SlideShare a Scribd company logo
ALIPHATIC NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTION
2020-2021
Submitted By – NIDHI SANKET
M.Sc Chemistry Semester I
Department Of Chemistry
S.P.C. Govt. College, Ajmer
CONTENTS
 INTRODUCTION
 NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTION
 MECHANISM OF SN REACTION
 SN2 REACTION - MECHANISM
STEREOCHEMISTRY
 SN1 REACTION – MECHANISM
STEREOCHEMISTRY
 REFERENCES
NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTION
• At saturated carbon, Nucleophilic reaction involves the displacement of a nucleophile by another.
• A classic example is the hydrolysis of alkyl halides,
HO- + R-X HO-R + X-
MECHANISMS OF SN REACTION
• The two main mechanisms are,
1. SN1 Reaction
2. SN2 Reaction
• S stands for chemical substitution, N stands for nucleophilic and the number represents the
molecularity of the reaction.
SN2 REACTION
• Nucleophilic substitution reaction in which concentration of two molecules get change in rate
determining step is called SN2 reaction.
• The designation SN2 stands for bimolecular nucleophilic substitution .
• SN2 occurs where the central carbon atom is easily accessible to the nucleophile.
• The rate of reaction depends on both, the concentration of substrate and the concentration of
nucleophile.
Rate = k [substrate] [nucleophile]
SN2 REACTION
• Reaction between primary alkyl halide and aqueous base is an example of SN2 reaction .
R-X + -OH R-OH + X-
• Since hydroxyl ion is strong nucleophile than halide (X-) ion , hence halide ion is easily replaced by
hydroxyl ion.
• Rate = k [RX] [-OH]
• Rate of hydrolysis of alkyl halide by SN2 reaction is CH3X > 1o > 2o > 3o .
MECHANISM OF SN2 REACTION
• It is a single step process which involves no intermediate.
• It involves only one transition state which is of low polarity.
• The nucleophile attacks from the backside.
• An inverted product is formed and this inversion of configuration is called the WALDEN
INVERSION.
STEREOCHEMISTRY OF SN2 REACTIONS / EVIDENCES
FOR THE FORMATION OF TRANSITION STATE
• A method has been suggested by Hughes and Ingold to establish the inversion of configuration.
•The method involves the conversion of (+)2 iodooctane with potassium radioiodide (K129I) in
acetone to (-)2 iodooctane.
• The exchange of ordinary iodide with the radioactive iodide was accompanied by the loss of optical
activity.
• Inversion of configuration is always indicative of SN2 reaction.
SN1 REACTION
• Nucleophilic Substitution reaction in which concentration of only one molecule get change in
rate determining step is called SN1 reaction.
• The designation SN1 stands for unimolecular nucleophilic substitution.
• It is a two step process and since the slow step or rate determining step involves only the
substrate, the rate of reaction depends only on the concentration of substrate.
• Rate = k [substrate]
• Typical example of SN1 reaction is hydrolysis of tertiary butyl chloride.
(CH3)3C-Cl + -OH (CH3)3C-OH + Cl-
a. This reaction takes place in three steps.
b. Rate = k [(CH3)3C-Cl ]
SN1 REACTION
MECHANISM OF SN1 REACTION
It involves formation of carbocation intermediate .
STEREOCHEMISTRY OF SN1 REACTION / EVIDENCES
FOR THE FORMATION OF CARBOCATION
INTERMEDIATE
The SN1 reaction of S-3-chloro-3-methylhexane with an iodide ion, which yields a racemic mixture of
3-iodo-3-methylhexane.
STEREOCHEMISTRY OF SN1 REACTION
• Nucleophile can attack from both the sides. Nucleophile is free for attack on
carbocation from either of the side .
• RACEMIZATION occurs i.e. Retention in configuration and Inversion in
configuration take place and two types of product are formed.
• 100% racemization or pure racemization is rarely observed in SN1 mechanism.
• Inverted product is always predominates over retention in configuration product i.e.
racemic mixture as well as some invert product are formed in SN1 mechanism .
REFERENCES
 MARCH`S ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (7th EDITION)- by
Michael B. Smith - Wiley Student Edition
 ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- by Dr. Jagdamba singh and Dr. L.D.S.
Yadav – A Pragati Edition
 Special Thanks to Dr. Alok Chaturvedi Sir
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

Conjugate base mechanism
Conjugate base mechanismConjugate base mechanism
Conjugate base mechanism
SonikaPanghal
 
Organosilicon compounds
Organosilicon compoundsOrganosilicon compounds
Organosilicon compounds
Dr. Krishna Swamy. G
 
Nucleophilic substitutions reactions
Nucleophilic substitutions reactionsNucleophilic substitutions reactions
Nucleophilic substitutions reactions
ayesha saleem
 
Acid Base Hydrolysis in Octahedral Complexes
Acid Base Hydrolysis in Octahedral ComplexesAcid Base Hydrolysis in Octahedral Complexes
Acid Base Hydrolysis in Octahedral Complexes
SPCGC AJMER
 
Grignard reagents
Grignard reagentsGrignard reagents
Grignard reagents
UMANG JAGANI
 
Favorskii and wolff rearrangement seminar
Favorskii and wolff rearrangement seminarFavorskii and wolff rearrangement seminar
Favorskii and wolff rearrangement seminar
sri satya sai institute of higher learning
 
Nucleophilic substitution reactions
Nucleophilic substitution reactions Nucleophilic substitution reactions
Nucleophilic substitution reactions
Sheama Farheen Savanur
 
Sn2 reaction
Sn2 reactionSn2 reaction
Sn2 reaction
sirakash
 
Cahn ingold-prelog nomenclature
Cahn ingold-prelog nomenclatureCahn ingold-prelog nomenclature
Cahn ingold-prelog nomenclature
Biji Saro
 
Favorskii rearrangement----Sir Khalid (Organic)
Favorskii rearrangement----Sir Khalid (Organic)Favorskii rearrangement----Sir Khalid (Organic)
Favorskii rearrangement----Sir Khalid (Organic)
Soft-Learners
 
Crown ethers
Crown ethersCrown ethers
Crown ethers
Keshav Singh
 
Dynamic Stereochemistry-Role of Conformation and Reactivity
Dynamic Stereochemistry-Role of Conformation and ReactivityDynamic Stereochemistry-Role of Conformation and Reactivity
Dynamic Stereochemistry-Role of Conformation and Reactivity
Ateos Foundation of Science Education and Research, Pune, M.S., India
 
Kinetics of solution in reaction
Kinetics of solution in reactionKinetics of solution in reaction
Kinetics of solution in reaction
Saiva Bhanu Kshatriya College, Aruppukottai.
 
DISCONNECTION-retrosynthesis.pptx
DISCONNECTION-retrosynthesis.pptxDISCONNECTION-retrosynthesis.pptx
DISCONNECTION-retrosynthesis.pptx
Himani Kolekar
 
SN1 & SN2 mechanism
SN1 & SN2 mechanismSN1 & SN2 mechanism
SN1 & SN2 mechanism
lsk1976
 
Organocopper compounds - Gilman reagent
Organocopper compounds - Gilman reagentOrganocopper compounds - Gilman reagent
Organocopper compounds - Gilman reagent
Dr. Krishna Swamy. G
 
REDOX REACTION : inner & outer sphere Complimentary & non-complimentary reaction
REDOX REACTION : inner & outer sphere Complimentary & non-complimentary reactionREDOX REACTION : inner & outer sphere Complimentary & non-complimentary reaction
REDOX REACTION : inner & outer sphere Complimentary & non-complimentary reaction
Sachin Kale
 
ORGANOZINC REAGENT
ORGANOZINC REAGENTORGANOZINC REAGENT
ORGANOZINC REAGENT
VarinderKhepar
 
chemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamic
chemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamicchemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamic
chemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamic
FarhadAlsaeid
 
Organoborane or Organoboron compounds
Organoborane or Organoboron compoundsOrganoborane or Organoboron compounds
Organoborane or Organoboron compounds
Dr. Krishna Swamy. G
 

What's hot (20)

Conjugate base mechanism
Conjugate base mechanismConjugate base mechanism
Conjugate base mechanism
 
Organosilicon compounds
Organosilicon compoundsOrganosilicon compounds
Organosilicon compounds
 
Nucleophilic substitutions reactions
Nucleophilic substitutions reactionsNucleophilic substitutions reactions
Nucleophilic substitutions reactions
 
Acid Base Hydrolysis in Octahedral Complexes
Acid Base Hydrolysis in Octahedral ComplexesAcid Base Hydrolysis in Octahedral Complexes
Acid Base Hydrolysis in Octahedral Complexes
 
Grignard reagents
Grignard reagentsGrignard reagents
Grignard reagents
 
Favorskii and wolff rearrangement seminar
Favorskii and wolff rearrangement seminarFavorskii and wolff rearrangement seminar
Favorskii and wolff rearrangement seminar
 
Nucleophilic substitution reactions
Nucleophilic substitution reactions Nucleophilic substitution reactions
Nucleophilic substitution reactions
 
Sn2 reaction
Sn2 reactionSn2 reaction
Sn2 reaction
 
Cahn ingold-prelog nomenclature
Cahn ingold-prelog nomenclatureCahn ingold-prelog nomenclature
Cahn ingold-prelog nomenclature
 
Favorskii rearrangement----Sir Khalid (Organic)
Favorskii rearrangement----Sir Khalid (Organic)Favorskii rearrangement----Sir Khalid (Organic)
Favorskii rearrangement----Sir Khalid (Organic)
 
Crown ethers
Crown ethersCrown ethers
Crown ethers
 
Dynamic Stereochemistry-Role of Conformation and Reactivity
Dynamic Stereochemistry-Role of Conformation and ReactivityDynamic Stereochemistry-Role of Conformation and Reactivity
Dynamic Stereochemistry-Role of Conformation and Reactivity
 
Kinetics of solution in reaction
Kinetics of solution in reactionKinetics of solution in reaction
Kinetics of solution in reaction
 
DISCONNECTION-retrosynthesis.pptx
DISCONNECTION-retrosynthesis.pptxDISCONNECTION-retrosynthesis.pptx
DISCONNECTION-retrosynthesis.pptx
 
SN1 & SN2 mechanism
SN1 & SN2 mechanismSN1 & SN2 mechanism
SN1 & SN2 mechanism
 
Organocopper compounds - Gilman reagent
Organocopper compounds - Gilman reagentOrganocopper compounds - Gilman reagent
Organocopper compounds - Gilman reagent
 
REDOX REACTION : inner & outer sphere Complimentary & non-complimentary reaction
REDOX REACTION : inner & outer sphere Complimentary & non-complimentary reactionREDOX REACTION : inner & outer sphere Complimentary & non-complimentary reaction
REDOX REACTION : inner & outer sphere Complimentary & non-complimentary reaction
 
ORGANOZINC REAGENT
ORGANOZINC REAGENTORGANOZINC REAGENT
ORGANOZINC REAGENT
 
chemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamic
chemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamicchemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamic
chemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamic
 
Organoborane or Organoboron compounds
Organoborane or Organoboron compoundsOrganoborane or Organoboron compounds
Organoborane or Organoboron compounds
 

Similar to Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction

aliphatic nuecleophilic reaction saturated c
aliphatic nuecleophilic reaction saturated caliphatic nuecleophilic reaction saturated c
aliphatic nuecleophilic reaction saturated c
B.P. Arts, S.M.A. Science and K.K.C. Commerce College
 
Nucleophilic substitution reaction
Nucleophilic substitution reactionNucleophilic substitution reaction
Nucleophilic substitution reaction
RagaviJeganathan
 
Alkyl halides
Alkyl halidesAlkyl halides
Alkyl halides
Goingworld
 
chapter11.ppt
chapter11.pptchapter11.ppt
chapter11.ppt
Noorelhuda2
 
Pharmaceutical Chemistry, SN Reaction, Mr. Jimmy Alexander ,Associate Profes...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry,  SN Reaction, Mr. Jimmy Alexander ,Associate Profes...Pharmaceutical Chemistry,  SN Reaction, Mr. Jimmy Alexander ,Associate Profes...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry, SN Reaction, Mr. Jimmy Alexander ,Associate Profes...
JIMMYALEX8
 
Haloalkanes chem.pdf
Haloalkanes chem.pdfHaloalkanes chem.pdf
Haloalkanes chem.pdf
DrVijayKotraFOP
 
alkyl halide
alkyl halidealkyl halide
alkyl halide
Pharmacy Universe
 
Nucleophilic Substitution reaction (SN1 reaction)
Nucleophilic Substitution reaction (SN1 reaction)Nucleophilic Substitution reaction (SN1 reaction)
Nucleophilic Substitution reaction (SN1 reaction)
PRUTHVIRAJ K
 
soderberg_lecture_6_1.pptx
soderberg_lecture_6_1.pptxsoderberg_lecture_6_1.pptx
soderberg_lecture_6_1.pptx
Pratik470617
 
Substitusi Nukleofilik
Substitusi NukleofilikSubstitusi Nukleofilik
Substitusi Nukleofilik
elfisusanti
 
AOC bijo sir.pptx
AOC bijo sir.pptxAOC bijo sir.pptx
AOC bijo sir.pptx
KuntalBose3
 
Alkyl halide reactions
Alkyl halide reactionsAlkyl halide reactions
Alkyl halide reactions
bapu thorat
 
Kompetisi sn 1, sn-2, e-1, dan e-2
Kompetisi sn 1, sn-2, e-1, dan e-2Kompetisi sn 1, sn-2, e-1, dan e-2
Kompetisi sn 1, sn-2, e-1, dan e-2
Annik Qurniawati
 
Ppt0000015 feed the flame[1]this one (2)
Ppt0000015 feed the flame[1]this one (2)Ppt0000015 feed the flame[1]this one (2)
Ppt0000015 feed the flame[1]this one (2)
Dr Robert Craig PhD
 
Haloarenes 3 (5).pdf
Haloarenes 3 (5).pdfHaloarenes 3 (5).pdf
Haloarenes 3 (5).pdf
Tincymolck
 
Substitution reactions
Substitution reactionsSubstitution reactions
Substitution reactions
AayashaNegi
 
Nucleophilic substitution
Nucleophilic substitutionNucleophilic substitution
Nucleophilic substitution
mahrooshabbasi1
 
pdf alkyl_halides.pdf
pdf alkyl_halides.pdfpdf alkyl_halides.pdf
pdf alkyl_halides.pdf
SN20619PhangJianAn
 
Chapter11
Chapter11Chapter11
Chapter11
rbgross
 
Ligand substitution reactions
Ligand substitution reactionsLigand substitution reactions
Ligand substitution reactions
BISWAJIT MORAN
 

Similar to Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction (20)

aliphatic nuecleophilic reaction saturated c
aliphatic nuecleophilic reaction saturated caliphatic nuecleophilic reaction saturated c
aliphatic nuecleophilic reaction saturated c
 
Nucleophilic substitution reaction
Nucleophilic substitution reactionNucleophilic substitution reaction
Nucleophilic substitution reaction
 
Alkyl halides
Alkyl halidesAlkyl halides
Alkyl halides
 
chapter11.ppt
chapter11.pptchapter11.ppt
chapter11.ppt
 
Pharmaceutical Chemistry, SN Reaction, Mr. Jimmy Alexander ,Associate Profes...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry,  SN Reaction, Mr. Jimmy Alexander ,Associate Profes...Pharmaceutical Chemistry,  SN Reaction, Mr. Jimmy Alexander ,Associate Profes...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry, SN Reaction, Mr. Jimmy Alexander ,Associate Profes...
 
Haloalkanes chem.pdf
Haloalkanes chem.pdfHaloalkanes chem.pdf
Haloalkanes chem.pdf
 
alkyl halide
alkyl halidealkyl halide
alkyl halide
 
Nucleophilic Substitution reaction (SN1 reaction)
Nucleophilic Substitution reaction (SN1 reaction)Nucleophilic Substitution reaction (SN1 reaction)
Nucleophilic Substitution reaction (SN1 reaction)
 
soderberg_lecture_6_1.pptx
soderberg_lecture_6_1.pptxsoderberg_lecture_6_1.pptx
soderberg_lecture_6_1.pptx
 
Substitusi Nukleofilik
Substitusi NukleofilikSubstitusi Nukleofilik
Substitusi Nukleofilik
 
AOC bijo sir.pptx
AOC bijo sir.pptxAOC bijo sir.pptx
AOC bijo sir.pptx
 
Alkyl halide reactions
Alkyl halide reactionsAlkyl halide reactions
Alkyl halide reactions
 
Kompetisi sn 1, sn-2, e-1, dan e-2
Kompetisi sn 1, sn-2, e-1, dan e-2Kompetisi sn 1, sn-2, e-1, dan e-2
Kompetisi sn 1, sn-2, e-1, dan e-2
 
Ppt0000015 feed the flame[1]this one (2)
Ppt0000015 feed the flame[1]this one (2)Ppt0000015 feed the flame[1]this one (2)
Ppt0000015 feed the flame[1]this one (2)
 
Haloarenes 3 (5).pdf
Haloarenes 3 (5).pdfHaloarenes 3 (5).pdf
Haloarenes 3 (5).pdf
 
Substitution reactions
Substitution reactionsSubstitution reactions
Substitution reactions
 
Nucleophilic substitution
Nucleophilic substitutionNucleophilic substitution
Nucleophilic substitution
 
pdf alkyl_halides.pdf
pdf alkyl_halides.pdfpdf alkyl_halides.pdf
pdf alkyl_halides.pdf
 
Chapter11
Chapter11Chapter11
Chapter11
 
Ligand substitution reactions
Ligand substitution reactionsLigand substitution reactions
Ligand substitution reactions
 

More from SPCGC AJMER

Haemoglobin
HaemoglobinHaemoglobin
Haemoglobin
SPCGC AJMER
 
NMR Spectroscopy
NMR Spectroscopy NMR Spectroscopy
NMR Spectroscopy
SPCGC AJMER
 
CALCIUM IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM
CALCIUM IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMCALCIUM IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM
CALCIUM IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM
SPCGC AJMER
 
Coenzyme A
Coenzyme ACoenzyme A
Coenzyme A
SPCGC AJMER
 
Mechanism of enzyme action
Mechanism of enzyme action Mechanism of enzyme action
Mechanism of enzyme action
SPCGC AJMER
 
Photochemical Air Pollution
Photochemical Air Pollution Photochemical Air Pollution
Photochemical Air Pollution
SPCGC AJMER
 
Fragmentation Pattern in Mass Spectra
Fragmentation Pattern in Mass SpectraFragmentation Pattern in Mass Spectra
Fragmentation Pattern in Mass Spectra
SPCGC AJMER
 
Acid Rain
Acid RainAcid Rain
Acid Rain
SPCGC AJMER
 
Water Parameters and Treatment
Water Parameters and Treatment Water Parameters and Treatment
Water Parameters and Treatment
SPCGC AJMER
 
Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Spectroscopy
Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Spectroscopy Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Spectroscopy
Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Spectroscopy
SPCGC AJMER
 
Catalytic Hydrogenation
Catalytic HydrogenationCatalytic Hydrogenation
Catalytic Hydrogenation
SPCGC AJMER
 
Quantum Theory of Raman effect
Quantum Theory of Raman effectQuantum Theory of Raman effect
Quantum Theory of Raman effect
SPCGC AJMER
 
Factors affecting stability of metal complexes
Factors affecting stability of metal complexesFactors affecting stability of metal complexes
Factors affecting stability of metal complexes
SPCGC AJMER
 
Resonance Raman Spectroscopy
Resonance Raman Spectroscopy Resonance Raman Spectroscopy
Resonance Raman Spectroscopy
SPCGC AJMER
 
Corrosion
Corrosion Corrosion
Corrosion
SPCGC AJMER
 
Cycloaddition Reactions
Cycloaddition Reactions Cycloaddition Reactions
Cycloaddition Reactions
SPCGC AJMER
 
Micelles
MicellesMicelles
Micelles
SPCGC AJMER
 
Adsorption
AdsorptionAdsorption
Adsorption
SPCGC AJMER
 
Franck Condon Principle
Franck Condon Principle Franck Condon Principle
Franck Condon Principle
SPCGC AJMER
 
Cycloaddition Reactions
Cycloaddition ReactionsCycloaddition Reactions
Cycloaddition Reactions
SPCGC AJMER
 

More from SPCGC AJMER (20)

Haemoglobin
HaemoglobinHaemoglobin
Haemoglobin
 
NMR Spectroscopy
NMR Spectroscopy NMR Spectroscopy
NMR Spectroscopy
 
CALCIUM IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM
CALCIUM IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMCALCIUM IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM
CALCIUM IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM
 
Coenzyme A
Coenzyme ACoenzyme A
Coenzyme A
 
Mechanism of enzyme action
Mechanism of enzyme action Mechanism of enzyme action
Mechanism of enzyme action
 
Photochemical Air Pollution
Photochemical Air Pollution Photochemical Air Pollution
Photochemical Air Pollution
 
Fragmentation Pattern in Mass Spectra
Fragmentation Pattern in Mass SpectraFragmentation Pattern in Mass Spectra
Fragmentation Pattern in Mass Spectra
 
Acid Rain
Acid RainAcid Rain
Acid Rain
 
Water Parameters and Treatment
Water Parameters and Treatment Water Parameters and Treatment
Water Parameters and Treatment
 
Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Spectroscopy
Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Spectroscopy Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Spectroscopy
Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Spectroscopy
 
Catalytic Hydrogenation
Catalytic HydrogenationCatalytic Hydrogenation
Catalytic Hydrogenation
 
Quantum Theory of Raman effect
Quantum Theory of Raman effectQuantum Theory of Raman effect
Quantum Theory of Raman effect
 
Factors affecting stability of metal complexes
Factors affecting stability of metal complexesFactors affecting stability of metal complexes
Factors affecting stability of metal complexes
 
Resonance Raman Spectroscopy
Resonance Raman Spectroscopy Resonance Raman Spectroscopy
Resonance Raman Spectroscopy
 
Corrosion
Corrosion Corrosion
Corrosion
 
Cycloaddition Reactions
Cycloaddition Reactions Cycloaddition Reactions
Cycloaddition Reactions
 
Micelles
MicellesMicelles
Micelles
 
Adsorption
AdsorptionAdsorption
Adsorption
 
Franck Condon Principle
Franck Condon Principle Franck Condon Principle
Franck Condon Principle
 
Cycloaddition Reactions
Cycloaddition ReactionsCycloaddition Reactions
Cycloaddition Reactions
 

Recently uploaded

Introduction_Ch_01_Biotech Biotechnology course .pptx
Introduction_Ch_01_Biotech Biotechnology course .pptxIntroduction_Ch_01_Biotech Biotechnology course .pptx
Introduction_Ch_01_Biotech Biotechnology course .pptx
QusayMaghayerh
 
Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...
Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...
Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...
Sérgio Sacani
 
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selectionThe cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
Carl Bergstrom
 
Immunotherapy presentation from clinical immunology
Immunotherapy presentation from clinical immunologyImmunotherapy presentation from clinical immunology
Immunotherapy presentation from clinical immunology
VetriVel359477
 
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
ABHISHEK SONI NIMT INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL AND PARAMEDCIAL SCIENCES , GOVT PG COLLEGE NOIDA
 
Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx
Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptxMale reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx
Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx
suyashempire
 
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart AgricultureAlternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
International Food Policy Research Institute- South Asia Office
 
11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf
11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf
11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf
PirithiRaju
 
HUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdf
HUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdfHUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdf
HUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdf
Ritik83251
 
Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...
Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...
Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...
frank0071
 
gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx
gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptxgastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx
gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx
Shekar Boddu
 
Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture
Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart AgricultureDirect Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture
Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture
International Food Policy Research Institute- South Asia Office
 
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdfMethods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
PirithiRaju
 
Flow chart.pdf LIFE SCIENCES CSIR UGC NET CONTENT
Flow chart.pdf  LIFE SCIENCES CSIR UGC NET CONTENTFlow chart.pdf  LIFE SCIENCES CSIR UGC NET CONTENT
Flow chart.pdf LIFE SCIENCES CSIR UGC NET CONTENT
savindersingh16
 
Injection: Risks and challenges - Injection of CO2 into geological rock forma...
Injection: Risks and challenges - Injection of CO2 into geological rock forma...Injection: Risks and challenges - Injection of CO2 into geological rock forma...
Injection: Risks and challenges - Injection of CO2 into geological rock forma...
Oeko-Institut
 
IMPORTANCE OF ALGAE AND ITS BENIFITS.pptx
IMPORTANCE OF ALGAE  AND ITS BENIFITS.pptxIMPORTANCE OF ALGAE  AND ITS BENIFITS.pptx
IMPORTANCE OF ALGAE AND ITS BENIFITS.pptx
OmAle5
 
Holsinger, Bruce W. - Music, body and desire in medieval culture [2001].pdf
Holsinger, Bruce W. - Music, body and desire in medieval culture [2001].pdfHolsinger, Bruce W. - Music, body and desire in medieval culture [2001].pdf
Holsinger, Bruce W. - Music, body and desire in medieval culture [2001].pdf
frank0071
 
Sustainable Land Management - Climate Smart Agriculture
Sustainable Land Management - Climate Smart AgricultureSustainable Land Management - Climate Smart Agriculture
Sustainable Land Management - Climate Smart Agriculture
International Food Policy Research Institute- South Asia Office
 
2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf
2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf
2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf
lucianamillenium
 
LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx
LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptxLEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx
LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx
yourprojectpartner05
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Introduction_Ch_01_Biotech Biotechnology course .pptx
Introduction_Ch_01_Biotech Biotechnology course .pptxIntroduction_Ch_01_Biotech Biotechnology course .pptx
Introduction_Ch_01_Biotech Biotechnology course .pptx
 
Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...
Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...
Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...
 
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selectionThe cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
 
Immunotherapy presentation from clinical immunology
Immunotherapy presentation from clinical immunologyImmunotherapy presentation from clinical immunology
Immunotherapy presentation from clinical immunology
 
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
 
Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx
Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptxMale reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx
Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx
 
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart AgricultureAlternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
 
11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf
11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf
11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf
 
HUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdf
HUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdfHUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdf
HUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdf
 
Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...
Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...
Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...
 
gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx
gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptxgastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx
gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx
 
Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture
Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart AgricultureDirect Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture
Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture
 
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdfMethods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
 
Flow chart.pdf LIFE SCIENCES CSIR UGC NET CONTENT
Flow chart.pdf  LIFE SCIENCES CSIR UGC NET CONTENTFlow chart.pdf  LIFE SCIENCES CSIR UGC NET CONTENT
Flow chart.pdf LIFE SCIENCES CSIR UGC NET CONTENT
 
Injection: Risks and challenges - Injection of CO2 into geological rock forma...
Injection: Risks and challenges - Injection of CO2 into geological rock forma...Injection: Risks and challenges - Injection of CO2 into geological rock forma...
Injection: Risks and challenges - Injection of CO2 into geological rock forma...
 
IMPORTANCE OF ALGAE AND ITS BENIFITS.pptx
IMPORTANCE OF ALGAE  AND ITS BENIFITS.pptxIMPORTANCE OF ALGAE  AND ITS BENIFITS.pptx
IMPORTANCE OF ALGAE AND ITS BENIFITS.pptx
 
Holsinger, Bruce W. - Music, body and desire in medieval culture [2001].pdf
Holsinger, Bruce W. - Music, body and desire in medieval culture [2001].pdfHolsinger, Bruce W. - Music, body and desire in medieval culture [2001].pdf
Holsinger, Bruce W. - Music, body and desire in medieval culture [2001].pdf
 
Sustainable Land Management - Climate Smart Agriculture
Sustainable Land Management - Climate Smart AgricultureSustainable Land Management - Climate Smart Agriculture
Sustainable Land Management - Climate Smart Agriculture
 
2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf
2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf
2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf
 
LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx
LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptxLEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx
LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx
 

Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction

  • 1. ALIPHATIC NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTION 2020-2021 Submitted By – NIDHI SANKET M.Sc Chemistry Semester I Department Of Chemistry S.P.C. Govt. College, Ajmer
  • 2. CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTION  MECHANISM OF SN REACTION  SN2 REACTION - MECHANISM STEREOCHEMISTRY  SN1 REACTION – MECHANISM STEREOCHEMISTRY  REFERENCES
  • 3. NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTION • At saturated carbon, Nucleophilic reaction involves the displacement of a nucleophile by another. • A classic example is the hydrolysis of alkyl halides, HO- + R-X HO-R + X-
  • 4. MECHANISMS OF SN REACTION • The two main mechanisms are, 1. SN1 Reaction 2. SN2 Reaction • S stands for chemical substitution, N stands for nucleophilic and the number represents the molecularity of the reaction.
  • 5. SN2 REACTION • Nucleophilic substitution reaction in which concentration of two molecules get change in rate determining step is called SN2 reaction. • The designation SN2 stands for bimolecular nucleophilic substitution . • SN2 occurs where the central carbon atom is easily accessible to the nucleophile. • The rate of reaction depends on both, the concentration of substrate and the concentration of nucleophile. Rate = k [substrate] [nucleophile]
  • 6. SN2 REACTION • Reaction between primary alkyl halide and aqueous base is an example of SN2 reaction . R-X + -OH R-OH + X- • Since hydroxyl ion is strong nucleophile than halide (X-) ion , hence halide ion is easily replaced by hydroxyl ion. • Rate = k [RX] [-OH] • Rate of hydrolysis of alkyl halide by SN2 reaction is CH3X > 1o > 2o > 3o .
  • 7. MECHANISM OF SN2 REACTION • It is a single step process which involves no intermediate. • It involves only one transition state which is of low polarity. • The nucleophile attacks from the backside. • An inverted product is formed and this inversion of configuration is called the WALDEN INVERSION.
  • 8. STEREOCHEMISTRY OF SN2 REACTIONS / EVIDENCES FOR THE FORMATION OF TRANSITION STATE • A method has been suggested by Hughes and Ingold to establish the inversion of configuration. •The method involves the conversion of (+)2 iodooctane with potassium radioiodide (K129I) in acetone to (-)2 iodooctane. • The exchange of ordinary iodide with the radioactive iodide was accompanied by the loss of optical activity. • Inversion of configuration is always indicative of SN2 reaction.
  • 9. SN1 REACTION • Nucleophilic Substitution reaction in which concentration of only one molecule get change in rate determining step is called SN1 reaction. • The designation SN1 stands for unimolecular nucleophilic substitution.
  • 10. • It is a two step process and since the slow step or rate determining step involves only the substrate, the rate of reaction depends only on the concentration of substrate. • Rate = k [substrate] • Typical example of SN1 reaction is hydrolysis of tertiary butyl chloride. (CH3)3C-Cl + -OH (CH3)3C-OH + Cl- a. This reaction takes place in three steps. b. Rate = k [(CH3)3C-Cl ] SN1 REACTION
  • 11. MECHANISM OF SN1 REACTION It involves formation of carbocation intermediate .
  • 12. STEREOCHEMISTRY OF SN1 REACTION / EVIDENCES FOR THE FORMATION OF CARBOCATION INTERMEDIATE The SN1 reaction of S-3-chloro-3-methylhexane with an iodide ion, which yields a racemic mixture of 3-iodo-3-methylhexane.
  • 13. STEREOCHEMISTRY OF SN1 REACTION • Nucleophile can attack from both the sides. Nucleophile is free for attack on carbocation from either of the side . • RACEMIZATION occurs i.e. Retention in configuration and Inversion in configuration take place and two types of product are formed. • 100% racemization or pure racemization is rarely observed in SN1 mechanism. • Inverted product is always predominates over retention in configuration product i.e. racemic mixture as well as some invert product are formed in SN1 mechanism .
  • 14. REFERENCES  MARCH`S ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (7th EDITION)- by Michael B. Smith - Wiley Student Edition  ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- by Dr. Jagdamba singh and Dr. L.D.S. Yadav – A Pragati Edition  Special Thanks to Dr. Alok Chaturvedi Sir