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Marco Gralike & Lucas Jellema
15th July 2013
An overview of
Oracle Database 12c (12.1)
Outline
• History, customer demand, market trends
• The Fourth Dimension: Time
• Availability: Application continuity and more
• Data masking (data redaction)
• Security
• Big Data: R and SQL Pattern Matching
• Multi Tenancy
• For cloud environments
• For efficient administration
• Automatic data optimization (& ILM)
• Administration Tooling: Database Express
• Migration to 12c
• Goodies
Database release history
2009 2012 2013 2014
12c R1
2010 2011
11g R2
11gR1: August 2007
10gR2: September 2005
10gR1: January 2004
September
2009
June
2013
Version 6
July 1988
• New Architecture
• Performance (first SMP)
• Availability
• Parallel Server
• TPO
• PL/SQL
• V6 Lays Architectural Groundwork for the Future
– This was a rewrite of the entire database
Oracle Database
Innovation
Audit Vault
Database Vault
Grid Computing
Self Managing Database
XML Database
Oracle Data Guard
Real Application Clusters
Flashback Query
Virtual Private Database
Built in Java VM
Partitioning Support
Built in Messaging
Object Relational Support
Multimedia Support
Data Warehousing Optimizations
Parallel Operations
Distributed SQL & Transaction Support
Cluster and MPP Support
Multi-version Read Consistency
Client/Server Support
Platform Portability
Commercial SQL Implementation
1977 2007
30 years of
sustained
innovation …
… continuing with
Oracle Database 12c
The first major architecture change since 1988
Multitenant architecture
DBA is resource intensive
Managing dozens of databases
means…
– Installing
– Configuring
– Securing
– Monitoring
– Patching
– Upgrading
– Backing up
• many database instances on potentially a large number of machines
• Using dedicated resources for each individual database instance
– 20 processes
– Memory for SGA
– Disk space for generic objects such as most of the SYS schema
Work in progress….
The Uber Database
C is for…
Complete
Complementary
Cloud
Consolidation
Container
Crowd
Control
Core
Central
Oracle Database Architecture
Multi Version Read Consistency
Rollback, Undo, Concurrency, ORA-1555
An AMIS Overview of Oracle database 12c (12.1)
Flashback
• Introduced in 9i
• Based on UNDO
• Initially only for recovery
• As of 11g – Total Recall option with
Flashback Data Archive
– Controlled history keeping
• Look back into history
– Query trends (version history)
– Difference reporting
– Audit trails (Replace journaling tables)
• Require trick for transaction history: WHO?
• Also: when is the start of history?
• By the way: Flashback Data Archive requires EE & Advanced
Compression database option
The Fourth Dimension: Time
In Oracle Database 12c R1:
• User-created Flashback Data Archive contents
• Import and Export of History
• Tracking of transaction (session) context
• Flashback Data Archive available in every edition of the database
The Fourth Dimension: Time
Part 2
• Support for SQL 2011 Temporal Validity
• Record state associated with business start and end date (time)
– Instead of Transaction date (time)
• Tables can be associated with Periods – based on a pair of columns
• Flashback queries against these tables can query for valid records at a
certain point in time
• Not just looking back in time but also looking ahead!
SELECT *
FROM EMP AS OF PERIOD FOR user_time
TO_TIMESTAMP('01-DEC-2013 09.00.00 AM')
Availability
• Ever more DDL operations can be performed without taking a lock
– Metadata-only Defaults for NULL columns
– Invisible Indexes
– Online move of a partition
– Cascade Truncate
– DROP INDEX ONLINE, DROP CONSTRAINT ONLINE, SET UNUSED COLUMN
ONLINE, ALTER INDEX UNUSABLE ONLINE, ALTER INDEX [VISIBLE | INVISIBLE]
• Reduced limitations with Edition Based Redefinition
– No reason not to use EBR for PL/SQL and Views in order to achieve zero-down time
application upgrade
• Parallel Upgrade
• Transaction Guard
• Application Continuity
Transaction Outcome Unknown
Application Continuity
• Outages cause in-flight work to be lost, and leave users not knowing what
happened
• Often leads to
– users seeing errors
– data re-entry
– duplicate submissions
– rebooting mid-tiers
Before:
Transaction Guard
• Known outcome for every transaction
• At-most-once transaction execution
• Used by Application Continuity
• Available for JDBC-thin, OCI, OCCI, ODP.net
• Without Transaction Guard,
retries can cause
logical corruption
Application Continuity
• Improves end user experience
• Improves developer productivity
• Application transparent when using
Oracle stack
• Enabled with
WebLogic Server,
Peoplesoft, Fusion Apps,
Siebel(possibly)
Data Masking
• Gartner reports that: data masking should be mandatory for enterprises
using copies of sensitive production data for application
development, analytics or training.
• They also believe the market is
expanding into production and
unstructured data protection.
Data Redaction
• At runtime, you can optionally have the query results modified to
reset/scramble/randomize sensitive data
– Through „data redaction‟ policies associated with tables and view and applied at
query time
• Because the data is masked in real-time, Data Redaction is well suited to
environments in which data is constantly changing.
• You can create the Data Redaction policies in one central location and
easily manage them from there.
SQL
engine SQL
POLICY
POLICY
RESULTS
Security
• PL/SQL security refinement
– Whitelist to specify which program units may invoke a prcoedure
– Roles attached to invoker rights program units
– Prevent automatic inheritance of invoker‟s privileges in invoker rights unit
• View with invoker rights
• Digest Authentication for DBMS_EPG
• Real Application Security - a database authorization model that
enables end-to-end security for multitier applications
– privilege delegation, role-based constraints, time-based access control, code-
based security, multi-level authorization, negative grants, authorization on user
interface artifacts, access constraints on relational data, and application users
auditing
• Run-Time Privilege Analysis (Privilege Capture)
• Unified Context-Based Database Audit Architecture
Big Data
• Spatial and Semantic Query are merged into Spatial and
Graph
• Oracle Text is enhanced in many ways
• Enterprise R is further extended
• SQL Pattern Matching has been introduced
– Inspired by CQL
– Look for patterns in subsequent rows in the result set using regular
expressions
(go beyond Analytic Functions)
Other Database Development
enhancements
• SQL evolution
– APPLY, Top-N and Pagination
• SQL  PL/SQL integration
– WITH, UDF, Call Stack API
• Improved Defaults
• SQL Text Expansion
• Improved JDBC integration
A glimpse into the future…
Marco Gralike & Lucas Jellema
15th July 2013
An overview of
Oracle Database 12c (12.1)
Multitenant Architecture
Multitenant Architecture
Multitenant Architecture
Multitenant Architecture
Multitenant Architecture
Multitenant Architecture
Multitenant Architecture
35
Common Data Dictionary
36
Oracle Data and User Data
37
Horizontally Partitioned
38
Multitenant Architecture
39
Multitenant Scalability
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
CRM HCM ERP BI
GB
Pluggable Database
MEMORY
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
CRM HCM ERP BI DW
GB
Pluggable Database
MEMORY
Only small increments in memory as additional PDBs are added
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
CRM HCM ERP
GB
MEMORY
40
Files in the CDB
41
Fast Provisioning
42
Simplified Patching
43
Fast Cloning a PDB
 PDBs can be cloned from
remote CDBs
 PDBs can be cloned from
within the same CDB
44
Cloning a PDB
45
Upgrades
46
Multitenant Agility
GOLD
SILVER
BRONZE
RAC, Data Guard, Daily Incrementals
Data Guard, Daily Incrementals
Weekly Full Backups
47
Database as a Service
RAC, Data
Guard, Daily
Incrementals
Data Guard
Daily Incrementals
✔
GOLD
SILVER
BRONZE Weekly Full
Backups
✔
48
Notes
• Database National Characterset
• Database Option License (25 juni 2013)
– 17,500$ per CPU
– 350$ per Named User Plus
• No extra cost for: 1 CDB + 1 PDB
• CDB  ORA-00600 / ORA-07445
Automatic Data Optimization
50
Heat Map
• Automatically tracks usage information at the row and segment levels
• ALTER SYSTEM SET HEAT_MAP = ON | OFF;
• Package  DBMS_HEAT_MAP
• V$HEAT_MAP_SEGMENT  Real-time Segment Access Information
• Views:
ALL/DBA/USER _HEAT_MAP_SEGMENT
ALL/DBA/USER _HEAT_MAP_SEQ_HISTOGRAM
DBA_HEATMAP_TOP_OBJECTS
Top 1000 objects
DBA_HEATMAP_TOP_TABLESPACES
Top 100 Tablespaces
51
Automatic Data Optimization
• Automate compression or movement of data
• Via CREATE and ALTER TABLE SQL statements
• Heat Map must be enabled
• Policy based levels:
– Row
– Segment
– Tablespace
• Default Compression Mappings:
– COMPRESS ADVANCED on a heap table maps to standard compression for indexes
and LOW for LOB segments.
– COMPRESS FOR QUERY LOW/QUERY HIGH on a heap table maps to standard
compression for indexes and MEDIUM for LOB segments.
– COMPRESS FOR ARCHIVE LOW/ARCHIVE HIGH on a heap table maps to
standard compression for indexes and HIGH for LOB segments.
52
Automatic Data Optimization
XML DB
54
XML DB
• XQuery Update
– Replaces all “old” update methods
• XQuery Full Text
– Full Text Index
– XML (Schema) Aware
• Compatibility across the Board
– Dataguard
– GoldenGate
– DataPump
– DBFS
• Parallel XMLType
Database Express
56
Database Express
• “Replacement” for DB Console
• Adobe Flash
• Subset features OEM 12c
• Build-in / footprint 20MB
• Limited regarding Management
• Extended regarding Performance insight
• Diagnostic & Tuning Pack
57
Database Express
58
New: Real Time ADDM
Stuff you always wanted…
Goodies you always wanted…?
• EXPORT BY VIEW
• ALTER DATABASE MOVE datafile  ONLINE!
• Multiple indexes on the SAME column
– can be used when…
• B-Tree versus Bitmap
• Different partitioning strategies
• Unique versus nonunique
• Privilege Capture…
Privilege Capture
• DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE
– CREATE_CAPTURE
– ENABLE_CAPTURE
– DISABLE_CAPTURE
– GENERATE_RESULT
– DROP_CAPTURE
• Role needed “CAPTURE_ADMIN”
• DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.GENERATE_RESULT populates
– DBA_USED_xxx
– DBA_USED_xxx_PATH
– DBA_UNUSED_xxx
– DBA_UNUSED_xxx_PATH
62

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An AMIS Overview of Oracle database 12c (12.1)

  • 1. Marco Gralike & Lucas Jellema 15th July 2013 An overview of Oracle Database 12c (12.1)
  • 2. Outline • History, customer demand, market trends • The Fourth Dimension: Time • Availability: Application continuity and more • Data masking (data redaction) • Security • Big Data: R and SQL Pattern Matching • Multi Tenancy • For cloud environments • For efficient administration • Automatic data optimization (& ILM) • Administration Tooling: Database Express • Migration to 12c • Goodies
  • 3. Database release history 2009 2012 2013 2014 12c R1 2010 2011 11g R2 11gR1: August 2007 10gR2: September 2005 10gR1: January 2004 September 2009 June 2013
  • 4. Version 6 July 1988 • New Architecture • Performance (first SMP) • Availability • Parallel Server • TPO • PL/SQL • V6 Lays Architectural Groundwork for the Future – This was a rewrite of the entire database
  • 5. Oracle Database Innovation Audit Vault Database Vault Grid Computing Self Managing Database XML Database Oracle Data Guard Real Application Clusters Flashback Query Virtual Private Database Built in Java VM Partitioning Support Built in Messaging Object Relational Support Multimedia Support Data Warehousing Optimizations Parallel Operations Distributed SQL & Transaction Support Cluster and MPP Support Multi-version Read Consistency Client/Server Support Platform Portability Commercial SQL Implementation 1977 2007 30 years of sustained innovation … … continuing with Oracle Database 12c
  • 6. The first major architecture change since 1988 Multitenant architecture
  • 7. DBA is resource intensive
  • 8. Managing dozens of databases means… – Installing – Configuring – Securing – Monitoring – Patching – Upgrading – Backing up • many database instances on potentially a large number of machines • Using dedicated resources for each individual database instance – 20 processes – Memory for SGA – Disk space for generic objects such as most of the SYS schema
  • 9. Work in progress…. The Uber Database
  • 11. Oracle Database Architecture Multi Version Read Consistency Rollback, Undo, Concurrency, ORA-1555
  • 13. Flashback • Introduced in 9i • Based on UNDO • Initially only for recovery • As of 11g – Total Recall option with Flashback Data Archive – Controlled history keeping • Look back into history – Query trends (version history) – Difference reporting – Audit trails (Replace journaling tables) • Require trick for transaction history: WHO? • Also: when is the start of history? • By the way: Flashback Data Archive requires EE & Advanced Compression database option
  • 14. The Fourth Dimension: Time In Oracle Database 12c R1: • User-created Flashback Data Archive contents • Import and Export of History • Tracking of transaction (session) context • Flashback Data Archive available in every edition of the database
  • 15. The Fourth Dimension: Time Part 2 • Support for SQL 2011 Temporal Validity • Record state associated with business start and end date (time) – Instead of Transaction date (time) • Tables can be associated with Periods – based on a pair of columns • Flashback queries against these tables can query for valid records at a certain point in time • Not just looking back in time but also looking ahead! SELECT * FROM EMP AS OF PERIOD FOR user_time TO_TIMESTAMP('01-DEC-2013 09.00.00 AM')
  • 16. Availability • Ever more DDL operations can be performed without taking a lock – Metadata-only Defaults for NULL columns – Invisible Indexes – Online move of a partition – Cascade Truncate – DROP INDEX ONLINE, DROP CONSTRAINT ONLINE, SET UNUSED COLUMN ONLINE, ALTER INDEX UNUSABLE ONLINE, ALTER INDEX [VISIBLE | INVISIBLE] • Reduced limitations with Edition Based Redefinition – No reason not to use EBR for PL/SQL and Views in order to achieve zero-down time application upgrade • Parallel Upgrade • Transaction Guard • Application Continuity
  • 18. Application Continuity • Outages cause in-flight work to be lost, and leave users not knowing what happened • Often leads to – users seeing errors – data re-entry – duplicate submissions – rebooting mid-tiers Before:
  • 19. Transaction Guard • Known outcome for every transaction • At-most-once transaction execution • Used by Application Continuity • Available for JDBC-thin, OCI, OCCI, ODP.net • Without Transaction Guard, retries can cause logical corruption
  • 20. Application Continuity • Improves end user experience • Improves developer productivity • Application transparent when using Oracle stack • Enabled with WebLogic Server, Peoplesoft, Fusion Apps, Siebel(possibly)
  • 21. Data Masking • Gartner reports that: data masking should be mandatory for enterprises using copies of sensitive production data for application development, analytics or training. • They also believe the market is expanding into production and unstructured data protection.
  • 22. Data Redaction • At runtime, you can optionally have the query results modified to reset/scramble/randomize sensitive data – Through „data redaction‟ policies associated with tables and view and applied at query time • Because the data is masked in real-time, Data Redaction is well suited to environments in which data is constantly changing. • You can create the Data Redaction policies in one central location and easily manage them from there. SQL engine SQL POLICY POLICY RESULTS
  • 23. Security • PL/SQL security refinement – Whitelist to specify which program units may invoke a prcoedure – Roles attached to invoker rights program units – Prevent automatic inheritance of invoker‟s privileges in invoker rights unit • View with invoker rights • Digest Authentication for DBMS_EPG • Real Application Security - a database authorization model that enables end-to-end security for multitier applications – privilege delegation, role-based constraints, time-based access control, code- based security, multi-level authorization, negative grants, authorization on user interface artifacts, access constraints on relational data, and application users auditing • Run-Time Privilege Analysis (Privilege Capture) • Unified Context-Based Database Audit Architecture
  • 24. Big Data • Spatial and Semantic Query are merged into Spatial and Graph • Oracle Text is enhanced in many ways • Enterprise R is further extended • SQL Pattern Matching has been introduced – Inspired by CQL – Look for patterns in subsequent rows in the result set using regular expressions (go beyond Analytic Functions)
  • 25. Other Database Development enhancements • SQL evolution – APPLY, Top-N and Pagination • SQL  PL/SQL integration – WITH, UDF, Call Stack API • Improved Defaults • SQL Text Expansion • Improved JDBC integration
  • 26. A glimpse into the future…
  • 27. Marco Gralike & Lucas Jellema 15th July 2013 An overview of Oracle Database 12c (12.1)
  • 36. 36 Oracle Data and User Data
  • 39. 39 Multitenant Scalability 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 CRM HCM ERP BI GB Pluggable Database MEMORY 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 CRM HCM ERP BI DW GB Pluggable Database MEMORY Only small increments in memory as additional PDBs are added 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 CRM HCM ERP GB MEMORY
  • 43. 43 Fast Cloning a PDB  PDBs can be cloned from remote CDBs  PDBs can be cloned from within the same CDB
  • 46. 46 Multitenant Agility GOLD SILVER BRONZE RAC, Data Guard, Daily Incrementals Data Guard, Daily Incrementals Weekly Full Backups
  • 47. 47 Database as a Service RAC, Data Guard, Daily Incrementals Data Guard Daily Incrementals ✔ GOLD SILVER BRONZE Weekly Full Backups ✔
  • 48. 48 Notes • Database National Characterset • Database Option License (25 juni 2013) – 17,500$ per CPU – 350$ per Named User Plus • No extra cost for: 1 CDB + 1 PDB • CDB  ORA-00600 / ORA-07445
  • 50. 50 Heat Map • Automatically tracks usage information at the row and segment levels • ALTER SYSTEM SET HEAT_MAP = ON | OFF; • Package  DBMS_HEAT_MAP • V$HEAT_MAP_SEGMENT  Real-time Segment Access Information • Views: ALL/DBA/USER _HEAT_MAP_SEGMENT ALL/DBA/USER _HEAT_MAP_SEQ_HISTOGRAM DBA_HEATMAP_TOP_OBJECTS Top 1000 objects DBA_HEATMAP_TOP_TABLESPACES Top 100 Tablespaces
  • 51. 51 Automatic Data Optimization • Automate compression or movement of data • Via CREATE and ALTER TABLE SQL statements • Heat Map must be enabled • Policy based levels: – Row – Segment – Tablespace • Default Compression Mappings: – COMPRESS ADVANCED on a heap table maps to standard compression for indexes and LOW for LOB segments. – COMPRESS FOR QUERY LOW/QUERY HIGH on a heap table maps to standard compression for indexes and MEDIUM for LOB segments. – COMPRESS FOR ARCHIVE LOW/ARCHIVE HIGH on a heap table maps to standard compression for indexes and HIGH for LOB segments.
  • 54. 54 XML DB • XQuery Update – Replaces all “old” update methods • XQuery Full Text – Full Text Index – XML (Schema) Aware • Compatibility across the Board – Dataguard – GoldenGate – DataPump – DBFS • Parallel XMLType
  • 56. 56 Database Express • “Replacement” for DB Console • Adobe Flash • Subset features OEM 12c • Build-in / footprint 20MB • Limited regarding Management • Extended regarding Performance insight • Diagnostic & Tuning Pack
  • 59. Stuff you always wanted…
  • 60. Goodies you always wanted…? • EXPORT BY VIEW • ALTER DATABASE MOVE datafile  ONLINE! • Multiple indexes on the SAME column – can be used when… • B-Tree versus Bitmap • Different partitioning strategies • Unique versus nonunique • Privilege Capture…
  • 61. Privilege Capture • DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE – CREATE_CAPTURE – ENABLE_CAPTURE – DISABLE_CAPTURE – GENERATE_RESULT – DROP_CAPTURE • Role needed “CAPTURE_ADMIN” • DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.GENERATE_RESULT populates – DBA_USED_xxx – DBA_USED_xxx_PATH – DBA_UNUSED_xxx – DBA_UNUSED_xxx_PATH
  • 62. 62

Editor's Notes

  1. 12c:All table definition, partitioning, and space management DDLs are supported on FDA-enabled tables. Retain session context with transaction Data Pump supports flashback history import ‘user defined history’ as flashback history restore pointsTemporal modeling/ valid time definition specifying the validity period for records unique keys that allow multiple entries with non-overlapping validity periods, foreign keys that include period, flashback based on valid time (not transaction time); joins, aggregation, … valid time aware
  2. http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/database-cloud/private/transaction-guard-wp-12c-1966209.pdf
  3. Logical Transaction IdentifierApplications use a concept called the logical transaction ID (LTXID) to determine the outcome of the last transaction open in a database session following an outage. The LTXID is held in the OCI session handle and in a connection object for the thin JDBC-Thin and ODP.Net drivers. The logical transaction IDis used to obtain the commit outcome and for the at-most once semantics. Reliable Commit OutcomeFrom the client perspective, the transaction is committed when an Oraclemessage (termed Commit Outcome), generated after the transactionredo is written, is received by the client. However, the COMMIT message is not durable. Transaction Guard obtains the Commit Outcome reliably when it has been lost following a recoverable error.Recoverable Error (enhanced)A recoverable error is an error that arises due to an external system failure, independent of the application session logic that is executing.Recoverable errors occur following planned and unplanned outages of foregrounds, networks, nodes, storage, and databases.The application receives an error code that can leave the application not knowing the status of the last operation submitted. Recoverable errors areenhanced in Oracle Database 12c, to include more errors and to includea public API for OCI. Applications should no longer list error numbers in their code.Transaction Guard is invoked following a recoverable error code
  4. http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/security/real-application-security/real-application-security-1964775.html