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Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                                        An informal introduction to


      The Brazilian Science
            System


                                               Roberto Kraenkel
kraenkel@ift.unesp.br
                                                 IFT-UNESP
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


 Generalities about the Country
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


 Generalities about the Country
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


 Generalities about the Country
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


 Generalities about the Country
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


 Generalities about the Country

     Population: 190.000.000
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


 Generalities about the Country

     Population: 190.000.000
     Area: 8.514.876,599 km2
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


 Generalities about the Country

     Population: 190.000.000
     Area: 8.514.876,599 km2
         Capital: Brasília
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


   Generalities about the Country

     Population: 190.000.000
     Area: 8.514.876,599 km2
          Capital: Brasília
Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


   Generalities about the Country

     Population: 190.000.000
     Area: 8.514.876,599 km2
          Capital: Brasília
Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000)
  GDP (PPP):US$ 1,9 trillion (8th)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


   Generalities about the Country

     Population: 190.000.000
     Area: 8.514.876,599 km2
          Capital: Brasília
Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000)
  GDP (PPP):US$ 1,9 trillion (8th)
 GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 10.000
                (64th)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


   Generalities about the Country

     Population: 190.000.000
     Area: 8.514.876,599 km2
          Capital: Brasília
Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000)
  GDP (PPP):US$ 1,9 trillion (8th)
 GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 10.000
                (64th)
        Currency: Real (R$)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


   Generalities about the Country

     Population: 190.000.000
     Area: 8.514.876,599 km2
          Capital: Brasília
Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000)
  GDP (PPP):US$ 1,9 trillion (8th)
 GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 10.000
                (64th)
        Currency: Real (R$)
       Language: Portuguese
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


   Generalities about the Country

     Population: 190.000.000
     Area: 8.514.876,599 km2
          Capital: Brasília
Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000)
  GDP (PPP):US$ 1,9 trillion (8th)
 GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 10.000
                (64th)
        Currency: Real (R$)
       Language: Portuguese

           Independency: 1822
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


   Generalities about the Country

     Population: 190.000.000
     Area: 8.514.876,599 km2
          Capital: Brasília
Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000)
  GDP (PPP):US$ 1,9 trillion (8th)
 GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 10.000
                (64th)
        Currency: Real (R$)
       Language: Portuguese

           Independency: 1822
             Republic: 1889
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


   Generalities about the Country

     Population: 190.000.000
     Area: 8.514.876,599 km2
          Capital: Brasília
Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000)
  GDP (PPP):US$ 1,9 trillion (8th)
 GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 10.000
                (64th)
        Currency: Real (R$)
       Language: Portuguese

         Independency: 1822
           Republic: 1889
      Present Constitution: 1988
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


 Generalities about the Country
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




Timeline of scientific institutions
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




Timeline of scientific institutions
          with some bias towards physics and math...
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




Timeline of scientific institutions
          with some bias towards physics and math...
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




               Timeline of scientific institutions
                         with some bias towards physics and math...


1887




Agronomical
Institute in
 Campinas
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                     Timeline of scientific institutions
                                    with some bias towards physics and math...


1887     1893




Agronomical
Institute in
 Campinas




  Polytechnic Institute/SP (later
      incorporated by USP)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                     Timeline of scientific institutions
                                    with some bias towards physics and math...


1887     1893      1901




Agronomical    Butantan Institute
Institute in
 Campinas




  Polytechnic Institute/SP (later
      incorporated by USP)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                     Timeline of scientific institutions
                                    with some bias towards physics and math...


1887     1893      1901       1908




                           Oswaldo Cruz
                             Institute


Agronomical    Butantan Institute
Institute in
 Campinas




  Polytechnic Institute/SP (later
      incorporated by USP)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                     Timeline of scientific institutions
                                    with some bias towards physics and math...


1887     1893      1901       1908 1912




                           Oswaldo Cruz
                             Institute


Agronomical    Butantan Institute
Institute in
 Campinas

                             School of Medicine/SP ( later
                                incorporated by USP)


  Polytechnic Institute/SP (later
      incorporated by USP)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                     Timeline of scientific institutions
                                    with some bias towards physics and math...


1887     1893      1901       1908 1912          1916




                           Oswaldo Cruz
                             Institute

                                            Academy of Sciences
Agronomical    Butantan Institute
Institute in
 Campinas

                             School of Medicine/SP ( later
                                incorporated by USP)


  Polytechnic Institute/SP (later
      incorporated by USP)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                     Timeline of scientific institutions
                                    with some bias towards physics and math...


1887     1893      1901       1908 1912          1916        1920




                           Oswaldo Cruz
                             Institute

                                            Academy of Sciences
Agronomical    Butantan Institute
Institute in
 Campinas

                             School of Medicine/SP ( later
                                incorporated by USP)


  Polytechnic Institute/SP (later
      incorporated by USP)                University of Brazil (now Fed. Univ. Rio de Janeiro)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                     Timeline of scientific institutions
                                    with some bias towards physics and math...


1887     1893      1901       1908 1912          1916        1920         1927




                           Oswaldo Cruz
                             Institute

                                            Academy of Sciences     Biological Institute/SP
Agronomical    Butantan Institute
Institute in
 Campinas

                             School of Medicine/SP ( later
                                incorporated by USP)


  Polytechnic Institute/SP (later
      incorporated by USP)                University of Brazil (now Fed. Univ. Rio de Janeiro)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                     Timeline of scientific institutions
                                    with some bias towards physics and math...


1887     1893      1901       1908 1912          1916        1920         1927          1934




                           Oswaldo Cruz
                             Institute

                                            Academy of Sciences     Biological Institute/SP
Agronomical    Butantan Institute
Institute in
 Campinas

                             School of Medicine/SP ( later
                                                                           University of São Paulo USP
                                incorporated by USP)


  Polytechnic Institute/SP (later
      incorporated by USP)                University of Brazil (now Fed. Univ. Rio de Janeiro)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                     Timeline of scientific institutions
                                    with some bias towards physics and math...


1887     1893      1901       1908 1912          1916        1920         1927          1934         1946




                           Oswaldo Cruz
                             Institute

                                            Academy of Sciences     Biological Institute/SP
Agronomical    Butantan Institute
Institute in
 Campinas

                             School of Medicine/SP ( later
                                                                           University of São Paulo USP
                                incorporated by USP)


  Polytechnic Institute/SP (later
      incorporated by USP)                University of Brazil (now Fed. Univ. Rio de Janeiro)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                     Timeline of scientific institutions
                                    with some bias towards physics and math...


1887     1893      1901       1908 1912          1916        1920         1927          1934          1946




                           Oswaldo Cruz
                             Institute
                                                                                                  Society for
                                            Academy of Sciences     Biological Institute/SP           the
Agronomical    Butantan Institute
                                                                                                 Advancement
Institute in                                                                                      of Science
 Campinas

                             School of Medicine/SP ( later
                                                                           University of São Paulo USP
                                incorporated by USP)


  Polytechnic Institute/SP (later
      incorporated by USP)                University of Brazil (now Fed. Univ. Rio de Janeiro)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                     Timeline of scientific institutions
                                    with some bias towards physics and math...


1887     1893      1901       1908 1912          1916        1920         1927          1934           1946




                           Oswaldo Cruz
                             Institute
                                                                                                   Society for
                                            Academy of Sciences     Biological Institute/SP            the
Agronomical    Butantan Institute
                                                                                                  Advancement
Institute in                                                                                       of Science
 Campinas

                             School of Medicine/SP ( later
                                                                           University of São Paulo USP
                                incorporated by USP)

                                                                                              Univ. Pernambuco
  Polytechnic Institute/SP (later
      incorporated by USP)                University of Brazil (now Fed. Univ. Rio de Janeiro)
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




Timeline of scientific institutions
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949




  Brazilian
 Center for
Physics (Rio)
   CBPF
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951




  Brazilian
 Center for
Physics (Rio)
   CBPF
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951




  Brazilian
 Center for
Physics (Rio)
   CBPF
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951




  Brazilian
 Center for
Physics (Rio)
   CBPF




     National Research
      Council - CNPq
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951




                  CAPES
  Brazilian      Graduate
 Center for       Studies
Physics (Rio)     Agency
   CBPF




     National Research
      Council - CNPq
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951                 1952




                  CAPES
  Brazilian      Graduate
 Center for       Studies
Physics (Rio)     Agency
   CBPF




     National Research
      Council - CNPq
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951                 1952




                  CAPES
  Brazilian      Graduate
 Center for       Studies
Physics (Rio)     Agency
   CBPF




     National Research
      Council - CNPq
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951                   1952




                  CAPES
  Brazilian      Graduate
 Center for       Studies
Physics (Rio)     Agency
   CBPF
                          Institute for
                           Theoretical
                         Physics SP (IFT)




     National Research
      Council - CNPq
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951                   1952




                  CAPES
  Brazilian      Graduate
 Center for       Studies
Physics (Rio)     Agency
   CBPF
                          Institute for
                           Theoretical
                         Physics SP (IFT)

                              Institute for Pure and
                             Applied Math (Rio) IMPA

     National Research
      Council - CNPq
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951                   1952




                                              Institute for
                  CAPES                        Amazonian
  Brazilian      Graduate                   Studies (Manaus)
 Center for       Studies                         INPA
Physics (Rio)     Agency
   CBPF
                          Institute for
                           Theoretical
                         Physics SP (IFT)

                              Institute for Pure and
                             Applied Math (Rio) IMPA

     National Research
      Council - CNPq
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951                   1952          1955




                                              Institute for
                  CAPES                        Amazonian
  Brazilian      Graduate                   Studies (Manaus)
 Center for       Studies                         INPA
Physics (Rio)     Agency
   CBPF
                          Institute for
                           Theoretical
                         Physics SP (IFT)

                              Institute for Pure and
                             Applied Math (Rio) IMPA

     National Research
      Council - CNPq
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951                   1952          1955




                                              Institute for
                  CAPES                        Amazonian
  Brazilian      Graduate                   Studies (Manaus)
 Center for       Studies                         INPA
Physics (Rio)     Agency
   CBPF
                          Institute for             Cenpes -
                           Theoretical             Petroleum
                         Physics SP (IFT)         Institute of
                                                   Petrobras
                              Institute for Pure and
                             Applied Math (Rio) IMPA

     National Research
      Council - CNPq
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951                   1952          1955 1956




                                              Institute for
                  CAPES                        Amazonian
  Brazilian      Graduate                   Studies (Manaus)
 Center for       Studies                         INPA
Physics (Rio)     Agency
   CBPF
                          Institute for             Cenpes -
                           Theoretical             Petroleum
                         Physics SP (IFT)         Institute of
                                                   Petrobras
                              Institute for Pure and
                             Applied Math (Rio) IMPA

     National Research                           Comission for Nuclear
      Council - CNPq                                Energy CNEN
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951                   1952          1955 1956       1961



                                                                    Space and
                                              Institute for        Atmosphere
                  CAPES                        Amazonian         Institute INPE
                 Graduate                   Studies (Manaus)      ( São José dos
  Brazilian
                  Studies                         INPA               Campos)
 Center for
Physics (Rio)     Agency
   CBPF
                          Institute for             Cenpes -
                           Theoretical             Petroleum
                         Physics SP (IFT)         Institute of
                                                   Petrobras
                              Institute for Pure and
                             Applied Math (Rio) IMPA

     National Research                           Comission for Nuclear
      Council - CNPq                                Energy CNEN
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951                   1952          1955 1956       1961      1962



                                                                    Space and
                                              Institute for        Atmosphere
                  CAPES                        Amazonian         Institute INPE
                 Graduate                   Studies (Manaus)      ( São José dos
  Brazilian
                  Studies                         INPA               Campos)
 Center for
Physics (Rio)     Agency
   CBPF
                          Institute for             Cenpes -
                           Theoretical             Petroleum
                         Physics SP (IFT)                                 Science Funding
                                                  Institute of
                                                                         Agency of the State
                                                   Petrobras
                                                                           of São Paulo -
                              Institute for Pure and
                                                                              FAPESP
                             Applied Math (Rio) IMPA

     National Research                           Comission for Nuclear
      Council - CNPq                                Energy CNEN
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951                   1952          1955 1956       1961      1962      1966



                                                                    Space and
                                              Institute for        Atmosphere
                  CAPES                        Amazonian         Institute INPE
                 Graduate                   Studies (Manaus)      ( São José dos
  Brazilian                                                                            Campinas
                  Studies                         INPA               Campos)
 Center for                                                                            University
Physics (Rio)     Agency
                                                                                       Unicamp
   CBPF
                          Institute for             Cenpes -
                           Theoretical             Petroleum
                         Physics SP (IFT)                                 Science Funding
                                                  Institute of
                                                                         Agency of the State
                                                   Petrobras
                                                                           of São Paulo -
                              Institute for Pure and
                                                                              FAPESP
                             Applied Math (Rio) IMPA

     National Research                           Comission for Nuclear
      Council - CNPq                                Energy CNEN
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       Timeline of scientific institutions


 1949           1951                   1952          1955 1956       1961      1962      1966       1967



                                                                    Space and
                                              Institute for        Atmosphere
                  CAPES                        Amazonian         Institute INPE
                 Graduate                   Studies (Manaus)      ( São José dos
  Brazilian                                                                            Campinas
                  Studies                         INPA               Campos)
 Center for                                                                            University
Physics (Rio)     Agency
                                                                                       Unicamp
   CBPF
                          Institute for             Cenpes -
                           Theoretical             Petroleum
                         Physics SP (IFT)                                 Science Funding
                                                  Institute of
                                                                         Agency of the State
                                                   Petrobras
                                                                           of São Paulo -
                              Institute for Pure and                                            FINEP Long-
                                                                              FAPESP
                             Applied Math (Rio) IMPA                                            term projects,
                                                                                                 now mainly
     National Research                           Comission for Nuclear                             turned to
      Council - CNPq                                Energy CNEN                                   innovation
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




Timeline of scientific institutions
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                   Timeline of scientific institutions


  1973




  EMBRAPA .
Federal Research
  Institute for
   Agriculture
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                     Timeline of scientific institutions


  1973             1980




  EMBRAPA .
Federal Research
  Institute for
   Agriculture
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                     Timeline of scientific institutions


  1973             1980




  EMBRAPA .
Federal Research
  Institute for
   Agriculture
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                     Timeline of scientific institutions


  1973             1980




            Scientific
           Computing
         Institute LNCC




  EMBRAPA .
Federal Research
  Institute for
   Agriculture
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                      Timeline of scientific institutions


  1973             1980




            Scientific
           Computing
         Institute LNCC

                      FAPERJ -
                   Science Funding
                   Agency of Rio de
                       Janeiro

  EMBRAPA .
Federal Research
  Institute for
   Agriculture
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                      Timeline of scientific institutions


  1973             1980         1985




            Scientific
           Computing
         Institute LNCC

                      FAPERJ -
                   Science Funding
                   Agency of Rio de
                       Janeiro

  EMBRAPA .
Federal Research
  Institute for
                    Ministry of Science and Technology
   Agriculture
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                      Timeline of scientific institutions


  1973             1980         1985      1986




            Scientific
           Computing
         Institute LNCC                  FAPEMIG
                                      Science Funding
                      FAPERJ -        Agency of Minas
                   Science Funding
                   Agency of Rio de
                       Janeiro

  EMBRAPA .
Federal Research
  Institute for
                    Ministry of Science and Technology
   Agriculture
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                      Timeline of scientific institutions


  1973             1980         1985      1986       1991




            Scientific
           Computing
         Institute LNCC                  FAPEMIG
                                      Science Funding
                      FAPERJ -        Agency of Minas
                   Science Funding
                   Agency of Rio de
                       Janeiro
                                              FACEPE- Science
                                             Funding Agency of
  EMBRAPA .
                                                Pernambuco
Federal Research
  Institute for
                    Ministry of Science and Technology
   Agriculture
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                      Timeline of scientific institutions


  1973             1980         1985      1986       1991    1997




            Scientific
           Computing
         Institute LNCC                  FAPEMIG
                                                           Syncrotron
                                      Science Funding
                                                         Facility - LNLS
                      FAPERJ -        Agency of Minas
                   Science Funding
                   Agency of Rio de
                       Janeiro
                                              FACEPE- Science
                                             Funding Agency of
  EMBRAPA .
                                                Pernambuco
Federal Research
  Institute for
                    Ministry of Science and Technology
   Agriculture
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                      Timeline of scientific institutions


  1973             1980         1985      1986       1991    1997      1999




            Scientific
           Computing
         Institute LNCC                  FAPEMIG
                                                           Syncrotron
                                      Science Funding
                                                         Facility - LNLS
                      FAPERJ -        Agency of Minas
                   Science Funding
                   Agency of Rio de
                       Janeiro
                                              FACEPE- Science
                                             Funding Agency of
  EMBRAPA .
                                                Pernambuco
Federal Research
  Institute for                                                        “Fundos
                    Ministry of Science and Technology
   Agriculture                                                        Setoriais”
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                      Timeline of scientific institutions


  1973             1980         1985      1986       1991    1997      1999        2005




            Scientific
           Computing
         Institute LNCC                  FAPEMIG                                UFABC
                                                           Syncrotron
                                      Science Funding                        Technological
                                                         Facility - LNLS
                      FAPERJ -        Agency of Minas                        University in
                   Science Funding                                              the SP
                   Agency of Rio de                                          Metropolitan
                       Janeiro                                                   Area
                                              FACEPE- Science
                                             Funding Agency of
  EMBRAPA .
                                                Pernambuco
Federal Research
  Institute for                                                        “Fundos
                    Ministry of Science and Technology
   Agriculture                                                        Setoriais”
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                      Timeline of scientific institutions


  1973             1980         1985      1986       1991    1997      1999        2005     2006




            Scientific
           Computing
         Institute LNCC                  FAPEMIG                                UFABC
                                                           Syncrotron
                                      Science Funding                        Technological
                                                         Facility - LNLS
                      FAPERJ -        Agency of Minas                        University in
                   Science Funding                                              the SP
                   Agency of Rio de                                          Metropolitan
                       Janeiro                                                   Area
                                              FACEPE- Science
                                             Funding Agency of
  EMBRAPA .
                                                Pernambuco
Federal Research                                                                          10 new federal
  Institute for                                                        “Fundos             Universities
                    Ministry of Science and Technology
   Agriculture                                                        Setoriais”
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                      Timeline of scientific institutions


  1973             1980         1985      1986       1991    1997      1999        2005     2006     2009




            Scientific                                                                               CTBE -
           Computing                                                                                Biotech
         Institute LNCC                  FAPEMIG                                UFABC               Ethanol
                                                           Syncrotron
                                      Science Funding                        Technological         Institute
                                                         Facility - LNLS
                      FAPERJ -        Agency of Minas                        University in             in
                   Science Funding                                              the SP             Campinas
                   Agency of Rio de                                          Metropolitan
                       Janeiro                                                   Area
                                              FACEPE- Science
                                             Funding Agency of
  EMBRAPA .
                                                Pernambuco
Federal Research                                                                          10 new federal
  Institute for                                                        “Fundos             Universities
                    Ministry of Science and Technology
   Agriculture                                                        Setoriais”
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




Where is science produced in Brazil?
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




Where is science produced in Brazil?
                Geographically
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




Where is science produced in Brazil?
                Geographically
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




Where is science produced in Brazil?
                Geographically
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




Where is science produced in Brazil?
                Geographically
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



Where is science produced in Brazil?
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



Where is science produced in Brazil?
                  Institutions
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



   Where is science produced in Brazil?
                      Institutions
Universities
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities
‣Federal Universities
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities
‣Federal Universities
‣State Universities ==>>
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities
‣Federal Universities
‣State Universities ==>>
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná


‣Confessional Universities
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities
‣Federal Universities
‣State Universities ==>>
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná


‣Confessional Universities
PUC’ ==> catholic
Universities
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities
‣Federal Universities
‣State Universities ==>>
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná


‣Confessional Universities
PUC’ ==> catholic
Universities
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities
‣Federal Universities
‣State Universities ==>>
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná


‣Confessional Universities
PUC’ ==> catholic
Universities


‣Private Universities
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities
‣Federal Universities
‣State Universities ==>>
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná


‣Confessional Universities
PUC’ ==> catholic
Universities


‣Private Universities
very few...
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities                                        Research Labs
‣Federal Universities
‣State Universities ==>>
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná


‣Confessional Universities
PUC’ ==> catholic
Universities


‣Private Universities
very few...
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities                                        Research Labs
                                                ‣Institutes related to Science
‣Federal Universities                           Ministry: 20

‣State Universities ==>>
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná


‣Confessional Universities
PUC’ ==> catholic
Universities


‣Private Universities
very few...
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities                                        Research Labs
                                                ‣Institutes related to Science
‣Federal Universities                           Ministry: 20

‣State Universities ==>>                        ‣Agriculture Ministry: EMBRAPA
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná


‣Confessional Universities
PUC’ ==> catholic
Universities


‣Private Universities
very few...
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities                                        Research Labs
                                                ‣Institutes related to Science
‣Federal Universities                           Ministry: 20

‣State Universities ==>>                        ‣Agriculture Ministry: EMBRAPA
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná
                                                ‣Health Ministry: FIOCRUZ


‣Confessional Universities
PUC’ ==> catholic
Universities


‣Private Universities
very few...
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities                                         Research Labs
                                                ‣Institutes related to Science
‣Federal Universities                           Ministry: 20

‣State Universities ==>>                        ‣Agriculture Ministry: EMBRAPA
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná
                                                ‣Health Ministry: FIOCRUZ
                                                ‣State Labs: Butantan, Agronomical
                                                Inst.... ( essentially SP)
‣Confessional Universities
PUC’ ==> catholic
Universities


‣Private Universities
very few...
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities                                         Research Labs
                                                ‣Institutes related to Science
‣Federal Universities                           Ministry: 20

‣State Universities ==>>                        ‣Agriculture Ministry: EMBRAPA
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná
                                                ‣Health Ministry: FIOCRUZ
                                                ‣State Labs: Butantan, Agronomical
                                                Inst.... ( essentially SP)
‣Confessional Universities
PUC’ ==> catholic                               ‣State run enterprises: PETROBRAS
Universities


‣Private Universities
very few...
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities                                         Research Labs
                                                ‣Institutes related to Science
‣Federal Universities                           Ministry: 20

‣State Universities ==>>                        ‣Agriculture Ministry: EMBRAPA
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná
                                                ‣Health Ministry: FIOCRUZ
                                                ‣State Labs: Butantan, Agronomical
                                                Inst.... ( essentially SP)
‣Confessional Universities
PUC’ ==> catholic                               ‣State run enterprises: PETROBRAS
Universities
                                                  The weak link: very few research in
                                                              industry.

‣Private Universities
very few...
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities                                         Research Labs
                                                ‣Institutes related to Science
‣Federal Universities                           Ministry: 20

‣State Universities ==>>                        ‣Agriculture Ministry: EMBRAPA
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná
                                                ‣Health Ministry: FIOCRUZ
                                                ‣State Labs: Butantan, Agronomical
                                                Inst.... ( essentially SP)
‣Confessional Universities
PUC’ ==> catholic                               ‣State run enterprises: PETROBRAS
Universities
                                                  The weak link: very few research in
                                                               industry.
                                                  Recently: biotech star-ups, optics,
‣Private Universities                                           ethanol
very few...
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil



        Where is science produced in Brazil?
                             Institutions
 Universities                                         Research Labs
                                                ‣Institutes related to Science
‣Federal Universities                           Ministry: 20

‣State Universities ==>>                        ‣Agriculture Ministry: EMBRAPA
mainly São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Paraná
                                                ‣Health Ministry: FIOCRUZ
                                                ‣State Labs: Butantan, Agronomical
                                                Inst.... ( essentially SP)
‣Confessional Universities
PUC’ ==> catholic                               ‣State run enterprises: PETROBRAS
Universities
                                                  The weak link: very few research in
                                                               industry.
                                                  Recently: biotech star-ups, optics,
‣Private Universities                                           ethanol
very few...                                              Aerospace industry
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




 How science is funded I
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




 How science is funded I
         Federal Funding
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




            How science is funded I
                    Federal Funding
through
agencies
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




             How science is funded I
                        Federal Funding
            through
through
             labs/
agencies
           Ministries
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




             How science is funded I
                        Federal Funding
            through
through
             labs/
agencies
           Ministries



CNPq
FINEP
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




             How science is funded I
                        Federal Funding
            through
through
             labs/
agencies
           Ministries



CNPq
FINEP

CAPES
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




              How science is funded I
                        Federal Funding
            through
through
             labs/
agencies
           Ministries



CNPq       EMBRAPA
FINEP      FIOCRUZ
             CNEN
CAPES      Institutes
             MCT
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




              How science is funded I
                        Federal Funding
            through
through
agencies
             labs/                CNPq funds projects
           Ministries                in general +
                                      fellowships
CNPq       EMBRAPA
FINEP      FIOCRUZ
             CNEN
CAPES      Institutes
             MCT
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




              How science is funded I
                        Federal Funding
            through
through
agencies
             labs/                CNPq funds projects
           Ministries                in general +
                                      fellowships
CNPq       EMBRAPA
FINEP      FIOCRUZ
                                 FINEP funds large
             CNEN
                             projects in strategic areas
CAPES      Institutes
             MCT
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




              How science is funded I
                        Federal Funding
                                                         basic and applied science
            through
through
agencies
             labs/                CNPq funds projects
           Ministries                in general +
                                      fellowships
CNPq       EMBRAPA
FINEP      FIOCRUZ
                                 FINEP funds large
             CNEN
                             projects in strategic areas
CAPES      Institutes
             MCT
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




              How science is funded I
                        Federal Funding
                                                         basic and applied science
            through
through
agencies
             labs/                CNPq funds projects
           Ministries                in general +
                                      fellowships
CNPq       EMBRAPA
FINEP      FIOCRUZ
                                 FINEP funds large
             CNEN
                             projects in strategic areas
CAPES      Institutes
             MCT                                      innovation,
                                                      technology
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




              How science is funded I
                        Federal Funding
            through
through
             labs/
agencies
           Ministries



CNPq       EMBRAPA
FINEP      FIOCRUZ
             CNEN
CAPES      Institutes
             MCT
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




              How science is funded I
                        Federal Funding
            through
through
agencies
             labs/            CAPES funds graduate
           Ministries
                                   studies through
                              fellowships and money
CNPq       EMBRAPA                for the graduate
FINEP      FIOCRUZ
                             studies coordinations at
             CNEN
           Institutes             the Universities
CAPES
             MCT
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




              How science is funded I
                        Federal Funding         All areas of
            through                             knowledge
through
agencies
             labs/            CAPES funds graduate
           Ministries
                                   studies through
                              fellowships and money
CNPq       EMBRAPA                for the graduate
FINEP      FIOCRUZ
                             studies coordinations at
             CNEN
           Institutes             the Universities
CAPES
             MCT
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




How science is funded II
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




How science is funded II
     Funding from States
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




           How science is funded II
                Funding from States
through
agencies
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




               How science is funded II
                    Funding from States
    through
    agencies




FAPESP in São
 Paulo is the
    most
  important
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




               How science is funded II
                    Funding from States
    through
    agencies
                                  FAPESP funds general
                                     science through
                                 projects by researchers.
FAPESP in São
 Paulo is the
    most
  important
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




               How science is funded II
                    Funding from States
    through
    agencies
                                  FAPESP funds general
                                     science through
                                 projects by researchers.
FAPESP in São                     It also induces strategic
 Paulo is the                     areas and projects ( e.g.
    most                             genoma, ethanol).
  important
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




How science is funded III
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




How science is funded III
Industry/Venture Capital....
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




       How science is funded III
      Industry/Venture Capital....



the weak
  link....
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




       How science is funded III
      Industry/Venture Capital....



the weak
  link....
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




       How science is funded III
      Industry/Venture Capital....

                           Large Enterprises
                             PETROBRAS
the weak
  link....
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




       How science is funded III
      Industry/Venture Capital....

                           Large Enterprises
                             PETROBRAS
the weak
  link....
                            Venture Capital in
                            Small Biotech / SP
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




        CASE I: FAPESP
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




        CASE I: FAPESP
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




        CASE I: FAPESP


                           Science Funding Agency of the
                                 State of São Paulo
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




        CASE I: FAPESP


                           Science Funding Agency of the
                                 State of São Paulo

                               Fosters Science through:
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




        CASE I: FAPESP


                           Science Funding Agency of the
                                 State of São Paulo

                               Fosters Science through:

                          •fellowships
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




        CASE I: FAPESP


                           Science Funding Agency of the
                                 State of São Paulo

                               Fosters Science through:

                          •fellowships
                          •research projects
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




        CASE I: FAPESP

                          Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State
                          Constitution ( 1% of tax income);
                           Science Funding Agency of the
                                 State of São Paulo

                               Fosters Science through:

                          •fellowships
                          •research projects
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




        CASE I: FAPESP

                          Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State
                          Constitution ( 1% of tax income);
                           Science Funding Agency of the
                          Maximum of 5% can be used by with its
                          own administration; São Paulo
                                 State of

                               Fosters Science through:

                          •fellowships
                          •research projects
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




        CASE I: FAPESP

                          Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State
                          Constitution ( 1% of tax income);
                           Science Funding Agency of the
                          Maximum of 5% can be used by with its
                          own administration; São Paulo
                                 State of
                          Board with 12 members with 6 years
                               Fosters Science through:
                          mandate



                          •fellowships
                          •research projects
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




        CASE I: FAPESP

                          Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State
                          Constitution ( 1% of tax income);
                           Science Funding Agency of the
                          Maximum of 5% can be used by with its
                          own administration; São Paulo
                                 State of
                          Board with 12 members with 6 years
                               Fosters Science through:
                          mandate

                          No fellowships or grant is aprooved
                          •fellowships
                          without peer review

                          •research projects
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




        CASE I: FAPESP

                          Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State
                          Constitution ( 1% of tax income);
                           Science Funding Agency of the
                          Maximum of 5% can be used by with its
                          own administration; São Paulo
                                 State of
                          Board with 12 members with 6 years
                               Fosters Science through:
                          mandate

                          No fellowships or grant is aprooved
                          •fellowships
                          without peer review

                          •research projects
                          Thematic committees meet once a weak;
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




        CASE I: FAPESP

                          Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State
                          Constitution ( 1% of tax income);
                           Science Funding Agency of the
                          Maximum of 5% can be used by with its
                          own administration; São Paulo
                                 State of
                          Board with 12 members with 6 years
                               Fosters Science through:
                          mandate

                          No fellowships or grant is aprooved
                          •fellowships
                          without peer review

                          •research projects
                          Thematic committees meet once a weak;

                          Studentships cannot be cumulated with
                          jobs
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                CASE I: FAPESP

                                  Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State
                                  Constitution ( 1% of tax income);
                                   Science Funding Agency of the
                                  Maximum of 5% can be used by with its
Master (24 months) and            own administration; São Paulo
                                         State of
   PhD (48 months)
     fellowships                  Board with 12 members with 6 years
                                       Fosters Science through:
                                  mandate

                                  No fellowships or grant is aprooved
                                  •fellowships
                                  without peer review

                                  •research projects
                                  Thematic committees meet once a weak;

                                  Studentships cannot be cumulated with
                                  jobs
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                CASE I: FAPESP

                                  Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State
                                  Constitution ( 1% of tax income);
                                   Science Funding Agency of the
                                  Maximum of 5% can be used by with its
Master (24 months) and            own administration; São Paulo
                                         State of
   PhD (48 months)
     fellowships                  Board with 12 members with 6 years
   Research grants
                                       Fosters Science through:
                                  mandate

                                  No fellowships or grant is aprooved
                                  •fellowships
                                  without peer review

                                  •research projects
                                  Thematic committees meet once a weak;

                                  Studentships cannot be cumulated with
                                  jobs
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                 CASE I: FAPESP

                                   Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State
                                   Constitution ( 1% of tax income);
                                    Science Funding Agency of the
                                   Maximum of 5% can be used by with its
Master (24 months) and             own administration; São Paulo
                                          State of
   PhD (48 months)
     fellowships                   Board with 12 members with 6 years
    Research grants
                                        Fosters Science through:
                                   mandate

                                   No fellowships or grant is aprooved
Conference Organization
        Funds                      •fellowships
                                   without peer review

                                   •research projects
                                   Thematic committees meet once a weak;

                                   Studentships cannot be cumulated with
                                   jobs
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                 CASE I: FAPESP

                                   Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State
                                   Constitution ( 1% of tax income);
                                    Science Funding Agency of the
                                   Maximum of 5% can be used by with its
Master (24 months) and             own administration; São Paulo
                                          State of
   PhD (48 months)
     fellowships                   Board with 12 members with 6 years
    Research grants
                                        Fosters Science through:
                                   mandate

                                   No fellowships or grant is aprooved
Conference Organization
        Funds                      •fellowships
                                   without peer review


 Invited Professorships
                                   •research projects
                                   Thematic committees meet once a weak;

                                   Studentships cannot be cumulated with
                                   jobs
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                 CASE I: FAPESP

                                   Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State
                                   Constitution ( 1% of tax income);
                                    Science Funding Agency of the
                                   Maximum of 5% can be used by with its
Master (24 months) and             own administration; São Paulo
                                          State of
   PhD (48 months)
     fellowships                   Board with 12 members with 6 years
    Research grants
                                        Fosters Science through:
                                   mandate

                                   No fellowships or grant is aprooved
Conference Organization
        Funds                      •fellowships
                                   without peer review


 Invited Professorships
                                   •research projects
                                   Thematic committees meet once a weak;

                                   Studentships cannot be cumulated with
 Post-Doc fellowships              jobs
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


        CASE II: CAPES
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


        CASE II: CAPES
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


        CASE II: CAPES

                               Federal Agency for
                                Graduate Studies
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


        CASE II: CAPES

                               Federal Agency for
                                Graduate Studies
                       •Depends on the Ministry for Education;
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


        CASE II: CAPES

                               Federal Agency for
                                Graduate Studies
                       •Depends on the Ministry for Education;
                       •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
                       (~40.000);
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


        CASE II: CAPES

                               Federal Agency for
                                Graduate Studies
                       •Depends on the Ministry for Education;
                       •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
                       (~40.000);

                       •National Subscription of Scientific
                       Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
                       journals, electronic access; webofscience,
                       etc
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


        CASE II: CAPES

                               Federal Agency for
                                Graduate Studies
                       •Depends on the Ministry for Education;
                       •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
                       (~40.000);

                       •National Subscription of Scientific
                       Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
                       journals, electronic access; webofscience,
                       etc

                       •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
                       (~2500) ;
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


        CASE II: CAPES

                               Federal Agency for
                                Graduate Studies
                       •Depends on the Ministry for Education;
                       •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
                       (~40.000);

                       •National Subscription of Scientific
                       Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
                       journals, electronic access; webofscience,
                       etc

                       •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
                       (~2500) ;

                       •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


              CASE II: CAPES

                                  Federal Agency for
                                   Graduate Studies
                          •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

Evaluation:
                          •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
                          (~40.000);

                          •National Subscription of Scientific
                          Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
                          journals, electronic access; webofscience,
                          etc

                          •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
                          (~2500) ;

                          •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


                    CASE II: CAPES

                                           Federal Agency for
                                            Graduate Studies
                                   •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

         Evaluation:
                                   •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
                                   (~40.000);
•evaluation is of Graduate
Programs                           •National Subscription of Scientific
                                   Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
                                   journals, electronic access; webofscience,
                                   etc

                                   •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
                                   (~2500) ;

                                   •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


                    CASE II: CAPES

                                           Federal Agency for
                                            Graduate Studies
                                   •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

         Evaluation:
                                   •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
                                   (~40.000);
•evaluation is of Graduate
Programs                           •National Subscription of Scientific
•46 thematic areas                 Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
                                   journals, electronic access; webofscience,
                                   etc

                                   •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
                                   (~2500) ;

                                   •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


                      CASE II: CAPES

                                           Federal Agency for
                                            Graduate Studies
                                   •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

         Evaluation:
                                   •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
                                   (~40.000);
•evaluation is of Graduate
Programs                           •National Subscription of Scientific
•46 thematic areas                 Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
                                   journals, electronic access; webofscience,
•grades from 1 to 7                etc

                                   •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
                                   (~2500) ;

                                   •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


                    CASE II: CAPES

                                           Federal Agency for
                                            Graduate Studies
                                   •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

         Evaluation:
                                   •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
                                   (~40.000);
•evaluation is of Graduate
Programs                           •National Subscription of Scientific
•46 thematic areas                 Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
                                   journals, electronic access; webofscience,
•grades from 1 to 7                etc
•1 and 2 >>> program
closes...                          •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
                                   (~2500) ;

                                   •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


                    CASE II: CAPES

                                           Federal Agency for
                                            Graduate Studies
                                   •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

         Evaluation:
                                   •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
                                   (~40.000);
•evaluation is of Graduate
Programs                           •National Subscription of Scientific
•46 thematic areas                 Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
                                   journals, electronic access; webofscience,
•grades from 1 to 7                etc
•1 and 2 >>> program
closes...                          •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
•6 and 7>>> international          (~2500) ;
level, access to special
                                   •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
funding
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


                    CASE II: CAPES

                                           Federal Agency for
                                            Graduate Studies
                                   •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

         Evaluation:
                                   •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
                                   (~40.000);
•evaluation is of Graduate
      Evaluation
Programs                           •National Subscription of Scientific
•46 thematic areas                 Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
                                   journals, electronic access; webofscience,
•grades from 1 to 7                etc
•1 and 2 >>> program
closes...                          •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
•6 and 7>>> international          (~2500) ;
level, access to special
                                   •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
funding
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


                    CASE II: CAPES

                                           Federal Agency for
                                            Graduate Studies
                                   •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

          Evaluation:
                                   •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
                                   (~40.000);
•evaluation is of Graduate
Programs
        Evaluation
                                   •National Subscription of Scientific
•annual reports
•46 thematic areas                 Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
( electronically)                  journals, electronic access; webofscience,
•grades from 1 to 7                etc
•1 and 2 >>> program
closes...                          •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
•6 and 7>>> international          (~2500) ;
level, access to special
                                   •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
funding
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


                    CASE II: CAPES

                                           Federal Agency for
                                            Graduate Studies
                                   •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

          Evaluation:
                                   •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
                                   (~40.000);
•evaluation is of Graduate
Programs
        Evaluation
                                   •National Subscription of Scientific
•annual reports
•46 thematic areas                 Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
( electronically)                  journals, electronic access; webofscience,
•grades from 1 to 7                etc
•grades everyprogram
•1 and 2 >>> 3 years
closes...                          •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
•6 and 7>>> international          (~2500) ;
level, access to special
                                   •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
funding
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


                     CASE II: CAPES

                                            Federal Agency for
                                             Graduate Studies
                                    •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

          Evaluation:
                                    •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
                                    (~40.000);
•evaluation is of Graduate
Programs
        Evaluation
                                    •National Subscription of Scientific
•annual reports
•46 thematic areas                  Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
( electronically)                   journals, electronic access; webofscience,
•grades from 1 to 7                 etc
•grades everyprogram
•1 and 2 >>> 3 years
•academic productivity in
closes...                           •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
journals, classified by area in      (~2500) ;
•6 A2, B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,C
A1,and 7>>> international
level, access to special
grades                              •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
funding
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


                     CASE II: CAPES

                                            Federal Agency for
                                             Graduate Studies
                                    •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

          Evaluation:
                                    •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
          Periodicals               (~40.000);
•evaluation is of Graduate
Programs
        Evaluation
                                    •National Subscription of Scientific
•annual reports
•46 thematic areas                  Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
( electronically)                   journals, electronic access; webofscience,
•grades from 1 to 7                 etc
•grades everyprogram
•1 and 2 >>> 3 years
•academic productivity in
closes...                           •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
journals, classified by area in      (~2500) ;
•6 A2, B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,C
A1,and 7>>> international
level, access to special
grades                              •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
funding
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


                     CASE II: CAPES

                                            Federal Agency for
                                             Graduate Studies
                                    •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

           Evaluation:
                                    •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
           Periodicals              (~40.000);
•evaluation is of Graduate
•15000Evaluation
Programs
         titles;
                                    •National Subscription of Scientific
•annual reports
•46 thematic areas                  Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
( electronically)                   journals, electronic access; webofscience,
•grades from 1 to 7                 etc
•grades everyprogram
•1 and 2 >>> 3 years
•academic productivity in
closes...                           •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
journals, classified by area in      (~2500) ;
•6 A2, B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,C
A1,and 7>>> international
level, access to special
grades                              •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
funding
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


                     CASE II: CAPES

                                            Federal Agency for
                                             Graduate Studies
                                    •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

           Evaluation:
                                    •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
           Periodicals              (~40.000);
•evaluation is of Graduate
•15000Evaluation
Programs
         titles;
                                    •National Subscription of Scientific
•annual reports
•every University with a
•46 thematic areas                  Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
graduate program can have
( electronically)                   journals, electronic access; webofscience,
•grades from 1 to 7
access to all, through IP           etc
•grades everyprogram
•1 and 2 >>> 3 years
identification;
•academic productivity in
closes...                           •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
journals, classified by area in      (~2500) ;
•6 A2, B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,C
A1,and 7>>> international
level, access to special
grades                              •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
funding
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


                     CASE II: CAPES

                                            Federal Agency for
                                             Graduate Studies
                                    •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

           Evaluation:
                                    •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
           Periodicals              (~40.000);
•evaluation is of Graduate
•15000Evaluation
Programs
         titles;
                                    •National Subscription of Scientific
•annual reports
•every University with a
•46 thematic areas                  Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
graduate program can have
( electronically)                   journals, electronic access; webofscience,
•grades from 1 to 7
access to all, through IP           etc
•grades everyprogram
•1 and 2 >>> 3 years
identification;
•academic productivity in
closes...                           •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
•fosters multidisciplinarityin
journals, classified by area
•6 A2, B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,C             (~2500) ;
A1,and 7>>> international
level, access to special
grades                              •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
funding
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil


                     CASE II: CAPES

                                            Federal Agency for
                                             Graduate Studies
                                    •Depends on the Ministry for Education;

           Evaluation:
                                    •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide
           Periodicals              (~40.000);
•evaluation is of Graduate
•15000Evaluation
Programs
         titles;
                                    •National Subscription of Scientific
•annual reports
•every University with a
•46 thematic areas                  Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000
graduate program can have
( electronically)                   journals, electronic access; webofscience,
•grades from 1 to 7
access to all, through IP           etc
•grades everyprogram
•1 and 2 >>> 3 years
identification;
•academic productivity in
closes...                           •Evaluation of Graduate Programs
•fosters multidisciplinarityin
journals, classified by area
•6 A2, B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,C             (~2500) ;
A1,and 7>>> international
•enormous effect on less
level, access to special
grades                              •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
developed regions
funding
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




         CASE III: IMPA
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       CASE III: IMPA




•National Institute
for Pure and Applied
Mathematics,
established in 1952.
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       CASE III: IMPA

                         •History: small but very brilliant initial group




•National Institute
for Pure and Applied
Mathematics,
established in 1952.
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       CASE III: IMPA

                         •History: small but very brilliant initial group
                         •Very strict conditions for hiring




•National Institute
for Pure and Applied
Mathematics,
established in 1952.
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       CASE III: IMPA

                         •History: small but very brilliant initial group
                         •Very strict conditions for hiring
                         •Only research and graduate studies



•National Institute
for Pure and Applied
Mathematics,
established in 1952.
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       CASE III: IMPA

                         •History: small but very brilliant initial group
                         •Very strict conditions for hiring
                         •Only research and graduate studies
                         •Organizes the Brazilian Math Meeting


•National Institute
for Pure and Applied
Mathematics,
established in 1952.
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       CASE III: IMPA

                         •History: small but very brilliant initial group
                         •Very strict conditions for hiring
                         •Only research and graduate studies
                         •Organizes the Brazilian Math Meeting
                         •Close ties to international centers

•National Institute
for Pure and Applied
Mathematics,
established in 1952.
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       CASE III: IMPA

                         •History: small but very brilliant initial group
                         •Very strict conditions for hiring
                         •Only research and graduate studies
                         •Organizes the Brazilian Math Meeting
                         •Close ties to international centers
                         •Associate center with CNRS ( Unité
•National Institute
for Pure and Applied     Internationale)
Mathematics,
established in 1952.
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       CASE III: IMPA

                         •History: small but very brilliant initial group
                         •Very strict conditions for hiring
                         •Only research and graduate studies
                         •Organizes the Brazilian Math Meeting
                         •Close ties to international centers
                         •Associate center with CNRS ( Unité
•National Institute
for Pure and Applied     Internationale)
Mathematics,
established in 1952.     •Coordinates large projects
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                       CASE III: IMPA

                         •History: small but very brilliant initial group
                         •Very strict conditions for hiring
                         •Only research and graduate studies
                         •Organizes the Brazilian Math Meeting
                         •Close ties to international centers
                         •Associate center with CNRS ( Unité
•National Institute
for Pure and Applied     Internationale)
Mathematics,
established in 1952.     •Coordinates large projects
                         •Pure and Applied
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




    CASE IV: EMBRAPA
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                         CASE IV: EMBRAPA




The Brazilian Agricultural
R e s e a rc h C o r p o r a t i o n ' s
mission is to provide feasible
solutions for the sustainable
development of Brazilian
a g ribusiness through
knowledge and technology
generation and transfer.
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                         CASE IV: EMBRAPA
                                             •Established in 1973




The Brazilian Agricultural
R e s e a rc h C o r p o r a t i o n ' s
mission is to provide feasible
solutions for the sustainable
development of Brazilian
a g ribusiness through
knowledge and technology
generation and transfer.
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                         CASE IV: EMBRAPA
                                             •Established in 1973

                                            •Multi-center: 15 product oriented centers,
                                            10 basic science centers, 14 regional centers,
                                            3 labs in Brasília, 3 International Research
                                            Units ( Ghana, Panama and Venezuela), 4
The Brazilian Agricultural
R e s e a rc h C o r p o r a t i o n ' s    International Bussiness Offices ( USA, France,
mission is to provide feasible
                                            Holland, Korea).
solutions for the sustainable
development of Brazilian
a g ribusiness through
knowledge and technology
generation and transfer.
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                         CASE IV: EMBRAPA
                                             •Established in 1973

                                            •Multi-center: 15 product oriented centers,
                                            10 basic science centers, 14 regional centers,
                                            3 labs in Brasília, 3 International Research
                                            Units ( Ghana, Panama and Venezuela), 4
The Brazilian Agricultural
R e s e a rc h C o r p o r a t i o n ' s    International Bussiness Offices ( USA, France,
mission is to provide feasible
                                            Holland, Korea).
solutions for the sustainable
development of Brazilian
a g ribusiness through
knowledge and technology                    •Dedicated to development of solutions
generation and transfer.                    for real life problems in agriculture
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                         CASE IV: EMBRAPA
                                             •Established in 1973
                                             •Incorporation of the tropical savanna
                                            ( Cerrado) into productive agrobusiness
                                            •Multi-center: 15 product oriented centers,
                                            •Adaptation of soya to 14 regional centers,
                                            10 basic science centers, Brazilian climate
                                            3 labs in Brasília, 3 largest producer
                                            ==> world second International Research
                                            Units ( Ghana, Panama and Venezuela), 4
The Brazilian Agricultural
R e s e a rc h C o r p o r a t i o n ' s    •Fivefold multiplication of cattle in France,
                                            International Bussiness Offices ( USA,25
mission is to provide feasible
                                            years
                                            Holland, Korea).
solutions for the sustainable
development of Brazilian
a g ribusiness through
knowledge and technology                    •Dedicated to development of solutions 25
                                             Chicken production multiplied by 25 in
generation and transfer.                    for real life problems in agriculture
                                            years
Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil




                         CASE IV: EMBRAPA
                                             •Established in 1973
                                             •Incorporation of the tropical savanna
                                            ( Cerrado) into productive agrobusiness
                                            •Multi-center: 15 product oriented centers,
                                            •Adaptation of soya to 14 regional centers,
                                            10 basic science centers, Brazilian climate
                                            3 labs in Brasília, 3 largest producer
                                            ==> world second International Research
                                            Units ( Ghana, Panama and Venezuela), 4
The Brazilian Agricultural
R e s e a rc h C o r p o r a t i o n ' s    •Fivefold multiplication of cattle in France,
                                            International Bussiness Offices ( USA,25
mission is to provide feasible
                                            years
                                            Holland, Korea).
solutions for the sustainable
development of Brazilian
a g ribusiness through
knowledge and technology                    •Dedicated to development of solutions 25
                                             Chicken production multiplied by 25 in
generation and transfer.                    for real life problems in agriculture
                                            years
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system
An informal introduction  to the Brazilian science system

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An informal introduction to the Brazilian science system

  • 1. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil An informal introduction to The Brazilian Science System Roberto Kraenkel kraenkel@ift.unesp.br IFT-UNESP
  • 2. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country
  • 3. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country
  • 4. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country
  • 5. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country
  • 6. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country Population: 190.000.000
  • 7. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country Population: 190.000.000 Area: 8.514.876,599 km2
  • 8. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country Population: 190.000.000 Area: 8.514.876,599 km2 Capital: Brasília
  • 9. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country Population: 190.000.000 Area: 8.514.876,599 km2 Capital: Brasília Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000)
  • 10. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country Population: 190.000.000 Area: 8.514.876,599 km2 Capital: Brasília Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000) GDP (PPP):US$ 1,9 trillion (8th)
  • 11. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country Population: 190.000.000 Area: 8.514.876,599 km2 Capital: Brasília Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000) GDP (PPP):US$ 1,9 trillion (8th) GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 10.000 (64th)
  • 12. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country Population: 190.000.000 Area: 8.514.876,599 km2 Capital: Brasília Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000) GDP (PPP):US$ 1,9 trillion (8th) GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 10.000 (64th) Currency: Real (R$)
  • 13. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country Population: 190.000.000 Area: 8.514.876,599 km2 Capital: Brasília Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000) GDP (PPP):US$ 1,9 trillion (8th) GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 10.000 (64th) Currency: Real (R$) Language: Portuguese
  • 14. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country Population: 190.000.000 Area: 8.514.876,599 km2 Capital: Brasília Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000) GDP (PPP):US$ 1,9 trillion (8th) GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 10.000 (64th) Currency: Real (R$) Language: Portuguese Independency: 1822
  • 15. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country Population: 190.000.000 Area: 8.514.876,599 km2 Capital: Brasília Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000) GDP (PPP):US$ 1,9 trillion (8th) GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 10.000 (64th) Currency: Real (R$) Language: Portuguese Independency: 1822 Republic: 1889
  • 16. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country Population: 190.000.000 Area: 8.514.876,599 km2 Capital: Brasília Largest City: São Paulo (11.000.000) GDP (PPP):US$ 1,9 trillion (8th) GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 10.000 (64th) Currency: Real (R$) Language: Portuguese Independency: 1822 Republic: 1889 Present Constitution: 1988
  • 17. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Generalities about the Country
  • 18. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions
  • 19. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions with some bias towards physics and math...
  • 20. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions with some bias towards physics and math...
  • 21. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions with some bias towards physics and math... 1887 Agronomical Institute in Campinas
  • 22. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions with some bias towards physics and math... 1887 1893 Agronomical Institute in Campinas Polytechnic Institute/SP (later incorporated by USP)
  • 23. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions with some bias towards physics and math... 1887 1893 1901 Agronomical Butantan Institute Institute in Campinas Polytechnic Institute/SP (later incorporated by USP)
  • 24. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions with some bias towards physics and math... 1887 1893 1901 1908 Oswaldo Cruz Institute Agronomical Butantan Institute Institute in Campinas Polytechnic Institute/SP (later incorporated by USP)
  • 25. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions with some bias towards physics and math... 1887 1893 1901 1908 1912 Oswaldo Cruz Institute Agronomical Butantan Institute Institute in Campinas School of Medicine/SP ( later incorporated by USP) Polytechnic Institute/SP (later incorporated by USP)
  • 26. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions with some bias towards physics and math... 1887 1893 1901 1908 1912 1916 Oswaldo Cruz Institute Academy of Sciences Agronomical Butantan Institute Institute in Campinas School of Medicine/SP ( later incorporated by USP) Polytechnic Institute/SP (later incorporated by USP)
  • 27. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions with some bias towards physics and math... 1887 1893 1901 1908 1912 1916 1920 Oswaldo Cruz Institute Academy of Sciences Agronomical Butantan Institute Institute in Campinas School of Medicine/SP ( later incorporated by USP) Polytechnic Institute/SP (later incorporated by USP) University of Brazil (now Fed. Univ. Rio de Janeiro)
  • 28. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions with some bias towards physics and math... 1887 1893 1901 1908 1912 1916 1920 1927 Oswaldo Cruz Institute Academy of Sciences Biological Institute/SP Agronomical Butantan Institute Institute in Campinas School of Medicine/SP ( later incorporated by USP) Polytechnic Institute/SP (later incorporated by USP) University of Brazil (now Fed. Univ. Rio de Janeiro)
  • 29. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions with some bias towards physics and math... 1887 1893 1901 1908 1912 1916 1920 1927 1934 Oswaldo Cruz Institute Academy of Sciences Biological Institute/SP Agronomical Butantan Institute Institute in Campinas School of Medicine/SP ( later University of São Paulo USP incorporated by USP) Polytechnic Institute/SP (later incorporated by USP) University of Brazil (now Fed. Univ. Rio de Janeiro)
  • 30. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions with some bias towards physics and math... 1887 1893 1901 1908 1912 1916 1920 1927 1934 1946 Oswaldo Cruz Institute Academy of Sciences Biological Institute/SP Agronomical Butantan Institute Institute in Campinas School of Medicine/SP ( later University of São Paulo USP incorporated by USP) Polytechnic Institute/SP (later incorporated by USP) University of Brazil (now Fed. Univ. Rio de Janeiro)
  • 31. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions with some bias towards physics and math... 1887 1893 1901 1908 1912 1916 1920 1927 1934 1946 Oswaldo Cruz Institute Society for Academy of Sciences Biological Institute/SP the Agronomical Butantan Institute Advancement Institute in of Science Campinas School of Medicine/SP ( later University of São Paulo USP incorporated by USP) Polytechnic Institute/SP (later incorporated by USP) University of Brazil (now Fed. Univ. Rio de Janeiro)
  • 32. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions with some bias towards physics and math... 1887 1893 1901 1908 1912 1916 1920 1927 1934 1946 Oswaldo Cruz Institute Society for Academy of Sciences Biological Institute/SP the Agronomical Butantan Institute Advancement Institute in of Science Campinas School of Medicine/SP ( later University of São Paulo USP incorporated by USP) Univ. Pernambuco Polytechnic Institute/SP (later incorporated by USP) University of Brazil (now Fed. Univ. Rio de Janeiro)
  • 33. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions
  • 34. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 Brazilian Center for Physics (Rio) CBPF
  • 35. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 Brazilian Center for Physics (Rio) CBPF
  • 36. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 Brazilian Center for Physics (Rio) CBPF
  • 37. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 Brazilian Center for Physics (Rio) CBPF National Research Council - CNPq
  • 38. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 CAPES Brazilian Graduate Center for Studies Physics (Rio) Agency CBPF National Research Council - CNPq
  • 39. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 1952 CAPES Brazilian Graduate Center for Studies Physics (Rio) Agency CBPF National Research Council - CNPq
  • 40. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 1952 CAPES Brazilian Graduate Center for Studies Physics (Rio) Agency CBPF National Research Council - CNPq
  • 41. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 1952 CAPES Brazilian Graduate Center for Studies Physics (Rio) Agency CBPF Institute for Theoretical Physics SP (IFT) National Research Council - CNPq
  • 42. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 1952 CAPES Brazilian Graduate Center for Studies Physics (Rio) Agency CBPF Institute for Theoretical Physics SP (IFT) Institute for Pure and Applied Math (Rio) IMPA National Research Council - CNPq
  • 43. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 1952 Institute for CAPES Amazonian Brazilian Graduate Studies (Manaus) Center for Studies INPA Physics (Rio) Agency CBPF Institute for Theoretical Physics SP (IFT) Institute for Pure and Applied Math (Rio) IMPA National Research Council - CNPq
  • 44. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 1952 1955 Institute for CAPES Amazonian Brazilian Graduate Studies (Manaus) Center for Studies INPA Physics (Rio) Agency CBPF Institute for Theoretical Physics SP (IFT) Institute for Pure and Applied Math (Rio) IMPA National Research Council - CNPq
  • 45. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 1952 1955 Institute for CAPES Amazonian Brazilian Graduate Studies (Manaus) Center for Studies INPA Physics (Rio) Agency CBPF Institute for Cenpes - Theoretical Petroleum Physics SP (IFT) Institute of Petrobras Institute for Pure and Applied Math (Rio) IMPA National Research Council - CNPq
  • 46. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 1952 1955 1956 Institute for CAPES Amazonian Brazilian Graduate Studies (Manaus) Center for Studies INPA Physics (Rio) Agency CBPF Institute for Cenpes - Theoretical Petroleum Physics SP (IFT) Institute of Petrobras Institute for Pure and Applied Math (Rio) IMPA National Research Comission for Nuclear Council - CNPq Energy CNEN
  • 47. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 1952 1955 1956 1961 Space and Institute for Atmosphere CAPES Amazonian Institute INPE Graduate Studies (Manaus) ( São José dos Brazilian Studies INPA Campos) Center for Physics (Rio) Agency CBPF Institute for Cenpes - Theoretical Petroleum Physics SP (IFT) Institute of Petrobras Institute for Pure and Applied Math (Rio) IMPA National Research Comission for Nuclear Council - CNPq Energy CNEN
  • 48. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 1952 1955 1956 1961 1962 Space and Institute for Atmosphere CAPES Amazonian Institute INPE Graduate Studies (Manaus) ( São José dos Brazilian Studies INPA Campos) Center for Physics (Rio) Agency CBPF Institute for Cenpes - Theoretical Petroleum Physics SP (IFT) Science Funding Institute of Agency of the State Petrobras of São Paulo - Institute for Pure and FAPESP Applied Math (Rio) IMPA National Research Comission for Nuclear Council - CNPq Energy CNEN
  • 49. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 1952 1955 1956 1961 1962 1966 Space and Institute for Atmosphere CAPES Amazonian Institute INPE Graduate Studies (Manaus) ( São José dos Brazilian Campinas Studies INPA Campos) Center for University Physics (Rio) Agency Unicamp CBPF Institute for Cenpes - Theoretical Petroleum Physics SP (IFT) Science Funding Institute of Agency of the State Petrobras of São Paulo - Institute for Pure and FAPESP Applied Math (Rio) IMPA National Research Comission for Nuclear Council - CNPq Energy CNEN
  • 50. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1949 1951 1952 1955 1956 1961 1962 1966 1967 Space and Institute for Atmosphere CAPES Amazonian Institute INPE Graduate Studies (Manaus) ( São José dos Brazilian Campinas Studies INPA Campos) Center for University Physics (Rio) Agency Unicamp CBPF Institute for Cenpes - Theoretical Petroleum Physics SP (IFT) Science Funding Institute of Agency of the State Petrobras of São Paulo - Institute for Pure and FINEP Long- FAPESP Applied Math (Rio) IMPA term projects, now mainly National Research Comission for Nuclear turned to Council - CNPq Energy CNEN innovation
  • 51. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions
  • 52. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1973 EMBRAPA . Federal Research Institute for Agriculture
  • 53. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1973 1980 EMBRAPA . Federal Research Institute for Agriculture
  • 54. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1973 1980 EMBRAPA . Federal Research Institute for Agriculture
  • 55. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1973 1980 Scientific Computing Institute LNCC EMBRAPA . Federal Research Institute for Agriculture
  • 56. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1973 1980 Scientific Computing Institute LNCC FAPERJ - Science Funding Agency of Rio de Janeiro EMBRAPA . Federal Research Institute for Agriculture
  • 57. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1973 1980 1985 Scientific Computing Institute LNCC FAPERJ - Science Funding Agency of Rio de Janeiro EMBRAPA . Federal Research Institute for Ministry of Science and Technology Agriculture
  • 58. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1973 1980 1985 1986 Scientific Computing Institute LNCC FAPEMIG Science Funding FAPERJ - Agency of Minas Science Funding Agency of Rio de Janeiro EMBRAPA . Federal Research Institute for Ministry of Science and Technology Agriculture
  • 59. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1973 1980 1985 1986 1991 Scientific Computing Institute LNCC FAPEMIG Science Funding FAPERJ - Agency of Minas Science Funding Agency of Rio de Janeiro FACEPE- Science Funding Agency of EMBRAPA . Pernambuco Federal Research Institute for Ministry of Science and Technology Agriculture
  • 60. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1973 1980 1985 1986 1991 1997 Scientific Computing Institute LNCC FAPEMIG Syncrotron Science Funding Facility - LNLS FAPERJ - Agency of Minas Science Funding Agency of Rio de Janeiro FACEPE- Science Funding Agency of EMBRAPA . Pernambuco Federal Research Institute for Ministry of Science and Technology Agriculture
  • 61. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1973 1980 1985 1986 1991 1997 1999 Scientific Computing Institute LNCC FAPEMIG Syncrotron Science Funding Facility - LNLS FAPERJ - Agency of Minas Science Funding Agency of Rio de Janeiro FACEPE- Science Funding Agency of EMBRAPA . Pernambuco Federal Research Institute for “Fundos Ministry of Science and Technology Agriculture Setoriais”
  • 62. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1973 1980 1985 1986 1991 1997 1999 2005 Scientific Computing Institute LNCC FAPEMIG UFABC Syncrotron Science Funding Technological Facility - LNLS FAPERJ - Agency of Minas University in Science Funding the SP Agency of Rio de Metropolitan Janeiro Area FACEPE- Science Funding Agency of EMBRAPA . Pernambuco Federal Research Institute for “Fundos Ministry of Science and Technology Agriculture Setoriais”
  • 63. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1973 1980 1985 1986 1991 1997 1999 2005 2006 Scientific Computing Institute LNCC FAPEMIG UFABC Syncrotron Science Funding Technological Facility - LNLS FAPERJ - Agency of Minas University in Science Funding the SP Agency of Rio de Metropolitan Janeiro Area FACEPE- Science Funding Agency of EMBRAPA . Pernambuco Federal Research 10 new federal Institute for “Fundos Universities Ministry of Science and Technology Agriculture Setoriais”
  • 64. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Timeline of scientific institutions 1973 1980 1985 1986 1991 1997 1999 2005 2006 2009 Scientific CTBE - Computing Biotech Institute LNCC FAPEMIG UFABC Ethanol Syncrotron Science Funding Technological Institute Facility - LNLS FAPERJ - Agency of Minas University in in Science Funding the SP Campinas Agency of Rio de Metropolitan Janeiro Area FACEPE- Science Funding Agency of EMBRAPA . Pernambuco Federal Research 10 new federal Institute for “Fundos Universities Ministry of Science and Technology Agriculture Setoriais”
  • 65. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil?
  • 66. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Geographically
  • 67. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Geographically
  • 68. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Geographically
  • 69. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Geographically
  • 70. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil?
  • 71. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions
  • 72. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities
  • 73. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities ‣Federal Universities
  • 74. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities ‣Federal Universities ‣State Universities ==>> mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná
  • 75. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities ‣Federal Universities ‣State Universities ==>> mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná ‣Confessional Universities
  • 76. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities ‣Federal Universities ‣State Universities ==>> mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná ‣Confessional Universities PUC’ ==> catholic Universities
  • 77. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities ‣Federal Universities ‣State Universities ==>> mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná ‣Confessional Universities PUC’ ==> catholic Universities
  • 78. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities ‣Federal Universities ‣State Universities ==>> mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná ‣Confessional Universities PUC’ ==> catholic Universities ‣Private Universities
  • 79. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities ‣Federal Universities ‣State Universities ==>> mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná ‣Confessional Universities PUC’ ==> catholic Universities ‣Private Universities very few...
  • 80. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities Research Labs ‣Federal Universities ‣State Universities ==>> mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná ‣Confessional Universities PUC’ ==> catholic Universities ‣Private Universities very few...
  • 81. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities Research Labs ‣Institutes related to Science ‣Federal Universities Ministry: 20 ‣State Universities ==>> mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná ‣Confessional Universities PUC’ ==> catholic Universities ‣Private Universities very few...
  • 82. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities Research Labs ‣Institutes related to Science ‣Federal Universities Ministry: 20 ‣State Universities ==>> ‣Agriculture Ministry: EMBRAPA mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná ‣Confessional Universities PUC’ ==> catholic Universities ‣Private Universities very few...
  • 83. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities Research Labs ‣Institutes related to Science ‣Federal Universities Ministry: 20 ‣State Universities ==>> ‣Agriculture Ministry: EMBRAPA mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná ‣Health Ministry: FIOCRUZ ‣Confessional Universities PUC’ ==> catholic Universities ‣Private Universities very few...
  • 84. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities Research Labs ‣Institutes related to Science ‣Federal Universities Ministry: 20 ‣State Universities ==>> ‣Agriculture Ministry: EMBRAPA mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná ‣Health Ministry: FIOCRUZ ‣State Labs: Butantan, Agronomical Inst.... ( essentially SP) ‣Confessional Universities PUC’ ==> catholic Universities ‣Private Universities very few...
  • 85. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities Research Labs ‣Institutes related to Science ‣Federal Universities Ministry: 20 ‣State Universities ==>> ‣Agriculture Ministry: EMBRAPA mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná ‣Health Ministry: FIOCRUZ ‣State Labs: Butantan, Agronomical Inst.... ( essentially SP) ‣Confessional Universities PUC’ ==> catholic ‣State run enterprises: PETROBRAS Universities ‣Private Universities very few...
  • 86. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities Research Labs ‣Institutes related to Science ‣Federal Universities Ministry: 20 ‣State Universities ==>> ‣Agriculture Ministry: EMBRAPA mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná ‣Health Ministry: FIOCRUZ ‣State Labs: Butantan, Agronomical Inst.... ( essentially SP) ‣Confessional Universities PUC’ ==> catholic ‣State run enterprises: PETROBRAS Universities The weak link: very few research in industry. ‣Private Universities very few...
  • 87. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities Research Labs ‣Institutes related to Science ‣Federal Universities Ministry: 20 ‣State Universities ==>> ‣Agriculture Ministry: EMBRAPA mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná ‣Health Ministry: FIOCRUZ ‣State Labs: Butantan, Agronomical Inst.... ( essentially SP) ‣Confessional Universities PUC’ ==> catholic ‣State run enterprises: PETROBRAS Universities The weak link: very few research in industry. Recently: biotech star-ups, optics, ‣Private Universities ethanol very few...
  • 88. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Where is science produced in Brazil? Institutions Universities Research Labs ‣Institutes related to Science ‣Federal Universities Ministry: 20 ‣State Universities ==>> ‣Agriculture Ministry: EMBRAPA mainly São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná ‣Health Ministry: FIOCRUZ ‣State Labs: Butantan, Agronomical Inst.... ( essentially SP) ‣Confessional Universities PUC’ ==> catholic ‣State run enterprises: PETROBRAS Universities The weak link: very few research in industry. Recently: biotech star-ups, optics, ‣Private Universities ethanol very few... Aerospace industry
  • 89. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded I
  • 90. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded I Federal Funding
  • 91. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded I Federal Funding through agencies
  • 92. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded I Federal Funding through through labs/ agencies Ministries
  • 93. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded I Federal Funding through through labs/ agencies Ministries CNPq FINEP
  • 94. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded I Federal Funding through through labs/ agencies Ministries CNPq FINEP CAPES
  • 95. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded I Federal Funding through through labs/ agencies Ministries CNPq EMBRAPA FINEP FIOCRUZ CNEN CAPES Institutes MCT
  • 96. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded I Federal Funding through through agencies labs/ CNPq funds projects Ministries in general + fellowships CNPq EMBRAPA FINEP FIOCRUZ CNEN CAPES Institutes MCT
  • 97. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded I Federal Funding through through agencies labs/ CNPq funds projects Ministries in general + fellowships CNPq EMBRAPA FINEP FIOCRUZ FINEP funds large CNEN projects in strategic areas CAPES Institutes MCT
  • 98. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded I Federal Funding basic and applied science through through agencies labs/ CNPq funds projects Ministries in general + fellowships CNPq EMBRAPA FINEP FIOCRUZ FINEP funds large CNEN projects in strategic areas CAPES Institutes MCT
  • 99. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded I Federal Funding basic and applied science through through agencies labs/ CNPq funds projects Ministries in general + fellowships CNPq EMBRAPA FINEP FIOCRUZ FINEP funds large CNEN projects in strategic areas CAPES Institutes MCT innovation, technology
  • 100. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded I Federal Funding through through labs/ agencies Ministries CNPq EMBRAPA FINEP FIOCRUZ CNEN CAPES Institutes MCT
  • 101. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded I Federal Funding through through agencies labs/ CAPES funds graduate Ministries studies through fellowships and money CNPq EMBRAPA for the graduate FINEP FIOCRUZ studies coordinations at CNEN Institutes the Universities CAPES MCT
  • 102. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded I Federal Funding All areas of through knowledge through agencies labs/ CAPES funds graduate Ministries studies through fellowships and money CNPq EMBRAPA for the graduate FINEP FIOCRUZ studies coordinations at CNEN Institutes the Universities CAPES MCT
  • 103. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded II
  • 104. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded II Funding from States
  • 105. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded II Funding from States through agencies
  • 106. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded II Funding from States through agencies FAPESP in São Paulo is the most important
  • 107. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded II Funding from States through agencies FAPESP funds general science through projects by researchers. FAPESP in São Paulo is the most important
  • 108. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded II Funding from States through agencies FAPESP funds general science through projects by researchers. FAPESP in São It also induces strategic Paulo is the areas and projects ( e.g. most genoma, ethanol). important
  • 109. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded III
  • 110. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded III Industry/Venture Capital....
  • 111. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded III Industry/Venture Capital.... the weak link....
  • 112. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded III Industry/Venture Capital.... the weak link....
  • 113. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded III Industry/Venture Capital.... Large Enterprises PETROBRAS the weak link....
  • 114. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil How science is funded III Industry/Venture Capital.... Large Enterprises PETROBRAS the weak link.... Venture Capital in Small Biotech / SP
  • 115. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP
  • 116. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP
  • 117. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Science Funding Agency of the State of São Paulo
  • 118. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Science Funding Agency of the State of São Paulo Fosters Science through:
  • 119. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Science Funding Agency of the State of São Paulo Fosters Science through: •fellowships
  • 120. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Science Funding Agency of the State of São Paulo Fosters Science through: •fellowships •research projects
  • 121. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State Constitution ( 1% of tax income); Science Funding Agency of the State of São Paulo Fosters Science through: •fellowships •research projects
  • 122. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State Constitution ( 1% of tax income); Science Funding Agency of the Maximum of 5% can be used by with its own administration; São Paulo State of Fosters Science through: •fellowships •research projects
  • 123. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State Constitution ( 1% of tax income); Science Funding Agency of the Maximum of 5% can be used by with its own administration; São Paulo State of Board with 12 members with 6 years Fosters Science through: mandate •fellowships •research projects
  • 124. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State Constitution ( 1% of tax income); Science Funding Agency of the Maximum of 5% can be used by with its own administration; São Paulo State of Board with 12 members with 6 years Fosters Science through: mandate No fellowships or grant is aprooved •fellowships without peer review •research projects
  • 125. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State Constitution ( 1% of tax income); Science Funding Agency of the Maximum of 5% can be used by with its own administration; São Paulo State of Board with 12 members with 6 years Fosters Science through: mandate No fellowships or grant is aprooved •fellowships without peer review •research projects Thematic committees meet once a weak;
  • 126. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State Constitution ( 1% of tax income); Science Funding Agency of the Maximum of 5% can be used by with its own administration; São Paulo State of Board with 12 members with 6 years Fosters Science through: mandate No fellowships or grant is aprooved •fellowships without peer review •research projects Thematic committees meet once a weak; Studentships cannot be cumulated with jobs
  • 127. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State Constitution ( 1% of tax income); Science Funding Agency of the Maximum of 5% can be used by with its Master (24 months) and own administration; São Paulo State of PhD (48 months) fellowships Board with 12 members with 6 years Fosters Science through: mandate No fellowships or grant is aprooved •fellowships without peer review •research projects Thematic committees meet once a weak; Studentships cannot be cumulated with jobs
  • 128. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State Constitution ( 1% of tax income); Science Funding Agency of the Maximum of 5% can be used by with its Master (24 months) and own administration; São Paulo State of PhD (48 months) fellowships Board with 12 members with 6 years Research grants Fosters Science through: mandate No fellowships or grant is aprooved •fellowships without peer review •research projects Thematic committees meet once a weak; Studentships cannot be cumulated with jobs
  • 129. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State Constitution ( 1% of tax income); Science Funding Agency of the Maximum of 5% can be used by with its Master (24 months) and own administration; São Paulo State of PhD (48 months) fellowships Board with 12 members with 6 years Research grants Fosters Science through: mandate No fellowships or grant is aprooved Conference Organization Funds •fellowships without peer review •research projects Thematic committees meet once a weak; Studentships cannot be cumulated with jobs
  • 130. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State Constitution ( 1% of tax income); Science Funding Agency of the Maximum of 5% can be used by with its Master (24 months) and own administration; São Paulo State of PhD (48 months) fellowships Board with 12 members with 6 years Research grants Fosters Science through: mandate No fellowships or grant is aprooved Conference Organization Funds •fellowships without peer review Invited Professorships •research projects Thematic committees meet once a weak; Studentships cannot be cumulated with jobs
  • 131. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE I: FAPESP Funds for FAPESP are fixed by State Constitution ( 1% of tax income); Science Funding Agency of the Maximum of 5% can be used by with its Master (24 months) and own administration; São Paulo State of PhD (48 months) fellowships Board with 12 members with 6 years Research grants Fosters Science through: mandate No fellowships or grant is aprooved Conference Organization Funds •fellowships without peer review Invited Professorships •research projects Thematic committees meet once a weak; Studentships cannot be cumulated with Post-Doc fellowships jobs
  • 132. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES
  • 133. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES
  • 134. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies
  • 135. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education;
  • 136. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide (~40.000);
  • 137. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide (~40.000); •National Subscription of Scientific Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 journals, electronic access; webofscience, etc
  • 138. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide (~40.000); •National Subscription of Scientific Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 journals, electronic access; webofscience, etc •Evaluation of Graduate Programs (~2500) ;
  • 139. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide (~40.000); •National Subscription of Scientific Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 journals, electronic access; webofscience, etc •Evaluation of Graduate Programs (~2500) ; •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
  • 140. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide (~40.000); •National Subscription of Scientific Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 journals, electronic access; webofscience, etc •Evaluation of Graduate Programs (~2500) ; •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
  • 141. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide (~40.000); •evaluation is of Graduate Programs •National Subscription of Scientific Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 journals, electronic access; webofscience, etc •Evaluation of Graduate Programs (~2500) ; •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
  • 142. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide (~40.000); •evaluation is of Graduate Programs •National Subscription of Scientific •46 thematic areas Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 journals, electronic access; webofscience, etc •Evaluation of Graduate Programs (~2500) ; •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
  • 143. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide (~40.000); •evaluation is of Graduate Programs •National Subscription of Scientific •46 thematic areas Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 journals, electronic access; webofscience, •grades from 1 to 7 etc •Evaluation of Graduate Programs (~2500) ; •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
  • 144. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide (~40.000); •evaluation is of Graduate Programs •National Subscription of Scientific •46 thematic areas Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 journals, electronic access; webofscience, •grades from 1 to 7 etc •1 and 2 >>> program closes... •Evaluation of Graduate Programs (~2500) ; •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA
  • 145. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide (~40.000); •evaluation is of Graduate Programs •National Subscription of Scientific •46 thematic areas Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 journals, electronic access; webofscience, •grades from 1 to 7 etc •1 and 2 >>> program closes... •Evaluation of Graduate Programs •6 and 7>>> international (~2500) ; level, access to special •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA funding
  • 146. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide (~40.000); •evaluation is of Graduate Evaluation Programs •National Subscription of Scientific •46 thematic areas Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 journals, electronic access; webofscience, •grades from 1 to 7 etc •1 and 2 >>> program closes... •Evaluation of Graduate Programs •6 and 7>>> international (~2500) ; level, access to special •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA funding
  • 147. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide (~40.000); •evaluation is of Graduate Programs Evaluation •National Subscription of Scientific •annual reports •46 thematic areas Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 ( electronically) journals, electronic access; webofscience, •grades from 1 to 7 etc •1 and 2 >>> program closes... •Evaluation of Graduate Programs •6 and 7>>> international (~2500) ; level, access to special •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA funding
  • 148. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide (~40.000); •evaluation is of Graduate Programs Evaluation •National Subscription of Scientific •annual reports •46 thematic areas Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 ( electronically) journals, electronic access; webofscience, •grades from 1 to 7 etc •grades everyprogram •1 and 2 >>> 3 years closes... •Evaluation of Graduate Programs •6 and 7>>> international (~2500) ; level, access to special •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA funding
  • 149. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide (~40.000); •evaluation is of Graduate Programs Evaluation •National Subscription of Scientific •annual reports •46 thematic areas Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 ( electronically) journals, electronic access; webofscience, •grades from 1 to 7 etc •grades everyprogram •1 and 2 >>> 3 years •academic productivity in closes... •Evaluation of Graduate Programs journals, classified by area in (~2500) ; •6 A2, B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,C A1,and 7>>> international level, access to special grades •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA funding
  • 150. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide Periodicals (~40.000); •evaluation is of Graduate Programs Evaluation •National Subscription of Scientific •annual reports •46 thematic areas Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 ( electronically) journals, electronic access; webofscience, •grades from 1 to 7 etc •grades everyprogram •1 and 2 >>> 3 years •academic productivity in closes... •Evaluation of Graduate Programs journals, classified by area in (~2500) ; •6 A2, B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,C A1,and 7>>> international level, access to special grades •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA funding
  • 151. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide Periodicals (~40.000); •evaluation is of Graduate •15000Evaluation Programs titles; •National Subscription of Scientific •annual reports •46 thematic areas Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 ( electronically) journals, electronic access; webofscience, •grades from 1 to 7 etc •grades everyprogram •1 and 2 >>> 3 years •academic productivity in closes... •Evaluation of Graduate Programs journals, classified by area in (~2500) ; •6 A2, B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,C A1,and 7>>> international level, access to special grades •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA funding
  • 152. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide Periodicals (~40.000); •evaluation is of Graduate •15000Evaluation Programs titles; •National Subscription of Scientific •annual reports •every University with a •46 thematic areas Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 graduate program can have ( electronically) journals, electronic access; webofscience, •grades from 1 to 7 access to all, through IP etc •grades everyprogram •1 and 2 >>> 3 years identification; •academic productivity in closes... •Evaluation of Graduate Programs journals, classified by area in (~2500) ; •6 A2, B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,C A1,and 7>>> international level, access to special grades •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA funding
  • 153. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide Periodicals (~40.000); •evaluation is of Graduate •15000Evaluation Programs titles; •National Subscription of Scientific •annual reports •every University with a •46 thematic areas Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 graduate program can have ( electronically) journals, electronic access; webofscience, •grades from 1 to 7 access to all, through IP etc •grades everyprogram •1 and 2 >>> 3 years identification; •academic productivity in closes... •Evaluation of Graduate Programs •fosters multidisciplinarityin journals, classified by area •6 A2, B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,C (~2500) ; A1,and 7>>> international level, access to special grades •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA funding
  • 154. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE II: CAPES Federal Agency for Graduate Studies •Depends on the Ministry for Education; Evaluation: •Master and PhD fellowships nationwide Periodicals (~40.000); •evaluation is of Graduate •15000Evaluation Programs titles; •National Subscription of Scientific •annual reports •every University with a •46 thematic areas Periodicals ( Portal Periódicos, ) : 15.000 graduate program can have ( electronically) journals, electronic access; webofscience, •grades from 1 to 7 access to all, through IP etc •grades everyprogram •1 and 2 >>> 3 years identification; •academic productivity in closes... •Evaluation of Graduate Programs •fosters multidisciplinarityin journals, classified by area •6 A2, B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,C (~2500) ; A1,and 7>>> international •enormous effect on less level, access to special grades •Studentships ==> no jobs, 6 months TA developed regions funding
  • 155. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE III: IMPA
  • 156. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE III: IMPA •National Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, established in 1952.
  • 157. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE III: IMPA •History: small but very brilliant initial group •National Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, established in 1952.
  • 158. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE III: IMPA •History: small but very brilliant initial group •Very strict conditions for hiring •National Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, established in 1952.
  • 159. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE III: IMPA •History: small but very brilliant initial group •Very strict conditions for hiring •Only research and graduate studies •National Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, established in 1952.
  • 160. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE III: IMPA •History: small but very brilliant initial group •Very strict conditions for hiring •Only research and graduate studies •Organizes the Brazilian Math Meeting •National Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, established in 1952.
  • 161. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE III: IMPA •History: small but very brilliant initial group •Very strict conditions for hiring •Only research and graduate studies •Organizes the Brazilian Math Meeting •Close ties to international centers •National Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, established in 1952.
  • 162. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE III: IMPA •History: small but very brilliant initial group •Very strict conditions for hiring •Only research and graduate studies •Organizes the Brazilian Math Meeting •Close ties to international centers •Associate center with CNRS ( Unité •National Institute for Pure and Applied Internationale) Mathematics, established in 1952.
  • 163. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE III: IMPA •History: small but very brilliant initial group •Very strict conditions for hiring •Only research and graduate studies •Organizes the Brazilian Math Meeting •Close ties to international centers •Associate center with CNRS ( Unité •National Institute for Pure and Applied Internationale) Mathematics, established in 1952. •Coordinates large projects
  • 164. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE III: IMPA •History: small but very brilliant initial group •Very strict conditions for hiring •Only research and graduate studies •Organizes the Brazilian Math Meeting •Close ties to international centers •Associate center with CNRS ( Unité •National Institute for Pure and Applied Internationale) Mathematics, established in 1952. •Coordinates large projects •Pure and Applied
  • 165. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE IV: EMBRAPA
  • 166. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE IV: EMBRAPA The Brazilian Agricultural R e s e a rc h C o r p o r a t i o n ' s mission is to provide feasible solutions for the sustainable development of Brazilian a g ribusiness through knowledge and technology generation and transfer.
  • 167. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE IV: EMBRAPA •Established in 1973 The Brazilian Agricultural R e s e a rc h C o r p o r a t i o n ' s mission is to provide feasible solutions for the sustainable development of Brazilian a g ribusiness through knowledge and technology generation and transfer.
  • 168. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE IV: EMBRAPA •Established in 1973 •Multi-center: 15 product oriented centers, 10 basic science centers, 14 regional centers, 3 labs in Brasília, 3 International Research Units ( Ghana, Panama and Venezuela), 4 The Brazilian Agricultural R e s e a rc h C o r p o r a t i o n ' s International Bussiness Offices ( USA, France, mission is to provide feasible Holland, Korea). solutions for the sustainable development of Brazilian a g ribusiness through knowledge and technology generation and transfer.
  • 169. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE IV: EMBRAPA •Established in 1973 •Multi-center: 15 product oriented centers, 10 basic science centers, 14 regional centers, 3 labs in Brasília, 3 International Research Units ( Ghana, Panama and Venezuela), 4 The Brazilian Agricultural R e s e a rc h C o r p o r a t i o n ' s International Bussiness Offices ( USA, France, mission is to provide feasible Holland, Korea). solutions for the sustainable development of Brazilian a g ribusiness through knowledge and technology •Dedicated to development of solutions generation and transfer. for real life problems in agriculture
  • 170. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE IV: EMBRAPA •Established in 1973 •Incorporation of the tropical savanna ( Cerrado) into productive agrobusiness •Multi-center: 15 product oriented centers, •Adaptation of soya to 14 regional centers, 10 basic science centers, Brazilian climate 3 labs in Brasília, 3 largest producer ==> world second International Research Units ( Ghana, Panama and Venezuela), 4 The Brazilian Agricultural R e s e a rc h C o r p o r a t i o n ' s •Fivefold multiplication of cattle in France, International Bussiness Offices ( USA,25 mission is to provide feasible years Holland, Korea). solutions for the sustainable development of Brazilian a g ribusiness through knowledge and technology •Dedicated to development of solutions 25 Chicken production multiplied by 25 in generation and transfer. for real life problems in agriculture years
  • 171. Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil CASE IV: EMBRAPA •Established in 1973 •Incorporation of the tropical savanna ( Cerrado) into productive agrobusiness •Multi-center: 15 product oriented centers, •Adaptation of soya to 14 regional centers, 10 basic science centers, Brazilian climate 3 labs in Brasília, 3 largest producer ==> world second International Research Units ( Ghana, Panama and Venezuela), 4 The Brazilian Agricultural R e s e a rc h C o r p o r a t i o n ' s •Fivefold multiplication of cattle in France, International Bussiness Offices ( USA,25 mission is to provide feasible years Holland, Korea). solutions for the sustainable development of Brazilian a g ribusiness through knowledge and technology •Dedicated to development of solutions 25 Chicken production multiplied by 25 in generation and transfer. for real life problems in agriculture years