i+1 principle Selection of input is particularly relevant for language acquisition  “ I” stands for comprehensible input and represents what the leaner has already learnt while  “ 1” what the learner has to learn and may be ready to learn.
Language awareness If students discover language points on their own  after a pleasant, multidimensional experience of a text language points are acquired  more easily and retained longer
Text based approach 6 different stages, related to well known SLA principles   Readiness activities Experiential activities Intake response activities Development activities Input response activities
Readiness activities Literary texts are likely to achieve a deep impact and  favour  a multidimensional response Before reading or listening to a text students need to get mentally ready to experience it It is important to set activities to help students achieve mental readiness for experiencing the text and connect it to their lives
While listening/reading activities which help students to process a text experientially before understanding it linguistically For a text to have a deep impact on students they need to experience it in  a multidimensional way, that is using as many sensory channels as possible Apprehension – a global experience of the deep meaning of a text - before comprehension Experiential activities
Intake response activities Activities which are meant to help students use their representation of a text for language production After experiencing a text in a multidimensional way students are ready to reflect on their experience, articulate it a nd share it
Development activities Activities meant to lead to meaningful language production based upon student experience of  text They requires students to go back to the text before producing something new They’re based both on the text experience and comprehension
Input response activities Language focused activities meant to make self discoveries on language patterns and regularities Tasks are meant to help students make hypotheses on how language work and try them on Tasks aim at long lasting pattern acquisition and development of critical thinking
Development activities Activities with same focus as stage 4. The broad topic is the same but is tackled with different types of texts Provide opportunities for meaningful language production  interact meaningfully  expand ideas, foster critical thinking  Recycle language points and/or vocabulary
Conclusions   The framework can be used to develop materials using different types of  texts as a starting point, actually any text which one finds interesting or appealing or moving or what not…provided one keeps in mind a few basic issues
Set things in motion within the students minds before the actual impact with a text Make sure apprehension comes before comprehension Trigger multidimensional representation  Favour self language discovery Make language discovery follow deep text experience
References   The whole unit of material – complete with teacher’s notes and rationale can be found at  http://unusuallesson.blogspot.com   McGrath, I. (2002)  Materials Evaluation and Design for Language Teaching . Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.  Tomlinson, B. (ed) (1998)  Materials Development in Language Teaching . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Tomlinson, B. (ed) (2002)  Developing Materials for Language Teaching . London: Continuum .

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An Unusual Lesson

  • 1. An Unusual Lesson Maria Teresa Ciaffaroni [email_address] TESOL - Italy’s XXXII National Convention Nov 30 – Dec 1, 2007 PRIMARY ISSUES
  • 2. Needs Combine language and content Tackle relevant and catching content Enhance motivation Practice integrated skills Experience the target language at a deeper and, hopefully, more interesting level Develop higher level cognitive skills
  • 3. Aims To introduce different genres and types of texts To enhance extensive reading skills To practice speaking in a meaningful context To increase passive and active vocabulary To develop high level cognitive skills To foster co-operation and autonomous learning
  • 4. Get in the mood! You are going to listen to a story. To get ready for it you need to go back in time. Relax and try to visualize the following: What “Fairyland” meant to you when you were a child. What it was like. How you felt about it. 2. Look at the book cover the story is taken from. Does it match your “Fairyland” in any way? Compare ideas with a partner .
  • 5.  
  • 6. Listening! Listen to the first part of the story and try to picture as many details as you can in your mind. Write down the riddle your teacher is going to dictate then try to solve it. Imagine a working place for the people you have just heard about. Listen to a new passage from the story and check if you were right. Draw a few details to illustrate the scene you have just heard about. Show your drawing to other students
  • 7. Some more listening! Look at the signs below. What are they about? How can you tell? Jograffy! Jograffy! Jograffy! For today only all major land masses and oceans PLUS everything you need to kno about glassiers. One penny or All Major Vegetables accepted
  • 8. Now listen to the rest of the story The Wonders of punctuation and Spelling Absolute Certainty about the Comma I before E completely Sorted Out The mystery of the Semi-Colon Revealed See the Impersonal (Small extra charge) Fun with Brackets Will accept vegetables, eggs and clean used clothing
  • 9. Read and Check! In the story there are quite a few unusual facts How many do you remember? Complete the table below then check with a partner. Any other unusual facts How they get paid Who they offer their services to Where they do it What they do What people look like
  • 10. Prepare a notice for the history teacher. Try to make it as persuasive as possible. Show your notice to a partner Draw a picture of Jenny-Green-Teeth for the “Strange creatures” teacher you weren’t able to meet. Also prepare a short note to explain when and where you saw the monster. Ask the teacher what you want to know about Jenny. Compare both your note and picture with a partner.
  • 11. What do you think the last sign means? Share ideas with a partner. I can teach you a lesson You won't forget in a hurry !
  • 12. Read and think ! In small groups choose one of the following statements from the story. What do you think it means? Compare ideas in the group. Report to the other groups. They sold what anyone needed but often didn’t want. They sold the key to the universe to people who didn’t even know it was locked. They taught children enough to shut them up, which was the main thing after all. She says it's thinking, but I don't know how you teach that. The Death of Kings through the Ages. Quite a lot of educational blood.
  • 13. In small groups find out ideas the story conveys about the following. Compare your findings with some other group. education teachers students teaching and learning Have you ever had a lesson you didn’t forget in a hurry? When did it happen? Who gave it to you? Share your experience with a partner.
  • 14. Find out and try it off! Go through the story again and find as many examples as possible for the following: Descriptions of people Descriptions of places Other kinds of descriptions Do you make description in the same way in everyday language? Why/ why not? Compare ideas with a partner. Think about one of your former teachers. What did (s)he look like? What did (s)he use to wear?
  • 15. The rest of the UM
  • 16. SLA principles Affective engagement principle i+1 principle Readiness to acquire Language awareness
  • 17. Affective engagement Language acquisition is more likely to occur if learners are effectively engaged in the learning process have a positive attitude towards the target language, the teachers, the materials and the activities feel relaxed, confident and successful are able to respond to the target language not only cognitively but also emotionally, as a whole person
  • 18. Readiness to acquire Learners only learn what they are ready to learn Different learners are rarely ready to learn a particular language point at the same time Input materials, language points, tasks and activities need to be as challenging and as varied as possible
  • 19. i+1 principle Selection of input is particularly relevant for language acquisition “ I” stands for comprehensible input and represents what the leaner has already learnt while “ 1” what the learner has to learn and may be ready to learn.
  • 20. Language awareness If students discover language points on their own after a pleasant, multidimensional experience of a text language points are acquired more easily and retained longer
  • 21. Text based approach 6 different stages, related to well known SLA principles Readiness activities Experiential activities Intake response activities Development activities Input response activities
  • 22. Readiness activities Literary texts are likely to achieve a deep impact and favour a multidimensional response Before reading or listening to a text students need to get mentally ready to experience it It is important to set activities to help students achieve mental readiness for experiencing the text and connect it to their lives
  • 23. While listening/reading activities which help students to process a text experientially before understanding it linguistically For a text to have a deep impact on students they need to experience it in a multidimensional way, that is using as many sensory channels as possible Apprehension – a global experience of the deep meaning of a text - before comprehension Experiential activities
  • 24. Intake response activities Activities which are meant to help students use their representation of a text for language production After experiencing a text in a multidimensional way students are ready to reflect on their experience, articulate it a nd share it
  • 25. Development activities Activities meant to lead to meaningful language production based upon student experience of text They requires students to go back to the text before producing something new They’re based both on the text experience and comprehension
  • 26. Input response activities Language focused activities meant to make self discoveries on language patterns and regularities Tasks are meant to help students make hypotheses on how language work and try them on Tasks aim at long lasting pattern acquisition and development of critical thinking
  • 27. Development activities Activities with same focus as stage 4. The broad topic is the same but is tackled with different types of texts Provide opportunities for meaningful language production interact meaningfully expand ideas, foster critical thinking Recycle language points and/or vocabulary
  • 28. Conclusions The framework can be used to develop materials using different types of texts as a starting point, actually any text which one finds interesting or appealing or moving or what not…provided one keeps in mind a few basic issues
  • 29. Set things in motion within the students minds before the actual impact with a text Make sure apprehension comes before comprehension Trigger multidimensional representation Favour self language discovery Make language discovery follow deep text experience
  • 30. References The whole unit of material – complete with teacher’s notes and rationale can be found at http://unusuallesson.blogspot.com McGrath, I. (2002) Materials Evaluation and Design for Language Teaching . Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Tomlinson, B. (ed) (1998) Materials Development in Language Teaching . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Tomlinson, B. (ed) (2002) Developing Materials for Language Teaching . London: Continuum .