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The Aftermath of War
Material and moral destruction
“In less than six years Germany laid waste the moral structure of Western
society, committing crimes that nobody would have believed possible, while
her conquerors buried in rubble the visible marks of more than a thousand
years in German history. Then into this devastated land, truncated by the Oder-
Neisse borderline and hardly able to sustain its demoralized and exhausted
population, streamed millions of people from the Eastern provinces, from the
Balkans and from Eastern Europe, adding to the general picture of catastrophe
the peculiarly modern touches of physical homelessness, social rootless, and
political rightlessness.
The wisdom of Allied policy in expelling all German-speaking minorities from
non-German countries may be doubted. But the fact is that European peoples
who had experienced the murderous demographic politics of Germany during
the war were seized with horror, even more than with wrath, at the very idea
of having to live together with Germans in the same territory.
The sight of Germany’s destroyed cities and the knowledge of German
concentration and extermination cams have covered Europe with a cloud of
melancholy”.
Hannah Arendt, “The Aftermath of Nazi Rule : A report from Germany”
October 1950
Bomb damaged buildings in Berlin, Germany, around
1946
Stalingrad, 1946
A British ration book, 1953 - 1954
What material and moral difficulties did Europe’s populations
                 have to face after 1945 ?

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Aftermath of war

  • 2. Material and moral destruction “In less than six years Germany laid waste the moral structure of Western society, committing crimes that nobody would have believed possible, while her conquerors buried in rubble the visible marks of more than a thousand years in German history. Then into this devastated land, truncated by the Oder- Neisse borderline and hardly able to sustain its demoralized and exhausted population, streamed millions of people from the Eastern provinces, from the Balkans and from Eastern Europe, adding to the general picture of catastrophe the peculiarly modern touches of physical homelessness, social rootless, and political rightlessness. The wisdom of Allied policy in expelling all German-speaking minorities from non-German countries may be doubted. But the fact is that European peoples who had experienced the murderous demographic politics of Germany during the war were seized with horror, even more than with wrath, at the very idea of having to live together with Germans in the same territory. The sight of Germany’s destroyed cities and the knowledge of German concentration and extermination cams have covered Europe with a cloud of melancholy”. Hannah Arendt, “The Aftermath of Nazi Rule : A report from Germany” October 1950
  • 3. Bomb damaged buildings in Berlin, Germany, around 1946
  • 5. A British ration book, 1953 - 1954
  • 6. What material and moral difficulties did Europe’s populations have to face after 1945 ?