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Philip Sheldrake
Author, The Business of Influence
Influence
The use and abuse of the word
              Following “Influence – the bullshit, best practice and promise”
A few questions …

What do you think of Adidas?
How will you vote at the next election?
Why did you see that last film at the cinema?
Where would you really like to go on vacation?
Which company would you really like to work for?
Why did you select those items at the supermarket?




Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
Why those answers? Maybe … /1

Simple –
        Because my other half / my mate / my Mum …


Complex –
        For a variety of reasons …
                 some of which are immediately obvious to me,
                 some of which I can sketch out now I think about it,
                 and probably some other things too.




Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
Why those answers? Maybe … /2

Simple –
        Because [celebrity name] recommended it …


Complex –
        Er, hmm, well, er, maybe, no, hmm, well perhaps, er …
        actually, I don‟t really know.
        Lots of reasons I‟m sure, just none I can pick out.




Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
You’ve been influenced, right?

Yeah. Guess so.

You‟ve been influenced when you think something
you wouldn‟t otherwise have thought or do something
you wouldn‟t otherwise have done.

Sure. I get it.
So life is one great mix of influences.



Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
So, can I ask you? …

Did this lady with an “influence score” of 67 influence
you more than this one with a score of 66?

Did this gent with a score of 60 influence you twice as
much as this chap with a score of 30?

Did your two mates, each scoring 27, influence you
less than this 82 scoring “key influencer”?



Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
Influence is not …

… some quantity invented by a PR firm, analytics
provider, or measurement and evaluation company
that rolls up a number of indices and measures into
some relatively arbitrary compound formula that
makes any appreciation of the underlying
approach, variables and mathematics completely
opaque to the end-user thereby radically attenuating
any little use it may have been but in such a way that
it can be branded nicely and sold as “unique”.
The Business of Influence, Sheldrake, Wiley, 2011




Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
Influence is complex … /1

Complexity is the phenomena that emerge from a
collection of interacting objects.

For example:
        Molecules of air => phenomenon of weather
        Vehicles => phenomenon of traffic
        Population of Cairo => phenomenon of political uprising.




Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
Influence is complex … /2

The individual object rarely betrays anything about
the phenomena.

        You can't learn much about the termite mound by studying
        the individual termite.
        Or learn about the traffic jam by studying the car.
        Or learn much about the complex ways influence goes
        around comes around by studying “key influencers” alone.




Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
Nearest and dearest




Full Gesture
Communication™
in Unaugmented
Reality™ 


We are more influenced by the 150 nearest to us than
by the other six or so billion combined.



Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
Avoid simple thinking
If society is ready to embrace a trend, almost anyone
can start one – and if it isn't, then almost no one can.
                                                                                                                                         Dr. Duncan Watts




The conclusions of The Tipping Point are overly
simplistic and probably just plain wrong.
                                                                                                          The Business of Influence, Sheldrake, Wiley, 2011




Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
So what about Klout et al? /1

                                       “the standard for influence” / “measures your
                                       influence on your social networks”

                                       “own your own influence” / Now –> “understand
                                       your online social capital”

                                       “assemble the collective intelligence, identify its
                                       most influential people, and make them accessible
                                       for analysis and engagement” / “Kred measures
                                       personal Influence and Outreach in social media
                                       communities connected by interests”

                                       Find influencers who impact your bottom-line


Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
So what about Klout et al? /2


“For every complex
problem there is an
answer that is
clear, simple, and
wrong.”
                                                                                                                 H.L. Mencken
Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
So what about Klout et al? /3

We have no scalable facility to ascertain or infer who
or what caused someone to change their mind or
behavior, without falling into some kind of last-click
attribution trap, so how then can we pretend to score
an individual‟s likelihood to exert that influence, and
as if they did so with apparent Newtonian simplicity?
We‟ve barely even attempted to correlate proxies for
influence, assuming that universal correlates even
exist.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/media-network/media-network-blog/2012/feb/15/complexity-influence-challenge-opportunity




Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
So what about Klout et al? /4

Perhaps Klout et al attempt a measure at online
popularity, or perhaps online authority, or more
exactly the likelihood to have one’s online
output shared / forwarded.
But not one‟s influence.




Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
So what about Klout et al? /5

The inappropriate use of the word influence is
starting to be replaced with social capital.
I prefer that.
However, not every social share is accretive to social
capital. Social capital is destroyed when stuff is
shared in disagreement, disgust or mockery.
So any measure of social capital that treats negative
social shares the same as positive social shares is
flawed.


Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
Influence and organizational objectives

Reputation management does not actually mean
managing reputation, and brand management does
not actually mean managing a brand.
They mean actively attending to the business of
influencing and being influenced such that the
resultant beliefs or opinions held about us and our
products are conducive to our achieving
organizational objectives.
Everyone‟s in the business of influence.



Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
Engagement

When Chris Lake, Econsultancy‟s Director of
Innovation, writes: „It‟s all about engagement‟, _
and when Katie Delahaye Paine asserts in her
presentation Are We Engaged Yet?: „The definition of
success has changed – The answer isn‟t how many
you‟ve reached, but how those you‟ve reached have
responded‟, _
they are emphasizing engagement as a measurable
outcome of influence.



Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
Influence is everything

The task at hand is influence (influencing and being
influenced) with short- and long-term
manifestations:
  Shorter-term                                                             Longer-term

  Relevance                                                                Reputation
  Resonance                                                                Trust
  Accessibility                                                            Significance
  Engagement                                                               Authenticity
  Curiosity                                                                Authority




Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
Approaches to influence

Influencer-centric and influence-centric approaches.
  High                  Track the influence (the action)




                                                                                                                  Influence-centric
                        back to source
                                                                                Focused on business
                                                                                outcomes, as we should be!
  Medium                It’s quality not quantity. Not                          Best practice, intelligent and
                        how many people you interact                            you could say scientific and
                        with, but who, how and in what                          professional marketing and PR.
                        context?

  Low                   Number of followers, friends,




                                                                                                                  Influencer-centric
                        subscribers, circulation
                                                                                Akin to “column inches” and
                                                                                “advertising value equivalent”.
  Pitiful               Obfuscating compound                                    Measurement because you can
                        measures of non-contextual                              not because you should.
                        trivial variables

Table 5.1, p47, The Business of Influence, Sheldrake, Wiley, 2011


Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
In conclusion /1

Focus only on the car and this moment‟s traffic
jams, and you don‟t understand the city‟s traffic
system. If you don‟t understand the traffic, you can‟t
hope to invest your transport budget effectively.



Focus on flawed metrics of “key influencers”, on
what‟s trending right now, and you don‟t understand
the system of influence. If you have a poor grasp of
the influence system, you can‟t hope to deploy your
resources effectively.
Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
In conclusion                                        /2


Successful marketing and PR consultants of the 21st-
century will avoid simplistic thinking and hyperbole.
They will recognize complexity and navigate it
appropriately.
As for the analysis firms, long may we have the for-
profit motive to explore complexity science and
network science, let's just not mis-sell its capabilities
along the way.




Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License

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Influence – the use and abuse of the word in social media

  • 1.
  • 2. Philip Sheldrake Author, The Business of Influence
  • 3. Influence The use and abuse of the word Following “Influence – the bullshit, best practice and promise”
  • 4. A few questions … What do you think of Adidas? How will you vote at the next election? Why did you see that last film at the cinema? Where would you really like to go on vacation? Which company would you really like to work for? Why did you select those items at the supermarket? Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 5. Why those answers? Maybe … /1 Simple – Because my other half / my mate / my Mum … Complex – For a variety of reasons … some of which are immediately obvious to me, some of which I can sketch out now I think about it, and probably some other things too. Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 6. Why those answers? Maybe … /2 Simple – Because [celebrity name] recommended it … Complex – Er, hmm, well, er, maybe, no, hmm, well perhaps, er … actually, I don‟t really know. Lots of reasons I‟m sure, just none I can pick out. Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 7. You’ve been influenced, right? Yeah. Guess so. You‟ve been influenced when you think something you wouldn‟t otherwise have thought or do something you wouldn‟t otherwise have done. Sure. I get it. So life is one great mix of influences. Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 8. So, can I ask you? … Did this lady with an “influence score” of 67 influence you more than this one with a score of 66? Did this gent with a score of 60 influence you twice as much as this chap with a score of 30? Did your two mates, each scoring 27, influence you less than this 82 scoring “key influencer”? Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 9. Influence is not … … some quantity invented by a PR firm, analytics provider, or measurement and evaluation company that rolls up a number of indices and measures into some relatively arbitrary compound formula that makes any appreciation of the underlying approach, variables and mathematics completely opaque to the end-user thereby radically attenuating any little use it may have been but in such a way that it can be branded nicely and sold as “unique”. The Business of Influence, Sheldrake, Wiley, 2011 Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 10. Influence is complex … /1 Complexity is the phenomena that emerge from a collection of interacting objects. For example: Molecules of air => phenomenon of weather Vehicles => phenomenon of traffic Population of Cairo => phenomenon of political uprising. Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 11. Influence is complex … /2 The individual object rarely betrays anything about the phenomena. You can't learn much about the termite mound by studying the individual termite. Or learn about the traffic jam by studying the car. Or learn much about the complex ways influence goes around comes around by studying “key influencers” alone. Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 12. Nearest and dearest Full Gesture Communication™ in Unaugmented Reality™  We are more influenced by the 150 nearest to us than by the other six or so billion combined. Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 13. Avoid simple thinking If society is ready to embrace a trend, almost anyone can start one – and if it isn't, then almost no one can. Dr. Duncan Watts The conclusions of The Tipping Point are overly simplistic and probably just plain wrong. The Business of Influence, Sheldrake, Wiley, 2011 Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 14. So what about Klout et al? /1 “the standard for influence” / “measures your influence on your social networks” “own your own influence” / Now –> “understand your online social capital” “assemble the collective intelligence, identify its most influential people, and make them accessible for analysis and engagement” / “Kred measures personal Influence and Outreach in social media communities connected by interests” Find influencers who impact your bottom-line Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 15. So what about Klout et al? /2 “For every complex problem there is an answer that is clear, simple, and wrong.” H.L. Mencken Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 16. So what about Klout et al? /3 We have no scalable facility to ascertain or infer who or what caused someone to change their mind or behavior, without falling into some kind of last-click attribution trap, so how then can we pretend to score an individual‟s likelihood to exert that influence, and as if they did so with apparent Newtonian simplicity? We‟ve barely even attempted to correlate proxies for influence, assuming that universal correlates even exist. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media-network/media-network-blog/2012/feb/15/complexity-influence-challenge-opportunity Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 17. So what about Klout et al? /4 Perhaps Klout et al attempt a measure at online popularity, or perhaps online authority, or more exactly the likelihood to have one’s online output shared / forwarded. But not one‟s influence. Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 18. So what about Klout et al? /5 The inappropriate use of the word influence is starting to be replaced with social capital. I prefer that. However, not every social share is accretive to social capital. Social capital is destroyed when stuff is shared in disagreement, disgust or mockery. So any measure of social capital that treats negative social shares the same as positive social shares is flawed. Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 19. Influence and organizational objectives Reputation management does not actually mean managing reputation, and brand management does not actually mean managing a brand. They mean actively attending to the business of influencing and being influenced such that the resultant beliefs or opinions held about us and our products are conducive to our achieving organizational objectives. Everyone‟s in the business of influence. Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 20. Engagement When Chris Lake, Econsultancy‟s Director of Innovation, writes: „It‟s all about engagement‟, _ and when Katie Delahaye Paine asserts in her presentation Are We Engaged Yet?: „The definition of success has changed – The answer isn‟t how many you‟ve reached, but how those you‟ve reached have responded‟, _ they are emphasizing engagement as a measurable outcome of influence. Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 21. Influence is everything The task at hand is influence (influencing and being influenced) with short- and long-term manifestations: Shorter-term Longer-term Relevance Reputation Resonance Trust Accessibility Significance Engagement Authenticity Curiosity Authority Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 22. Approaches to influence Influencer-centric and influence-centric approaches. High Track the influence (the action) Influence-centric back to source Focused on business outcomes, as we should be! Medium It’s quality not quantity. Not Best practice, intelligent and how many people you interact you could say scientific and with, but who, how and in what professional marketing and PR. context? Low Number of followers, friends, Influencer-centric subscribers, circulation Akin to “column inches” and “advertising value equivalent”. Pitiful Obfuscating compound Measurement because you can measures of non-contextual not because you should. trivial variables Table 5.1, p47, The Business of Influence, Sheldrake, Wiley, 2011 Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 23. In conclusion /1 Focus only on the car and this moment‟s traffic jams, and you don‟t understand the city‟s traffic system. If you don‟t understand the traffic, you can‟t hope to invest your transport budget effectively. Focus on flawed metrics of “key influencers”, on what‟s trending right now, and you don‟t understand the system of influence. If you have a poor grasp of the influence system, you can‟t hope to deploy your resources effectively. Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License
  • 24. In conclusion /2 Successful marketing and PR consultants of the 21st- century will avoid simplistic thinking and hyperbole. They will recognize complexity and navigate it appropriately. As for the analysis firms, long may we have the for- profit motive to explore complexity science and network science, let's just not mis-sell its capabilities along the way. Philip Sheldrake // Creative Commons License Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 England & Wales License