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An Investigation of Learning-Oriented Assessment (LOA) in Higher Education: A Case
Study of GFP Instructors at the University of Buraimi
Done By: Asma Al Azzani
Outline
During this presentation, I will discuss:
1
• Research Problem Statement
2
• Purpose of the Study
3
• Research Questions
4
• Literature Review
5
• Research Methodology: Instrumentation, Data Collection and Analysis
6
• Study Findings
7
• Research Implications for Practice
8 • Research Recommendations
9 •
Research Limitations
Research Problem Statement
•
Abasaid and Ferreira (2022) and Al Azzani (2021) stated that although there are many attempts to reform
higher education in terms of quality and quantity either in Oman or the Arab Gulf region to graduate learners
with knowledge and skills needed in private and public sectors, graduate learners show poor academic and
professional performances. According to them (2022), students lack knowledge and soft skills, such as critical
thinking skills and problem-solving strategies. Ali (2013) stated that assessment in higher education is vital as it
provides information about students' learning, students' progress, teaching quality, and the accountability of a
program and institution. Farhady (2021) mentioned that the reformation of education in the 80s and 90s was
shifted from learning as a product to learning as a process. On the other hand, testing was shifted from
students measuring language products as an outcome of learning, into an assessment that assesses students'
involvement in the process of learning. It was shifted into an assessment that assesses students' ability to apply
what they have learned in real-world situations. There are different types of assessment and the difference
between them and Learning-Oriented Assessment (LOA) is that other types of assessment focus on the process
and the outcome of learning greatly while learning-oriented assessment emphasizes connecting learning and
assessment to inform learning and instruction together. Therefore, the motivation of the current study is to
investigate the University of Buraimi GFP instructors' knowledge and practices to apply Learning-Oriented
Assessment (LOA) as the only assessment that combines learning with assessment.
Research Problem Statement
Purpose of the Study
This research aims to investigate the University of Buraimi General
Foundation Program (GFP) instructors' knowledge and practices of
applying Learning-Oriented Assessment (LOA).
Research Questions
This research aims to answer three questions:
What is the University of Buraimi GFP instructors' knowledge of LOA?
Question One
• What are the University of Buraimi GFP instructors' practices of
applying Learning-Oriented Assessment principles: learning-
oriented assessment tasks, learners' involvement in assessment
processes, and learners' involvement in feedback and feedforward?
Question Two
•
Which principle of LOA is more applied by GFP instructors at the
University of Buraimi than the rest of the LOA principles?
Question Three
Literature Review
Research Methodology
Instrumentation, Data Collection and Analysis
• Teachers' Learning-Oriented Assessment Questionnaire (TLOAQ) was used.
Data Collection
• Getting the ethical approval of the research conduction
• Explaining the study purpose to the participants and informing them of their
responses' confidentiality and anonymity
• Getting participants' participation consent
• Distributing the research’s soft questionnaire to the Omani GFP teachers by
emails
• Analysing the participants’ responses and finding the results
Instrumentation
• SPSS software (version23)
• Descriptive statistics
Analysis
Study Findings
• Results show that GFP instructors have knowledge in identifying the skills to
be assessed when they design tasks and recognizing the role of talk-in-
interaction in structuring and mediating learning more than the rest of the
investigated aspects.
Question One
What is the University of Buraimi GFP
instructors' knowledge of LOA?
• Results further show that the University of Buraimi GFP instructors' practices
of designing real-world tasks that are aligned with the course's learning
outcomes, students' involvement in the assessment process by explaining
rubrics criteria, and learners' involvement in feedback and feedforward by
offering feedback that is linked to the purpose of the assignment and
specific criteria are higher than the other aspects of the LOA principles.
Question Two
What are the University of Buraimi GFP
instructors' practices of applying Learning-
Oriented Assessment principles?
•
Results show that the principle of learners' involvement in assessment
processes is more applied by GFP instructors than learners' involvement in
feedback and feedforward and the learning-oriented assessment tasks
inclusion principles respectively.
Question Three
Which principle of LOA is more applied by
GFP instructors at the University of
Buraimi than the rest of the principles?
• GFP instructors of the University of Buraimi have the general knowledge of assessment that activates the measurement function, not the measurement and
learning ones together. They have the knowledge of psychometric assessment, the assessment which focuses on the product of learning, more than the
edumetric assessment, a kind of assessment that focuses on the process of learning.
Implication 1
• GFP instructors apply the assessment tasks that their purpose is to provide evidence of student's performance, not to provide learning and evidence of their
performance at the same time. They focus on assessment tasks that contain measurement-oriented aspects, not learning-oriented aspects.
Implication 2
•
The assessment practices by GFP instructors are for certification, not for certification and learning together. Their practices focus on measuring performance,
not developing evaluative capacity. GFP instructors practice the psychometric process of assessment, not the edumetric one. Their practices emphasize the
product of learning, not the process one. They follow the teacher-centered method, not the student-centered one.
Implication 3
• GFP instructors' practices of assessment are directed to provide evidence of student's performance. However, they do not activate the actionable feedback.
They could assess students' work, but they do not concentrate on timely and forward-looking feedback to help students reaching the targeted expectations
of a course.
Implication 4
•
GFP instructors try to involve students in the learning process and develop their self-directed skills. However, they do not give them an opportunity to
practice the reflective practice. They do not help them to criticize a situation, think of it , or to
act.
Implication 5
Implications for Practice
Research Recommendation
•
This research study recommends all curriculum designers to design books
applying learning-oriented assessment. Tasks could be designed in a way that
enhances learners to achieve a specific outcome gradually. Tasks should
activate project-based learning. They should also enhance the evaluative
capacity of learners. Furthermore, professional development programs
should raise the awareness of such type of assessment. Teachers have to
know learning-oriented assessment principles and enhance their practices of
them. Therefore, students' competencies could be improved, and the job
market requirements could be met.
Recommendation
Limitations
What are the factors that hinder teachers of applying student centered
approach?
What are factors that prevent teachers of applying timely and forward-looking
feedback to help students reaching the targeted expectations of a course?
References
• Abasaid, M., & Ferreira, M. P. (2022). Perception and knowledge of critical thinking: A qualitative research study
with Professors of Higher Education in Oman. Journal of Educational Studies and Multidisciplinary
Approaches, 2(2).
• Al Azzani, A. (2021). An investigation of autonomous learning self-efficacy: A case study of GFP learners at the
University of Buraimi. Ahwaz Journal of Linguistics Studies (AJLS),2(4), 1.
• Ali, H. I. H. (2013). In search for implementing learning-oriented assessment in an EFL setting. World Journal of
English Language, 3(4), 11.
• Farhady, H. (2021). Learning-oriented assessment in virtual classroom contexts. Journal of Language and
Communication (JLC), 8(2), 121-132.
Thank You!

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An Investigation of Learning-Oriented Assessment (LOA) in Higher Education: A Case Study of GFP Instructors at the University of Buraimi

  • 1. An Investigation of Learning-Oriented Assessment (LOA) in Higher Education: A Case Study of GFP Instructors at the University of Buraimi Done By: Asma Al Azzani
  • 2. Outline During this presentation, I will discuss: 1 • Research Problem Statement 2 • Purpose of the Study 3 • Research Questions 4 • Literature Review 5 • Research Methodology: Instrumentation, Data Collection and Analysis 6 • Study Findings 7 • Research Implications for Practice 8 • Research Recommendations 9 • Research Limitations
  • 3. Research Problem Statement • Abasaid and Ferreira (2022) and Al Azzani (2021) stated that although there are many attempts to reform higher education in terms of quality and quantity either in Oman or the Arab Gulf region to graduate learners with knowledge and skills needed in private and public sectors, graduate learners show poor academic and professional performances. According to them (2022), students lack knowledge and soft skills, such as critical thinking skills and problem-solving strategies. Ali (2013) stated that assessment in higher education is vital as it provides information about students' learning, students' progress, teaching quality, and the accountability of a program and institution. Farhady (2021) mentioned that the reformation of education in the 80s and 90s was shifted from learning as a product to learning as a process. On the other hand, testing was shifted from students measuring language products as an outcome of learning, into an assessment that assesses students' involvement in the process of learning. It was shifted into an assessment that assesses students' ability to apply what they have learned in real-world situations. There are different types of assessment and the difference between them and Learning-Oriented Assessment (LOA) is that other types of assessment focus on the process and the outcome of learning greatly while learning-oriented assessment emphasizes connecting learning and assessment to inform learning and instruction together. Therefore, the motivation of the current study is to investigate the University of Buraimi GFP instructors' knowledge and practices to apply Learning-Oriented Assessment (LOA) as the only assessment that combines learning with assessment. Research Problem Statement
  • 4. Purpose of the Study This research aims to investigate the University of Buraimi General Foundation Program (GFP) instructors' knowledge and practices of applying Learning-Oriented Assessment (LOA).
  • 5. Research Questions This research aims to answer three questions: What is the University of Buraimi GFP instructors' knowledge of LOA? Question One • What are the University of Buraimi GFP instructors' practices of applying Learning-Oriented Assessment principles: learning- oriented assessment tasks, learners' involvement in assessment processes, and learners' involvement in feedback and feedforward? Question Two • Which principle of LOA is more applied by GFP instructors at the University of Buraimi than the rest of the LOA principles? Question Three
  • 7. Research Methodology Instrumentation, Data Collection and Analysis • Teachers' Learning-Oriented Assessment Questionnaire (TLOAQ) was used. Data Collection • Getting the ethical approval of the research conduction • Explaining the study purpose to the participants and informing them of their responses' confidentiality and anonymity • Getting participants' participation consent • Distributing the research’s soft questionnaire to the Omani GFP teachers by emails • Analysing the participants’ responses and finding the results Instrumentation • SPSS software (version23) • Descriptive statistics Analysis
  • 8. Study Findings • Results show that GFP instructors have knowledge in identifying the skills to be assessed when they design tasks and recognizing the role of talk-in- interaction in structuring and mediating learning more than the rest of the investigated aspects. Question One What is the University of Buraimi GFP instructors' knowledge of LOA? • Results further show that the University of Buraimi GFP instructors' practices of designing real-world tasks that are aligned with the course's learning outcomes, students' involvement in the assessment process by explaining rubrics criteria, and learners' involvement in feedback and feedforward by offering feedback that is linked to the purpose of the assignment and specific criteria are higher than the other aspects of the LOA principles. Question Two What are the University of Buraimi GFP instructors' practices of applying Learning- Oriented Assessment principles? • Results show that the principle of learners' involvement in assessment processes is more applied by GFP instructors than learners' involvement in feedback and feedforward and the learning-oriented assessment tasks inclusion principles respectively. Question Three Which principle of LOA is more applied by GFP instructors at the University of Buraimi than the rest of the principles?
  • 9. • GFP instructors of the University of Buraimi have the general knowledge of assessment that activates the measurement function, not the measurement and learning ones together. They have the knowledge of psychometric assessment, the assessment which focuses on the product of learning, more than the edumetric assessment, a kind of assessment that focuses on the process of learning. Implication 1 • GFP instructors apply the assessment tasks that their purpose is to provide evidence of student's performance, not to provide learning and evidence of their performance at the same time. They focus on assessment tasks that contain measurement-oriented aspects, not learning-oriented aspects. Implication 2 • The assessment practices by GFP instructors are for certification, not for certification and learning together. Their practices focus on measuring performance, not developing evaluative capacity. GFP instructors practice the psychometric process of assessment, not the edumetric one. Their practices emphasize the product of learning, not the process one. They follow the teacher-centered method, not the student-centered one. Implication 3 • GFP instructors' practices of assessment are directed to provide evidence of student's performance. However, they do not activate the actionable feedback. They could assess students' work, but they do not concentrate on timely and forward-looking feedback to help students reaching the targeted expectations of a course. Implication 4 • GFP instructors try to involve students in the learning process and develop their self-directed skills. However, they do not give them an opportunity to practice the reflective practice. They do not help them to criticize a situation, think of it , or to act. Implication 5 Implications for Practice
  • 10. Research Recommendation • This research study recommends all curriculum designers to design books applying learning-oriented assessment. Tasks could be designed in a way that enhances learners to achieve a specific outcome gradually. Tasks should activate project-based learning. They should also enhance the evaluative capacity of learners. Furthermore, professional development programs should raise the awareness of such type of assessment. Teachers have to know learning-oriented assessment principles and enhance their practices of them. Therefore, students' competencies could be improved, and the job market requirements could be met. Recommendation
  • 11. Limitations What are the factors that hinder teachers of applying student centered approach? What are factors that prevent teachers of applying timely and forward-looking feedback to help students reaching the targeted expectations of a course?
  • 12. References • Abasaid, M., & Ferreira, M. P. (2022). Perception and knowledge of critical thinking: A qualitative research study with Professors of Higher Education in Oman. Journal of Educational Studies and Multidisciplinary Approaches, 2(2). • Al Azzani, A. (2021). An investigation of autonomous learning self-efficacy: A case study of GFP learners at the University of Buraimi. Ahwaz Journal of Linguistics Studies (AJLS),2(4), 1. • Ali, H. I. H. (2013). In search for implementing learning-oriented assessment in an EFL setting. World Journal of English Language, 3(4), 11. • Farhady, H. (2021). Learning-oriented assessment in virtual classroom contexts. Journal of Language and Communication (JLC), 8(2), 121-132.