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Samsung $uccess?Electronics: Burned by
WITH $176 BILLI0N in revenues in 2017, Samsung
Electronics is the crown jewel of Samsung Group, with
its mobile division contributing some 7 5 percent of the
conglomerate's overall profits. The Samsung Group is
one of the biggest conglomerates globally. In compari-
son, the U.S. conglomerate General Electric had some
$ 150 billion in revenues, while the Tata group of India
registered $I04 billion in the same year. Indeed, Sam-
sung is the largest chaebol in South Korea, making up
one-third of the entire stock market domestically, and it
is the country's biggest exporter. Chaebols are family-
owned multinational companies typical of South
Korea, whose economy is dominated by a small num-
ber of chaebols (including LG, Hyundai, Kia Motors,
SK Group, and others).
As impressive as the achievements of the largest
chaebol rn South Korea may sound, Samsung Elec-
tronics is facing a host of challenges, creating a per-
fect storm that calls into question Samsung's future
viability. In recent years, the Korean conglomerate has
been beset with crises, including:
. Leadership. Lee Kun-hee, Samsung's iconic
chairman and long-time leader, remains incap acr'
tated after a heart attack tn 2014. This situation is
creating a leadership vacuum.
o Product recall. In 2016, Samsung's flagship
phone, the Galaxy Note 7, was withdrawn from
the market after some of the new phones spontane-
ously exploded and caught on fire.
. Political scandal. In20I7,LeeJae-yong, the de-facto
leader of Samsung (and son of Lee Kun-hee), was
arrested and charged with bribery, embezzlement,
and pedury in the wake of the scandal surrounding
former South Korean President Park Geun-hye.
Before taking a closer look at the current chal-
lenges, we need first to understand a bit of Sam-
sung's storied history and its role in the South Korean
economy.
An exploded Samsung Galaxy Note 7.
OAP lmages/Shawn L. Minter
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In 1938, when the Western world was still recover-
ing from the Great Depression and World War II was
about to break out, Lee Byung-chul started a small
trading company in Korea (at that time still under
Japanese occupation). He named the trading company
Samsung, which means three stars in Korean, symbol-
rzing big, powerful, and numerous. Samsung started
with just 40 employees and sold noodles and dried sea-
food. It has since diversified into various industries,
including electronics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals,
shipbuilding, financial services, and construction. As
a result, Samsung today is a widely diversified con-
glomerate with over 80 standalone subsidiaries. The
sprawling chaebol has 490,000 employees more than
Apple, Google, and Microsoft combined. Not surpris-
ingly, the huge enterprise exerts a powerful influence
Frank T. Rothaermel prepared this MiniCase from public
sources.
He gratefully acknowledges research assistance by Rahul Singh.
This
MiniCase is developed for the purpose of class discussion. It is
not
intended to be used for any kind of endorsement, source of data,
or
depiction of efficient or inefficient management. All opinions
expressed,
all errors and omissions are entirely the author's. Revised and
updated:
August 25, 2017 . @ Frank T. Rothaermel.
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504 i UINICASE 17 Samsung Electronics: Burned by Success?
on South Korea's economy, but also on its politics,
media, and culture.
The rise of Samsung Electronics began in 1970
when it introduced its first consumer electronics prod-
uct, a I}-inch black-and-white television. Although it
was a latecomer, Samsung made a breathtaking ascent
in consumer electronics. It is now leading a number of
key electronics industries globally. For instance, since
1993, Samsung Electronics has been the world's larg-
est producer of memory chips. The original iPhone
even ran on chips made by Samsung. The company is
also the largest television manufacturer in the world, as
well as the largest manufacturer of LCD panels. Today,
Samsung Electronics produces some 98 percent of all
AMOLED screens (unlike LCD screens, AMOLED
screens do not need backlight), used in computer moni-
tors, TVs, phones, ca^rs, and elsewhere. Since 2012,
Samsung has also been the world's largest phone man-
ufacturer, replacing Nokia at the top spot. Its mobile
devices contribute some 75 percent of the conglomer-
ate's overall profits. In 2017, Samsung also overtook
Intel as the largest chipmaker in the world.
The person credited for this ffemendous ascent to
world leadership in consumer elecffonics is I-ee Kun-hee,
the youngest son of the founder, who took over as
chair of the conglomerate in 1987. Lee Kun-hee was
trained in Western management principles, earning an
MBA from George Washington University. To a cul-
ture that deeply values seniority, he introduced merit-
based pay and promotion. His strategic intent was to
make Samsung a world leader in high-tech industries,
including consumer electronics. To execute his strat-
egy, Lee Kun-hee focused first on gaining market
share by invading markets from the bottom up with
lower-priced products at acceptable value. He hired
Western managers and designers into leading posi-
tions and sent homegrown talent to learn best busi-
ness practices from other firms wherever they could
be found. Lee Kun-hee also set up the Global Strate-
gic Group to assist non-Korean MBAs and PhDs with
a smooth transition into their positions in a largely
homogenous cadre of Korean executives.
Pssitisnlng $am$$nS H**ctronics
fcr Slchal Leadsr$hlp
In the 1990s, Samsung's image, however, was still
overshadowed by those of Sony, Motorola, and Nokia,
the undisputed world leaders in consumer electronics
and mobile phones. During a 1993 trip, Lee Kun-
hee saw firsthand how poorly Samsung's electronics
were perceived in the United States and Europe, and
he vowed to change that. Back in Korea, to show his
disappointment and determination alike, he destroyed
150,000 new Samsung cell phones in a large bonfire
in front of all 2,000 employees of Samsung's Gami
factory. Many employees credit this as the pivotal
moment in redefining Samsung Electronics' strategic
focus and initiating a successful turnaround. Under
Lee Kun-hee's leadership, Samsung Electronics sig-
nificantly increased spending on research and devel-
opment (R&D) as well as on marketing and design.
Once economies of scale due to a larger market share
could be reaped, he moved Samsung to the high end
of the market, offering premium consumer electronics
such as flat-screen TVs, appliances, semiconductors,
and mobile devices, including its famous Galaxy line
of smartphones.
In 2007, Apple introduced the iPhone, redefining
the entire category of mobile phones and setting the
standard for the way smartphones looked and felt.
Samsung played catch-up again, ratcheting up spend-
ing on R&D and marketing. In particular, the company
applied its time-tested "follow first, innovate second"
rule. As a key component vendor to other leading tech-
nology companies including Apple, Samsung Elec-
tronics saw early on what directions other companies
were taking. Within a short time, it had overtaken
Motorola, HTC, BlackBerr], Nokia, and even Apple to
become the number-one vendor of smartphones in the
world and the largest technology company globally by
revenues, and held the largest market share by units
(see Exhibit MCI7.l). By 2012, with the release of
its Galaxy S III phone, Samsung had successfully
imitated the look and feel of the Apple iPhone. Apple
and Samsung, however, have been locked in ongoing
court battles over infringement among the various
smartphone models. Samsung lost a high-profile case
against Apple in a California court in 2015, where
damages were later reduced to some $500 million.
Despite the temporary competitive advantage
Samsung achieved n 2012, within several years it snrm-
bled, with revenues and profits down sharply from its
peak tn 2013 (see Exhibit MCI7.2). Although it sells
fewer phones than Samsung, Apple's profit margin
per phone is much higher. With the introduction of the
iPhone 6 in 2014, Apple again pulled away from Sam-
sung. With the larger screen on the iPhone 6 Plus, Apple
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-____-f,
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I
MINICASE 17 Samsung Electronics: Burned by Success? i 505
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2010 20lt 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
SOURCE: Depiction of publicly available data. Data for 2017 is
based on Q1.
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/ Samsung vs. Apple: Global Smartphone Market Share by Units
(in %),2010-2017{"
also negated Samsung's lead with its successful Galaxy
Note phablets. Apple followed up with the iPhone 7 in
2016 and its 10th anniversary model in 2017. With a
string of incremental innovations, Apple has continued
to capture a greater share of the high end of the mar-
ket. Although Apple's market share in terms of units in
the global smartphone industry is less than 20 percent, it
captures a whopping 92 percent of all the profits gener-
ated in the industry!
$tnuggtes e* Sar*l$ffiffiffi ffi$estrsnies
Samsung Electronics not only lost market share on the
high end of the mobile phone market, but also on the
low end. Chinese technology companies Oppo, Huawei,
and Xiaomi are becoming more and more popular. In
particular, the Chinese startup Oppo has challenged
Samsung and Apple in consumer markets with huge
growth potential such as China. By 2017, Oppo,
often described as China's Apple, had become the
number-one seller of smartphones in China by units.
Similarly, by launching new smartphones quickly,
almost like fashion accessories, India's Micromax had
become the number-one seller in its home market.
Samsung Electronics is being squeezed in the middle.
On the high end, it has fallen behind Apple, which con-
tinues to pull away with its innovation and design setting
new standards for the most profitable segment of the mar-
ket. On the low end, upstarts from China and India are
capturing leading positions in markets with huge growth
potential. Within the company, the soul-searching about
Samsung's future has begun. In 2010, Lee Kun-hee set
the sffategic intent that Samsung should quadruple its rev-
enues from $100 billion to $4O0 billion by 2020 (which
would be more than the revenues of Apple, Google, Micro-
soft, and Amazon combined).
By 2016, the situation for Samsung Electronics was
getting worse. From selling well over 30 percent of all
mobile phones globally, its market share had fallen to
18 percent by the end of the year.
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506 i tllNlCASE 17 Samsung Electronics: Burned by Success?
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During the struggles identified above, which may
seem part of the rough and tumble of high-stakes com-
petition, Samsung had to face three separate crises
that rocked the company further: leadership struggles,
product recalls, and political scandal.
LEAnfn$HlP $TRUSSLE$. Although the business
situation for Samsung Electronics seems to be improv-
ing, its downward spiral for the past few years coin-
cided with Lee Kun-hee's heafi attack in 2014, which
left him incapacitated. The 75-year-old had ruled
Samsung with an iron fist: No strategic or personnel
decisions were made without his approval. With the
leadership vacuum, the turf battle for Samsung's top
job began, with many observers convinced that Lee
Kun-hee's only son, Lee Jae-yong (who goes by Jay
Lee), was the heir apparent. Prior to his arrest and
charge in 2017 ,, the younger Lee held the position of
vice chairman within the Samsung Group. At the same
time, Samsung Electronics currently has an unusual
leadership structure, with three co-CEOs each acting
as the leader of his respective division (components,
(left vertical axis) and Net Income (right vertical axis) in
$30
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mobile, and consumer electronics). The involvement
of the Lee family in Samsung is persistent through-
out the conglomerate, however, with descendants of
the company's founder serving in multiple leadership
positions.
Lee Jae-yong holds a relative small stake in Sam-
sung Electronics, which is key to running the entire
conglomerate. At the same time, activist shareholders
such as Elliott Management of the United States are
pushing to restructure the Samsung conglomerate to
provide more transparency in its governance structure,
and to break open the tight grip that some Korean
families have over the chaebols, despite fairly small
share holdings. The younger Lee also faces billions in
inheritance taxes when his father dies.
PR00UCT RHCALL. Samsung Electronics was already
dealing with shrinking margin share, when it encoun-
tered the Galaxy Note 7 debacle. The Note line of
mobile devices are Samsung's phones with larger
screens, in which the South Korean company had been
leading Apple. The new Note 7 was introduced in the
summer of 2016 to great fanfare and raving reviews
(e.g., o'best phone ever").
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/ Samsung Electronics Revenues*
$ billions, 2000-2016
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2000 2001 2002200320042005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 20fl
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
- Revenue -l. Net lncome
SOURCE: Depiction of publicly available data.
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But just a few days after its launch, reports of spon-
taneous explosions and fires that the new smartphone
was experiencing started to circulate in the media.
Rushing to contain the looming problem, Samsung
Electronics blamed a faulty battery from a specific
supplier. It decided to no longer use this particular
supplier and exchange all the phones already sold
with new Note 7 phones that contained batteries from
a different supplier. Alas, this did not solve the prob-
lem. The media storm was gathering strength as more
and more reports of spontaneous phone explosions
and resulting fires came in. In the United States, the
Federal Aviation Administration acted swiftly by ban-
ning all Samsung Galaxy Note 7 phones from flights.
Flight crews made announcements before every flight,
reminding each traveler of the problems Samsung was
facing with its Note J at about the same time as Apple
was introducing the new iPhone 7, which turned out
to be a bestseller. After recalling millions of Note 7
phones globally, Samsung announced in October 2016
that it would permanently end production and sale of
the tarnished smartphone.
In the spring of 2017, Samsung launched its new
Galaxy S8 (a smaller version, not related to its Note
line of phone) with considerable success. In the same
year, Samsung Electronics also reported record prof-
its as demand for the Galaxy 58 and the company's
microchips was strong.
P0LITICAL $CAl'lDAL. The leadership challenges
facing Lee Jae-yong may have also led to events that
embroiled him in a political scandal. In 2017 , prosecu-
tors accused him of bribery, embezzlement, and perjury.
He was subsequently arrested, becoming the first Sam-
sung leader to land in jail. (His father, Lee Kun-hee, was
convicted in 2008 for emb ezzlement and tax evasion,
but later received a presidential pardon.)
In the case of the younger L,ee, prosecutors allege
that he sought South Korean President Park Geun-hye's
support and influence in a conffoversial merger of trvo
Samsung affiliates. Lee Jae-yong, who holds only a
0.6 percent share in Samsung Electronics, needed the
merger to go through to generate much-needed cash,
and more importantly to strengthen his hold on Sam-
sung Electronics, ensuring a smooth leadership transi-
tion along the Lee family lines. And one reason he may
have needed that cash was to deal with the inheritance
taxes relative to his share of Samsung Group. To achieve
his goal, Lee Jae-yong turned to President Park, pros-
ecutors allege, who in turn influenced Korea's National
MINICASE 17 Samsunq Electronics: Burned by Success? i 507
Pension Service to cast the deciding vote in favor of the
proposed merger within the Samsung conglomerate.
The National Pension Service obliged, even though it
was losing money in the transaction.
To ensure continuation of the cozy relationship
between politics and business in South Korea, Sam-
sung made a $38 million "donation" to foundations
held by a close friend of the president, Choi Soon-
sil. She is one of the key figures in the scandal rock-
ing South Korea because prosecutors allege that Choi
Soon-sil had a huge influence on the president's deci-
sions and access to confidential government papers,
despite not holding any formal position. Park Geun-hye
is the first Korean president to be impeached. Charges
against her include abuse of power, bribery, and leak-
ing of government secrets. Caught up in the presiden-
tial scandal, Lee Jae-yong, Samsung's de-facto leader
and figurehead, was convicted of bribery in the summer
of 20IJ, and sentenced to five years in jail. His attor -
neys immediately appealed the ruling. In the meantiffie,
Samsung's leadership vacuum continues.
Drscus$l0N 8uE$Tl0Ns
Gorporate Strategy and Governance
What makes Samsung a conglomerate? What type
of diversification does Samsung pursue? Identify
possible factors such as core competencies, econo-
mies of scale, and economies of scope that were
the basis of its past success as a widely diversified
conglomerate. Why is Samsung as a conglomerate
struggling today?
Despite being a widely diversified conglomer-
ate, Samsung prefers vertical integration: in-house
design and development teams, manufacturing in
large company-owned factories, and coordinating
a sprawling global supply chain. In contrast, Apple
concentrates on the design (and retail sales) of high-
end mobile devices, while it outsources its produc-
tion to Foxconn and others. Do you think Samsung's
high degree of vertical integration contributed to its
recent problems? Why or why not? Explain.
What is a chaebol? What arc some of the corpo-
rate governance challenges that chaebols such as
Samsung face? What arc some of the advantages
and disadvantages of chaebols ? What changes
to a chaebol's governance structure are Ameri-
can activist investors such as Elliott Management
pushing for, and why?
L
2.
3.
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508 i ultllcAsE 17 Samsung Electronics Burned by success?
4. With South Korea being rocked by the presi-
dential scandal exposing a deep-running and
long-standing nexus of bribery and chummy rela-
tionships between industry and politicians, and
by the call for more transparency and governance
changes in the chaebols, do you think reform and
changes will happen, or will things return to busi-
ness as usual? What is your opinion? Explain.
Business Strategy
5. Lee Jae-yong, the 5O-year-old grandson of the
Samsung founder, was educated at Seoul National
University, Keio University (in Japan), and Har-
vard Business School. He wrote a master's thesis
at Keio University on Japan's struggle to retain
its world leadership in manufacturing in the mid-
1990s when the country's fast-growing period
was ending. He concluded, "Japan's troubles were
worsened by its manufacturers' pursuit of scale
and market share."l Is Samsung Electronics' pur-
suit of scale and market share to blame for its los-
ing its competitive advantage?
6. Why is Samsung Electronics encountering prob-
lems selling its flagship line of smartphones, the
Galaxy? How should it compete against premium
phone makers such as Apple and low-cost lead-
ers such as Oppo and Micromax? Do you think
Samsung will be making a comeback with its Gal-
axy line of phones? Why or why not?
Endnote
1. Cheng, J., and Lee, M. J. (2015,, May ll), 'After Galaxy
smartphone
debacle, samsung questions game plan," The wall street Journal.
Sources: Jeong, E.-Y. (2017, Aug. 25), "samsung Heir Lee Jae-
yong
Convicted of Bribery, Gets Five Years in Jail," The Wall Street
Journal;
Tsang, A. (2017, July 7), "Samsung, seeking to move past
scandals,
forecasts record profit," The New York Times; Fowler, G.
(2017, Apr. l8),
"Samsung Galaxy S8 review: Great phone, but that's not all that
matters,"
The Wall Street Journal; Jeong, E-Y., and T. W. Martin (2017,
Apr. 7),
"Samsung heir takes center stage in South Korea's 'trial of the
century,"'
The Wall Street Journal; Mozur, P. (2017, Jan.22), "Galaxy
Note 7
fires caused by battery and design flaws, Samsung says," The
New York
Times; Song, J., K. Lee, and T. Khanna (2016), "Dynamic
capabilities
at Samsung: optimizing internal co-opetition," California
Management
Review 58 (a): 118-140; "Charred chaebol," The Economist,
october 15,
2016; Bellman, E., and R.J. Krishna (2015, June 4), "India's
Micromax
churns out phones like fast fashion," The Wall Street Journal;
"samsung:
The soft succession," The Economist, May 23,2015; Cheng, J.,
and M.-J.
Lee (2015, May 11), 'After Galaxy smartphone debacle,
Samsung questions
game plan," The Wall Street Journal; Cheng, J. (2015, May 11),
"What to
know about Samsung," The Wall Street Journal; Cheng, I.
(2015, Mar. 1),
"Samsung unveils Galaxy 56 to answer iPhone 6," The Wall
Street Journal:
Cheng, L (2014, Oct.27), "Samsung's primacy is tested in
China," The
WalI Street Journal;Lee, M.-J. (2014, Oct.7), "Samsung girds
for cost cuts
after downbeat guidance," The wall Street Journah "samsung:
waiting
in the wings," The Economist, September 27,2014; "How
Samsung got
big," TechCrunch, June I,20L3; "The rise of Samsung and how
it is the
mobile reshaping ecosystem," Business Insider, March L4,2013;
"Faster,
higher, stronger: The rise and rise of Samsung," The Sydney
Morning
Herald, August 13,2012; "Samsung: the next big bet," The
Economist,
October 1,2011; "Samsung and its attractions: Asia's new model
company," The Economisl, October l,2Ol1; Khanna, T., J.Song,
and K.
Lee (2011), "The paradox of Samsung's rise," Harvard Business
Review,
July-August; and various Samsung Annual Reports.
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Running head: POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION
1
1
POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION
Atlantis Burns
PRST 4995-D04
Dr. Debra Haber
March 13, 2021
Module 2: Step 1 and Step 5 Draft
Postpartum Depression What do you want to know about
Postpartum Depression?
How postpartum depression affects the child?
The Research Problem
Postpartum depression leads to adverse outcomes for mothers,
kids, and families (Serenity Wellness, 2018). As a complex
phenomenon, the quality of care for a kid declines due to
maternal isolation and negative interactions (Repko, Szostak, &
Buchberger, 2017). Thus, the problem contributes to long-term
problems to a kid and mother, such as behavioral and emotional
problems (McMahon, 2005). New mothers with postpartum
depression have low moods and develop feelings of sadness,
hopelessness, and worthlessness (Ghaedrahmati, Kazemi,
Kheirabadi, Ebrahimi, & Bahrami, 2017). Smorti et al., (Smorti,
Ponti, & Pancetti., 2019) states that emotional disturbance that
involves dysphoria, trouble sleeping, tearfulness, and irritability
undermines a mother's ability to provide the needed child-care,
especially within the first few days after childbirth. If the
problem is not solved, there will be inadequate maternal care
that can decrease a child's cognitive performance because of the
lack of interpersonal relationships and the infant's gender. Due
to the potential adverse consequences of postpartum depression
for the mother, the infant, and their family, research must
delineate the potential risk and protective factors for postpartum
depression (Smorti, Ponti, & Pancetti., 2019).
Disciplinary Insights
Psychology
Scope and Magnitude of the Problem
McMahon et al., (2005), psychological factors such as past and
current relationships, defense styles, and the mediating role of
insecure attachment style influence the persistence of
postpartum depression. New mothers require high support levels
in their new role since prolonged postpartum depression is
linked to a lack of social support. The support can be both
emotional and household support, including assistance with
household duties and childcare. However, this support lacks
among single mothers or for women with few family members
nearby. Were other authors used in this section?
Causes of the Problem
After childbirth, mothers make a complaint of sleeplessness and
fatigue issues. Giving birth reduces the strength of a woman,
and it takes several weeks before full recovery. For instance, a
cesarean delivery that is a major surgery needs more time for
recovery (source). Combined with the spent energy in caring for
an infant around for the whole day and doing other crucial
tasks, new mothers can invariably experience inadequate rest
(Repko, Szostak, & Buchberger, 2017). The resulting fatigue
may increase the vulnerability of mothers and make them prone
to risk for postpartum depression.
The changing role of a mother feeds feelings of inadequacy. An
attitude of a mother towards her pregnancy contributes to the
risk for peripartum or postpartum depression. It is usual for
mothers to feel doubt about their pregnancy, especially for an
unplanned one. A significant incidence of depression is
dominant among women who were uncertain about pregnancy.
Similarly, the early loss of one's mother or a poor mother -
daughter attachment makes a new mother unsure about her new
infant. A woman may fear that caring for a child will bring
pain, suffering, disappointment, frustration, or loss. On the
other hand, weight gain during pregnancy can influence self-
esteem and increase the risk of depression, as can breastfeeding
challenges. What authors were used in the above paragraph?
Effects of the Problem
Women delivered through cesarean are likely to get more
depressed, and experience lowered self-esteem than those who
had spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Also, women with pre-term
infants mostly become depressed. All early birth results are
unexpected changes in routine and turn to be an added stressor.
A baby with birth deformities makes adjustment even more
challenging for a mother. The length of time that a woman
spends in the healthcare facility can influence her emotional
well-being. For instance, an extended stay in the hospital leads
to boredom and can undermine mental well-being. There is
evidence that early discharge from the facility increases the risk
of developing postpartum depression. The birth of a first kid has
always remained a stressful incident for new mothers and seems
to cause a more significant relationship to depression than the
birth of a second or third child. What authors were used above?
Solution
s to the Problem
Cross-cultural research show that postpartum depression's
incidence is much lower in non-Western cultures. These
cultures appear to give the new mother a high level of emotional
and physical support that does not exist in Western society. In
more traditional cultures, there is a significant recognition of
the demands of motherhood. As a result, the new mother gets
the assurance that the discomfort she is experiencing is
temporary and will pass and that she will not have to face those
feelings alone. Psychological disorders such as neurotic are
distressful but can allow a mother to reason and function
socially. Mothers who are "worrier', "being nervy," or "shy-self-
conscious" have an increased rate of developing PPD. An
existing psychiatric disturbance before one's pregnancy and its
extension into the postpartum period increases the risk for PPD.
What authors were used above?
Biology
Scope and Magnitude of the Problem
The levels of hormones frequently change throughout
pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. Thus, the
existing relationship between sudden changes in hormone levels
and postpartum depression defines mother-child attachment and
other behaviors such as breastfeeding. The thyroid gland's
postpartum dysregulation plays a crucial role in regulating
various hormones and their production that drops after
childbirth. These changes lead to feelings of fatigue among new
mothers. (Smorti, Ponti, & Pancetti., 2019) reveal that as a
result of these feelings, a mother may have a reduced level of
prenatal attachment to a child and declined quality of the
romantic relationship that results from the poor interaction.
What authors were used above?
Causes of the Problem
According to (Skalkidou, Hellgren, Comasco, Sylven, &
Sundstrom Poromaa, 2012), healthy pregnancy and postpartum
period lead to extensive endocrine alterations. This period
represents adaptive shifts or changes that prepare a mother for
child delivery and nursing. The changes include ovulation's
suspension and development and growth of the uterus, fetus,
and placenta. However, some hormones impair a mother's
mental health status after childbirth. For instance, serotonin
leads to greater mood disturbances after delivery. The mood
swings resulting from an increased rate of high hormonal
fluctuations occurring during and immediately after childbirth
pave the way for postpartum depression. Any other authors used
above?
Effects of the Problem
Postpartum depression (PPD) is also under the influence of
estradiol and progesterone hormones. One of the primary
contributing elements for PPD has been the postpartum period's
hypoestrogenism. As a result of low regulation of endogenous
hormone among mothers with PDD history, the depressive
symptoms have increased in at least 60% of the cases
(Skalkidou, Hellgren, Comasco, Sylven, & Sundstrom Poromaa,
2012). Some of the mothers having major depression show high
levels of estradiol serum concentrations compared to non-
depressed women who are in their immediate postpartum period
(Skalkidou et al., 2012). However, the treatment of estradiol in
high doses reveals improvement of PPD. Any other authors used
above?

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-aISamsung $uccessElectronics Burned byWITH $17

  • 1. -:a I Samsung $uccess?Electronics: Burned by WITH $176 BILLI0N in revenues in 2017, Samsung Electronics is the crown jewel of Samsung Group, with its mobile division contributing some 7 5 percent of the conglomerate's overall profits. The Samsung Group is one of the biggest conglomerates globally. In compari- son, the U.S. conglomerate General Electric had some $ 150 billion in revenues, while the Tata group of India registered $I04 billion in the same year. Indeed, Sam- sung is the largest chaebol in South Korea, making up one-third of the entire stock market domestically, and it is the country's biggest exporter. Chaebols are family- owned multinational companies typical of South Korea, whose economy is dominated by a small num- ber of chaebols (including LG, Hyundai, Kia Motors, SK Group, and others). As impressive as the achievements of the largest chaebol rn South Korea may sound, Samsung Elec- tronics is facing a host of challenges, creating a per- fect storm that calls into question Samsung's future viability. In recent years, the Korean conglomerate has been beset with crises, including: . Leadership. Lee Kun-hee, Samsung's iconic chairman and long-time leader, remains incap acr'
  • 2. tated after a heart attack tn 2014. This situation is creating a leadership vacuum. o Product recall. In 2016, Samsung's flagship phone, the Galaxy Note 7, was withdrawn from the market after some of the new phones spontane- ously exploded and caught on fire. . Political scandal. In20I7,LeeJae-yong, the de-facto leader of Samsung (and son of Lee Kun-hee), was arrested and charged with bribery, embezzlement, and pedury in the wake of the scandal surrounding former South Korean President Park Geun-hye. Before taking a closer look at the current chal- lenges, we need first to understand a bit of Sam- sung's storied history and its role in the South Korean economy. An exploded Samsung Galaxy Note 7. OAP lmages/Shawn L. Minter ffi. ffi?fufim ffiwg$ffiffi$ffiffiffi In 1938, when the Western world was still recover- ing from the Great Depression and World War II was about to break out, Lee Byung-chul started a small trading company in Korea (at that time still under Japanese occupation). He named the trading company Samsung, which means three stars in Korean, symbol- rzing big, powerful, and numerous. Samsung started with just 40 employees and sold noodles and dried sea- food. It has since diversified into various industries, including electronics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, shipbuilding, financial services, and construction. As
  • 3. a result, Samsung today is a widely diversified con- glomerate with over 80 standalone subsidiaries. The sprawling chaebol has 490,000 employees more than Apple, Google, and Microsoft combined. Not surpris- ingly, the huge enterprise exerts a powerful influence Frank T. Rothaermel prepared this MiniCase from public sources. He gratefully acknowledges research assistance by Rahul Singh. This MiniCase is developed for the purpose of class discussion. It is not intended to be used for any kind of endorsement, source of data, or depiction of efficient or inefficient management. All opinions expressed, all errors and omissions are entirely the author's. Revised and updated: August 25, 2017 . @ Frank T. Rothaermel. 503This study source was downloaded by 100000767465461 from CourseHero.com on 04-16-2021 22:01:51 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/42865894/CS-4-Samsung- Electronics-Burned-by-Successpdf/ Th is stu dy re so ur
  • 4. ce w as sh ar ed v ia Co ur se H er o. co m https://www.coursehero.com/file/42865894/CS-4-Samsung- Electronics-Burned-by-Successpdf/ 504 i UINICASE 17 Samsung Electronics: Burned by Success? on South Korea's economy, but also on its politics, media, and culture. The rise of Samsung Electronics began in 1970 when it introduced its first consumer electronics prod-
  • 5. uct, a I}-inch black-and-white television. Although it was a latecomer, Samsung made a breathtaking ascent in consumer electronics. It is now leading a number of key electronics industries globally. For instance, since 1993, Samsung Electronics has been the world's larg- est producer of memory chips. The original iPhone even ran on chips made by Samsung. The company is also the largest television manufacturer in the world, as well as the largest manufacturer of LCD panels. Today, Samsung Electronics produces some 98 percent of all AMOLED screens (unlike LCD screens, AMOLED screens do not need backlight), used in computer moni- tors, TVs, phones, ca^rs, and elsewhere. Since 2012, Samsung has also been the world's largest phone man- ufacturer, replacing Nokia at the top spot. Its mobile devices contribute some 75 percent of the conglomer- ate's overall profits. In 2017, Samsung also overtook Intel as the largest chipmaker in the world. The person credited for this ffemendous ascent to world leadership in consumer elecffonics is I-ee Kun-hee, the youngest son of the founder, who took over as chair of the conglomerate in 1987. Lee Kun-hee was trained in Western management principles, earning an MBA from George Washington University. To a cul- ture that deeply values seniority, he introduced merit- based pay and promotion. His strategic intent was to make Samsung a world leader in high-tech industries, including consumer electronics. To execute his strat- egy, Lee Kun-hee focused first on gaining market share by invading markets from the bottom up with lower-priced products at acceptable value. He hired Western managers and designers into leading posi- tions and sent homegrown talent to learn best busi- ness practices from other firms wherever they could be found. Lee Kun-hee also set up the Global Strate-
  • 6. gic Group to assist non-Korean MBAs and PhDs with a smooth transition into their positions in a largely homogenous cadre of Korean executives. Pssitisnlng $am$$nS H**ctronics fcr Slchal Leadsr$hlp In the 1990s, Samsung's image, however, was still overshadowed by those of Sony, Motorola, and Nokia, the undisputed world leaders in consumer electronics and mobile phones. During a 1993 trip, Lee Kun- hee saw firsthand how poorly Samsung's electronics were perceived in the United States and Europe, and he vowed to change that. Back in Korea, to show his disappointment and determination alike, he destroyed 150,000 new Samsung cell phones in a large bonfire in front of all 2,000 employees of Samsung's Gami factory. Many employees credit this as the pivotal moment in redefining Samsung Electronics' strategic focus and initiating a successful turnaround. Under Lee Kun-hee's leadership, Samsung Electronics sig- nificantly increased spending on research and devel- opment (R&D) as well as on marketing and design. Once economies of scale due to a larger market share could be reaped, he moved Samsung to the high end of the market, offering premium consumer electronics such as flat-screen TVs, appliances, semiconductors, and mobile devices, including its famous Galaxy line of smartphones. In 2007, Apple introduced the iPhone, redefining the entire category of mobile phones and setting the standard for the way smartphones looked and felt. Samsung played catch-up again, ratcheting up spend- ing on R&D and marketing. In particular, the company applied its time-tested "follow first, innovate second"
  • 7. rule. As a key component vendor to other leading tech- nology companies including Apple, Samsung Elec- tronics saw early on what directions other companies were taking. Within a short time, it had overtaken Motorola, HTC, BlackBerr], Nokia, and even Apple to become the number-one vendor of smartphones in the world and the largest technology company globally by revenues, and held the largest market share by units (see Exhibit MCI7.l). By 2012, with the release of its Galaxy S III phone, Samsung had successfully imitated the look and feel of the Apple iPhone. Apple and Samsung, however, have been locked in ongoing court battles over infringement among the various smartphone models. Samsung lost a high-profile case against Apple in a California court in 2015, where damages were later reduced to some $500 million. Despite the temporary competitive advantage Samsung achieved n 2012, within several years it snrm- bled, with revenues and profits down sharply from its peak tn 2013 (see Exhibit MCI7.2). Although it sells fewer phones than Samsung, Apple's profit margin per phone is much higher. With the introduction of the iPhone 6 in 2014, Apple again pulled away from Sam- sung. With the larger screen on the iPhone 6 Plus, Apple This study source was downloaded by 100000767465461 from CourseHero.com on 04-16-2021 22:01:51 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/42865894/CS-4-Samsung- Electronics-Burned-by-Successpdf/ Th is stu
  • 9. ,l I MINICASE 17 Samsung Electronics: Burned by Success? i 505 ffiXFf;IffiIT ffi#$?-I 2010 20lt 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 SOURCE: Depiction of publicly available data. Data for 2017 is based on Q1. ' I / Samsung vs. Apple: Global Smartphone Market Share by Units (in %),2010-2017{" also negated Samsung's lead with its successful Galaxy Note phablets. Apple followed up with the iPhone 7 in 2016 and its 10th anniversary model in 2017. With a string of incremental innovations, Apple has continued to capture a greater share of the high end of the mar- ket. Although Apple's market share in terms of units in the global smartphone industry is less than 20 percent, it captures a whopping 92 percent of all the profits gener- ated in the industry! $tnuggtes e* Sar*l$ffiffiffi ffi$estrsnies Samsung Electronics not only lost market share on the high end of the mobile phone market, but also on the low end. Chinese technology companies Oppo, Huawei, and Xiaomi are becoming more and more popular. In particular, the Chinese startup Oppo has challenged Samsung and Apple in consumer markets with huge
  • 10. growth potential such as China. By 2017, Oppo, often described as China's Apple, had become the number-one seller of smartphones in China by units. Similarly, by launching new smartphones quickly, almost like fashion accessories, India's Micromax had become the number-one seller in its home market. Samsung Electronics is being squeezed in the middle. On the high end, it has fallen behind Apple, which con- tinues to pull away with its innovation and design setting new standards for the most profitable segment of the mar- ket. On the low end, upstarts from China and India are capturing leading positions in markets with huge growth potential. Within the company, the soul-searching about Samsung's future has begun. In 2010, Lee Kun-hee set the sffategic intent that Samsung should quadruple its rev- enues from $100 billion to $4O0 billion by 2020 (which would be more than the revenues of Apple, Google, Micro- soft, and Amazon combined). By 2016, the situation for Samsung Electronics was getting worse. From selling well over 30 percent of all mobile phones globally, its market share had fallen to 18 percent by the end of the year. This study source was downloaded by 100000767465461 from CourseHero.com on 04-16-2021 22:01:51 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/42865894/CS-4-Samsung- Electronics-Burned-by-Successpdf/ Th is
  • 12. 506 i tllNlCASE 17 Samsung Electronics: Burned by Success? ffiKffi$ffi$T ffiffi$?-R $250 $200 $150 $100 $50 $0 Yfurme ffin$sffis $m ffimwr Ymffir$ During the struggles identified above, which may seem part of the rough and tumble of high-stakes com- petition, Samsung had to face three separate crises that rocked the company further: leadership struggles, product recalls, and political scandal. LEAnfn$HlP $TRUSSLE$. Although the business situation for Samsung Electronics seems to be improv- ing, its downward spiral for the past few years coin- cided with Lee Kun-hee's heafi attack in 2014, which left him incapacitated. The 75-year-old had ruled Samsung with an iron fist: No strategic or personnel decisions were made without his approval. With the leadership vacuum, the turf battle for Samsung's top job began, with many observers convinced that Lee Kun-hee's only son, Lee Jae-yong (who goes by Jay Lee), was the heir apparent. Prior to his arrest and
  • 13. charge in 2017 ,, the younger Lee held the position of vice chairman within the Samsung Group. At the same time, Samsung Electronics currently has an unusual leadership structure, with three co-CEOs each acting as the leader of his respective division (components, (left vertical axis) and Net Income (right vertical axis) in $30 $25 $20 $15 $10 $5 $0 mobile, and consumer electronics). The involvement of the Lee family in Samsung is persistent through- out the conglomerate, however, with descendants of the company's founder serving in multiple leadership positions. Lee Jae-yong holds a relative small stake in Sam- sung Electronics, which is key to running the entire conglomerate. At the same time, activist shareholders such as Elliott Management of the United States are pushing to restructure the Samsung conglomerate to provide more transparency in its governance structure, and to break open the tight grip that some Korean families have over the chaebols, despite fairly small
  • 14. share holdings. The younger Lee also faces billions in inheritance taxes when his father dies. PR00UCT RHCALL. Samsung Electronics was already dealing with shrinking margin share, when it encoun- tered the Galaxy Note 7 debacle. The Note line of mobile devices are Samsung's phones with larger screens, in which the South Korean company had been leading Apple. The new Note 7 was introduced in the summer of 2016 to great fanfare and raving reviews (e.g., o'best phone ever"). $ $ / Samsung Electronics Revenues* $ billions, 2000-2016 'i i i : tl ,'i 2000 2001 2002200320042005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 20fl 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 - Revenue -l. Net lncome SOURCE: Depiction of publicly available data.
  • 15. This study source was downloaded by 100000767465461 from CourseHero.com on 04-16-2021 22:01:51 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/42865894/CS-4-Samsung- Electronics-Burned-by-Successpdf/ Th is stu dy re so ur ce w as sh ar ed v ia Co ur se H er
  • 16. o. co m https://www.coursehero.com/file/42865894/CS-4-Samsung- Electronics-Burned-by-Successpdf/ But just a few days after its launch, reports of spon- taneous explosions and fires that the new smartphone was experiencing started to circulate in the media. Rushing to contain the looming problem, Samsung Electronics blamed a faulty battery from a specific supplier. It decided to no longer use this particular supplier and exchange all the phones already sold with new Note 7 phones that contained batteries from a different supplier. Alas, this did not solve the prob- lem. The media storm was gathering strength as more and more reports of spontaneous phone explosions and resulting fires came in. In the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration acted swiftly by ban- ning all Samsung Galaxy Note 7 phones from flights. Flight crews made announcements before every flight, reminding each traveler of the problems Samsung was facing with its Note J at about the same time as Apple was introducing the new iPhone 7, which turned out to be a bestseller. After recalling millions of Note 7 phones globally, Samsung announced in October 2016 that it would permanently end production and sale of the tarnished smartphone. In the spring of 2017, Samsung launched its new
  • 17. Galaxy S8 (a smaller version, not related to its Note line of phone) with considerable success. In the same year, Samsung Electronics also reported record prof- its as demand for the Galaxy 58 and the company's microchips was strong. P0LITICAL $CAl'lDAL. The leadership challenges facing Lee Jae-yong may have also led to events that embroiled him in a political scandal. In 2017 , prosecu- tors accused him of bribery, embezzlement, and perjury. He was subsequently arrested, becoming the first Sam- sung leader to land in jail. (His father, Lee Kun-hee, was convicted in 2008 for emb ezzlement and tax evasion, but later received a presidential pardon.) In the case of the younger L,ee, prosecutors allege that he sought South Korean President Park Geun-hye's support and influence in a conffoversial merger of trvo Samsung affiliates. Lee Jae-yong, who holds only a 0.6 percent share in Samsung Electronics, needed the merger to go through to generate much-needed cash, and more importantly to strengthen his hold on Sam- sung Electronics, ensuring a smooth leadership transi- tion along the Lee family lines. And one reason he may have needed that cash was to deal with the inheritance taxes relative to his share of Samsung Group. To achieve his goal, Lee Jae-yong turned to President Park, pros- ecutors allege, who in turn influenced Korea's National MINICASE 17 Samsunq Electronics: Burned by Success? i 507 Pension Service to cast the deciding vote in favor of the
  • 18. proposed merger within the Samsung conglomerate. The National Pension Service obliged, even though it was losing money in the transaction. To ensure continuation of the cozy relationship between politics and business in South Korea, Sam- sung made a $38 million "donation" to foundations held by a close friend of the president, Choi Soon- sil. She is one of the key figures in the scandal rock- ing South Korea because prosecutors allege that Choi Soon-sil had a huge influence on the president's deci- sions and access to confidential government papers, despite not holding any formal position. Park Geun-hye is the first Korean president to be impeached. Charges against her include abuse of power, bribery, and leak- ing of government secrets. Caught up in the presiden- tial scandal, Lee Jae-yong, Samsung's de-facto leader and figurehead, was convicted of bribery in the summer of 20IJ, and sentenced to five years in jail. His attor - neys immediately appealed the ruling. In the meantiffie, Samsung's leadership vacuum continues. Drscus$l0N 8uE$Tl0Ns Gorporate Strategy and Governance What makes Samsung a conglomerate? What type of diversification does Samsung pursue? Identify possible factors such as core competencies, econo- mies of scale, and economies of scope that were
  • 19. the basis of its past success as a widely diversified conglomerate. Why is Samsung as a conglomerate struggling today? Despite being a widely diversified conglomer- ate, Samsung prefers vertical integration: in-house design and development teams, manufacturing in large company-owned factories, and coordinating a sprawling global supply chain. In contrast, Apple concentrates on the design (and retail sales) of high- end mobile devices, while it outsources its produc- tion to Foxconn and others. Do you think Samsung's high degree of vertical integration contributed to its recent problems? Why or why not? Explain. What is a chaebol? What arc some of the corpo- rate governance challenges that chaebols such as Samsung face? What arc some of the advantages and disadvantages of chaebols ? What changes to a chaebol's governance structure are Ameri- can activist investors such as Elliott Management pushing for, and why? L 2. 3. This study source was downloaded by 100000767465461 from CourseHero.com on 04-16-2021 22:01:51 GMT -05:00
  • 21. co m https://www.coursehero.com/file/42865894/CS-4-Samsung- Electronics-Burned-by-Successpdf/ 508 i ultllcAsE 17 Samsung Electronics Burned by success? 4. With South Korea being rocked by the presi- dential scandal exposing a deep-running and long-standing nexus of bribery and chummy rela- tionships between industry and politicians, and by the call for more transparency and governance changes in the chaebols, do you think reform and changes will happen, or will things return to busi- ness as usual? What is your opinion? Explain. Business Strategy 5. Lee Jae-yong, the 5O-year-old grandson of the Samsung founder, was educated at Seoul National University, Keio University (in Japan), and Har- vard Business School. He wrote a master's thesis at Keio University on Japan's struggle to retain its world leadership in manufacturing in the mid- 1990s when the country's fast-growing period was ending. He concluded, "Japan's troubles were worsened by its manufacturers' pursuit of scale and market share."l Is Samsung Electronics' pur- suit of scale and market share to blame for its los- ing its competitive advantage? 6. Why is Samsung Electronics encountering prob- lems selling its flagship line of smartphones, the Galaxy? How should it compete against premium
  • 22. phone makers such as Apple and low-cost lead- ers such as Oppo and Micromax? Do you think Samsung will be making a comeback with its Gal- axy line of phones? Why or why not? Endnote 1. Cheng, J., and Lee, M. J. (2015,, May ll), 'After Galaxy smartphone debacle, samsung questions game plan," The wall street Journal. Sources: Jeong, E.-Y. (2017, Aug. 25), "samsung Heir Lee Jae- yong Convicted of Bribery, Gets Five Years in Jail," The Wall Street Journal; Tsang, A. (2017, July 7), "Samsung, seeking to move past scandals, forecasts record profit," The New York Times; Fowler, G. (2017, Apr. l8), "Samsung Galaxy S8 review: Great phone, but that's not all that matters," The Wall Street Journal; Jeong, E-Y., and T. W. Martin (2017, Apr. 7), "Samsung heir takes center stage in South Korea's 'trial of the century,"' The Wall Street Journal; Mozur, P. (2017, Jan.22), "Galaxy Note 7 fires caused by battery and design flaws, Samsung says," The New York Times; Song, J., K. Lee, and T. Khanna (2016), "Dynamic capabilities at Samsung: optimizing internal co-opetition," California Management Review 58 (a): 118-140; "Charred chaebol," The Economist, october 15,
  • 23. 2016; Bellman, E., and R.J. Krishna (2015, June 4), "India's Micromax churns out phones like fast fashion," The Wall Street Journal; "samsung: The soft succession," The Economist, May 23,2015; Cheng, J., and M.-J. Lee (2015, May 11), 'After Galaxy smartphone debacle, Samsung questions game plan," The Wall Street Journal; Cheng, J. (2015, May 11), "What to know about Samsung," The Wall Street Journal; Cheng, I. (2015, Mar. 1), "Samsung unveils Galaxy 56 to answer iPhone 6," The Wall Street Journal: Cheng, L (2014, Oct.27), "Samsung's primacy is tested in China," The WalI Street Journal;Lee, M.-J. (2014, Oct.7), "Samsung girds for cost cuts after downbeat guidance," The wall Street Journah "samsung: waiting in the wings," The Economist, September 27,2014; "How Samsung got big," TechCrunch, June I,20L3; "The rise of Samsung and how it is the mobile reshaping ecosystem," Business Insider, March L4,2013; "Faster, higher, stronger: The rise and rise of Samsung," The Sydney Morning Herald, August 13,2012; "Samsung: the next big bet," The Economist, October 1,2011; "Samsung and its attractions: Asia's new model company," The Economisl, October l,2Ol1; Khanna, T., J.Song, and K. Lee (2011), "The paradox of Samsung's rise," Harvard Business Review, July-August; and various Samsung Annual Reports.
  • 24. This study source was downloaded by 100000767465461 from CourseHero.com on 04-16-2021 22:01:51 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/42865894/CS-4-Samsung- Electronics-Burned-by-Successpdf/ Th is stu dy re so ur ce w as sh ar ed v ia Co ur se H
  • 25. er o. co m Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org) https://www.coursehero.com/file/42865894/CS-4-Samsung- Electronics-Burned-by-Successpdf/ http://www.tcpdf.org Running head: POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION 1 1 POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION Atlantis Burns PRST 4995-D04 Dr. Debra Haber March 13, 2021 Module 2: Step 1 and Step 5 Draft
  • 26. Postpartum Depression What do you want to know about Postpartum Depression? How postpartum depression affects the child? The Research Problem Postpartum depression leads to adverse outcomes for mothers, kids, and families (Serenity Wellness, 2018). As a complex phenomenon, the quality of care for a kid declines due to maternal isolation and negative interactions (Repko, Szostak, & Buchberger, 2017). Thus, the problem contributes to long-term problems to a kid and mother, such as behavioral and emotional problems (McMahon, 2005). New mothers with postpartum depression have low moods and develop feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness (Ghaedrahmati, Kazemi, Kheirabadi, Ebrahimi, & Bahrami, 2017). Smorti et al., (Smorti, Ponti, & Pancetti., 2019) states that emotional disturbance that involves dysphoria, trouble sleeping, tearfulness, and irritability undermines a mother's ability to provide the needed child-care, especially within the first few days after childbirth. If the problem is not solved, there will be inadequate maternal care that can decrease a child's cognitive performance because of the lack of interpersonal relationships and the infant's gender. Due to the potential adverse consequences of postpartum depression for the mother, the infant, and their family, research must delineate the potential risk and protective factors for postpartum depression (Smorti, Ponti, & Pancetti., 2019). Disciplinary Insights Psychology Scope and Magnitude of the Problem McMahon et al., (2005), psychological factors such as past and current relationships, defense styles, and the mediating role of insecure attachment style influence the persistence of postpartum depression. New mothers require high support levels in their new role since prolonged postpartum depression is
  • 27. linked to a lack of social support. The support can be both emotional and household support, including assistance with household duties and childcare. However, this support lacks among single mothers or for women with few family members nearby. Were other authors used in this section? Causes of the Problem After childbirth, mothers make a complaint of sleeplessness and fatigue issues. Giving birth reduces the strength of a woman, and it takes several weeks before full recovery. For instance, a cesarean delivery that is a major surgery needs more time for recovery (source). Combined with the spent energy in caring for an infant around for the whole day and doing other crucial tasks, new mothers can invariably experience inadequate rest (Repko, Szostak, & Buchberger, 2017). The resulting fatigue may increase the vulnerability of mothers and make them prone to risk for postpartum depression. The changing role of a mother feeds feelings of inadequacy. An attitude of a mother towards her pregnancy contributes to the risk for peripartum or postpartum depression. It is usual for mothers to feel doubt about their pregnancy, especially for an unplanned one. A significant incidence of depression is dominant among women who were uncertain about pregnancy. Similarly, the early loss of one's mother or a poor mother - daughter attachment makes a new mother unsure about her new infant. A woman may fear that caring for a child will bring pain, suffering, disappointment, frustration, or loss. On the other hand, weight gain during pregnancy can influence self- esteem and increase the risk of depression, as can breastfeeding challenges. What authors were used in the above paragraph? Effects of the Problem Women delivered through cesarean are likely to get more depressed, and experience lowered self-esteem than those who had spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Also, women with pre-term infants mostly become depressed. All early birth results are unexpected changes in routine and turn to be an added stressor. A baby with birth deformities makes adjustment even more
  • 28. challenging for a mother. The length of time that a woman spends in the healthcare facility can influence her emotional well-being. For instance, an extended stay in the hospital leads to boredom and can undermine mental well-being. There is evidence that early discharge from the facility increases the risk of developing postpartum depression. The birth of a first kid has always remained a stressful incident for new mothers and seems to cause a more significant relationship to depression than the birth of a second or third child. What authors were used above? Solution s to the Problem Cross-cultural research show that postpartum depression's incidence is much lower in non-Western cultures. These cultures appear to give the new mother a high level of emotional and physical support that does not exist in Western society. In more traditional cultures, there is a significant recognition of the demands of motherhood. As a result, the new mother gets the assurance that the discomfort she is experiencing is temporary and will pass and that she will not have to face those feelings alone. Psychological disorders such as neurotic are distressful but can allow a mother to reason and function socially. Mothers who are "worrier', "being nervy," or "shy-self- conscious" have an increased rate of developing PPD. An existing psychiatric disturbance before one's pregnancy and its extension into the postpartum period increases the risk for PPD.
  • 29. What authors were used above? Biology Scope and Magnitude of the Problem The levels of hormones frequently change throughout pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. Thus, the existing relationship between sudden changes in hormone levels and postpartum depression defines mother-child attachment and other behaviors such as breastfeeding. The thyroid gland's postpartum dysregulation plays a crucial role in regulating various hormones and their production that drops after childbirth. These changes lead to feelings of fatigue among new mothers. (Smorti, Ponti, & Pancetti., 2019) reveal that as a result of these feelings, a mother may have a reduced level of prenatal attachment to a child and declined quality of the romantic relationship that results from the poor interaction. What authors were used above? Causes of the Problem According to (Skalkidou, Hellgren, Comasco, Sylven, & Sundstrom Poromaa, 2012), healthy pregnancy and postpartum period lead to extensive endocrine alterations. This period represents adaptive shifts or changes that prepare a mother for child delivery and nursing. The changes include ovulation's suspension and development and growth of the uterus, fetus, and placenta. However, some hormones impair a mother's mental health status after childbirth. For instance, serotonin
  • 30. leads to greater mood disturbances after delivery. The mood swings resulting from an increased rate of high hormonal fluctuations occurring during and immediately after childbirth pave the way for postpartum depression. Any other authors used above? Effects of the Problem Postpartum depression (PPD) is also under the influence of estradiol and progesterone hormones. One of the primary contributing elements for PPD has been the postpartum period's hypoestrogenism. As a result of low regulation of endogenous hormone among mothers with PDD history, the depressive symptoms have increased in at least 60% of the cases (Skalkidou, Hellgren, Comasco, Sylven, & Sundstrom Poromaa, 2012). Some of the mothers having major depression show high levels of estradiol serum concentrations compared to non- depressed women who are in their immediate postpartum period (Skalkidou et al., 2012). However, the treatment of estradiol in high doses reveals improvement of PPD. Any other authors used above?