SlideShare a Scribd company logo
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1189
AIR POLLUTION IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT IN KOZHIKODE CITY
Sinam Shirin1, Harsha P2
1M. tech Environmental Engineering Student, KMCT CEW, Kerala, India
2Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, KMCT CEW, Kerala, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract - The strongdemographicexplosion, theproduction
of waste from urban areas, the automobile and industries
largely exploded and resulted in the increase in air pollution.
The man-made activities are the leading root for the damage
of air quality and are the donors of anthropogenic oxides. This
project studies to a greater extent, on the exit of dangerousair
problems in the city of Kozhikode. This thesis with the help of
Pollution Control Board (PCB) also includes the various
evolution of air in Kozhikode city in the past andinthecurrent
scenario. It also comprises of an air quality assessment based
on the covid19 lockdown scenario as well as arranging the
data based on daily activities.
Key Words: Pollution, Air Pollutants, Air QualityIndex,
Vehicular Emission, Pandemic
1. INTRODUCTION
Air pollution can be explained as the presence of excess
amount of chemicals, oxides, particulate matter, or other
harmful materials in the wide range of atmospheres that
cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living
organisms and may even harm the natural environment.
Pollutants are mainly classified into primary and secondary.
And again, air pollution can be classified into anthropogenic
and non-anthropogenic origin. World Health Organization
(WHO)has a proper definition for the air pollution,
“Substances that put into air by the interest of mankind into
concentration sufficient to cause very harmful effect to
human health, vegetables, properties or interfere with
enjoyment of human property”.
Air quality and pollution is one of the greatest threats to the
planet, fueled primarily by the rapid population growth,
continuous hike in energy consumption, deforestation, and
increases in the vehicle density,especiallyintheurbancities.
The wave of lockdowns in India, especially in major cities,
following the covid19 pandemic has forced the people to
stay at their own homes. All transportservicessuchas roads,
railways and air transport were disrupted to run and were
not allowed to operate with an anomaly of essential and
emergency systems. Thus, promoting to a decreaseintraffic,
industrial activities and other pollution transmitting works.
Thus, ultimately to the decline in the air pollution for a small
amount.
1.1 Scope
An air pollutant is mainly in the characteristics of a solid
(large or small molecules), liquid orgas.AirPollutionmaybe
set up from a natural or anthropogenic source or from both
origins. Air pollution causes health issue to living beings,
damage of materials and ecosystems, and poor visibility.
Climate impact or change is characterized by the lengthy
alteration of the weather and the temperature in the
atmosphere. The biomass and fossil fuels that cause air
quality deterioration can also have affected the warming of
the earth’s atmosphere mainly by the release of greenhouse
gases (GHGs). This evaluation is almost based on the air
pollutants that effect environment in the wide range.
This research interest come up with increasing the assess of
response to air pollution in our country to address this
universal problem responsibly. Pressure groupscanusethis
research activity data to enforce certain environmental and
industrial agendas on politicians and political campaigns.
Places with soaring levels of air quality damage should get
entangled in air pollution research to provide health policy
founders with baseline data for future action. This project
therefore makes it possible to collect, then to assemble and
issue technical and statistical data relating to air pollution.
And mainly to provide technical assistance, support and
advice to the Pollution Control Board (PCB) Committee.This
project work thus suggests possible prevention and control
program and abatement of air pollution. This can help many
countries motivate academics and researchers to create
research venues to monitor the air quality and level at the
national level of air pollution and can be seen a step forward
that must be taken by all countries for an adequate climate
and standard of living.
2. MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY
2.1 Air Pollutants
The air borne emitted from countless factories or industries
and are a cause of major concern. These discharges are of
three vital forms, they are solid particles, liquid and gaseous
emissions. Thus, air pollutants can be in the form of solid
particles, liquid droplets, or gases. They can be natural or
manmade. Major air pollutants discussed are particulate
matter, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of Sulphur, carbon
monoxide, ammonia and ground level ozone.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1190
Table -1: Air Pollutants
PARAMETER ORIGIN HEALTH CONSEQUENCES
Particulate
matter
Industries,
vehicles
Eye irritation, Cancer,
cardiovascular damage
NOx Vehicular
emission
Respiratory reactions
SO2 Petrol and
coal factory
Respiratory reactions
Oxides of
carbon
Vehicular
emission
Heart impairment
Ammonia Agriculture,
sewage
Skin distress
Ozone vehicle lung damage, eye and
throat irritation
2.2 Study Area
The rapid development in the urban Kerala has resulted in a
tremendous increase in the number of industries and motor
vehicles. Vehicles are the main root of urban air quality
damage and are increasingly main contributors of
anthropogenic oxides. Industries also contribute
significantly to environmental pollution. The city of
Kozhikode is the selected area
Table -2: Study Area
District Site
Kozhikode Palayam bus stand
Kozhikode Children’s Hospital
Kozhikode Nallalam
2.3 Methodology
The main parameters accumulated for the air quality
analysis from Pollution Control Board (PCB) are are
particulate 10 (PM10), particulate 2.5 (PM2.5), SO2, NOX,
NH3, COX and ozone. The area chosen for the thesis includes
Kozhikode Palayam Bus Stand, Kottam Children's Hospital
and Nallalam. Plot different graphs and diagrams.
Data collection is executed on parameters PM2.5,PM10,SO2,
NOX, COX, O3, NH3 from PCB Kozhikode during February
2022. The initial visit to the PCB befell in December 2021.
Data of the years 2019, 2020 and 2021 are collected.
Data collection and analyses were based on covid-19
lockdown scenario. Data is grouped into pre lockdown,
lockdown and post lock down sets. Again, the data
scrutinized based on a diurnal basis. The overall analysis is
mainly based on vehicle density assuming vehicle density is
much large and industrial activities.
Pre lockdown data 2019 will be clustered with respect to
seasons to see impact of seasons on air. The above data is
further clustered with respect to time of the day (8am, 4pm,
12am) to see the impact of vehicle density and industrial
activities. The same will be verified for containment and
post-containment in 2020 and 2021 respectively. Graphs of
each parameter is made separately under each cluster
heading.
Fig -1: Pollution Control Board-Kozhikode
Fig -2: Site visit-Kottam Hospital
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1191
Table -3: Air Quality Standards from CPCB site
NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
PARA
METE
R
UNIT
PERMISSIBLE VALUE
RESIDENTIAL
AND INDUSTRIAL
AREA
ECOLOGICALLY
SENSISTIVE AREA
Annual 24hrs Annual 24hrs
PM2.5 µg/m3 40 60 40 60
PM10 µg/m3 60 100 60 100
SO2 µg/m3 50 80 20 80
NOX µg/m3 40 80 30 80
COX µg/m3 2 4 2 4
O3 µg/m3 100 180 100 180
NH3 µg/m3 100 400 100 400
3. CALCULATIONS
3.1 Graphical Representation
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1192
MORNING AFTERNOON
NIGHT
DAILY
VARIATION-NH3
2019 2020
2021
5
4
3
2
1
0
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1193
4. CONCLUSION
Air pollution is a major threat in urban areas and should
manage with almost as much care. From the study,
Kozhikode city shown mixed results. PM10 emissions
gradually decreased during lockdown and gradually
increased with a normal lifestyle.Summerseasonhadshown
greater emission when compared to other seasons. PM2.5
shows that the summer season had a higheremission.Fewer
problems during the lockdown period compared to the
previous year. SO2 and NOx emissionsalsodecreasedduring
the lockdown. Thus, concluded that vehicles and industries
have a great hand on clean and fresh air.
 Encourage the use of electric andecological vehicles
 Industries should reduce their reliance on coal
power
 Switch to renewable source of energy
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author wishes to give gratitude to Pollution Control
Board (PCB), Kozhikode for providing data.
REFERENCES
[1] Ayush Tripathi (2021) Air pollution in four Indian
cities during the Covid-19 pandemic international
journal of environmental studies volume 78
[2] Elisavet Stavropoulou, Ioannis Manisalidis (2020)
Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution:
An environment and health review
[3] Md Shahjada Alam, Dr. Arif Khan (2020) The
Impact StudyofVehicularPollutiononEnvironment
IJSART - Volume 6 Issue 12
[4] Zirui Wang, Huixin Zhou, Yang Si, and Yahui Li
(2020) Role of Traffic Emission on temporal and
spatial characteristics of pollutantconcentrationon
the urban road network: a case from the Beijing
Journal of Advanced Transportation
[5] Lu Liang, PengGong(2020) Urbanandairpollution:
a multi-city study of long-term effects of urban
landscape patterns on air quality trends Scientific
Reports

More Related Content

Similar to AIR POLLUTION IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT IN KOZHIKODE CITY

Carbon Emission Forecasting using ARIMA
Carbon Emission Forecasting using ARIMACarbon Emission Forecasting using ARIMA
Carbon Emission Forecasting using ARIMA
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Design of Eco Friendly System in Automobile for Environmental Safety
IRJET- Design of Eco Friendly System in Automobile for Environmental SafetyIRJET- Design of Eco Friendly System in Automobile for Environmental Safety
IRJET- Design of Eco Friendly System in Automobile for Environmental Safety
IRJET Journal
 
Effect of Pollutants on Permeability Characteristics of Soil
Effect of Pollutants on Permeability Characteristics of SoilEffect of Pollutants on Permeability Characteristics of Soil
Effect of Pollutants on Permeability Characteristics of Soil
IRJET Journal
 
Innovative systems for the detection of air particles in the quarries of the...
Innovative systems for the detection of air particles in the  quarries of the...Innovative systems for the detection of air particles in the  quarries of the...
Innovative systems for the detection of air particles in the quarries of the...
International Journal of Reconfigurable and Embedded Systems
 
SIMULATION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS DISPERSION IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT
SIMULATION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS DISPERSION IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENTSIMULATION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS DISPERSION IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT
SIMULATION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS DISPERSION IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT
AM Publications
 
IRJET - Prediction of Air Pollutant Concentration using Deep Learning
IRJET - Prediction of Air Pollutant Concentration using Deep LearningIRJET - Prediction of Air Pollutant Concentration using Deep Learning
IRJET - Prediction of Air Pollutant Concentration using Deep Learning
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Embedded Energy’ of Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Engineering, Managemen...
IRJET- Embedded Energy’ of Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Engineering, Managemen...IRJET- Embedded Energy’ of Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Engineering, Managemen...
IRJET- Embedded Energy’ of Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Engineering, Managemen...
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Air Pollution Monitoring System using the Internet of Things
IRJET- Air Pollution Monitoring System using the Internet of ThingsIRJET- Air Pollution Monitoring System using the Internet of Things
IRJET- Air Pollution Monitoring System using the Internet of Things
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Vehicular Exhaust Emission Estimation and Control Modelling
IRJET- Vehicular Exhaust Emission Estimation and Control ModellingIRJET- Vehicular Exhaust Emission Estimation and Control Modelling
IRJET- Vehicular Exhaust Emission Estimation and Control Modelling
IRJET Journal
 
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF PPE KIT USING OPEN -LCA SOFTWARE
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF PPE KIT USING OPEN -LCA SOFTWARELIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF PPE KIT USING OPEN -LCA SOFTWARE
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF PPE KIT USING OPEN -LCA SOFTWARE
IRJET Journal
 
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF VYTILA’S WATCH TOWER INTO AIR PURIFICATION SYSTEM
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF VYTILA’S WATCH TOWER INTO AIR PURIFICATION SYSTEMANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF VYTILA’S WATCH TOWER INTO AIR PURIFICATION SYSTEM
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF VYTILA’S WATCH TOWER INTO AIR PURIFICATION SYSTEM
IRJET Journal
 
AIR QUALITY MONITORING FROM DHAMORA TO AMBEDKAR PARK IN URBAN AREAS OF RAMPUR...
AIR QUALITY MONITORING FROM DHAMORA TO AMBEDKAR PARK IN URBAN AREAS OF RAMPUR...AIR QUALITY MONITORING FROM DHAMORA TO AMBEDKAR PARK IN URBAN AREAS OF RAMPUR...
AIR QUALITY MONITORING FROM DHAMORA TO AMBEDKAR PARK IN URBAN AREAS OF RAMPUR...
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Performance Study of Modelling Urban Traffic Air Pollution Dispersion
IRJET-  	  Performance Study of Modelling Urban Traffic Air Pollution DispersionIRJET-  	  Performance Study of Modelling Urban Traffic Air Pollution Dispersion
IRJET- Performance Study of Modelling Urban Traffic Air Pollution Dispersion
IRJET Journal
 
The 1.7 kilogram_microchip_energy_and_ma (1)
The 1.7 kilogram_microchip_energy_and_ma (1)The 1.7 kilogram_microchip_energy_and_ma (1)
The 1.7 kilogram_microchip_energy_and_ma (1)
Soumitra Pal
 
IRJET- IoT based Air Pollution Monitoring System to Create a Smart Environment
IRJET- IoT based Air Pollution Monitoring System to Create a Smart EnvironmentIRJET- IoT based Air Pollution Monitoring System to Create a Smart Environment
IRJET- IoT based Air Pollution Monitoring System to Create a Smart Environment
IRJET Journal
 
Studies on Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Near the Solid Waste Disposal Site ...
Studies on Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Near the Solid Waste Disposal Site ...Studies on Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Near the Solid Waste Disposal Site ...
Studies on Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Near the Solid Waste Disposal Site ...
IRJET Journal
 
CarbonFit: An Application to Monitor and Calculate Carbon Footprint
CarbonFit: An Application to Monitor and Calculate Carbon FootprintCarbonFit: An Application to Monitor and Calculate Carbon Footprint
CarbonFit: An Application to Monitor and Calculate Carbon Footprint
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET - Air Quality Index – A Study to Assess the Air Quality
IRJET - Air Quality Index – A Study to Assess the Air QualityIRJET - Air Quality Index – A Study to Assess the Air Quality
IRJET - Air Quality Index – A Study to Assess the Air Quality
IRJET Journal
 
Improvement of air quality for office buildings in northern Indian cities
Improvement of air quality for office buildings in northern Indian citiesImprovement of air quality for office buildings in northern Indian cities
Improvement of air quality for office buildings in northern Indian cities
IRJET Journal
 
Analysis and Prediction of Air Quality in India
Analysis and Prediction of Air Quality in IndiaAnalysis and Prediction of Air Quality in India
Analysis and Prediction of Air Quality in India
IRJET Journal
 

Similar to AIR POLLUTION IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT IN KOZHIKODE CITY (20)

Carbon Emission Forecasting using ARIMA
Carbon Emission Forecasting using ARIMACarbon Emission Forecasting using ARIMA
Carbon Emission Forecasting using ARIMA
 
IRJET- Design of Eco Friendly System in Automobile for Environmental Safety
IRJET- Design of Eco Friendly System in Automobile for Environmental SafetyIRJET- Design of Eco Friendly System in Automobile for Environmental Safety
IRJET- Design of Eco Friendly System in Automobile for Environmental Safety
 
Effect of Pollutants on Permeability Characteristics of Soil
Effect of Pollutants on Permeability Characteristics of SoilEffect of Pollutants on Permeability Characteristics of Soil
Effect of Pollutants on Permeability Characteristics of Soil
 
Innovative systems for the detection of air particles in the quarries of the...
Innovative systems for the detection of air particles in the  quarries of the...Innovative systems for the detection of air particles in the  quarries of the...
Innovative systems for the detection of air particles in the quarries of the...
 
SIMULATION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS DISPERSION IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT
SIMULATION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS DISPERSION IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENTSIMULATION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS DISPERSION IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT
SIMULATION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS DISPERSION IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT
 
IRJET - Prediction of Air Pollutant Concentration using Deep Learning
IRJET - Prediction of Air Pollutant Concentration using Deep LearningIRJET - Prediction of Air Pollutant Concentration using Deep Learning
IRJET - Prediction of Air Pollutant Concentration using Deep Learning
 
IRJET- Embedded Energy’ of Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Engineering, Managemen...
IRJET- Embedded Energy’ of Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Engineering, Managemen...IRJET- Embedded Energy’ of Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Engineering, Managemen...
IRJET- Embedded Energy’ of Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Engineering, Managemen...
 
IRJET- Air Pollution Monitoring System using the Internet of Things
IRJET- Air Pollution Monitoring System using the Internet of ThingsIRJET- Air Pollution Monitoring System using the Internet of Things
IRJET- Air Pollution Monitoring System using the Internet of Things
 
IRJET- Vehicular Exhaust Emission Estimation and Control Modelling
IRJET- Vehicular Exhaust Emission Estimation and Control ModellingIRJET- Vehicular Exhaust Emission Estimation and Control Modelling
IRJET- Vehicular Exhaust Emission Estimation and Control Modelling
 
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF PPE KIT USING OPEN -LCA SOFTWARE
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF PPE KIT USING OPEN -LCA SOFTWARELIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF PPE KIT USING OPEN -LCA SOFTWARE
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF PPE KIT USING OPEN -LCA SOFTWARE
 
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF VYTILA’S WATCH TOWER INTO AIR PURIFICATION SYSTEM
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF VYTILA’S WATCH TOWER INTO AIR PURIFICATION SYSTEMANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF VYTILA’S WATCH TOWER INTO AIR PURIFICATION SYSTEM
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF VYTILA’S WATCH TOWER INTO AIR PURIFICATION SYSTEM
 
AIR QUALITY MONITORING FROM DHAMORA TO AMBEDKAR PARK IN URBAN AREAS OF RAMPUR...
AIR QUALITY MONITORING FROM DHAMORA TO AMBEDKAR PARK IN URBAN AREAS OF RAMPUR...AIR QUALITY MONITORING FROM DHAMORA TO AMBEDKAR PARK IN URBAN AREAS OF RAMPUR...
AIR QUALITY MONITORING FROM DHAMORA TO AMBEDKAR PARK IN URBAN AREAS OF RAMPUR...
 
IRJET- Performance Study of Modelling Urban Traffic Air Pollution Dispersion
IRJET-  	  Performance Study of Modelling Urban Traffic Air Pollution DispersionIRJET-  	  Performance Study of Modelling Urban Traffic Air Pollution Dispersion
IRJET- Performance Study of Modelling Urban Traffic Air Pollution Dispersion
 
The 1.7 kilogram_microchip_energy_and_ma (1)
The 1.7 kilogram_microchip_energy_and_ma (1)The 1.7 kilogram_microchip_energy_and_ma (1)
The 1.7 kilogram_microchip_energy_and_ma (1)
 
IRJET- IoT based Air Pollution Monitoring System to Create a Smart Environment
IRJET- IoT based Air Pollution Monitoring System to Create a Smart EnvironmentIRJET- IoT based Air Pollution Monitoring System to Create a Smart Environment
IRJET- IoT based Air Pollution Monitoring System to Create a Smart Environment
 
Studies on Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Near the Solid Waste Disposal Site ...
Studies on Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Near the Solid Waste Disposal Site ...Studies on Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Near the Solid Waste Disposal Site ...
Studies on Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Near the Solid Waste Disposal Site ...
 
CarbonFit: An Application to Monitor and Calculate Carbon Footprint
CarbonFit: An Application to Monitor and Calculate Carbon FootprintCarbonFit: An Application to Monitor and Calculate Carbon Footprint
CarbonFit: An Application to Monitor and Calculate Carbon Footprint
 
IRJET - Air Quality Index – A Study to Assess the Air Quality
IRJET - Air Quality Index – A Study to Assess the Air QualityIRJET - Air Quality Index – A Study to Assess the Air Quality
IRJET - Air Quality Index – A Study to Assess the Air Quality
 
Improvement of air quality for office buildings in northern Indian cities
Improvement of air quality for office buildings in northern Indian citiesImprovement of air quality for office buildings in northern Indian cities
Improvement of air quality for office buildings in northern Indian cities
 
Analysis and Prediction of Air Quality in India
Analysis and Prediction of Air Quality in IndiaAnalysis and Prediction of Air Quality in India
Analysis and Prediction of Air Quality in India
 

More from IRJET Journal

TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
IRJET Journal
 
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURESTUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
IRJET Journal
 
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
IRJET Journal
 
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil CharacteristicsEffect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
IRJET Journal
 
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
IRJET Journal
 
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
IRJET Journal
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
IRJET Journal
 
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
IRJET Journal
 
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADASA REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
IRJET Journal
 
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
IRJET Journal
 
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD ProP.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
IRJET Journal
 
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
IRJET Journal
 
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare SystemSurvey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
IRJET Journal
 
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridgesReview on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
IRJET Journal
 
React based fullstack edtech web application
React based fullstack edtech web applicationReact based fullstack edtech web application
React based fullstack edtech web application
IRJET Journal
 
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
IRJET Journal
 
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
IRJET Journal
 
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
IRJET Journal
 
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic DesignMultistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
IRJET Journal
 
Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...
Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...
Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...
IRJET Journal
 

More from IRJET Journal (20)

TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
 
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURESTUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
 
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
 
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil CharacteristicsEffect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
 
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
 
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
 
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
 
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADASA REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
 
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
 
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD ProP.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
 
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
 
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare SystemSurvey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
 
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridgesReview on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
 
React based fullstack edtech web application
React based fullstack edtech web applicationReact based fullstack edtech web application
React based fullstack edtech web application
 
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
 
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
 
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
 
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic DesignMultistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
 
Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...
Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...
Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Constr...
 

Recently uploaded

EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagneEAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
idelewebmestre
 
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdfAdv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
T.D. Shashikala
 
IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptx
IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptxIE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptx
IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptx
BehairyAhmed2
 
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Robert Pyke
 
Generative AI and Large Language Models (LLMs)
Generative AI and Large Language Models (LLMs)Generative AI and Large Language Models (LLMs)
Generative AI and Large Language Models (LLMs)
rkpv2002
 
Probability and Statistics by sheldon ross (8th edition).pdf
Probability and Statistics by sheldon ross (8th edition).pdfProbability and Statistics by sheldon ross (8th edition).pdf
Probability and Statistics by sheldon ross (8th edition).pdf
utkarshakusnake
 
ANATOMY OF SOA - Thomas Erl - Service Oriented Architecture
ANATOMY OF SOA - Thomas Erl - Service Oriented ArchitectureANATOMY OF SOA - Thomas Erl - Service Oriented Architecture
ANATOMY OF SOA - Thomas Erl - Service Oriented Architecture
Divya Rajasekar
 
Buy a fake University of Washington diploma
Buy a fake University of Washington diplomaBuy a fake University of Washington diploma
Buy a fake University of Washington diploma
College diploma
 
Chapter 1 Introduction to Software Engineering and Process Models.pdf
Chapter 1 Introduction to Software Engineering and Process Models.pdfChapter 1 Introduction to Software Engineering and Process Models.pdf
Chapter 1 Introduction to Software Engineering and Process Models.pdf
MeghaGupta952452
 
How to Formulate A Good Research Question
How to Formulate A  Good Research QuestionHow to Formulate A  Good Research Question
How to Formulate A Good Research Question
rkpv2002
 
AI INTRODUCTION Artificial intelligence.ppt
AI INTRODUCTION Artificial intelligence.pptAI INTRODUCTION Artificial intelligence.ppt
AI INTRODUCTION Artificial intelligence.ppt
GeethaAL
 
OME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptx
OME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptxOME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptx
OME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptx
shanmugamram247
 
High Profile Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service An...
High Profile Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service An...High Profile Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service An...
High Profile Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service An...
janvikumar4133
 
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentation
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentationDisaster Management and Mitigation presentation
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentation
RajaRamannaTarigoppu
 
Presentation python programming vtu 6th sem
Presentation python programming vtu 6th semPresentation python programming vtu 6th sem
Presentation python programming vtu 6th sem
ssuser8f6b1d1
 
杨洋李一桐做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】国产国产午夜精华>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<
杨洋李一桐做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】国产国产午夜精华>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<杨洋李一桐做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】国产国产午夜精华>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<
杨洋李一桐做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】国产国产午夜精华>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<
amzhoxvzidbke
 
Software Engineering and Project Management - Activity Planning
Software Engineering and Project Management - Activity PlanningSoftware Engineering and Project Management - Activity Planning
Software Engineering and Project Management - Activity Planning
Prakhyath Rai
 
ISO 9001 - 2015 Quality Management Awareness.pdf
ISO 9001 - 2015 Quality Management Awareness.pdfISO 9001 - 2015 Quality Management Awareness.pdf
ISO 9001 - 2015 Quality Management Awareness.pdf
InfoDqms
 
API-1150WB-Cooling Towers.pdf with details
API-1150WB-Cooling Towers.pdf with detailsAPI-1150WB-Cooling Towers.pdf with details
API-1150WB-Cooling Towers.pdf with details
MuhammadUsmanAsghar4
 
Introduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptx
Introduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptxIntroduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptx
Introduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptx
SerendipityYoon
 

Recently uploaded (20)

EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagneEAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
 
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdfAdv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
 
IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptx
IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptxIE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptx
IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3IE-469-Lecture-Notes-3.pptx
 
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
 
Generative AI and Large Language Models (LLMs)
Generative AI and Large Language Models (LLMs)Generative AI and Large Language Models (LLMs)
Generative AI and Large Language Models (LLMs)
 
Probability and Statistics by sheldon ross (8th edition).pdf
Probability and Statistics by sheldon ross (8th edition).pdfProbability and Statistics by sheldon ross (8th edition).pdf
Probability and Statistics by sheldon ross (8th edition).pdf
 
ANATOMY OF SOA - Thomas Erl - Service Oriented Architecture
ANATOMY OF SOA - Thomas Erl - Service Oriented ArchitectureANATOMY OF SOA - Thomas Erl - Service Oriented Architecture
ANATOMY OF SOA - Thomas Erl - Service Oriented Architecture
 
Buy a fake University of Washington diploma
Buy a fake University of Washington diplomaBuy a fake University of Washington diploma
Buy a fake University of Washington diploma
 
Chapter 1 Introduction to Software Engineering and Process Models.pdf
Chapter 1 Introduction to Software Engineering and Process Models.pdfChapter 1 Introduction to Software Engineering and Process Models.pdf
Chapter 1 Introduction to Software Engineering and Process Models.pdf
 
How to Formulate A Good Research Question
How to Formulate A  Good Research QuestionHow to Formulate A  Good Research Question
How to Formulate A Good Research Question
 
AI INTRODUCTION Artificial intelligence.ppt
AI INTRODUCTION Artificial intelligence.pptAI INTRODUCTION Artificial intelligence.ppt
AI INTRODUCTION Artificial intelligence.ppt
 
OME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptx
OME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptxOME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptx
OME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptx
 
High Profile Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service An...
High Profile Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service An...High Profile Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service An...
High Profile Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service An...
 
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentation
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentationDisaster Management and Mitigation presentation
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentation
 
Presentation python programming vtu 6th sem
Presentation python programming vtu 6th semPresentation python programming vtu 6th sem
Presentation python programming vtu 6th sem
 
杨洋李一桐做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】国产国产午夜精华>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<
杨洋李一桐做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】国产国产午夜精华>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<杨洋李一桐做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】国产国产午夜精华>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<
杨洋李一桐做爱视频流出【网芷:ht28.co】国产国产午夜精华>>>[网趾:ht28.co】]<<<
 
Software Engineering and Project Management - Activity Planning
Software Engineering and Project Management - Activity PlanningSoftware Engineering and Project Management - Activity Planning
Software Engineering and Project Management - Activity Planning
 
ISO 9001 - 2015 Quality Management Awareness.pdf
ISO 9001 - 2015 Quality Management Awareness.pdfISO 9001 - 2015 Quality Management Awareness.pdf
ISO 9001 - 2015 Quality Management Awareness.pdf
 
API-1150WB-Cooling Towers.pdf with details
API-1150WB-Cooling Towers.pdf with detailsAPI-1150WB-Cooling Towers.pdf with details
API-1150WB-Cooling Towers.pdf with details
 
Introduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptx
Introduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptxIntroduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptx
Introduction And Differences Between File System And Dbms.pptx
 

AIR POLLUTION IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT IN KOZHIKODE CITY

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1189 AIR POLLUTION IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT IN KOZHIKODE CITY Sinam Shirin1, Harsha P2 1M. tech Environmental Engineering Student, KMCT CEW, Kerala, India 2Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, KMCT CEW, Kerala, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - The strongdemographicexplosion, theproduction of waste from urban areas, the automobile and industries largely exploded and resulted in the increase in air pollution. The man-made activities are the leading root for the damage of air quality and are the donors of anthropogenic oxides. This project studies to a greater extent, on the exit of dangerousair problems in the city of Kozhikode. This thesis with the help of Pollution Control Board (PCB) also includes the various evolution of air in Kozhikode city in the past andinthecurrent scenario. It also comprises of an air quality assessment based on the covid19 lockdown scenario as well as arranging the data based on daily activities. Key Words: Pollution, Air Pollutants, Air QualityIndex, Vehicular Emission, Pandemic 1. INTRODUCTION Air pollution can be explained as the presence of excess amount of chemicals, oxides, particulate matter, or other harmful materials in the wide range of atmospheres that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms and may even harm the natural environment. Pollutants are mainly classified into primary and secondary. And again, air pollution can be classified into anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic origin. World Health Organization (WHO)has a proper definition for the air pollution, “Substances that put into air by the interest of mankind into concentration sufficient to cause very harmful effect to human health, vegetables, properties or interfere with enjoyment of human property”. Air quality and pollution is one of the greatest threats to the planet, fueled primarily by the rapid population growth, continuous hike in energy consumption, deforestation, and increases in the vehicle density,especiallyintheurbancities. The wave of lockdowns in India, especially in major cities, following the covid19 pandemic has forced the people to stay at their own homes. All transportservicessuchas roads, railways and air transport were disrupted to run and were not allowed to operate with an anomaly of essential and emergency systems. Thus, promoting to a decreaseintraffic, industrial activities and other pollution transmitting works. Thus, ultimately to the decline in the air pollution for a small amount. 1.1 Scope An air pollutant is mainly in the characteristics of a solid (large or small molecules), liquid orgas.AirPollutionmaybe set up from a natural or anthropogenic source or from both origins. Air pollution causes health issue to living beings, damage of materials and ecosystems, and poor visibility. Climate impact or change is characterized by the lengthy alteration of the weather and the temperature in the atmosphere. The biomass and fossil fuels that cause air quality deterioration can also have affected the warming of the earth’s atmosphere mainly by the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This evaluation is almost based on the air pollutants that effect environment in the wide range. This research interest come up with increasing the assess of response to air pollution in our country to address this universal problem responsibly. Pressure groupscanusethis research activity data to enforce certain environmental and industrial agendas on politicians and political campaigns. Places with soaring levels of air quality damage should get entangled in air pollution research to provide health policy founders with baseline data for future action. This project therefore makes it possible to collect, then to assemble and issue technical and statistical data relating to air pollution. And mainly to provide technical assistance, support and advice to the Pollution Control Board (PCB) Committee.This project work thus suggests possible prevention and control program and abatement of air pollution. This can help many countries motivate academics and researchers to create research venues to monitor the air quality and level at the national level of air pollution and can be seen a step forward that must be taken by all countries for an adequate climate and standard of living. 2. MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY 2.1 Air Pollutants The air borne emitted from countless factories or industries and are a cause of major concern. These discharges are of three vital forms, they are solid particles, liquid and gaseous emissions. Thus, air pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. They can be natural or manmade. Major air pollutants discussed are particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of Sulphur, carbon monoxide, ammonia and ground level ozone.
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1190 Table -1: Air Pollutants PARAMETER ORIGIN HEALTH CONSEQUENCES Particulate matter Industries, vehicles Eye irritation, Cancer, cardiovascular damage NOx Vehicular emission Respiratory reactions SO2 Petrol and coal factory Respiratory reactions Oxides of carbon Vehicular emission Heart impairment Ammonia Agriculture, sewage Skin distress Ozone vehicle lung damage, eye and throat irritation 2.2 Study Area The rapid development in the urban Kerala has resulted in a tremendous increase in the number of industries and motor vehicles. Vehicles are the main root of urban air quality damage and are increasingly main contributors of anthropogenic oxides. Industries also contribute significantly to environmental pollution. The city of Kozhikode is the selected area Table -2: Study Area District Site Kozhikode Palayam bus stand Kozhikode Children’s Hospital Kozhikode Nallalam 2.3 Methodology The main parameters accumulated for the air quality analysis from Pollution Control Board (PCB) are are particulate 10 (PM10), particulate 2.5 (PM2.5), SO2, NOX, NH3, COX and ozone. The area chosen for the thesis includes Kozhikode Palayam Bus Stand, Kottam Children's Hospital and Nallalam. Plot different graphs and diagrams. Data collection is executed on parameters PM2.5,PM10,SO2, NOX, COX, O3, NH3 from PCB Kozhikode during February 2022. The initial visit to the PCB befell in December 2021. Data of the years 2019, 2020 and 2021 are collected. Data collection and analyses were based on covid-19 lockdown scenario. Data is grouped into pre lockdown, lockdown and post lock down sets. Again, the data scrutinized based on a diurnal basis. The overall analysis is mainly based on vehicle density assuming vehicle density is much large and industrial activities. Pre lockdown data 2019 will be clustered with respect to seasons to see impact of seasons on air. The above data is further clustered with respect to time of the day (8am, 4pm, 12am) to see the impact of vehicle density and industrial activities. The same will be verified for containment and post-containment in 2020 and 2021 respectively. Graphs of each parameter is made separately under each cluster heading. Fig -1: Pollution Control Board-Kozhikode Fig -2: Site visit-Kottam Hospital
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1191 Table -3: Air Quality Standards from CPCB site NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS PARA METE R UNIT PERMISSIBLE VALUE RESIDENTIAL AND INDUSTRIAL AREA ECOLOGICALLY SENSISTIVE AREA Annual 24hrs Annual 24hrs PM2.5 µg/m3 40 60 40 60 PM10 µg/m3 60 100 60 100 SO2 µg/m3 50 80 20 80 NOX µg/m3 40 80 30 80 COX µg/m3 2 4 2 4 O3 µg/m3 100 180 100 180 NH3 µg/m3 100 400 100 400 3. CALCULATIONS 3.1 Graphical Representation
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1192 MORNING AFTERNOON NIGHT DAILY VARIATION-NH3 2019 2020 2021 5 4 3 2 1 0
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 09 Issue: 06 | Jun 2022 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1193 4. CONCLUSION Air pollution is a major threat in urban areas and should manage with almost as much care. From the study, Kozhikode city shown mixed results. PM10 emissions gradually decreased during lockdown and gradually increased with a normal lifestyle.Summerseasonhadshown greater emission when compared to other seasons. PM2.5 shows that the summer season had a higheremission.Fewer problems during the lockdown period compared to the previous year. SO2 and NOx emissionsalsodecreasedduring the lockdown. Thus, concluded that vehicles and industries have a great hand on clean and fresh air.  Encourage the use of electric andecological vehicles  Industries should reduce their reliance on coal power  Switch to renewable source of energy ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author wishes to give gratitude to Pollution Control Board (PCB), Kozhikode for providing data. REFERENCES [1] Ayush Tripathi (2021) Air pollution in four Indian cities during the Covid-19 pandemic international journal of environmental studies volume 78 [2] Elisavet Stavropoulou, Ioannis Manisalidis (2020) Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: An environment and health review [3] Md Shahjada Alam, Dr. Arif Khan (2020) The Impact StudyofVehicularPollutiononEnvironment IJSART - Volume 6 Issue 12 [4] Zirui Wang, Huixin Zhou, Yang Si, and Yahui Li (2020) Role of Traffic Emission on temporal and spatial characteristics of pollutantconcentrationon the urban road network: a case from the Beijing Journal of Advanced Transportation [5] Lu Liang, PengGong(2020) Urbanandairpollution: a multi-city study of long-term effects of urban landscape patterns on air quality trends Scientific Reports