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AI Sensors and Dashboards:
Gauging and Monitoring the
Inference Capabilities of AI
Huber Flores
Associate Professor, University of Tartu
E-mail: huber.flores@ut.ee
Tartu, Estonia, Data Science Seminar – March 11, 2024
This research is part of SPATIAL project that has received funding from the European Union's
Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No.101021808.
● Not only refinement of algorithms
● Better tools to construct machine learning models
(TensorFlow, FedN, Flower)
● Increased processing capabilities
(Distributed systems) – Geoffrey Hinton
Machine and deep learning (aka AI)
● Not only refinement of algorithms
● Better tools to construct machine learning models
(TensorFlow, FedN, Flower)
● Increased processing capabilities
(Distributed systems) – Geoffrey Hinton
● Classic verification methods are not
applicable for AI models
Machine and deep learning (aka AI)
[source] https://futureoflife.org/open-letter/pause-giant-ai-experiments/,
Accessed March 2024
One year ago!
● Trustworthy computing defines a set of trustworthy
properties required for computing programs to be
considered trustful.
○ Secure
○ Reliability
○ Available
○ Private
○ Resilience
○ Transparency…
Trustworty computing
[source] https://www.heise.de/hintergrund/Microsofts-
Kampf-gegen-Bugs-1429333.html , Accessed March 2024
Bill gates internal memo
● Trustworthy computing defines a set of trustworthy
properties required for computing programs to be
considered trustful.
○ Secure
○ Reliability
○ Available
○ Private
○ Resilience
○ Transparency…
● Trustworthy AI extended properties
○ Free of biases
○ Fair
○ Explainable
○ Interpretable…
Trustworty computing
EU AI ACT
US AI ACT
Chine generative
AI regulations
[source] https://www.heise.de/hintergrund/Microsofts-
Kampf-gegen-Bugs-1429333.html , Accessed March 2024
Bill gates internal memo
● Fundamental mechanisms for data collection and
measurements
● Gauging = quantifying/characterizing
● Monitoring = Tuning
Sensors
(A few) Techonologies that have
changed the world
Fire
[source] https://science4fun.info/fire/,
Accessed March 2024
(A few) Techonologies that have
changed the world
Fire Electricity
[source] https://science4fun.info/fire/,
Accessed March 2024
[source]
https://www.pinterest.fr/pin/428827195765
555273/ Accessed March 2024
(A few) Techonologies that have
changed the world
Fire Electricity Trains
[source] https://science4fun.info/fire/,
Accessed March 2024
[source]
https://www.pinterest.fr/pin/428827195765
555273/ Accessed March 2024
[source] https://www.pinterest.com/pin/ancient-
antique-historic-vehicle-iron-locomotive-metal-
monument-railroad-railway-steam-locomotive-
steel--603060206326098813/
Accessed March 2024
UbiComp 2023 -
From Victorian trains to chatbots:
exploring AI interface design
Gauging through measurements
[source]
https://victorianweb.org/technology/rail
ways/44.html
Gauging through measurements
[source]
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/202
2/04/11/modern-trains-road-signs-
private-level-crossings-safety-move/
[source]
https://victorianweb.org/technology/rail
ways/44.html
Gauging through measurements
[source]
https://collection.sciencemuseumgroup
.org.uk/objects/co206028/north-
eastern-railway-dynamometer-car-
railway-carriage
[source]
https://victorianweb.org/technology/rail
ways/44.html
Gauging through measurements
[source]
https://collection.sciencemuseumgroup
.org.uk/objects/co206028/north-
eastern-railway-dynamometer-car-
railway-carriage
[source]
https://victorianweb.org/technology/rail
ways/44.html
[source]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamom
eter_car#/media/File:X32_dynamomet
er_car.jpg
Gauging through measurements
[source] https://collection.sciencemuseumgroup.org.uk/objects/co206028/north-eastern-railway-
dynamometer-car-railway-carriage
[source]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamometer_car#/media/File:X3
2_dynamometer_car.jpg
[source] https://americanprime.com.br/
● How AI is built?
● Where is located in applications?
Sensors for AI?
AI model construction in a nutshell
[source] Ottun, Abdul-Rasheed., &.. Flores, Huber. (2023). Detection mechanisms to identify data biases and exploratory studies about
different data quality trade-offs. Deliverable 3.1, H2020 EU SPATIAL, 2023
Standard Machine
Learning Pipeline
[source] https://courses.minnalearn.com/en/courses/trustworthy-ai/overview/
AI models in applications
[source] Ottun, Abdul-Rasheed., &.. Flores, Huber. (2023). Detection mechanisms to identify data biases and exploratory
studies about different data quality trade-offs. Deliverable 3.1, H2020 EU SPATIAL, 2023
AI models in applications
[source] Ottun, Abdul-Rasheed., &.. Flores, Huber. (2023). Detection mechanisms to identify data biases and exploratory
studies about different data quality trade-offs. Deliverable 3.1, H2020 EU SPATIAL, 2023
AI models in applications
[source] Muccini, H., & Vaidhyanathan, K.
(2021, May). Software architecture for ml-
based systems: what exists and what lies
ahead. In Proceedings of IEEE/ACM
WAIN@ICSE 2021 (pp. 121-128). IEEE.
Classical architecture
+ Machine learning
AI models in applications
[source] Muccini, H., & Vaidhyanathan, K.
(2021, May). Software architecture for ml-
based systems: what exists and what lies
ahead. In Proceedings of IEEE/ACM
WAIN@ICSE 2021 (pp. 121-128). IEEE.
Classical architecture
+ Machine learning
AI models in applications
Classical architecture
+ Federated learning
[source] Ottun, Abdul-Rasheed., &.. Flores, Huber.
(2023). Detection mechanisms to identify data
biases and exploratory studies about different
data quality trade-offs. Deliverable 3.1, H2020 EU
SPATIAL, 2023
AI models in applications
[source] Muccini, H., & Vaidhyanathan, K.
(2021, May). Software architecture for ml-
based systems: what exists and what lies
ahead. In Proceedings of IEEE/ACM
WAIN@ICSE 2021 (pp. 121-128). IEEE.
Classical architecture
+ Machine learning
AI models in applications
[source] https://www.thefountaininstitute.com/blog/chat-gpt-ux-design
[source]
https://media2.giphy.com/media/W1fFHj6LvyTgfB
Ndiz/200.gif
[source]
https://media1.tenor.com/m/khe_nqmAFJMAAAAC
/driverless-car-veritasium.gif
AI models in (existing) applications
Movie matching score
= 75%
AI recommender and
personal guidance
AI models in (existing) applications
[source]
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/511440
101439075063/
AI sensors and dashboards
AI Sensor: Fairness
Education
Basic
High school
College
Socioeconomic
status Low
Middle
High
Age
Children
Adolescent
Adult
More…
AI movie recommender
AI
Sensor
AI sensors:
• Fairness
• Explainability
• Performance
• Robustness
• Transparency
• …..
Each AI sensor is
linked to a
trustworthy
property
[source] H. Flores: “AI Sensors and
Dashboards”, Computer Magazine
AI sensors: Instrumentation
AI trustworthiness
Fairness 85%
Accuracy 89%
Resilience 65%
AI sensors and dashboards
Monitoring and
adjusting
Trust
score?
Interest
Power
Users
System
Operators Testers
Developers
Auditors
low medium high
low
medium
high
[source] Boerger, Michell., &.. Nikolay Tcholtchev. (2022).
Requirements analysis for AI towards addressing security
risks and threats to system and network architectures
Deliverable 1.1, H2020 EU SPATIAL, 2022
AI sensors and dashboards
SPATIAL: AI sensors and dashboards
Q&A
Thank you!
huber.flores@ut.ee
http://spatial-h2020.eu
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation
programme under grant agreement N° 101021808.
AI
Sensor

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AI Sensors and Dashboards: Gauging and Monitoring the Inferences Capabilities of AI

  • 1. AI Sensors and Dashboards: Gauging and Monitoring the Inference Capabilities of AI Huber Flores Associate Professor, University of Tartu E-mail: huber.flores@ut.ee Tartu, Estonia, Data Science Seminar – March 11, 2024 This research is part of SPATIAL project that has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No.101021808.
  • 2. ● Not only refinement of algorithms ● Better tools to construct machine learning models (TensorFlow, FedN, Flower) ● Increased processing capabilities (Distributed systems) – Geoffrey Hinton Machine and deep learning (aka AI)
  • 3. ● Not only refinement of algorithms ● Better tools to construct machine learning models (TensorFlow, FedN, Flower) ● Increased processing capabilities (Distributed systems) – Geoffrey Hinton ● Classic verification methods are not applicable for AI models Machine and deep learning (aka AI) [source] https://futureoflife.org/open-letter/pause-giant-ai-experiments/, Accessed March 2024 One year ago!
  • 4. ● Trustworthy computing defines a set of trustworthy properties required for computing programs to be considered trustful. ○ Secure ○ Reliability ○ Available ○ Private ○ Resilience ○ Transparency… Trustworty computing [source] https://www.heise.de/hintergrund/Microsofts- Kampf-gegen-Bugs-1429333.html , Accessed March 2024 Bill gates internal memo
  • 5. ● Trustworthy computing defines a set of trustworthy properties required for computing programs to be considered trustful. ○ Secure ○ Reliability ○ Available ○ Private ○ Resilience ○ Transparency… ● Trustworthy AI extended properties ○ Free of biases ○ Fair ○ Explainable ○ Interpretable… Trustworty computing EU AI ACT US AI ACT Chine generative AI regulations [source] https://www.heise.de/hintergrund/Microsofts- Kampf-gegen-Bugs-1429333.html , Accessed March 2024 Bill gates internal memo
  • 6. ● Fundamental mechanisms for data collection and measurements ● Gauging = quantifying/characterizing ● Monitoring = Tuning Sensors
  • 7. (A few) Techonologies that have changed the world Fire [source] https://science4fun.info/fire/, Accessed March 2024
  • 8. (A few) Techonologies that have changed the world Fire Electricity [source] https://science4fun.info/fire/, Accessed March 2024 [source] https://www.pinterest.fr/pin/428827195765 555273/ Accessed March 2024
  • 9. (A few) Techonologies that have changed the world Fire Electricity Trains [source] https://science4fun.info/fire/, Accessed March 2024 [source] https://www.pinterest.fr/pin/428827195765 555273/ Accessed March 2024 [source] https://www.pinterest.com/pin/ancient- antique-historic-vehicle-iron-locomotive-metal- monument-railroad-railway-steam-locomotive- steel--603060206326098813/ Accessed March 2024 UbiComp 2023 - From Victorian trains to chatbots: exploring AI interface design
  • 14. Gauging through measurements [source] https://collection.sciencemuseumgroup.org.uk/objects/co206028/north-eastern-railway- dynamometer-car-railway-carriage [source] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamometer_car#/media/File:X3 2_dynamometer_car.jpg [source] https://americanprime.com.br/
  • 15. ● How AI is built? ● Where is located in applications? Sensors for AI?
  • 16. AI model construction in a nutshell [source] Ottun, Abdul-Rasheed., &.. Flores, Huber. (2023). Detection mechanisms to identify data biases and exploratory studies about different data quality trade-offs. Deliverable 3.1, H2020 EU SPATIAL, 2023 Standard Machine Learning Pipeline [source] https://courses.minnalearn.com/en/courses/trustworthy-ai/overview/
  • 17. AI models in applications [source] Ottun, Abdul-Rasheed., &.. Flores, Huber. (2023). Detection mechanisms to identify data biases and exploratory studies about different data quality trade-offs. Deliverable 3.1, H2020 EU SPATIAL, 2023
  • 18. AI models in applications [source] Ottun, Abdul-Rasheed., &.. Flores, Huber. (2023). Detection mechanisms to identify data biases and exploratory studies about different data quality trade-offs. Deliverable 3.1, H2020 EU SPATIAL, 2023
  • 19. AI models in applications [source] Muccini, H., & Vaidhyanathan, K. (2021, May). Software architecture for ml- based systems: what exists and what lies ahead. In Proceedings of IEEE/ACM WAIN@ICSE 2021 (pp. 121-128). IEEE. Classical architecture + Machine learning
  • 20. AI models in applications [source] Muccini, H., & Vaidhyanathan, K. (2021, May). Software architecture for ml- based systems: what exists and what lies ahead. In Proceedings of IEEE/ACM WAIN@ICSE 2021 (pp. 121-128). IEEE. Classical architecture + Machine learning
  • 21. AI models in applications Classical architecture + Federated learning [source] Ottun, Abdul-Rasheed., &.. Flores, Huber. (2023). Detection mechanisms to identify data biases and exploratory studies about different data quality trade-offs. Deliverable 3.1, H2020 EU SPATIAL, 2023
  • 22. AI models in applications [source] Muccini, H., & Vaidhyanathan, K. (2021, May). Software architecture for ml- based systems: what exists and what lies ahead. In Proceedings of IEEE/ACM WAIN@ICSE 2021 (pp. 121-128). IEEE. Classical architecture + Machine learning
  • 23. AI models in applications [source] https://www.thefountaininstitute.com/blog/chat-gpt-ux-design [source] https://media2.giphy.com/media/W1fFHj6LvyTgfB Ndiz/200.gif [source] https://media1.tenor.com/m/khe_nqmAFJMAAAAC /driverless-car-veritasium.gif
  • 24. AI models in (existing) applications Movie matching score = 75% AI recommender and personal guidance
  • 25. AI models in (existing) applications [source] https://www.pinterest.com/pin/511440 101439075063/
  • 26. AI sensors and dashboards AI Sensor: Fairness Education Basic High school College Socioeconomic status Low Middle High Age Children Adolescent Adult More… AI movie recommender AI Sensor AI sensors: • Fairness • Explainability • Performance • Robustness • Transparency • ….. Each AI sensor is linked to a trustworthy property [source] H. Flores: “AI Sensors and Dashboards”, Computer Magazine
  • 27. AI sensors: Instrumentation AI trustworthiness Fairness 85% Accuracy 89% Resilience 65%
  • 28. AI sensors and dashboards Monitoring and adjusting Trust score? Interest Power Users System Operators Testers Developers Auditors low medium high low medium high [source] Boerger, Michell., &.. Nikolay Tcholtchev. (2022). Requirements analysis for AI towards addressing security risks and threats to system and network architectures Deliverable 1.1, H2020 EU SPATIAL, 2022
  • 29. AI sensors and dashboards
  • 30. SPATIAL: AI sensors and dashboards
  • 31. Q&A Thank you! huber.flores@ut.ee http://spatial-h2020.eu This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement N° 101021808. AI Sensor