SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Aggression
Applied Social Psychology By M.S. Ahluwalia
Psychology SuperNotes
1
How to use this document?
2
Psychology
Super-Notes
Use this as a Reference Book
Take a Printout or Save on your PC/phone
Study while preparing
&
Revise before the exam.
© 2024, PsychoTech Services
Trademarks
‘Super-Notes’, ‘All About’, ‘Psychology Learners’, ‘PsyLearners’, ‘M S Ahluwalia’, ‘PsychoTech Services’, ‘Real Happiness Center’, ‘FREE IGNOU Help Center’,
‘FIHC’ and the msa logo, the PsyLearners logo, FIHC logo, Star and Starji logos for Real Happiness Center and PsychoTech Services logo are trademarks of
M S Ahluwalia in India and other countries, and may not be used without explicit written permission.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. PsychoTech Services and the owners thereof, are not associated with any product or
vendor mentioned in this book.
Limit of liability/disclaimer of warranty
The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and
specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. This book should not be used as a
replacement of expert opinion. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein
may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other
professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor
the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or website is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential
source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or website may provide or
recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that internet websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between
when this work was written and when it is read.
This document was prepared with the intent of helping students. Students are advised to be careful while using this. There may be errors in the
analysis/document considering it has not undergone peer review. In case you notice any errors or have any suggestions for the improvement of this
document, you can leave a detailed comment on the respective page on our site or other channel from where you got access to the document.
For general information on our other publications or for any kind of support or further information, you may visit our website.
Disclaimer
3
Psychology
Super-Notes
Psychology Learners
Psychology.PsychoTechServices.com
Psychology Learners
Psychology.PsychoTechServices.com
Click here to Access Now!
Click here to Access Now!
A proprietary approach developed by bringing together the best of learning theories from Psychology, design principles from the world of visualization, and pedagogical methods from over a decade of training experience, that enables you to:
Learn better, faster!
Super-Notes
A proprietary approach developed by bringing together the best of learning theories
from Psychology, design principles from the world of visualization, and pedagogical
methods from over a decade of training experience, that enables you to:
Learn better, faster!
Super-Notes
5
Psychology made easy and interesting…
6
Psychology
Super-Notes
PsyConcepts PsyQuotes PsyTemplates
Memes that help
you understand
and remember
complicated
concepts.
PsyConcepts
Quotes complete
with contextual
explanations to
help understand
the real meaning
PsyQuotes
Checklists and
templates for a
professional
look, that also
reduce errors
PsyTemplates
Super-Notes
Super-Notes
PsychoTech Services
PsychoTech Services
Psychology Learners
Psychology Learners
FREE IGNOU Help Center
FREE IGNOU Help Center
The Real Happiness Center
The Real Happiness Center
We are here to help you…
It is in our DNA. We were born out of a project to
help students!
7
We are here to help you!
If you are a faculty or student of psychology, this document may be just what you need!
Universities often have a vast syllabus, and there is limited support from the faculty and university. But, the exams are
tough. Unfortunately, students often don’t get sufficient support for their exams.
We at PsychoTech Services have launched several efforts to help psychology students – if you haven’t visited our site
yet, now might be the right time – Click Here! Look for PsyConcepts, PsyQuotes, guidance for solving the assignments,
practicals, projects, and internships, our highly accurate ‘Exam Question Pattern Analysis’, and PsyTemplates - to make
your submissions look more professional and high quality.
Also, remember, your exams will test both your knowledge and your ability to present the answers well. So work on
both these aspects – read this for some very useful tips on How to Score More in your Exams!
We hope that all the resources we have created for you will help you to complete your course requirements successfully!
Good Luck!!!
8
Psychology
Super-Notes
Super-Notes
Super-Notes
ychoTech Services
PsychoTech Services
Psychology Learners
Psychology Learners
FREE IGNOU Help Center
FREE IGNOU Help Center
The Real Happiness Center
The Real Happiness Center 9
Let’s Start…
c
Contents
1. What is Aggression?
2. Theories of Aggression
3. Causes of Aggression
4. Management of Aggression
Aggression
Super-Notes
10
Aggression: Opposite to Prosocial Behaviour
11
What
is
Aggression?
• Aggressive behaviour is viewed as one of the most disturbing forms of human
social behaviour.
• Every night on the news there are reports about murders, wars, and rapes. But
the news isn’t the only place where people encounter violent or aggressive
behaviour, humans exhibit aggressive behaviour on a regular basis. Example:
• Driving home from work, people get cut off and cussed at on a daily basis.
• At school, children fight over who will be the first in the lunch line.
• On the street, people get pushed out of the way if they are not walking fast enough.
Super-Notes
Super-Notes
PsychoTech Services
PsychoTech Services
Psychology Learners
Psychology Learners
FREE IGNOU Help Center
FREE IGNOU Help Center
The Real Happiness Center
The Real Happiness Center
Human Aggression
Any behaviour directed towards another
individual that is carried out with the
proximate (immediate) intent to cause harm.
12
Aggression
13
What
is
Aggression?
• The perpetrator must believe that the behaviour will harm the target, and that
the target is motivated to avoid the behaviour (Bushman & Anderson 2001).
• Accidental harm is not aggressive because it is not intended.
• Harm that is an incidental by-product of helpful actions is also not aggressive,
because the harm-doer believes that the target is not motivated to avoid the action
(e.g., pain experienced during a dental procedure).
• Aggression is of two types:
• Hostile/Affective/Impulsive/Reactive
• Instrumental
Super-Notes
Super-Notes
PsychoTech Services
PsychoTech Services
Psychology Learners
Psychology Learners
FREE IGNOU Help Center
FREE IGNOU Help Center
The Real Happiness Center
The Real Happiness Center
Hostile/Affective/Impulsive/Reactive
Aggression
Being impulsive, thoughtless (i.e., unplanned),
driven by anger, having the ultimate motive of
harming the target, and occurring as a reaction
to some perceived provocation.
14
Super-Notes
Super-Notes
PsychoTech Services
PsychoTech Services
Psychology Learners
Psychology Learners
FREE IGNOU Help Center
FREE IGNOU Help Center
The Real Happiness Center
The Real Happiness Center
Instrumental Aggression
A premeditated means of obtaining some goal
other than harming the victim, and being
proactive rather than reactive.
(Berkowitz 1993, Geen 2001)
15
c
Contents
1. What is Aggression?
2. Theories of Aggression
3. Causes of Aggression
4. Management of Aggression
Aggression
Super-Notes
16
Domain Specific Theories of Aggression
17
Theories
of
Aggression
Aggression
1
Biological Aspects
2
Drive Theory
3
Social Learning
Theory
1. Biological Aspects: Aggression – An Intrinsic Drive
18
Theories
of
Aggression
The oldest and probably the most famous explanations for human aggression suggest that
human beings are somehow “programmed” for violence by their basic nature.
• Such theories attribute human violence to built-in (i.e. inherited) urges to aggress
against others.
• The most famous supporter of this theory was Sigmund Freud, who held that aggression
stems mainly from a powerful death wish (Thanatos) possessed by all people.
• According to Freud, this instinct is initially aimed at self-destruction…
• …but is soon redirected outward towards others.
• Konrad Lorenz, a Noble Prize-winning ethologist, proposed a related view that aggression
springs mainly from an inherited fighting instinct, which assures that only the strongest
males will obtain mates and pass their genes on to the next generation.
1. Biological Aspects: Genetic Influence
19
Theories
of
Aggression
• While most social psychologists
continue to reject the view that
human aggression stems largely
from innate factors, with the
growth of the evolutionary
perspective in psychology, some
now accept the possibility that
genetic factors play some role in
human aggression.
• The biological approach to
aggression includes the belief that
the propensity for aggressive
behaviour lies in an individual’s
genetic makeup.
Twin studies
Monozygotic twins (genetically identical) display, more similar levels of
aggressive behaviour than dizygotic twins, indicating genetic influence.
Adoption studies can help to untangle the relative contributions of
environment and heredity in aggression.
- If a positive correlation is found between aggressive behaviour in adopted
children and aggressive behaviour in their biological parents, a genetic
effect is implied.
- If a positive correlation is found between the adoptee’s aggressive behaviour
and the rearing family, then an environmental effect is implied.
A study of over 14,000 adoptions in Denmark found that a significant number
of adopted boys with criminal convictions had biological parents
(particularly fathers) with criminal convictions (Hutchings and Mednick,
1975), providing evidence for a genetic effect.
1. Biological Aspects: Neurotransmitters and Hormones
20
Theories
of
Aggression
Neurotransmitters
• Neurotransmitters are chemicals that
enable impulses within the brain to be
transmitted from one area of the brain to
another.
• There is some evidence that at least two of
these neurotransmitters, serotonin and
dopamine, are linked to aggressive
behaviour.
• Low levels of serotonin and high levels
of dopamine have been associated with
aggression in animals and humans.
Hormones
• The male sex hormone testosterone is
thought to influence aggression from
young adulthood onwards due to its
action on brain areas involved in
controlling aggression.
• Cortisol appears to have a mediating
effect on other aggression-related
hormones such as testosterone, possibly
because it increases anxiety and the
likelihood of social withdrawal.
2. Drive Theory: Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
21
Theories
of
Aggression
Dollard & Miller (1939) proposed a theory known as frustration-aggression
hypothesis.
• Frustration leads to the arousal of a drive whose primary goal is that of harming
some person or object - primarily the perceived cause of frustration
(Berkowitz, 1989).
• The central role assigned to frustration by the frustration-aggression hypothesis
has turned out to be largely false - frustration is only one of many different
causes of aggression.
3. Social Learning Theory
22
Theories
of
Aggression
• According to social learning theories (Bandura 1983), people acquire aggressive
responses the same way they acquire other complex forms of social behaviour
- either by direct experience or by observing others.
• It explains the acquisition of aggressive behaviours, via observational learning
processes, and provides a useful set of concepts for understanding and describing
the beliefs and expectations that guide social behaviour.
• The key concepts regarding the development and change of expectations and how
one construes the social world are particularly useful in understanding the
acquisition of aggressive behaviours and in explaining instrumental aggression.
c
Contents
1. What is Aggression?
2. Theories of Aggression
3. Causes of Aggression
4. Management of Aggression
Aggression
Super-Notes
23
Causes of Human Aggression
24
Causes
of
Aggression
1. Personal Factors 1. Traits
2. Gender Differences
3. Beliefs
4. Attitudes
5. Values
2. Situational Factors 1. Aggressive Cues
2. Provocation
3. Frustration
4. Pain and Discomfort
5. Drugs
Next
Personal Factors
25
Causes
of
Aggression
>>
Personal
Factors
• Person factors include all the characteristics a person brings to the situation,
such as personality traits, attitudes, and genetic predispositions.
• Stable person factors: display consistency across time, across situations, or across
both.
• In a very real sense, personality is the sum of a person’s knowledge structures.
• Knowledge structures also influence what situations a person will selectively seek out
and what situations will be avoided, further contributing to trait-like consistency.
• Together, person factors comprise an individual’s preparedness to aggress.
1. Traits
26
Causes
of
Aggression
>>
Personal
Factors
Certain traits predispose individuals to high levels of aggression. The idea of an
“aggressive personality” is quite an attractive one.
• ‘Type A Personality’ is a behaviour pattern consisting primarily of high level of
competitiveness, time urgency and hostility.
• Those who exhibit this pattern of behaviour are hyperactive and very
competitive in their interactions with other people.
• They are also more aggressive towards those whom they perceive in as
competing an important task.
2. Gender Differences
27
Causes
of
Aggression
>>
Personal
Factors
Males and females differ in aggressive tendencies, especially in the most violent behaviours of homicide and
aggravated assault.
• Men: much more likely to engage in physical aggression.
• Both: are equally likely to engage in verbal aggression.
Men and women experience aggression differently (Cambell & Muncer, 1987).
• Women:
• view their aggression as often coming from excessive stress and a loss of self-control.
• feel more guilt and concern after being aggressive than men.
• Men:
• often view aggressive acts as an exercise in control over others, brought on by a challenge to their self-esteem or integrity.
• are more likely to view their aggressive acts as positive (instrumental aggression).
Recently, researchers have also considered indirect aggression: gossiping, spreading false rumours, revealing
someone’s secrets without their permission. Research in Finland showed adolescent girls are much more likely to
engage in indirect aggression than teenage boys (Bjorkqvist, Lagerspatz, & Kaukainen, 1992).
3. Beliefs
28
Causes
of
Aggression
>>
Personal
Factors
Many types of beliefs play a role in preparedness to aggress.
• Efficacy related beliefs are particularly important (e.g., Bandura 1977).
• Those who believe that they can successfully carry out specific aggressive acts
(self-efficacy) and that these acts will produce the desired outcomes (outcome-
efficacy) are much more likely to select aggressive behaviours than those who
are not so confident of the efficacy of aggressive acts.
4. Attitudes
29
Causes
of
Aggression
>>
Personal
Factors
• Positive attitudes towards violence in general also prepare certain individuals
for aggression.
• More specific positive attitudes about violence against specific groups of people
also increase aggression against those people. Example:
• attitudes about violence against women are positively related to sexual aggressiveness
against women.
• Males prone to aggress against women are not generally aggressive against all people in all
situations; rather, they specifically target women (but not men) who have provoked them
(Anderson, 1996).
Attitudes
general evaluations people hold about themselves, other people, objects, and
issues.
5. Values
30
Causes
of
Aggression
>>
Personal
Factors
• Values, or beliefs about what one should or ought to do, also play a role in
aggression preparedness.
• For many people, violence is a perfectly acceptable method of dealing with
interpersonal conflict, perhaps even a preferred method.
Causes of Human Aggression
31
Causes
of
Aggression
1. Personal Factors 1. Traits
2. Gender Differences
3. Beliefs
4. Attitudes
5. Values
2. Situational Factors 1. Aggressive Cues
2. Provocation
3. Frustration
4. Pain and Discomfort
5. Drugs
Next
Situational Factors
32
Causes
of
Aggression
>>
Situational
Factors
• Situational factors include any important features of the situation, such as
presence of a provocation or an aggressive cue.
• Like the person factors, situational factors influence aggression by influencing:
• cognition,
• affect, and
• arousal.
1. Aggressive Cues
33
Causes
of
Aggression
>>
Situational
Factors
• Example: Berkowitz and LePage (1967) found that the mere presence of guns
(versus badminton racquets and shuttlecocks) increased the aggressive behaviour
of angered research participants.
• Other situational variables that increase aggression, such as exposure to violent
television, movies, or video games, also appear to do so via cognitive cueing
effects (Anderson & Dill, 2000; Bushman, 1998).
Aggressive
Cues
objects that prime aggression-related concepts in memory.
2. Provocation
34
Causes
of
Aggression
>>
Situational
Factors
• Perhaps the single most important cause of human aggression is interpersonal
provocation (Berkowitz, 1993; Geen, 2001).
• Provocations include:
• insults,
• slights,
• other forms of verbal aggression,
• physical aggression,
• interference with one’s attempts to attain an important goal, and so on.
3. Frustration
35
Causes
of
Aggression
>>
Situational
Factors
• Most provocations can be seen as a type of frustration in which a person has been
identified as the agent responsible for failure to attain the goal.
• Even frustrations that are fully justified have been shown to increase aggression
against the frustrating agent (e.g., Dill & Anderson, 1995) and against a person who was
not responsible for the failure to attain the goal.
• More recent work has shown that displaced aggression, wherein the target of aggression
is not the person who caused the initial frustration, is a robust phenomenon.
• Whether such frustration effects operate primarily by influencing cognitions, affect, or
arousal is unclear.
Frustration the blockage of goal attainment.
4. Pain and Discomfort
36
Causes
of
Aggression
>>
Situational
Factors
Aggression is increased by:
• Non-social aversive conditions: e.g., hot temperatures, loud noises, unpleasant
odours (Berkowitz, 1993).
• Acute aversive conditions: such as pain produced by immersing a hand in a
bucket of ice water, increase aggression.
• General discomfort: such as that produced by sitting in a hot room, can also
increase aggression; this effect appears to be mediated primarily by increasing
negative affect, though there may be cognitive and arousal processes at work
too (Anderson et al., 2000).
5. Drugs
37
Causes
of
Aggression
>>
Situational
Factors
• Various drugs such as alcohol and caffeine can also increase aggression.
• These effects appear to be indirect rather than direct.
• Bushman (1997) found that aggression-facilitating factors (e.g., provocation,
frustration, aggressive cues) have a much stronger effect on people who are
under the influence of drugs than on people who are not.
c
Contents
1. What is Aggression?
2. Theories of Aggression
3. Causes of Aggression
4. Management of Aggression
Aggression
Super-Notes
38
Management of Aggression
39
Management
of
Aggression
• From an evolutionary perspective, aggression can be viewed as adaptive behaviour, at least in
some situations.
• Example: competition for desirable mates is often intense, and one way to “win” in such contests is through
aggression against potential rivals.
• On the other hand, living together in human society often requires restraining aggressive
behaviour.
• Aggression is not an inevitable or unalterable form of behaviour. On the contrary, because it stems
from a complex interplay between cognition, situational factors, and personal characteristics, it
can be prevented or reduced through some useful techniques.
1
Punishment
2
Self-
Regulation
3
Positive Self-
talk
4
Forgiveness
5
Multisystemic
Therapy
1. Punishment
40
Management
of
Aggression
• In most societies throughout the world, punishment - delivery of aversive
consequences - is a major technique for reducing aggression.
• People who engage in such behaviour:
• receive large fines,
• are put in prison,
• in some countries are placed in solitary confinement or
• receive physical punishment for their aggressive actions.
2. Self-Regulation
41
Management
of
Aggression
• Lashing out at others in response to every provocation is not adaptive and can
greatly disrupt social life. For this reason, it is clear that we possess effective
internal mechanism for restraining anger and overt aggression.
• Such mechanisms are described by the term self-regulation (or self-control) and
refers to our capacity to regulate many aspects of own behaviour, including
aggression.
3. Positive Self-Talk
42
Management
of
Aggression
• Another very powerful anger management technique is to change the inner
conversation that you have with yourself (self-talk).
• It is normal for people to have an inner dialogue that can either:
• get them more worked up: e.g., “If he even looks at me the wrong way, I’m going to
explode”
• put them in a calmer frame of mind e.g., “Relax, stay calm, I can get through this”
• The words we say to ourselves are very powerful and can definitely influence how
we feel and how we subsequently behave.
4. Forgiveness
43
Management
of
Aggression
• Giving up the desire to punish someone who has hurt us and seeking, instead, to
act in kind, helpful ways toward them, may be highly beneficial in many ways,
including the reduction of subsequent aggression.
5. Multisystemic Therapy
44
Management
of
Aggression
• Multisystemic therapy is a family-based approach that first identifies the major
factors contributing to the delinquent and violent behaviours of the individual
undergoing treatment.
• Biological, school, work, peer group, family and neighbourhood factors are examined.
• Intervention is then tailored to fit the individual constellation of contributing
factors.
• Opportunities to observe and commit further violent and criminal offenses are severely
restricted, whereas prosocial behaviour opportunities are greatly enhanced and rewarded.
• Both the long-term success rate and the cost/benefit ratio of this approach
have greatly exceeded other attempts at treating violent individuals.
Psychology Learners
Psychology Learners
Serving Psychology students since 2014!
Click here to access now!
Serving Psychology students since 2014!
Click here to access now!
45
Super-Notes
Super-Notes
PsychoTech Services
PsychoTech Services
Psychology Learners
Psychology Learners
FREE IGNOU Help Center
FREE IGNOU Help Center
The Real Happiness Center
The Real Happiness Center
So, what next?
Are you preparing for your exams?
Need help?
46
Super-Notes
Super-Notes
PsychoTech Services
PsychoTech Services
Psychology Learners
Psychology Learners
FREE IGNOU Help Center
FREE IGNOU Help Center
The Real Happiness Center
The Real Happiness Center
Stay Updated!
Join our Telegram Group:
https://t.me/PsychologyLearnersGroup
47
Super-Notes
Super-Notes
PsychoTech Services
PsychoTech Services
Psychology Learners
Psychology Learners
FREE IGNOU Help Center
FREE IGNOU Help Center
The Real Happiness Center
The Real Happiness Center
Do you have any questions,
or suggestions?
Message us on Facebook:
https://www.facebook.com/PsychologyLearners/
48
We have curated a list of movies directly and indirectly related to psychology... Click here to access now!
We have curated a list of movies directly
and indirectly related to psychology...
Click here to access now!
Do you know: Watching movies is probably the best way of learning about something?
Do you know: Watching movies is probably
the best way of learning about something?
49
We have a collection of reviews, previews, and legally free e-books for you…
Click here to access now!
We have a collection of reviews, previews, and
legally free e-books for you…
Click here to access now!
Are you looking for books to help you apply the concepts of Psychology in real life?
Are you looking for books to help you apply
the concepts of Psychology in real life?
50
Super-Notes
Super-Notes
PsychoTech Services
PsychoTech Services
Psychology Learners
Psychology Learners
FREE IGNOU Help Center
FREE IGNOU Help Center
The Real Happiness Center
The Real Happiness Center
Free Psychodiagnostics Library
Click Here to Access Now!
51
www.RealHappinessCenter.com
www.RealHappinessCenter.com
The
Real Happiness
Center
The
Real Happiness
Center
53
FREE IGNOU HELP CENTER
FREE IGNOU HELP CENTER
Helping IGNOU students since 2014!
All resources on the site – Assignments, SuperNotes, Study Material, Practical Files, Project Files, etc. are available FREE of cost! Click Here to Access!
Helping IGNOU students since 2014!
All resources on the site – Assignments, SuperNotes,
Study Material, Practical Files, Project Files, etc. are
available FREE of cost!
Click Here to Access!
53
IGNOU Psychology Hub
IGNOU Psychology Hub
Helping IGNOU students since 2014!
Click here to access now!
Helping IGNOU students since 2014!
Click here to access now!
54
55
55

More Related Content

Similar to Aggression - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes

Mental Disorders >> Phobic Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Phobic DisorderMental Disorders >> Phobic Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Phobic Disorder
PsychoTech Services
 
Mental Disorders >> Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Obsessive Compulsive DisorderMental Disorders >> Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
PsychoTech Services
 
Mental Disorders >> Generalised Anxiety Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Generalised Anxiety DisorderMental Disorders >> Generalised Anxiety Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Generalised Anxiety Disorder
PsychoTech Services
 
Mental Disorders >> Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD
Mental Disorders >> Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSDMental Disorders >> Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD
Mental Disorders >> Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD
PsychoTech Services
 
Mental Disorders >> Panic Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Panic DisorderMental Disorders >> Panic Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Panic Disorder
PsychoTech Services
 
Interview Methods - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology S...
Interview Methods - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology S...Interview Methods - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology S...
Interview Methods - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology S...
PsychoTech Services
 
Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...
Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...
Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...
PsychoTech Services
 
Mental-Health-First-Aid_Letitia-Jennings-Holmes.pdf
Mental-Health-First-Aid_Letitia-Jennings-Holmes.pdfMental-Health-First-Aid_Letitia-Jennings-Holmes.pdf
Mental-Health-First-Aid_Letitia-Jennings-Holmes.pdf
aymsidyey
 
Anxiety Disorders >> Dissociative Disorders
Anxiety Disorders >> Dissociative DisordersAnxiety Disorders >> Dissociative Disorders
Anxiety Disorders >> Dissociative Disorders
PsychoTech Services
 
Mental Disorders >> Somatoform Disorders
Mental Disorders >> Somatoform DisordersMental Disorders >> Somatoform Disorders
Mental Disorders >> Somatoform Disorders
PsychoTech Services
 
Ekaakshara vol-12 (quarter-iv-2015)
Ekaakshara vol-12 (quarter-iv-2015)Ekaakshara vol-12 (quarter-iv-2015)
Ekaakshara vol-12 (quarter-iv-2015)
Abhipsha Mishra
 
Foundations of Psychopathology >> A Brief History of Psychopathology
Foundations of Psychopathology >> A Brief History of PsychopathologyFoundations of Psychopathology >> A Brief History of Psychopathology
Foundations of Psychopathology >> A Brief History of Psychopathology
PsychoTech Services
 
Foundations of Psychopathology >> Developmental Pathogenesis
Foundations of Psychopathology >> Developmental PathogenesisFoundations of Psychopathology >> Developmental Pathogenesis
Foundations of Psychopathology >> Developmental Pathogenesis
PsychoTech Services
 
PSY 3140, Social Psychology 1 Course Learning Outc
  PSY 3140, Social Psychology 1 Course Learning Outc  PSY 3140, Social Psychology 1 Course Learning Outc
PSY 3140, Social Psychology 1 Course Learning Outc
VannaJoy20
 
Essays On Positive Attitude. Positive attitude is the key to success. 1. Hav...
Essays On Positive Attitude.  Positive attitude is the key to success. 1. Hav...Essays On Positive Attitude.  Positive attitude is the key to success. 1. Hav...
Essays On Positive Attitude. Positive attitude is the key to success. 1. Hav...
Wendy Emerson
 

Similar to Aggression - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes (15)

Mental Disorders >> Phobic Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Phobic DisorderMental Disorders >> Phobic Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Phobic Disorder
 
Mental Disorders >> Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Obsessive Compulsive DisorderMental Disorders >> Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
 
Mental Disorders >> Generalised Anxiety Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Generalised Anxiety DisorderMental Disorders >> Generalised Anxiety Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Generalised Anxiety Disorder
 
Mental Disorders >> Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD
Mental Disorders >> Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSDMental Disorders >> Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD
Mental Disorders >> Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD
 
Mental Disorders >> Panic Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Panic DisorderMental Disorders >> Panic Disorder
Mental Disorders >> Panic Disorder
 
Interview Methods - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology S...
Interview Methods - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology S...Interview Methods - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology S...
Interview Methods - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology S...
 
Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...
Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...
Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...
 
Mental-Health-First-Aid_Letitia-Jennings-Holmes.pdf
Mental-Health-First-Aid_Letitia-Jennings-Holmes.pdfMental-Health-First-Aid_Letitia-Jennings-Holmes.pdf
Mental-Health-First-Aid_Letitia-Jennings-Holmes.pdf
 
Anxiety Disorders >> Dissociative Disorders
Anxiety Disorders >> Dissociative DisordersAnxiety Disorders >> Dissociative Disorders
Anxiety Disorders >> Dissociative Disorders
 
Mental Disorders >> Somatoform Disorders
Mental Disorders >> Somatoform DisordersMental Disorders >> Somatoform Disorders
Mental Disorders >> Somatoform Disorders
 
Ekaakshara vol-12 (quarter-iv-2015)
Ekaakshara vol-12 (quarter-iv-2015)Ekaakshara vol-12 (quarter-iv-2015)
Ekaakshara vol-12 (quarter-iv-2015)
 
Foundations of Psychopathology >> A Brief History of Psychopathology
Foundations of Psychopathology >> A Brief History of PsychopathologyFoundations of Psychopathology >> A Brief History of Psychopathology
Foundations of Psychopathology >> A Brief History of Psychopathology
 
Foundations of Psychopathology >> Developmental Pathogenesis
Foundations of Psychopathology >> Developmental PathogenesisFoundations of Psychopathology >> Developmental Pathogenesis
Foundations of Psychopathology >> Developmental Pathogenesis
 
PSY 3140, Social Psychology 1 Course Learning Outc
  PSY 3140, Social Psychology 1 Course Learning Outc  PSY 3140, Social Psychology 1 Course Learning Outc
PSY 3140, Social Psychology 1 Course Learning Outc
 
Essays On Positive Attitude. Positive attitude is the key to success. 1. Hav...
Essays On Positive Attitude.  Positive attitude is the key to success. 1. Hav...Essays On Positive Attitude.  Positive attitude is the key to success. 1. Hav...
Essays On Positive Attitude. Positive attitude is the key to success. 1. Hav...
 

More from PsychoTech Services

Research Tools in Family Therapy - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling...
Research Tools in Family Therapy - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling...Research Tools in Family Therapy - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling...
Research Tools in Family Therapy - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling...
PsychoTech Services
 
Self-Report Scales - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology ...
Self-Report Scales - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology ...Self-Report Scales - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology ...
Self-Report Scales - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology ...
PsychoTech Services
 
Marital Enrichment Techniques - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - ...
Marital Enrichment Techniques - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - ...Marital Enrichment Techniques - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - ...
Marital Enrichment Techniques - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - ...
PsychoTech Services
 
Essential Skills for Family Assessment - Marital and Family Therapy and Couns...
Essential Skills for Family Assessment - Marital and Family Therapy and Couns...Essential Skills for Family Assessment - Marital and Family Therapy and Couns...
Essential Skills for Family Assessment - Marital and Family Therapy and Couns...
PsychoTech Services
 
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL003 Counselling and Family Therapy Basic...
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL003 Counselling and Family Therapy Basic...IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL003 Counselling and Family Therapy Basic...
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL003 Counselling and Family Therapy Basic...
PsychoTech Services
 
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL008 Reflective Journal
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL008 Reflective JournalIGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL008 Reflective Journal
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL008 Reflective Journal
PsychoTech Services
 
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL001 Human Development and Family Relatio...
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL001 Human Development and Family Relatio...IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL001 Human Development and Family Relatio...
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL001 Human Development and Family Relatio...
PsychoTech Services
 
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL004 Counselling and Family Therapy Appli...
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL004 Counselling and Family Therapy Appli...IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL004 Counselling and Family Therapy Appli...
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL004 Counselling and Family Therapy Appli...
PsychoTech Services
 
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research PKS
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research PKSIGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research PKS
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research PKS
PsychoTech Services
 
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research GN
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research GNIGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research GN
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research GN
PsychoTech Services
 
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL002 Mental Health and Disorders GN
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL002 Mental Health and Disorders GNIGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL002 Mental Health and Disorders GN
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL002 Mental Health and Disorders GN
PsychoTech Services
 
IGNOU MSCCFT and PGDCFT Exam Question Pattern: MCFT003 Counselling and Family...
IGNOU MSCCFT and PGDCFT Exam Question Pattern: MCFT003 Counselling and Family...IGNOU MSCCFT and PGDCFT Exam Question Pattern: MCFT003 Counselling and Family...
IGNOU MSCCFT and PGDCFT Exam Question Pattern: MCFT003 Counselling and Family...
PsychoTech Services
 
How to Score More in Exams.pdf
How to Score More in Exams.pdfHow to Score More in Exams.pdf
How to Score More in Exams.pdf
PsychoTech Services
 
Mood Disorders >> Depressive Disorder
Mood Disorders >> Depressive DisorderMood Disorders >> Depressive Disorder
Mood Disorders >> Depressive Disorder
PsychoTech Services
 

More from PsychoTech Services (14)

Research Tools in Family Therapy - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling...
Research Tools in Family Therapy - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling...Research Tools in Family Therapy - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling...
Research Tools in Family Therapy - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling...
 
Self-Report Scales - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology ...
Self-Report Scales - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology ...Self-Report Scales - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology ...
Self-Report Scales - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - Psychology ...
 
Marital Enrichment Techniques - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - ...
Marital Enrichment Techniques - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - ...Marital Enrichment Techniques - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - ...
Marital Enrichment Techniques - Marital and Family Therapy and Counselling - ...
 
Essential Skills for Family Assessment - Marital and Family Therapy and Couns...
Essential Skills for Family Assessment - Marital and Family Therapy and Couns...Essential Skills for Family Assessment - Marital and Family Therapy and Couns...
Essential Skills for Family Assessment - Marital and Family Therapy and Couns...
 
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL003 Counselling and Family Therapy Basic...
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL003 Counselling and Family Therapy Basic...IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL003 Counselling and Family Therapy Basic...
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL003 Counselling and Family Therapy Basic...
 
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL008 Reflective Journal
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL008 Reflective JournalIGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL008 Reflective Journal
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL008 Reflective Journal
 
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL001 Human Development and Family Relatio...
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL001 Human Development and Family Relatio...IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL001 Human Development and Family Relatio...
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL001 Human Development and Family Relatio...
 
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL004 Counselling and Family Therapy Appli...
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL004 Counselling and Family Therapy Appli...IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL004 Counselling and Family Therapy Appli...
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL004 Counselling and Family Therapy Appli...
 
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research PKS
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research PKSIGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research PKS
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research PKS
 
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research GN
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research GNIGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research GN
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL005 Mini Research GN
 
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL002 Mental Health and Disorders GN
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL002 Mental Health and Disorders GNIGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL002 Mental Health and Disorders GN
IGNOU Sample Practical File for MCFTL002 Mental Health and Disorders GN
 
IGNOU MSCCFT and PGDCFT Exam Question Pattern: MCFT003 Counselling and Family...
IGNOU MSCCFT and PGDCFT Exam Question Pattern: MCFT003 Counselling and Family...IGNOU MSCCFT and PGDCFT Exam Question Pattern: MCFT003 Counselling and Family...
IGNOU MSCCFT and PGDCFT Exam Question Pattern: MCFT003 Counselling and Family...
 
How to Score More in Exams.pdf
How to Score More in Exams.pdfHow to Score More in Exams.pdf
How to Score More in Exams.pdf
 
Mood Disorders >> Depressive Disorder
Mood Disorders >> Depressive DisorderMood Disorders >> Depressive Disorder
Mood Disorders >> Depressive Disorder
 

Recently uploaded

University of Ibershire diploma
University of Ibershire diplomaUniversity of Ibershire diploma
University of Ibershire diploma
znezse
 
Ardhanarishwar - Strong Women - Woman and Man are One.pptx
Ardhanarishwar - Strong Women - Woman and Man are One.pptxArdhanarishwar - Strong Women - Woman and Man are One.pptx
Ardhanarishwar - Strong Women - Woman and Man are One.pptx
SSDesai1
 
UoB biyezheng degree offer diploma Transcript
UoB biyezheng degree offer diploma TranscriptUoB biyezheng degree offer diploma Transcript
UoB biyezheng degree offer diploma Transcript
gygab
 
Birmingham City University diploma
Birmingham City University diplomaBirmingham City University diploma
Birmingham City University diploma
znezse
 
Life 3.0-Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.pdf
Life 3.0-Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.pdfLife 3.0-Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.pdf
Life 3.0-Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.pdf
Dragan704596
 
Taming the Mind Embracing Mindfulness with Mental Noting
Taming the Mind Embracing Mindfulness with Mental NotingTaming the Mind Embracing Mindfulness with Mental Noting
Taming the Mind Embracing Mindfulness with Mental Noting
SarahWawrzyniak1
 
UofM degree offer diploma Transcript
UofM degree offer diploma TranscriptUofM degree offer diploma Transcript
UofM degree offer diploma Transcript
eoavyq
 
University of Bedfordshire diploma
University of Bedfordshire diplomaUniversity of Bedfordshire diploma
University of Bedfordshire diploma
znezse
 
Bournemouth University diploma
Bournemouth University diplomaBournemouth University diploma
Bournemouth University diploma
znezse
 
What is Amul milk made of? Why is it unnaturally thick and ...
What is Amul milk made of? Why is it unnaturally thick and ...What is Amul milk made of? Why is it unnaturally thick and ...
What is Amul milk made of? Why is it unnaturally thick and ...
chetankumar9855
 
UOL biyezheng degree offer diploma Transcript
UOL biyezheng degree offer diploma TranscriptUOL biyezheng degree offer diploma Transcript
UOL biyezheng degree offer diploma Transcript
gygab
 
The Most Helpful Book Ever Published!!!!
The Most Helpful Book Ever Published!!!!The Most Helpful Book Ever Published!!!!
The Most Helpful Book Ever Published!!!!
THOMASANTTI1
 
How to avoid Procrastination to improve productivity.pptx
How to avoid Procrastination to improve productivity.pptxHow to avoid Procrastination to improve productivity.pptx
How to avoid Procrastination to improve productivity.pptx
KsSundaram1
 
Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
rawankhanlove256
 
Calendar july 2024 planner organization.pdf
Calendar july 2024 planner organization.pdfCalendar july 2024 planner organization.pdf
Calendar july 2024 planner organization.pdf
AlineGeice1
 
The Benefits of Mindfulness Practices for Mental Clarity and Focus.pptx
The Benefits of Mindfulness Practices for Mental Clarity and Focus.pptxThe Benefits of Mindfulness Practices for Mental Clarity and Focus.pptx
The Benefits of Mindfulness Practices for Mental Clarity and Focus.pptx
Vinod Adani
 
Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service A...
Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service A...Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service A...
Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service A...
rachitkumar09887
 
Photographs of Prof. Dr. Ram Sharan Mehta
Photographs of Prof. Dr. Ram Sharan MehtaPhotographs of Prof. Dr. Ram Sharan Mehta
Photographs of Prof. Dr. Ram Sharan Mehta
BP KOIRALA INSTITUTE OF HELATH SCIENCS,, NEPAL
 
Bài tập - Tiếng anh 11 Global Success UNIT 2 - Bản HS (1).doc
Bài tập - Tiếng anh 11 Global Success UNIT 2 - Bản HS (1).docBài tập - Tiếng anh 11 Global Success UNIT 2 - Bản HS (1).doc
Bài tập - Tiếng anh 11 Global Success UNIT 2 - Bản HS (1).doc
PhngThLmHnh
 
Vadodara Girls Call Vadodara 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Vadodara Girls Call Vadodara 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...Vadodara Girls Call Vadodara 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Vadodara Girls Call Vadodara 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
rachitkumar09887
 

Recently uploaded (20)

University of Ibershire diploma
University of Ibershire diplomaUniversity of Ibershire diploma
University of Ibershire diploma
 
Ardhanarishwar - Strong Women - Woman and Man are One.pptx
Ardhanarishwar - Strong Women - Woman and Man are One.pptxArdhanarishwar - Strong Women - Woman and Man are One.pptx
Ardhanarishwar - Strong Women - Woman and Man are One.pptx
 
UoB biyezheng degree offer diploma Transcript
UoB biyezheng degree offer diploma TranscriptUoB biyezheng degree offer diploma Transcript
UoB biyezheng degree offer diploma Transcript
 
Birmingham City University diploma
Birmingham City University diplomaBirmingham City University diploma
Birmingham City University diploma
 
Life 3.0-Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.pdf
Life 3.0-Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.pdfLife 3.0-Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.pdf
Life 3.0-Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.pdf
 
Taming the Mind Embracing Mindfulness with Mental Noting
Taming the Mind Embracing Mindfulness with Mental NotingTaming the Mind Embracing Mindfulness with Mental Noting
Taming the Mind Embracing Mindfulness with Mental Noting
 
UofM degree offer diploma Transcript
UofM degree offer diploma TranscriptUofM degree offer diploma Transcript
UofM degree offer diploma Transcript
 
University of Bedfordshire diploma
University of Bedfordshire diplomaUniversity of Bedfordshire diploma
University of Bedfordshire diploma
 
Bournemouth University diploma
Bournemouth University diplomaBournemouth University diploma
Bournemouth University diploma
 
What is Amul milk made of? Why is it unnaturally thick and ...
What is Amul milk made of? Why is it unnaturally thick and ...What is Amul milk made of? Why is it unnaturally thick and ...
What is Amul milk made of? Why is it unnaturally thick and ...
 
UOL biyezheng degree offer diploma Transcript
UOL biyezheng degree offer diploma TranscriptUOL biyezheng degree offer diploma Transcript
UOL biyezheng degree offer diploma Transcript
 
The Most Helpful Book Ever Published!!!!
The Most Helpful Book Ever Published!!!!The Most Helpful Book Ever Published!!!!
The Most Helpful Book Ever Published!!!!
 
How to avoid Procrastination to improve productivity.pptx
How to avoid Procrastination to improve productivity.pptxHow to avoid Procrastination to improve productivity.pptx
How to avoid Procrastination to improve productivity.pptx
 
Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
 
Calendar july 2024 planner organization.pdf
Calendar july 2024 planner organization.pdfCalendar july 2024 planner organization.pdf
Calendar july 2024 planner organization.pdf
 
The Benefits of Mindfulness Practices for Mental Clarity and Focus.pptx
The Benefits of Mindfulness Practices for Mental Clarity and Focus.pptxThe Benefits of Mindfulness Practices for Mental Clarity and Focus.pptx
The Benefits of Mindfulness Practices for Mental Clarity and Focus.pptx
 
Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service A...
Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service A...Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service A...
Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service A...
 
Photographs of Prof. Dr. Ram Sharan Mehta
Photographs of Prof. Dr. Ram Sharan MehtaPhotographs of Prof. Dr. Ram Sharan Mehta
Photographs of Prof. Dr. Ram Sharan Mehta
 
Bài tập - Tiếng anh 11 Global Success UNIT 2 - Bản HS (1).doc
Bài tập - Tiếng anh 11 Global Success UNIT 2 - Bản HS (1).docBài tập - Tiếng anh 11 Global Success UNIT 2 - Bản HS (1).doc
Bài tập - Tiếng anh 11 Global Success UNIT 2 - Bản HS (1).doc
 
Vadodara Girls Call Vadodara 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Vadodara Girls Call Vadodara 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...Vadodara Girls Call Vadodara 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Vadodara Girls Call Vadodara 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
 

Aggression - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes

  • 1. Aggression Applied Social Psychology By M.S. Ahluwalia Psychology SuperNotes 1
  • 2. How to use this document? 2 Psychology Super-Notes Use this as a Reference Book Take a Printout or Save on your PC/phone Study while preparing & Revise before the exam.
  • 3. © 2024, PsychoTech Services Trademarks ‘Super-Notes’, ‘All About’, ‘Psychology Learners’, ‘PsyLearners’, ‘M S Ahluwalia’, ‘PsychoTech Services’, ‘Real Happiness Center’, ‘FREE IGNOU Help Center’, ‘FIHC’ and the msa logo, the PsyLearners logo, FIHC logo, Star and Starji logos for Real Happiness Center and PsychoTech Services logo are trademarks of M S Ahluwalia in India and other countries, and may not be used without explicit written permission. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. PsychoTech Services and the owners thereof, are not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. Limit of liability/disclaimer of warranty The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. This book should not be used as a replacement of expert opinion. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or website is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or website may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that internet websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. This document was prepared with the intent of helping students. Students are advised to be careful while using this. There may be errors in the analysis/document considering it has not undergone peer review. In case you notice any errors or have any suggestions for the improvement of this document, you can leave a detailed comment on the respective page on our site or other channel from where you got access to the document. For general information on our other publications or for any kind of support or further information, you may visit our website. Disclaimer 3 Psychology Super-Notes
  • 5. Click here to Access Now! Click here to Access Now! A proprietary approach developed by bringing together the best of learning theories from Psychology, design principles from the world of visualization, and pedagogical methods from over a decade of training experience, that enables you to: Learn better, faster! Super-Notes A proprietary approach developed by bringing together the best of learning theories from Psychology, design principles from the world of visualization, and pedagogical methods from over a decade of training experience, that enables you to: Learn better, faster! Super-Notes 5
  • 6. Psychology made easy and interesting… 6 Psychology Super-Notes PsyConcepts PsyQuotes PsyTemplates Memes that help you understand and remember complicated concepts. PsyConcepts Quotes complete with contextual explanations to help understand the real meaning PsyQuotes Checklists and templates for a professional look, that also reduce errors PsyTemplates
  • 7. Super-Notes Super-Notes PsychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center We are here to help you… It is in our DNA. We were born out of a project to help students! 7
  • 8. We are here to help you! If you are a faculty or student of psychology, this document may be just what you need! Universities often have a vast syllabus, and there is limited support from the faculty and university. But, the exams are tough. Unfortunately, students often don’t get sufficient support for their exams. We at PsychoTech Services have launched several efforts to help psychology students – if you haven’t visited our site yet, now might be the right time – Click Here! Look for PsyConcepts, PsyQuotes, guidance for solving the assignments, practicals, projects, and internships, our highly accurate ‘Exam Question Pattern Analysis’, and PsyTemplates - to make your submissions look more professional and high quality. Also, remember, your exams will test both your knowledge and your ability to present the answers well. So work on both these aspects – read this for some very useful tips on How to Score More in your Exams! We hope that all the resources we have created for you will help you to complete your course requirements successfully! Good Luck!!! 8 Psychology Super-Notes
  • 9. Super-Notes Super-Notes ychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center 9 Let’s Start…
  • 10. c Contents 1. What is Aggression? 2. Theories of Aggression 3. Causes of Aggression 4. Management of Aggression Aggression Super-Notes 10
  • 11. Aggression: Opposite to Prosocial Behaviour 11 What is Aggression? • Aggressive behaviour is viewed as one of the most disturbing forms of human social behaviour. • Every night on the news there are reports about murders, wars, and rapes. But the news isn’t the only place where people encounter violent or aggressive behaviour, humans exhibit aggressive behaviour on a regular basis. Example: • Driving home from work, people get cut off and cussed at on a daily basis. • At school, children fight over who will be the first in the lunch line. • On the street, people get pushed out of the way if they are not walking fast enough.
  • 12. Super-Notes Super-Notes PsychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center Human Aggression Any behaviour directed towards another individual that is carried out with the proximate (immediate) intent to cause harm. 12
  • 13. Aggression 13 What is Aggression? • The perpetrator must believe that the behaviour will harm the target, and that the target is motivated to avoid the behaviour (Bushman & Anderson 2001). • Accidental harm is not aggressive because it is not intended. • Harm that is an incidental by-product of helpful actions is also not aggressive, because the harm-doer believes that the target is not motivated to avoid the action (e.g., pain experienced during a dental procedure). • Aggression is of two types: • Hostile/Affective/Impulsive/Reactive • Instrumental
  • 14. Super-Notes Super-Notes PsychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center Hostile/Affective/Impulsive/Reactive Aggression Being impulsive, thoughtless (i.e., unplanned), driven by anger, having the ultimate motive of harming the target, and occurring as a reaction to some perceived provocation. 14
  • 15. Super-Notes Super-Notes PsychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center Instrumental Aggression A premeditated means of obtaining some goal other than harming the victim, and being proactive rather than reactive. (Berkowitz 1993, Geen 2001) 15
  • 16. c Contents 1. What is Aggression? 2. Theories of Aggression 3. Causes of Aggression 4. Management of Aggression Aggression Super-Notes 16
  • 17. Domain Specific Theories of Aggression 17 Theories of Aggression Aggression 1 Biological Aspects 2 Drive Theory 3 Social Learning Theory
  • 18. 1. Biological Aspects: Aggression – An Intrinsic Drive 18 Theories of Aggression The oldest and probably the most famous explanations for human aggression suggest that human beings are somehow “programmed” for violence by their basic nature. • Such theories attribute human violence to built-in (i.e. inherited) urges to aggress against others. • The most famous supporter of this theory was Sigmund Freud, who held that aggression stems mainly from a powerful death wish (Thanatos) possessed by all people. • According to Freud, this instinct is initially aimed at self-destruction… • …but is soon redirected outward towards others. • Konrad Lorenz, a Noble Prize-winning ethologist, proposed a related view that aggression springs mainly from an inherited fighting instinct, which assures that only the strongest males will obtain mates and pass their genes on to the next generation.
  • 19. 1. Biological Aspects: Genetic Influence 19 Theories of Aggression • While most social psychologists continue to reject the view that human aggression stems largely from innate factors, with the growth of the evolutionary perspective in psychology, some now accept the possibility that genetic factors play some role in human aggression. • The biological approach to aggression includes the belief that the propensity for aggressive behaviour lies in an individual’s genetic makeup. Twin studies Monozygotic twins (genetically identical) display, more similar levels of aggressive behaviour than dizygotic twins, indicating genetic influence. Adoption studies can help to untangle the relative contributions of environment and heredity in aggression. - If a positive correlation is found between aggressive behaviour in adopted children and aggressive behaviour in their biological parents, a genetic effect is implied. - If a positive correlation is found between the adoptee’s aggressive behaviour and the rearing family, then an environmental effect is implied. A study of over 14,000 adoptions in Denmark found that a significant number of adopted boys with criminal convictions had biological parents (particularly fathers) with criminal convictions (Hutchings and Mednick, 1975), providing evidence for a genetic effect.
  • 20. 1. Biological Aspects: Neurotransmitters and Hormones 20 Theories of Aggression Neurotransmitters • Neurotransmitters are chemicals that enable impulses within the brain to be transmitted from one area of the brain to another. • There is some evidence that at least two of these neurotransmitters, serotonin and dopamine, are linked to aggressive behaviour. • Low levels of serotonin and high levels of dopamine have been associated with aggression in animals and humans. Hormones • The male sex hormone testosterone is thought to influence aggression from young adulthood onwards due to its action on brain areas involved in controlling aggression. • Cortisol appears to have a mediating effect on other aggression-related hormones such as testosterone, possibly because it increases anxiety and the likelihood of social withdrawal.
  • 21. 2. Drive Theory: Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis 21 Theories of Aggression Dollard & Miller (1939) proposed a theory known as frustration-aggression hypothesis. • Frustration leads to the arousal of a drive whose primary goal is that of harming some person or object - primarily the perceived cause of frustration (Berkowitz, 1989). • The central role assigned to frustration by the frustration-aggression hypothesis has turned out to be largely false - frustration is only one of many different causes of aggression.
  • 22. 3. Social Learning Theory 22 Theories of Aggression • According to social learning theories (Bandura 1983), people acquire aggressive responses the same way they acquire other complex forms of social behaviour - either by direct experience or by observing others. • It explains the acquisition of aggressive behaviours, via observational learning processes, and provides a useful set of concepts for understanding and describing the beliefs and expectations that guide social behaviour. • The key concepts regarding the development and change of expectations and how one construes the social world are particularly useful in understanding the acquisition of aggressive behaviours and in explaining instrumental aggression.
  • 23. c Contents 1. What is Aggression? 2. Theories of Aggression 3. Causes of Aggression 4. Management of Aggression Aggression Super-Notes 23
  • 24. Causes of Human Aggression 24 Causes of Aggression 1. Personal Factors 1. Traits 2. Gender Differences 3. Beliefs 4. Attitudes 5. Values 2. Situational Factors 1. Aggressive Cues 2. Provocation 3. Frustration 4. Pain and Discomfort 5. Drugs Next
  • 25. Personal Factors 25 Causes of Aggression >> Personal Factors • Person factors include all the characteristics a person brings to the situation, such as personality traits, attitudes, and genetic predispositions. • Stable person factors: display consistency across time, across situations, or across both. • In a very real sense, personality is the sum of a person’s knowledge structures. • Knowledge structures also influence what situations a person will selectively seek out and what situations will be avoided, further contributing to trait-like consistency. • Together, person factors comprise an individual’s preparedness to aggress.
  • 26. 1. Traits 26 Causes of Aggression >> Personal Factors Certain traits predispose individuals to high levels of aggression. The idea of an “aggressive personality” is quite an attractive one. • ‘Type A Personality’ is a behaviour pattern consisting primarily of high level of competitiveness, time urgency and hostility. • Those who exhibit this pattern of behaviour are hyperactive and very competitive in their interactions with other people. • They are also more aggressive towards those whom they perceive in as competing an important task.
  • 27. 2. Gender Differences 27 Causes of Aggression >> Personal Factors Males and females differ in aggressive tendencies, especially in the most violent behaviours of homicide and aggravated assault. • Men: much more likely to engage in physical aggression. • Both: are equally likely to engage in verbal aggression. Men and women experience aggression differently (Cambell & Muncer, 1987). • Women: • view their aggression as often coming from excessive stress and a loss of self-control. • feel more guilt and concern after being aggressive than men. • Men: • often view aggressive acts as an exercise in control over others, brought on by a challenge to their self-esteem or integrity. • are more likely to view their aggressive acts as positive (instrumental aggression). Recently, researchers have also considered indirect aggression: gossiping, spreading false rumours, revealing someone’s secrets without their permission. Research in Finland showed adolescent girls are much more likely to engage in indirect aggression than teenage boys (Bjorkqvist, Lagerspatz, & Kaukainen, 1992).
  • 28. 3. Beliefs 28 Causes of Aggression >> Personal Factors Many types of beliefs play a role in preparedness to aggress. • Efficacy related beliefs are particularly important (e.g., Bandura 1977). • Those who believe that they can successfully carry out specific aggressive acts (self-efficacy) and that these acts will produce the desired outcomes (outcome- efficacy) are much more likely to select aggressive behaviours than those who are not so confident of the efficacy of aggressive acts.
  • 29. 4. Attitudes 29 Causes of Aggression >> Personal Factors • Positive attitudes towards violence in general also prepare certain individuals for aggression. • More specific positive attitudes about violence against specific groups of people also increase aggression against those people. Example: • attitudes about violence against women are positively related to sexual aggressiveness against women. • Males prone to aggress against women are not generally aggressive against all people in all situations; rather, they specifically target women (but not men) who have provoked them (Anderson, 1996). Attitudes general evaluations people hold about themselves, other people, objects, and issues.
  • 30. 5. Values 30 Causes of Aggression >> Personal Factors • Values, or beliefs about what one should or ought to do, also play a role in aggression preparedness. • For many people, violence is a perfectly acceptable method of dealing with interpersonal conflict, perhaps even a preferred method.
  • 31. Causes of Human Aggression 31 Causes of Aggression 1. Personal Factors 1. Traits 2. Gender Differences 3. Beliefs 4. Attitudes 5. Values 2. Situational Factors 1. Aggressive Cues 2. Provocation 3. Frustration 4. Pain and Discomfort 5. Drugs Next
  • 32. Situational Factors 32 Causes of Aggression >> Situational Factors • Situational factors include any important features of the situation, such as presence of a provocation or an aggressive cue. • Like the person factors, situational factors influence aggression by influencing: • cognition, • affect, and • arousal.
  • 33. 1. Aggressive Cues 33 Causes of Aggression >> Situational Factors • Example: Berkowitz and LePage (1967) found that the mere presence of guns (versus badminton racquets and shuttlecocks) increased the aggressive behaviour of angered research participants. • Other situational variables that increase aggression, such as exposure to violent television, movies, or video games, also appear to do so via cognitive cueing effects (Anderson & Dill, 2000; Bushman, 1998). Aggressive Cues objects that prime aggression-related concepts in memory.
  • 34. 2. Provocation 34 Causes of Aggression >> Situational Factors • Perhaps the single most important cause of human aggression is interpersonal provocation (Berkowitz, 1993; Geen, 2001). • Provocations include: • insults, • slights, • other forms of verbal aggression, • physical aggression, • interference with one’s attempts to attain an important goal, and so on.
  • 35. 3. Frustration 35 Causes of Aggression >> Situational Factors • Most provocations can be seen as a type of frustration in which a person has been identified as the agent responsible for failure to attain the goal. • Even frustrations that are fully justified have been shown to increase aggression against the frustrating agent (e.g., Dill & Anderson, 1995) and against a person who was not responsible for the failure to attain the goal. • More recent work has shown that displaced aggression, wherein the target of aggression is not the person who caused the initial frustration, is a robust phenomenon. • Whether such frustration effects operate primarily by influencing cognitions, affect, or arousal is unclear. Frustration the blockage of goal attainment.
  • 36. 4. Pain and Discomfort 36 Causes of Aggression >> Situational Factors Aggression is increased by: • Non-social aversive conditions: e.g., hot temperatures, loud noises, unpleasant odours (Berkowitz, 1993). • Acute aversive conditions: such as pain produced by immersing a hand in a bucket of ice water, increase aggression. • General discomfort: such as that produced by sitting in a hot room, can also increase aggression; this effect appears to be mediated primarily by increasing negative affect, though there may be cognitive and arousal processes at work too (Anderson et al., 2000).
  • 37. 5. Drugs 37 Causes of Aggression >> Situational Factors • Various drugs such as alcohol and caffeine can also increase aggression. • These effects appear to be indirect rather than direct. • Bushman (1997) found that aggression-facilitating factors (e.g., provocation, frustration, aggressive cues) have a much stronger effect on people who are under the influence of drugs than on people who are not.
  • 38. c Contents 1. What is Aggression? 2. Theories of Aggression 3. Causes of Aggression 4. Management of Aggression Aggression Super-Notes 38
  • 39. Management of Aggression 39 Management of Aggression • From an evolutionary perspective, aggression can be viewed as adaptive behaviour, at least in some situations. • Example: competition for desirable mates is often intense, and one way to “win” in such contests is through aggression against potential rivals. • On the other hand, living together in human society often requires restraining aggressive behaviour. • Aggression is not an inevitable or unalterable form of behaviour. On the contrary, because it stems from a complex interplay between cognition, situational factors, and personal characteristics, it can be prevented or reduced through some useful techniques. 1 Punishment 2 Self- Regulation 3 Positive Self- talk 4 Forgiveness 5 Multisystemic Therapy
  • 40. 1. Punishment 40 Management of Aggression • In most societies throughout the world, punishment - delivery of aversive consequences - is a major technique for reducing aggression. • People who engage in such behaviour: • receive large fines, • are put in prison, • in some countries are placed in solitary confinement or • receive physical punishment for their aggressive actions.
  • 41. 2. Self-Regulation 41 Management of Aggression • Lashing out at others in response to every provocation is not adaptive and can greatly disrupt social life. For this reason, it is clear that we possess effective internal mechanism for restraining anger and overt aggression. • Such mechanisms are described by the term self-regulation (or self-control) and refers to our capacity to regulate many aspects of own behaviour, including aggression.
  • 42. 3. Positive Self-Talk 42 Management of Aggression • Another very powerful anger management technique is to change the inner conversation that you have with yourself (self-talk). • It is normal for people to have an inner dialogue that can either: • get them more worked up: e.g., “If he even looks at me the wrong way, I’m going to explode” • put them in a calmer frame of mind e.g., “Relax, stay calm, I can get through this” • The words we say to ourselves are very powerful and can definitely influence how we feel and how we subsequently behave.
  • 43. 4. Forgiveness 43 Management of Aggression • Giving up the desire to punish someone who has hurt us and seeking, instead, to act in kind, helpful ways toward them, may be highly beneficial in many ways, including the reduction of subsequent aggression.
  • 44. 5. Multisystemic Therapy 44 Management of Aggression • Multisystemic therapy is a family-based approach that first identifies the major factors contributing to the delinquent and violent behaviours of the individual undergoing treatment. • Biological, school, work, peer group, family and neighbourhood factors are examined. • Intervention is then tailored to fit the individual constellation of contributing factors. • Opportunities to observe and commit further violent and criminal offenses are severely restricted, whereas prosocial behaviour opportunities are greatly enhanced and rewarded. • Both the long-term success rate and the cost/benefit ratio of this approach have greatly exceeded other attempts at treating violent individuals.
  • 45. Psychology Learners Psychology Learners Serving Psychology students since 2014! Click here to access now! Serving Psychology students since 2014! Click here to access now! 45
  • 46. Super-Notes Super-Notes PsychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center So, what next? Are you preparing for your exams? Need help? 46
  • 47. Super-Notes Super-Notes PsychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center Stay Updated! Join our Telegram Group: https://t.me/PsychologyLearnersGroup 47
  • 48. Super-Notes Super-Notes PsychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center Do you have any questions, or suggestions? Message us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/PsychologyLearners/ 48
  • 49. We have curated a list of movies directly and indirectly related to psychology... Click here to access now! We have curated a list of movies directly and indirectly related to psychology... Click here to access now! Do you know: Watching movies is probably the best way of learning about something? Do you know: Watching movies is probably the best way of learning about something? 49
  • 50. We have a collection of reviews, previews, and legally free e-books for you… Click here to access now! We have a collection of reviews, previews, and legally free e-books for you… Click here to access now! Are you looking for books to help you apply the concepts of Psychology in real life? Are you looking for books to help you apply the concepts of Psychology in real life? 50
  • 51. Super-Notes Super-Notes PsychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center Free Psychodiagnostics Library Click Here to Access Now! 51
  • 53. 53 FREE IGNOU HELP CENTER FREE IGNOU HELP CENTER Helping IGNOU students since 2014! All resources on the site – Assignments, SuperNotes, Study Material, Practical Files, Project Files, etc. are available FREE of cost! Click Here to Access! Helping IGNOU students since 2014! All resources on the site – Assignments, SuperNotes, Study Material, Practical Files, Project Files, etc. are available FREE of cost! Click Here to Access! 53
  • 54. IGNOU Psychology Hub IGNOU Psychology Hub Helping IGNOU students since 2014! Click here to access now! Helping IGNOU students since 2014! Click here to access now! 54
  • 55. 55 55