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Agile From The Top Down:
Executives & Leadership Practicing Agile
Jon R. Stahl
8-9-2011




               @jonRstahl
jon.stahl@leandog.com                      BS in CIS
                                            + Econ Minor
       @jonRstahl


                                 Co-Founded 2.5 Years Ago
Grew up in Pittsburgh, in Cleveland last 18 years
Our office/boat


“The Kearsarge”
A Steamship built in
1892
“The Deep Dive” - 1999
How does the process of designing a better product work?
What does a process AND a culture look like?
Agile From the Top Down: Executives & Leadership Living Agile  by Jon Stahl
“Build a culture and a process, that's
   what companies really want”

  Process + Culture := Sustainability
Why are most Agile movements NOT sustainable?
Agile Manifesto
   We are uncovering better ways of developing
   software by doing it and helping others do it.
   Through this work we have come to value:

    Individuals & Interactions   over   Process & Tools
    Working Software             over   Comprehensive Documents
    Customer Collaboration       over   Contract Negotiation
    Responding to Change         over   Following a Plan


 That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value
 the items on the left more.
Agile Principles

    Deliver software in short increments
    Expect and encourage change
    Constant collaboration with customer
    Continuous attention to technical
     excellence
    Simplicity
    Self organizing teams
    …
Scrum = Agile?
•  Does your company think they are just doing some
   common “agile” practices and therefore they are Agile?

                                • 




•  Or do they recognize that Agile is a set of values and
   principles?
We Want To Go Agile!
•    Give us the recipe
•    Give us some coaches
•    Give us some training
•    Do it quickly

Really Saying…
     •  Help me change our culture,
     •  A culture that you can’t possibly understand
        unless you are living in it
Wait….
     •  We can’t even describe our culture to you
        clearly
They must
•    live the values
•    lead by example
•    seek to truly understand their culture
•    be as transparent as the teams they lead

     Lets explore how we could begin to expose your
     culture and live the values!
Our Backlog
      PMO           Leadership           Assets         Information
  Re-Factored      WIP & Kaizen         By Value         Radiators


                                     Asset Roadmaps
     Speak          Leadership                           Values &
                                        & Quality
   In Stories     Retrospectives                         Principles
                                         Metrics


                    Leadership           Asset           Business &
 Implementation
                    Stand Ups           Scoring          Objectives



Stahl Warning:    Standard Work
                      Tools
                                        People
                                       Org Chart
                                                         Project
                                                      Demand Funnel
I talk FAST so
stop me if        Standard Work         People
                                                           Project
                                                          Sizing &
                      Agile          Craftsmanship
necessary, I do                                           Capacity

not mind         Standard Work          People           Project
                     Waterfall         Constraints    Release Planning


                    Financials,       Leadership           Asset
                  Operations, etc.    Road Blocks     Technology Soup
Information Radiators



       Visualize What you Manage
Clear communication is the foundation




          “I’m glad we all agree.”
Get those mental models out on the table




                 “Ah...”
An explicit model allows convergence
through iteration




                 “Ah!”
A genuinely shared understanding




      “I’m glad we’re all agreed then.”
Information Radiators
•  A display posted in a place where people can see it as
   they work or walk by.
•  It shows readers information they care about without
   having to ask anyone a question.
•  This means more communication with fewer
   interruptions.
•  Large & easily visible to the casual, interested observer
•  Understood at a glance
•  Changes periodically, so that it is worth visiting
•  Is easily kept up to date
Create a BVR (Big Visual Room)

•  Find a location with lots of wall space
•  Must be in a high traffic area like…
    –  Lunch Room / Cafeteria
    –  Long Hallways / Busy Corridors
Step 1: Values & Principles
The MOST Important Wall Of All!
•    Put you values on the wall
•    Examine a software value system and principles
•    Put this on the wall
•    Tie them together
•    Management Team Signs it

•  We Recommend..
   –  Agile Manifesto
   –  XP Values (Courage, Communication, Simplicity,
      Feedback, Respect)
   –  Lean: Kaizen & Muda
Manifesto	
  for	
  Agile	
  So6ware	
  Development	
                                                                     Principles	
  behind	
  the	
  Agile	
  Manifesto	
  
                 We	
  are	
  uncovering	
  beUer	
  ways	
  of	
  developing	
  	
                                            • Our	
  highest	
  priority	
  is	
  to	
  sa4sfy	
  the	
  customer	
  
                 soDware	
  by	
  doing	
  it	
  and	
  helping	
  others	
  do	
  it.	
  	
                                   through	
  early	
  and	
  con4nuous	
  delivery	
  
                                                                                                                               of	
  valuable	
  soDware.	
  
                  Through	
  this	
  work	
  we	
  have	
  come	
  to	
  value:	
  
                                                                                                                               • Welcome	
  changing	
  requirements,	
  even	
  late	
  in	
  	
  
        Individuals	
  and	
  interac4ons	
  over	
  processes	
  and	
  tools	
  	
                                           development.	
  Agile	
  processes	
  harness	
  change	
  for	
  	
  
                                                                                                                               the	
  customer's	
  compe44ve	
  advantage.	
  	
  
        Working	
  soDware	
  over	
  comprehensive	
  documenta4on	
  	
  
          Customer	
  collabora4on	
  over	
  contract	
  nego4a4on	
  	
                                                      • Deliver	
  working	
  soDware	
  frequently,	
  from	
  a	
  	
  
                                                                                                                               couple	
  of	
  weeks	
  to	
  a	
  couple	
  of	
  months,	
  with	
  a	
  	
  
             Responding	
  to	
  change	
  over	
  following	
  a	
  plan	
  
                                                                                                                               preference	
  to	
  the	
  shorter	
  4mescale.	
  
                                                                                                                               • Business	
  people	
  and	
  developers	
  must	
  work	
  	
  
                  That	
  is,	
  while	
  there	
  is	
  value	
  in	
  the	
  items	
  on	
  	
  
                                                                                                                               together	
  daily	
  throughout	
  the	
  project.	
  
                the	
  right,	
  we	
  value	
  the	
  items	
  on	
  the	
  leD	
  more.	
  
                                                                                                                               • Build	
  projects	
  around	
  mo4vated	
  individuals.	
  	
  
                                   Source:	
  AgileManifesto.Org	
                                                             • Give	
  them	
  the	
  environment	
  and	
  support	
  they	
  need,	
  	
  
                                                                                                                               and	
  trust	
  them	
  to	
  get	
  the	
  job	
  done.	
  

                      eXtremeProgramming	
  Values	
  We	
  Follow	
                                                           • The	
  most	
  efficient	
  and	
  effec4ve	
  method	
  of	
  	
  
                                                                                                                               conveying	
  informa4on	
  to	
  and	
  within	
  a	
  development	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Courage,	
  Communica4on,	
  Feedback,	
  Respect,	
  Simplicity	
     team	
  is	
  face-­‐to-­‐face	
  conversa4on.	
  
                                                                                                                               • Working	
  soDware	
  is	
  the	
  primary	
  measure	
  of	
  progress.	
  
                                                                                                                               • Agile	
  processes	
  promote	
  sustainable	
  development.	
  
                                                                                                                               • The	
  sponsors,	
  developers,	
  and	
  users	
  should	
  be	
  able	
  	
  
                                                                                                                               to	
  maintain	
  a	
  constant	
  pace	
  indefinitely.	
  
    We	
  uphold	
  the	
  manifesto	
  with	
  prac4ces	
  that	
  we	
  adopt	
  from:	
                                     • Con4nuous	
  aUen4on	
  to	
  technical	
  excellence	
  	
  
                                                                                                                               and	
  good	
  design	
  enhances	
  agility.	
  

    • 	
  eXtreme	
  Programming	
  (XP)	
                                                                                     • Simplicity-­‐-­‐the	
  art	
  of	
  maximizing	
  the	
  amount	
  	
  
                                                                                                                               of	
  work	
  not	
  done-­‐-­‐is	
  essen4al.	
  
    • 	
  Scrum	
                                                                                                              • The	
  best	
  architectures,	
  requirements,	
  and	
  designs	
  	
  
                                                                                                                               emerge	
  from	
  self-­‐organizing	
  teams.	
  
    • 	
  Lean	
  
                                                                                                                               • At	
  regular	
  intervals,	
  the	
  team	
  reflects	
  on	
  how	
  	
  
    • 	
  Organiza4on	
  Effec4veness	
  /	
  Development	
                                                                     to	
  become	
  more	
  effec4ve,	
  then	
  tunes	
  and	
  adjusts	
  	
  
                                                                                                                               its	
  behavior	
  accordingly.	
  
    • 	
  SoDware	
  CraDsmanship	
                                                                                                                                           Source:	
  AgileManifesto.Org	
  	
  
Step 2: Visualize Your Business
Visualize the Business Units and Strategy
  Customer Experiences
            Buying


             Selling


             Ownership



             Claims


  Strategic Objectives
   •  Product Development wants to expand from 8 states to 16 states.
   •  Product Development wants to introduce a recreational vehicle product.
   •  Marketing wants to increase our Gen Y customer base from 5% to 20%.
   •  Sales wants to provide consumers their policy data via mobile technology
Step 3: Visualize Your Projects & Demand Funnel
Map the Demand & WIP
Business Units          Project Backlog      WIP

A

            Least Valuable                Most Valuable


B



C



D
Size the Demand & Add Time to Market Constraints
            Sizing                                             Time to Market Constraints
 XS       0 - 625 Hrs        1




                                  Units double with risk
 Unit                                                                 Q1

 S     626 – 1,250 Hrs       2                                        Q2
 Units

 M     1,251 – 2,500 Hrs.    4                                        Q3
 Units
                                                                      Q4
 L     2,501 – 5,000 Hrs     8
 Units

 XL    5,001 - 10,000 Hrs    16                            4     Program X
 Units
                                                                 Project A
        Biz A        Biz C
                                                           M
        Biz B        Biz D
Understand Lean Pull
Calculate Units By Team




 7 – 12 Developers                 2,080 less 20% Non-Billable = 1664
 2–3      Product Owner/Business   1664 x 16 = 26,624 per team
 Analyst
 2–3      Quality Assurance        Or do by Budget ie: 6 Million a year,
 1–2      Team Leaders             = 1.5 Million per Qtr
 12 – 20 People, 16 people ideal
                                   20 Units per quarter
Release Planning
20 Units         Q1        Q2       Q3                Q4
Per Year   5 Units    5 Units   5 Units       5 Units
Per Team
           4 Units                           2 Units
                      8 Units      4 Units

           1 Unit                            1 Unit
Budgets Are Done…Deliver!
It’s not that simple, so let’s paint a real picture…
 Visualize what you manage
    •  Application Assets
    •  People
    •  Leadership
    •  Standard Work / Process
    •  Financials, Operations, etc.
 PMO Re-factored
 Speak in Stories
Step 4: Application Assets
Visualize the Application Assets and Technology soup




    Biz A    Biz C          Oracle         C#          COBOL
    Biz B    Biz D          SQL Server     Java        Other
Order Assets By Business Value/Severity
  Level 3          Level 2       Level 1




               Biz A    Biz C
               Biz B    Biz D
Visualize Your Assets Management in Severity Order
                             Road Map




       Current State                 Future State            Plan To Get there

                           128 Units                                                  Severity
  Technical Debt                                    Production                        1 Sev 1
                                                    Defects
                                                                                      12 Sev 2
                                                                                      40 Sev 3
                                                                          Frequency
  jUnit Test                                   Automated Regression        Performance
             82%
  Coverage                                     Test Coverage 74%            91%/10

   Other things you could track: Lines of Code, Code Change Risk Analyzer, JDepend,
   Cylcomatic Complexity, Panopticode, Chidamber & Kemer Object-oriented metrics
Score Your Assets, Asset Management
         Level 3                 Level 2                      Level
                                                       1




                                         Road            Tech      Test
                                         Map     Defects Debt      Coverage
                                                           < 25
                               Great     Solid    <5       Units
                                                                      > 80%


                               Good

                                OK
      Biz A        Biz C
      Biz          Biz D        Rotten
      B
Step 5: People
(Assets & Liabilities)
Visualize Your Org Chart, Post-IT note color = Primary Role




      Dev     QA    Mgr     Admin   BA     Other
Define Core Competencies, Matrix & Ownership
               Eric            Susan          Jon       Mary      Jim
Craft Owners          Mgr        BA           Dev        QA       Admin           Other


 Master
                               Teachers, Passion For Craft


Journeyman                   Practice, Rinse, Repeat



Apprentice                    New, Please Mentor Me


 What does              Learn from industry   Form a community   Feedback loops
                        best practices        for the craft      on the craft
 ownership mean?
Apply Craftsmanship Levels                                            M = Master
                                                                      J = Journeyman
                                            M                         A = Apprentice

                   M                        M             J                       J           J


     M                          J                J                J                           M

 A   A     M           M        A    A      A    M    A       A   J       J           M       J   J

 J   M     A           J        A    J      J    J    J       J   M       J           A       A   J

 A   A                 J        J    M      J    M    A       A                       J       M   A

                       J        A    J           A    A
               J                                                              J

 A   J     J       J       J                                          A       M           M

                                                                      A       A           J
     Dev       QA              Mgr       Admin       BA       Other
Score the Competencies
                  Eric          Susan            Jon             Mary        Jim

                      Mgr          BA        Dev            QA          Admin      Other

     Master
     8 Units             4         3             3       4              1          1




    Journeyman
    4 Units              7         1         12          9              2          1



    Apprentice
    2 Units              0         3        16          3               0          1

 Could Apply    (4x8)+       (3x8)+     (3x8)+       (4x8)+       (1x8)+      (1x8)+
 $ Per Unit &   (7x4) +      (1x4) +    (12x4) +     (9x4) +      (2x4) +     (1x4) +
 Look at        (0x2)        (3x2)      (16x2)       (3x2)        (0x2)       (1x2)
 Ratio’s        60 UNITS     34 UNITS   104          74 UNITS     16 UNITS    14 UNITS
                                        UNITS
Apply Tech Skills to Devs
                                            M


                       M                    M              J                        J           J


        M                          J              J                J                            M

  A     A      M           M       A   A    A     M    A       A   J       J            M       J   J

  J     M      A           J       A   J    J     J    J       J   M       J            A       A   J

  A     A                  J       J   M    J     M    A       A                        J       M   A

                           J       A   J          A    A                        J
                   J
                                                                       A        M           M
  A     J      J       J       J                               Admin
                                                                       A        A           J

                       SQL
      Oracle                           C#       Java       COBOL               Other
                       Server
Score the Competencies By Tech Skills
                  Eric          Susan            Jon               Mary       Jim

                      Mgr          BA        Dev              QA          Admin      Other

     Master
     8 Units             4         3             3        4               1          1




    Journeyman
    4 Units              7         1         12           9               2          1



    Apprentice
    2 Units              0         3        16            3               0          1

 Could Apply    (4x8)+       (3x8)+     (3x8)+         (4x8)+       (1x8)+        (1x8)+
 $ Per Unit &   (7x4) +      (1x4) +    (12x4) +       (9x4) +      (2x4) +       (1x4) +
 Look at        (0x2)        (3x2)      (16x2)         (3x2)        (0x2)         (1x2)
 Ratio’s        60 UNITS     34 UNITS   104 UNITS      74 UNITS     16 UNITS      14 UNITS

                 You Get the Idea…
Map People to Business Knowledge
                                              M
You Get the
Idea
                  M                           M           J                       J           J


      M                       J                   J               J                           M

  A   A   M           M       A   A       A       M   A       A   J       J           M       J   J

  J   M   A           J       A   J       J       J   J       J   M       J           A       A   J

  A   A               J       J   M       J       M   A       A                       J       M   A

                      J       A   J               A   A                       J
              J
                                                                      A       M           M
 A    J   J       J       J                                   Admin
                                                                      A       A           J
                                      Biz A       Biz C
                                      Biz B       Biz D
Specialists that support Agile & Waterfall
  •    Architecture
  •    Infrastructure
  •    Security
  •    User Experience
  •    DBA’s
  •    PMO
  •    Operations
  Circle them, make note of them, SPECIALIZATION is another type
  of constraint.

  Do the specialists want to control or contribute to delivery?
Candidate Waste: Latent Skill

Organizations employ their staff for
specific skills that they may have. These
employees have other skills too, it is
wasteful to not take advantage of these
skills as well. "It is only by capitalizing on
employees' creativity that organizations
can eliminate the other seven wastes and
continuously improve their performance.”
Source Liker(2004) – The Toyota Way (p.28)
Wasteful Craft Patterns in MOST Organizations

    “I am expert at the system             “I know the business, so therefore
    therefore I am in                      I am the customer, I am the
    Quality Assurance”                     business analyst.”

    Root: I can break stuff.               Root: I can’t admit I changed
                                           professions.

                      “I got a BS degree in Computer
                      Science, but I only do Java”

                      Root: I know enough technology.


 “If it wasn’t created here, I             “Study my craft? I quit
 don’t buy it.”                            studying when I left school”

 Root: “Not Invented Here”                 Root: I don’t get paid to
 syndrome & self preservation.             study. Homework sucks.
Step 6: Process/Standard Work
Standard Work

•  Each step in the process should be defined and
   must be performed repeatedly in the same
   manner.
•  Standard Work will define the most efficient
   methods to produce product using available
   equipment, people, and material. The Standard
   Work depicts the key process points, operator
   procedures, production sequence, safety issues,
   and quality checks.

Source: http://www.gatlineducation.com/leandemo/
  rulestandardwork.htm
Sustaining the Discipline


•  Maintain and review standards.
•  While thinking about the new way, also be
   thinking about better ways.
•  Suggested improvements can be tested.
•  If truly better, don’t be different just to be
   different.
•  Be different if results are the same & is the
   least waste method (ie: story card tracking).
Standard Work: Tools                        Teams
                             Code   Red Fish,   Policy    Code     Lean
Project Management           Rats   Blue Fish   Admin    Monkeys   Dogs

          Time Reporting              NA                           NA

   Agile Project Tracking                         NA
Waterfall Project Tracking   NA       NA                   NA       NA

Development       Java IDE             NA         NA       NA

                    C# IDE   NA                                    NA

                     TDD

   Continuous Integration

Testing
Agile From the Top Down: Executives & Leadership Living Agile  by Jon Stahl
Standard Work: Agile Practices
                                        Teams
                           Code    Red Fish,   Policy    Code
                            Rats                        Monkeys   LeanDogs
Project Management                 Blue Fish   Admin

           Daily Standup
          Retrospectives
          Story Mapping
Development        TDD

      Pair Programming

                   BDD

  Continuous Integration




     Always          Sometimes       Never        Not Necessary
Mapping of PMBOK Waterfall/
Traditional to Agile by Michele
Sliger & Stacia Broderick
Standard Practices: Waterfall Projects
                     Project A   Project B Project C    Project D   Project E

Project Phase        Executing   Closing   Initiation   Planning    Monitoring

Integration Mgmt

Scope Mgmt
Time Mgmt
Cost Mgmt
Quality Mgmt
Human Resource
Communication Mgmt
Risk Mgmt
Procurement Mgmt

       Good           Caution           Fail
Step 7..X: Financials, Operations,
Procurement, … Keep Going

  There isn’t one way to do this, do
what makes sense to your
organization.

  Add & remove information
radiators based on value and insight
needed.

  If they are not being maintained,
that is a sign that they aren’t
radiating value – Adapt!
Leadership Practices
Transparent Leadership
•  Doesn’t mean you have all the answers
•  Control is not something you can have over a
   complex system
•  Set a larger vision for the organization
•  Allow the creativity of their people to emerge
•  Visualize the problem, allow teams to solve

•  Shift the way you [lead] organizations, loosen
   control to encourage more creativity. A culture of
   care will emerge, as opposed to a culture of
   command and control, and your company will be
   more creative and productive, too.
Excerpt from “http://www.enterprise-architecture.info/Images/Extended%20Enterprise/Extended%20Enterprise%20Architecture3.htm”
Daily Stand Up Meetings

    Team communicates on a daily basis
    Team members report:
        What they did yesterday
        What they are going to do today
        Any concerns or road blocks they are facing
    Each update is very brief
    15 minutes for whole team
Escalating Road Blocks                           Management
                                                 Removes
                                    CIO          Impediments


WiFi for All
                                          60
 2/1/10
                                          Days
                         Director
                                                 Management
Born                                             Supports
On                                        45
Date                                      Days
               Middle
               Manager

                                          30     Trust, but verify
                                          Days   by visualization
       Line
       Manager
Retrospectives
    Designed to help a team find ways to improve
     what they do
    Should be held at least every 2 weeks
    What worked? What didn’t work?
    Team votes if items discussed during the
     retrospective should become cards to be played
     in the coming iteration
    XP Values: Courage, Communication,
     Feedback, Respect
WIP + Kaizen

IF WIP takes all       A congested highway does not
   the demand             flow efficiently!

THEN there is no
  room for
  continuous
  improvement

We must support
  this and allow
  room for
  improvement!
Inspect Via Visualization & Conversations

       Retrospective             Road Blocks
                Could          Not     In
       Worked   Be             Started Progress Done
                Better
                          • 
“Fly By The Seat of Your Pants”

Decide a course of action as
  you go along, using your own
  initiative and perceptions
  rather than a pre-determined
  plan or mechanical aids.

Aircraft initially had few
   navigation aids and flying
   was accomplished by means
   of the pilot's judgment (the
   vibration in the seat of their
   pants).

Management is a craft that
  requires more
  communication than
  instrumentation.
Pair Management
Re-factor the PMO
Re-factor PMO to MSO


                       Manifesto
                       Support
                       Office
Manifesto Support Office Principles

•    Information Radiators are Good!
•    Throughput Focus, Limit WIP, Pull Value
•    Align Continually (backlog honing with peers)
•    Support Kaizen & Crafts
•    Identify, Alleviate, Elevate Constraints
•    Standard Work + Self Organization :=Good
•    “See the Whole”: Communicate Strategic
     Intent
Step 9: Speak in Stories


•    Stories are statements of value
•    Stories start a conversation
•    Allows us to manage our own WIP more effectively
•    Solve the problem in the lightest way possible
•    Don’t use a tool when you need a conversation
Project Management Dashboards
Write Story Cards for Supporting Organizations


Examples:
•    PMO
•    Operations
•    Architecture
•    Human Resources

•  Backlog that is reviewed by Delivery Teams who are
   tied to delivering business value
As a Customer…


I want to understand who is working on my
  project, so that I can make sure they are
  working on the right priorities for the business.

I want to understand who I need to talk to when
  I need more information.

I want to see when my requests are going to
  need my collaboration so that I am available
  to the team.
As a CIO…
I want new resources coming into IT to be able to
  understand what this company is about and how their job
  is connected to the goals of the company.

I want to understand the state of work on each team,
 so that I can better understand the status.

I want to understand where work is in the demand
   management funnel, so that I can communicate
   effectively with the cabinet.
As an Application Delivery Director…

I want to understand what risks we are facing,
   so that I can help mitigate them.

I want to understand how effective we are at
   continuous deployment, so that I can help
   manage this.

I want to understand how effective we are at
   reusing components such as port lets, so I can
   reduce our time to market and overall project
   costs.
As an Application Delivery Director…
I want to understand the level of engagement I have with
   my IT teams, so that I can make sure they have a
   productive, positive, fun and transparent work
   environment.

I want to understand the depth of craftsmanship across my
  teams, so that I can ensure a well-balanced organization.

 I want to level of standard work across my teams, so that I
  can ensure we are upholding the value of not being
  different unless necessary.

I want to understand my cost per unit of software,
   so that I can better understand our effectiveness.
Application Assets and Technology Soup


    Backlog                              Road Blocks
The End Game
•  Be ADAPTIVE
•  Be TRANSPARENT
•  Seek to eliminate WASTE
•  Value PEOPLE above all
   else
•  Live the VALUES
•  Lead by EXAMPLE!
•  Sustaining behavior will
   lead to a sustainable
   organization
Implement 4 Themes, See The Mind Map


•  Information Radiator Room: 8+ Domains
    –  Values, Business, Application Assets, People,
       Leadership, Standard Work/Process, Financials,
       Operations…
•  Leadership: 3 Practices
    –  Daily Stand Up’s, Retrospectives, Visible Escalating
       Roadblocks
•  Re-factor the PMO -> MSO
•  Story Cards for Supporting Organizations
Questions,
Comments?



    440.527.1183

jon.stahl@leandog.com

       @jonRstahl
Agile From the Top Down: Executives & Leadership Living Agile  by Jon Stahl
Agile From the Top Down: Executives & Leadership Living Agile  by Jon Stahl
What Did You See That Was Agile?
•    What is amazing is how long we put up with things that do not work
•    Build a culture and a process, that's what companies really want
•    Not actually experts in any area, they are experts in a process
•    No titles, no permanent assignments
•    Project leader because he's good with groups
•    In an very innovative culture you can't have a hierarch
•    Hire people who don't listen to the boss
•    Find experts to learn quickly instead of trying to learn it by yourself
•    Many bosses, measure whether their people are performing are the ones at
     their desk all the time, couldn't be more wrong, the really good people are out
•    Each team is going to demonstrate communicate and share everything that
     they are learning today

•    Enlightened trial and error succeeds over the planning of the lone genius

•    People are encouraged to build their own work areas

•    Open mind is critical and the boss demands great deal of team work

•    Fail often in order to succeed sooner

•    Trying stuff and ask for forgiveness instead of asking permission

•    Fresh ideas come faster in a fun environment

•    Being playful is a huge importance for being innovative

•    Status is who comes up with the best ideas, not who's been at the company
     longest

•    The boss is always going to have the best ideas, not likely

•    If everybody only came up with sane things, there wouldn't a point to build
     off of

•    One conversation at a time, stay focused on topic, signs everywhere

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Agile From the Top Down: Executives & Leadership Living Agile by Jon Stahl

  • 1. Agile From The Top Down: Executives & Leadership Practicing Agile Jon R. Stahl 8-9-2011 @jonRstahl
  • 2. jon.stahl@leandog.com BS in CIS + Econ Minor @jonRstahl Co-Founded 2.5 Years Ago Grew up in Pittsburgh, in Cleveland last 18 years
  • 3. Our office/boat “The Kearsarge” A Steamship built in 1892
  • 4. “The Deep Dive” - 1999 How does the process of designing a better product work? What does a process AND a culture look like?
  • 6. “Build a culture and a process, that's what companies really want” Process + Culture := Sustainability
  • 7. Why are most Agile movements NOT sustainable?
  • 8. Agile Manifesto We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals & Interactions over Process & Tools Working Software over Comprehensive Documents Customer Collaboration over Contract Negotiation Responding to Change over Following a Plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.
  • 9. Agile Principles   Deliver software in short increments   Expect and encourage change   Constant collaboration with customer   Continuous attention to technical excellence   Simplicity   Self organizing teams   …
  • 10. Scrum = Agile? •  Does your company think they are just doing some common “agile” practices and therefore they are Agile? •  •  Or do they recognize that Agile is a set of values and principles?
  • 11. We Want To Go Agile! •  Give us the recipe •  Give us some coaches •  Give us some training •  Do it quickly Really Saying… •  Help me change our culture, •  A culture that you can’t possibly understand unless you are living in it Wait…. •  We can’t even describe our culture to you clearly
  • 12. They must •  live the values •  lead by example •  seek to truly understand their culture •  be as transparent as the teams they lead Lets explore how we could begin to expose your culture and live the values!
  • 13. Our Backlog PMO Leadership Assets Information Re-Factored WIP & Kaizen By Value Radiators Asset Roadmaps Speak Leadership Values & & Quality In Stories Retrospectives Principles Metrics Leadership Asset Business & Implementation Stand Ups Scoring Objectives Stahl Warning: Standard Work Tools People Org Chart Project Demand Funnel I talk FAST so stop me if Standard Work People Project Sizing & Agile Craftsmanship necessary, I do Capacity not mind  Standard Work People Project Waterfall Constraints Release Planning Financials, Leadership Asset Operations, etc. Road Blocks Technology Soup
  • 14. Information Radiators Visualize What you Manage
  • 15. Clear communication is the foundation “I’m glad we all agree.”
  • 16. Get those mental models out on the table “Ah...”
  • 17. An explicit model allows convergence through iteration “Ah!”
  • 18. A genuinely shared understanding “I’m glad we’re all agreed then.”
  • 19. Information Radiators •  A display posted in a place where people can see it as they work or walk by. •  It shows readers information they care about without having to ask anyone a question. •  This means more communication with fewer interruptions. •  Large & easily visible to the casual, interested observer •  Understood at a glance •  Changes periodically, so that it is worth visiting •  Is easily kept up to date
  • 20. Create a BVR (Big Visual Room) •  Find a location with lots of wall space •  Must be in a high traffic area like… –  Lunch Room / Cafeteria –  Long Hallways / Busy Corridors
  • 21. Step 1: Values & Principles
  • 22. The MOST Important Wall Of All! •  Put you values on the wall •  Examine a software value system and principles •  Put this on the wall •  Tie them together •  Management Team Signs it •  We Recommend.. –  Agile Manifesto –  XP Values (Courage, Communication, Simplicity, Feedback, Respect) –  Lean: Kaizen & Muda
  • 23. Manifesto  for  Agile  So6ware  Development   Principles  behind  the  Agile  Manifesto   We  are  uncovering  beUer  ways  of  developing     • Our  highest  priority  is  to  sa4sfy  the  customer   soDware  by  doing  it  and  helping  others  do  it.     through  early  and  con4nuous  delivery   of  valuable  soDware.   Through  this  work  we  have  come  to  value:   • Welcome  changing  requirements,  even  late  in     Individuals  and  interac4ons  over  processes  and  tools     development.  Agile  processes  harness  change  for     the  customer's  compe44ve  advantage.     Working  soDware  over  comprehensive  documenta4on     Customer  collabora4on  over  contract  nego4a4on     • Deliver  working  soDware  frequently,  from  a     couple  of  weeks  to  a  couple  of  months,  with  a     Responding  to  change  over  following  a  plan   preference  to  the  shorter  4mescale.   • Business  people  and  developers  must  work     That  is,  while  there  is  value  in  the  items  on     together  daily  throughout  the  project.   the  right,  we  value  the  items  on  the  leD  more.   • Build  projects  around  mo4vated  individuals.     Source:  AgileManifesto.Org   • Give  them  the  environment  and  support  they  need,     and  trust  them  to  get  the  job  done.   eXtremeProgramming  Values  We  Follow   • The  most  efficient  and  effec4ve  method  of     conveying  informa4on  to  and  within  a  development                                Courage,  Communica4on,  Feedback,  Respect,  Simplicity   team  is  face-­‐to-­‐face  conversa4on.   • Working  soDware  is  the  primary  measure  of  progress.   • Agile  processes  promote  sustainable  development.   • The  sponsors,  developers,  and  users  should  be  able     to  maintain  a  constant  pace  indefinitely.   We  uphold  the  manifesto  with  prac4ces  that  we  adopt  from:   • Con4nuous  aUen4on  to  technical  excellence     and  good  design  enhances  agility.   •   eXtreme  Programming  (XP)   • Simplicity-­‐-­‐the  art  of  maximizing  the  amount     of  work  not  done-­‐-­‐is  essen4al.   •   Scrum   • The  best  architectures,  requirements,  and  designs     emerge  from  self-­‐organizing  teams.   •   Lean   • At  regular  intervals,  the  team  reflects  on  how     •   Organiza4on  Effec4veness  /  Development   to  become  more  effec4ve,  then  tunes  and  adjusts     its  behavior  accordingly.   •   SoDware  CraDsmanship   Source:  AgileManifesto.Org    
  • 24. Step 2: Visualize Your Business
  • 25. Visualize the Business Units and Strategy Customer Experiences Buying Selling Ownership Claims Strategic Objectives •  Product Development wants to expand from 8 states to 16 states. •  Product Development wants to introduce a recreational vehicle product. •  Marketing wants to increase our Gen Y customer base from 5% to 20%. •  Sales wants to provide consumers their policy data via mobile technology
  • 26. Step 3: Visualize Your Projects & Demand Funnel
  • 27. Map the Demand & WIP Business Units Project Backlog WIP A Least Valuable Most Valuable B C D
  • 28. Size the Demand & Add Time to Market Constraints Sizing Time to Market Constraints XS 0 - 625 Hrs 1 Units double with risk Unit Q1 S 626 – 1,250 Hrs 2 Q2 Units M 1,251 – 2,500 Hrs. 4 Q3 Units Q4 L 2,501 – 5,000 Hrs 8 Units XL 5,001 - 10,000 Hrs 16 4 Program X Units Project A Biz A Biz C M Biz B Biz D
  • 30. Calculate Units By Team 7 – 12 Developers 2,080 less 20% Non-Billable = 1664 2–3 Product Owner/Business 1664 x 16 = 26,624 per team Analyst 2–3 Quality Assurance Or do by Budget ie: 6 Million a year, 1–2 Team Leaders = 1.5 Million per Qtr 12 – 20 People, 16 people ideal 20 Units per quarter
  • 31. Release Planning 20 Units Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Per Year 5 Units 5 Units 5 Units 5 Units Per Team 4 Units 2 Units 8 Units 4 Units 1 Unit 1 Unit
  • 33. It’s not that simple, so let’s paint a real picture… Visualize what you manage •  Application Assets •  People •  Leadership •  Standard Work / Process •  Financials, Operations, etc. PMO Re-factored Speak in Stories
  • 35. Visualize the Application Assets and Technology soup Biz A Biz C Oracle C# COBOL Biz B Biz D SQL Server Java Other
  • 36. Order Assets By Business Value/Severity Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Biz A Biz C Biz B Biz D
  • 37. Visualize Your Assets Management in Severity Order Road Map Current State Future State Plan To Get there 128 Units Severity Technical Debt Production 1 Sev 1 Defects 12 Sev 2 40 Sev 3 Frequency jUnit Test Automated Regression Performance 82% Coverage Test Coverage 74% 91%/10 Other things you could track: Lines of Code, Code Change Risk Analyzer, JDepend, Cylcomatic Complexity, Panopticode, Chidamber & Kemer Object-oriented metrics
  • 38. Score Your Assets, Asset Management Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Road Tech Test Map Defects Debt Coverage < 25 Great Solid <5 Units > 80% Good OK Biz A Biz C Biz Biz D Rotten B
  • 39. Step 5: People (Assets & Liabilities)
  • 40. Visualize Your Org Chart, Post-IT note color = Primary Role Dev QA Mgr Admin BA Other
  • 41. Define Core Competencies, Matrix & Ownership Eric Susan Jon Mary Jim Craft Owners Mgr BA Dev QA Admin Other Master Teachers, Passion For Craft Journeyman Practice, Rinse, Repeat Apprentice New, Please Mentor Me What does Learn from industry Form a community Feedback loops best practices for the craft on the craft ownership mean?
  • 42. Apply Craftsmanship Levels M = Master J = Journeyman M A = Apprentice M M J J J M J J J M A A M M A A A M A A J J M J J J M A J A J J J J J M J A A J A A J J M J M A A J M A J A J A A J J A J J J J A M M A A J Dev QA Mgr Admin BA Other
  • 43. Score the Competencies Eric Susan Jon Mary Jim Mgr BA Dev QA Admin Other Master 8 Units 4 3 3 4 1 1 Journeyman 4 Units 7 1 12 9 2 1 Apprentice 2 Units 0 3 16 3 0 1 Could Apply (4x8)+ (3x8)+ (3x8)+ (4x8)+ (1x8)+ (1x8)+ $ Per Unit & (7x4) + (1x4) + (12x4) + (9x4) + (2x4) + (1x4) + Look at (0x2) (3x2) (16x2) (3x2) (0x2) (1x2) Ratio’s 60 UNITS 34 UNITS 104 74 UNITS 16 UNITS 14 UNITS UNITS
  • 44. Apply Tech Skills to Devs M M M J J J M J J J M A A M M A A A M A A J J M J J J M A J A J J J J J M J A A J A A J J M J M A A J M A J A J A A J J A M M A J J J J Admin A A J SQL Oracle C# Java COBOL Other Server
  • 45. Score the Competencies By Tech Skills Eric Susan Jon Mary Jim Mgr BA Dev QA Admin Other Master 8 Units 4 3 3 4 1 1 Journeyman 4 Units 7 1 12 9 2 1 Apprentice 2 Units 0 3 16 3 0 1 Could Apply (4x8)+ (3x8)+ (3x8)+ (4x8)+ (1x8)+ (1x8)+ $ Per Unit & (7x4) + (1x4) + (12x4) + (9x4) + (2x4) + (1x4) + Look at (0x2) (3x2) (16x2) (3x2) (0x2) (1x2) Ratio’s 60 UNITS 34 UNITS 104 UNITS 74 UNITS 16 UNITS 14 UNITS You Get the Idea…
  • 46. Map People to Business Knowledge M You Get the Idea M M J J J M J J J M A A M M A A A M A A J J M J J J M A J A J J J J J M J A A J A A J J M J M A A J M A J A J A A J J A M M A J J J J Admin A A J Biz A Biz C Biz B Biz D
  • 47. Specialists that support Agile & Waterfall •  Architecture •  Infrastructure •  Security •  User Experience •  DBA’s •  PMO •  Operations Circle them, make note of them, SPECIALIZATION is another type of constraint. Do the specialists want to control or contribute to delivery?
  • 48. Candidate Waste: Latent Skill Organizations employ their staff for specific skills that they may have. These employees have other skills too, it is wasteful to not take advantage of these skills as well. "It is only by capitalizing on employees' creativity that organizations can eliminate the other seven wastes and continuously improve their performance.” Source Liker(2004) – The Toyota Way (p.28)
  • 49. Wasteful Craft Patterns in MOST Organizations “I am expert at the system “I know the business, so therefore therefore I am in I am the customer, I am the Quality Assurance” business analyst.” Root: I can break stuff. Root: I can’t admit I changed professions. “I got a BS degree in Computer Science, but I only do Java” Root: I know enough technology. “If it wasn’t created here, I “Study my craft? I quit don’t buy it.” studying when I left school” Root: “Not Invented Here” Root: I don’t get paid to syndrome & self preservation. study. Homework sucks.
  • 51. Standard Work •  Each step in the process should be defined and must be performed repeatedly in the same manner. •  Standard Work will define the most efficient methods to produce product using available equipment, people, and material. The Standard Work depicts the key process points, operator procedures, production sequence, safety issues, and quality checks. Source: http://www.gatlineducation.com/leandemo/ rulestandardwork.htm
  • 52. Sustaining the Discipline •  Maintain and review standards. •  While thinking about the new way, also be thinking about better ways. •  Suggested improvements can be tested. •  If truly better, don’t be different just to be different. •  Be different if results are the same & is the least waste method (ie: story card tracking).
  • 53. Standard Work: Tools Teams Code Red Fish, Policy Code Lean Project Management Rats Blue Fish Admin Monkeys Dogs Time Reporting NA NA Agile Project Tracking NA Waterfall Project Tracking NA NA NA NA Development Java IDE NA NA NA C# IDE NA NA TDD Continuous Integration Testing
  • 55. Standard Work: Agile Practices Teams Code Red Fish, Policy Code Rats Monkeys LeanDogs Project Management Blue Fish Admin Daily Standup Retrospectives Story Mapping Development TDD Pair Programming BDD Continuous Integration Always Sometimes Never Not Necessary
  • 56. Mapping of PMBOK Waterfall/ Traditional to Agile by Michele Sliger & Stacia Broderick
  • 57. Standard Practices: Waterfall Projects Project A Project B Project C Project D Project E Project Phase Executing Closing Initiation Planning Monitoring Integration Mgmt Scope Mgmt Time Mgmt Cost Mgmt Quality Mgmt Human Resource Communication Mgmt Risk Mgmt Procurement Mgmt Good Caution Fail
  • 58. Step 7..X: Financials, Operations, Procurement, … Keep Going   There isn’t one way to do this, do what makes sense to your organization.   Add & remove information radiators based on value and insight needed.   If they are not being maintained, that is a sign that they aren’t radiating value – Adapt!
  • 60. Transparent Leadership •  Doesn’t mean you have all the answers •  Control is not something you can have over a complex system •  Set a larger vision for the organization •  Allow the creativity of their people to emerge •  Visualize the problem, allow teams to solve •  Shift the way you [lead] organizations, loosen control to encourage more creativity. A culture of care will emerge, as opposed to a culture of command and control, and your company will be more creative and productive, too. Excerpt from “http://www.enterprise-architecture.info/Images/Extended%20Enterprise/Extended%20Enterprise%20Architecture3.htm”
  • 61. Daily Stand Up Meetings   Team communicates on a daily basis   Team members report:   What they did yesterday   What they are going to do today   Any concerns or road blocks they are facing   Each update is very brief   15 minutes for whole team
  • 62. Escalating Road Blocks Management Removes CIO Impediments WiFi for All 60 2/1/10 Days Director Management Born Supports On 45 Date Days Middle Manager 30 Trust, but verify Days by visualization Line Manager
  • 63. Retrospectives   Designed to help a team find ways to improve what they do   Should be held at least every 2 weeks   What worked? What didn’t work?   Team votes if items discussed during the retrospective should become cards to be played in the coming iteration   XP Values: Courage, Communication, Feedback, Respect
  • 64. WIP + Kaizen IF WIP takes all A congested highway does not the demand flow efficiently! THEN there is no room for continuous improvement We must support this and allow room for improvement!
  • 65. Inspect Via Visualization & Conversations Retrospective Road Blocks Could Not In Worked Be Started Progress Done Better • 
  • 66. “Fly By The Seat of Your Pants” Decide a course of action as you go along, using your own initiative and perceptions rather than a pre-determined plan or mechanical aids. Aircraft initially had few navigation aids and flying was accomplished by means of the pilot's judgment (the vibration in the seat of their pants). Management is a craft that requires more communication than instrumentation.
  • 69. Re-factor PMO to MSO Manifesto Support Office
  • 70. Manifesto Support Office Principles •  Information Radiators are Good! •  Throughput Focus, Limit WIP, Pull Value •  Align Continually (backlog honing with peers) •  Support Kaizen & Crafts •  Identify, Alleviate, Elevate Constraints •  Standard Work + Self Organization :=Good •  “See the Whole”: Communicate Strategic Intent
  • 71. Step 9: Speak in Stories •  Stories are statements of value •  Stories start a conversation •  Allows us to manage our own WIP more effectively •  Solve the problem in the lightest way possible •  Don’t use a tool when you need a conversation
  • 73. Write Story Cards for Supporting Organizations Examples: •  PMO •  Operations •  Architecture •  Human Resources •  Backlog that is reviewed by Delivery Teams who are tied to delivering business value
  • 74. As a Customer… I want to understand who is working on my project, so that I can make sure they are working on the right priorities for the business. I want to understand who I need to talk to when I need more information. I want to see when my requests are going to need my collaboration so that I am available to the team.
  • 75. As a CIO… I want new resources coming into IT to be able to understand what this company is about and how their job is connected to the goals of the company. I want to understand the state of work on each team, so that I can better understand the status. I want to understand where work is in the demand management funnel, so that I can communicate effectively with the cabinet.
  • 76. As an Application Delivery Director… I want to understand what risks we are facing, so that I can help mitigate them. I want to understand how effective we are at continuous deployment, so that I can help manage this. I want to understand how effective we are at reusing components such as port lets, so I can reduce our time to market and overall project costs.
  • 77. As an Application Delivery Director… I want to understand the level of engagement I have with my IT teams, so that I can make sure they have a productive, positive, fun and transparent work environment. I want to understand the depth of craftsmanship across my teams, so that I can ensure a well-balanced organization. I want to level of standard work across my teams, so that I can ensure we are upholding the value of not being different unless necessary. I want to understand my cost per unit of software, so that I can better understand our effectiveness.
  • 78. Application Assets and Technology Soup Backlog Road Blocks
  • 79. The End Game •  Be ADAPTIVE •  Be TRANSPARENT •  Seek to eliminate WASTE •  Value PEOPLE above all else •  Live the VALUES •  Lead by EXAMPLE! •  Sustaining behavior will lead to a sustainable organization
  • 80. Implement 4 Themes, See The Mind Map •  Information Radiator Room: 8+ Domains –  Values, Business, Application Assets, People, Leadership, Standard Work/Process, Financials, Operations… •  Leadership: 3 Practices –  Daily Stand Up’s, Retrospectives, Visible Escalating Roadblocks •  Re-factor the PMO -> MSO •  Story Cards for Supporting Organizations
  • 81. Questions, Comments? 440.527.1183 jon.stahl@leandog.com @jonRstahl
  • 84. What Did You See That Was Agile? •  What is amazing is how long we put up with things that do not work •  Build a culture and a process, that's what companies really want •  Not actually experts in any area, they are experts in a process •  No titles, no permanent assignments •  Project leader because he's good with groups •  In an very innovative culture you can't have a hierarch •  Hire people who don't listen to the boss •  Find experts to learn quickly instead of trying to learn it by yourself •  Many bosses, measure whether their people are performing are the ones at their desk all the time, couldn't be more wrong, the really good people are out
  • 85. •  Each team is going to demonstrate communicate and share everything that they are learning today •  Enlightened trial and error succeeds over the planning of the lone genius •  People are encouraged to build their own work areas •  Open mind is critical and the boss demands great deal of team work •  Fail often in order to succeed sooner •  Trying stuff and ask for forgiveness instead of asking permission •  Fresh ideas come faster in a fun environment •  Being playful is a huge importance for being innovative •  Status is who comes up with the best ideas, not who's been at the company longest •  The boss is always going to have the best ideas, not likely •  If everybody only came up with sane things, there wouldn't a point to build off of •  One conversation at a time, stay focused on topic, signs everywhere