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Unit I
Vocabulary Skills
Introduction
Vocabulary plays an integral part of the process of reading and readers’ comprehension. It refers
to the words needed for communicating effectively. It implies receptive vocabulary and
expressive vocabulary. Receptive vocabulary refers to the words that we hear and read while
expressive vocabulary implies the words that we speak and write.
Vocabulary in English can be categorized into two types, namely, active and passive vocabulary.
The words that we use and understand in day to day language are termed as active vocabulary
while the ones which we know but use rarely are said to be passive vocabulary.
Importance of Vocabulary
1. Vocabulary is essential for communication and expression
2. It forms the basis of reading comprehension
3. It is important for Language Development.
4. Vocabulary also forms a basis for judgement.
5. For conveying and expressing information effectively.
Three Tiers of vocabulary
Vocabulary is described with the following three tiers:
1. Basic Vocabulary
The basic words form the first tier of vocabulary. These words normally have a single meaning
and do not require instruction. Early reading words, sight words, adjectives, verbs, nouns, etc are
portrayed at this tier. 8000 word family in English comprises in this tier
2. High-frequency Vocabulary
Also called multiple meaning vocabulary tier, this tier comprises words used in a variety of
domains, communication, literature, etc. It influences reading and speaking. 7000 word families
comprise this tier.
3. Low-frequency Vocabulary
The words that are used only when specifically required or in a particular domain like weather,
technology, geographical region, occupation, hobbies, school, etc. comprise this tier. The four
lakh words about vocabulary in English comprise this tier.
Root Words
A root word is a word or word part that forms the basis of new words through the addition of
prefixes and suffixes. In traditional root words, these words come from Latin and Greek, and
typically do not stand alone as a complete word. For example, “egotist” has a root word of “ego”
plus the suffix -ist. “Acting” has the root word “act” and -ing is merely the suffix.
Common Latin Roots
Latin Root Definition Examples
ambi both ambiguous, ambidextrous
aqua water aquarium, aquamarine
bene good benefactor, benevolent
cent one hundred century, percent
Common Greek Roots
Greek Root Definition Examples
anthropo man; human; humanity anthropologist, philanthropy
auto self autobiography, automobile
chron time chronological, chronic
dyna power dynamic, dynamite
Prefix
A prefix is defined as a syllable or group of syllables added to the beginning of a word or a root
word stem to alter its meaning.
Prefix Meaning Examples
anti- against, opposing, contrary to antibiotic, antifreeze, antisocial
contra- contrary to, against, opposing contraindicated, contralateral, contraflow
counter- opposing, contrary to, against counterproposal, counteroffer, counter-attack
de- reverse, undo, remove deactivate, de-ice, deplane
dis- remove, separate, apart from disagree, disapprove, disconnect
Suffix
A suffix is a letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to change its meaning or
function.
Suffix Meaning Example
-er someone who performs an action helper, teacher, preacher, dancer
-able, -ible capable of being preventable, adaptable, predictable, credible
-al pertaining to theatrical, natural, criminal, seasonal
-ion the action or process of celebration, opinion, decision, revision
Idioms
An idiom is a term whose meaning cannot be determined from the literal meanings of the words
it is made of. Many idioms are figurative—they are intended to create an image, association, or
other effect in the mind of the listener or reader that goes beyond the literal meaning or expected
use of the words involved.
It is raining cats and dogs is a common English idiom. Literally, that sentence would mean
animals are falling from the clouds. What the idiom actually means is that it is raining very
heavily.
Here are some more examples of common English idioms:
● Hit the sack means going to sleep.
● Under the weather means being sick.
● You can say that again means a person has said something true and you agree.
Example
● Books and music stay by your side through thick and thin.
Meaning: Through good and bad times
● Listen to the news straight from the horse’s mouth, his factory burned down right in front
of his eyes.
Meaning: Directly from the person involved.
● If we want to stay ahead of the pack, we’ll have to increase our marketing budget.
Meaning: To be more successful than the competition
Note: Write 5 Idioms and use them in your own examples
Phrase
Phrase is a group of words that stands together and it plays an important role in the sentences as a
conceptual unit. Phrases do not have a subject and a verb. So it does not express a complete
sentence, they are a unit of a complete sentence. There are broadly eight types of phrases:
Noun Phrase
The lost puppy was a wet and stinky dog.
The flu clinic had seen many cases of infectious disease.
Verb Phrase
She was upset when it didn't boil.
You have been sleeping for a long time.
Infinitive Phrase
To make lemonade, you have to start with lemons.
She organized a boycott to make a statement.
Gerund Phrase
Singing for his supper was how he earned his keep.
Pulling an all-nighter did not improve his test scores.
Appositive Phrase
My favorite pastime, needlepoint, surprises some people.
Her horse, an Arabian, was her pride and joy.
Participial Phrase
Washed with my clothes, my cell phone no longer worked.
Knowing what I know now, I wish I had never come here.
Prepositional Phrase
She was lost in the dark of night.
He was between a rock and a hard place.
Absolute Phrase
His tail between his legs, the dog walked out the door.
Picnic basket in hand, she set off for her date.
Note: Write 5 phrases and use them in your own examples
Discourse Skills:
A Discourse is a term used to explain the transfer of information from one person to another. It
can be Oral or Written It implies the use of words and sentences in context for the purpose of
conveying meaning
Speech acts, which are functions of communication that might include congratulating, ordering,
demanding, promising, hinting, warning, or greeting.
Discourse Markers
For adding: also, moreover, furthermore, additionally, besides, in addition
For comparing: similarly, likewise, in the same way,
For generalizing: on the whole, in general, broadly speaking, as a rule, in most cases
For showing cause and effect: therefore, thus, consequently, hence, as a result
For contrasting: however, although, whereas, despite this fact, on one hand, on the other hand,
on the contrary, still, nonetheless, instead, alternatively, in contrast
For indicating time: in the past, not so long ago, recently,
For sequencing: firstly, at first, first of all, in the first place, to begin with, in the beginning,
once upon a time, secondly, thirdly, subsequently, earlier, meanwhile, later, afterwards
For emphasizing: above all, specially, in particular, specifically, as a matter of fact, more
importantly
For repeating: again and again, over and over, once again, as stated
For giving examples: for example, for instance, such as, namely, in other words For
concluding: in conclusion, finally, to sum it up, in the end, lastly, in short, eventually
Note: Write 10 Discourse markers and use them in your own examples
Collocations
Collocations are words that are frequently placed together. So, a collocation in English is a group
of two or more words that are often found together either in English speech or English writing.
There are different types of collocations.
Adverbs and Adjectives: fully aware, happily married, highly controversial, highly
effective,
Adjective and Noun: internal injury, irreparable damage, joint account, key issue, key
role
Noun and Verb: Lions roar
Verb and Noun: go on a date, go on a picnic, go on foot, have a fight, have a game, keep
quiet, keep records…
Verbs and Expressions with Prepositions: allow for, apologize for, ask for, object to,
pray to, prefer to
Verb and Adverb: go upstairs, guess correctly, hit hard, judge harshly, know well…
Noun and Noun: Sense of pride, core values, corporate finance, cottage industry,
Adverb and adverb: only just, pretty well, quite a lot, quite enough, quite often, right
away…
Adverb and verb: badly damaged, deeply rooted (in), never knew, quite agree…
Adjective and preposition: comfortable with, concerned with, furious about, guilty
about
Noun and preposition: date with, dealing with,
Connotation
An idea or feeling which a word invokes for a person in addition to its literal or primary meaning
is called a connotation. In other words it is a feeling or an emotion that is associated with a word
on top of the literal meaning of the word.
Connotation has an emotional meaning and a word can be in either a positive or negative way
basing on Culture, Social situation or Class and Personal experiences associated with the word
● Her dress was very cheap / inexpensive
● The stench / aroma of my mother’s cooking filled the kitchen.
● My brother is a very confident / arrogant man.
● This man is loaded / privileged.
● My sister is extremely stingy / frugal.
Note: Write 5 Example sentences of Connotations.
UNIT – II
Reading Comprehension
Global comprehension means understanding the general meaning of what you are reading Local
comprehension is one of the skills that helps to read a piece of text intensively to extract specific
information from the text. Local comprehension skills are also called intensive reading skills.
Skimming:
Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. When you read the newspaper,
you're probably not reading it word-by-word, instead you're scanning the text. Skimming is done
at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading. People often skim when they have lots
of material to read in a limited amount of time. Use skimming when you want to see if an article
may be of interest in your research.
There are many strategies that can be used when skimming. Some people read the first and last
paragraphs using headings, summarizes and other organizers as they move down the page or
screen. You might read the title, subtitles, subheading, and illustrations. Consider reading the first
sentence of each paragraph. This technique is useful when you're seeking specific information
rather than reading for comprehension. Skimming works well to find dates, names, and places. It
might be used to review graphs, tables, and charts.
Scanning:
Scanning is a technique you often use when looking up a word in the telephone book or
dictionary. You search for key words or ideas. In most cases, you know what you're looking for,
so you're concentrating on finding a particular answer. Scanning involves moving your eyes
quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. Scanning is also used when you first
find a resource to determine whether it will answer your questions. Once you've scanned the
document, you might go back and skim it.
When scanning, look for the author's use of organizers such as numbers, letters, steps, or the
words, first, second, or next. Look for words that are bold faced, italics, or in a different font size,
style, or color. Sometimes the author will put key ideas in the margin.
Intensive Reading
To read intensively is to completely deconstruct a text, with the goal of absorbing as much meaning from it
as possible. This is done by taking a text, and systematically looking up every word, phrase, or collocation
that you do not understand.
This is an activity that requires great mental effort and focus. Because of this, the learner who
engages in intensive reading must be careful to follow specific guidelines, or else risk boredom
and burnout. Specifically, if you wish to read a text intensively, you must take care to read texts
that are interesting and short, to read only for brief periods of time, and to do so when you have
the most mental energy.
How to Skim:
* Read the title.
* Read the introduction or the first paragraph.
* Read the first sentence of every other paragraph.
* Read any headings and subheadings.
* Notice any pictures, charts, or graphs.
* Notice any italicized or boldface words or phrases.
* Read the summary or last paragraph.
Scanning is a reading technique to be used when you want to find specific information quickly.
In scanning you have a question in your mind and you read a passage only to find the answer,
ignoring unrelated information.
How to Scan:
* State the specific information you are looking for.
* Try to anticipate how the answer will appear and what clues you might use to help you locate
the answer. For example, if you were looking for a certain date, you would quickly read the
paragraph looking only for numbers.
* Use headings and any other aids that will help you identify which sections might contain the
information you are looking for.
* Selectively read and skip through sections of the passage.
Inferring:
The skill of inferring is a skill we do all day long, similar to “reading” people or “reading” a
situation. If it has been snowing outside and some cars have snow on them and some cars do not,
we infer that those without snow have been parked in the garage. Inferring is not only about
reading expressions, tones and body language, it is about “reading” text, often said as, “reading
between the lines” where the answers are not explicitly stated. Predicting is related to inferring,
but we predict events, actions or outcomes that can be checked or confirmed as correct or
incorrect by reading on or reading to the end of the story. I’ve heard it said that predicting is like
thinking ahead but inferring is about looking back and reflecting about what has already been
read. Predicting is like this, you are reading along, you stop and ask, “What will happen next?”
Inferring is like this, you are reading along, you stop and ask, “I wonder What did the author
mean?” Inferences are more open-ended and often uncheckable meaning that the reader is unable
to truly know if an inference is correct. When students read, think and make an inference about
text they have just read, they must use their schema, and prior knowledge and crosscheck it with
clues and evidence from the text.
Guessing meaning from the Context:
Context = the surrounding circumstances, ideas and words woven together to form the setting or
background for an event, statement, or idea. Context—the words or ideas expressed before and
after— provides us with the information we need to fully understand, evaluate or interpret the
ideas in the passage.
When you are reading and come across an unfamiliar word, you can often look at the context to
help you figure out at least an approximate definition for that word. The other words in the rest of
the sentence or paragraph influence and clarify the unfamiliar word and provide its context. The
context provides a setting for the word. Further, context clues help provide meaning and usage
for the word. The most common context clues are discussed in more detail later in the chapter,
but they are listed as follows:
● Experience clues
● Definition clues
● Example clues
● Comparison clues
Even if you don't know a certain term, you can put together clues from the context, a clue's
tip-off phrase, or a suggested idea, to formulate a guess as to the meaning of a particular word. In
addition, a sample context is a sentence or a part of a sentence that clarifies a definition,
distinguishes similar meanings, and illustrates the level and mode of usage. For example, the test
might present the following type of question:
The nice young man courteously opened the door.
A. Hastily
B. Rudely
C. Slowly
D. Politely
In this type of question, you need to find a synonym for the underscored word. By understanding
the rest of the words in the sentence, you can assume that the young man was kind and polite in
opening the door.
Although you might not always be able to look up a new word promptly, seeing the new word in
its proper context is very important. You are more likely to remember a new word presented in
context than if you were to simply study words from a list. The first couple of times you come
across a new word, you might ignore it and skim to the next familiar word. However, after
several encounters, you will begin to recall other times you have seen that same word. You are
also likely to start noticing incidences of the new word when you hear it in conversation or on the
radio or television. When you do learn its definition, you are more likely to remember it because
of your experience with that word.
Experience Clues
Sometimes, you can guess at the meaning of an unfamiliar word simply because you have had a
similar experience to the one the sentence or paragraph discusses. We can all relate to a number
of common experiences, such as feelings you have upon receiving an award for commendable
work, the death of a loved one, or falling in love. For example, consider this sentence: "Not even
the caterer's late arrival could take away from the bride's euphoria." You might not understand the
term euphoria, but you understand the extreme happiness that a bride feels on her wedding day,
and you can therefore vaguely understand that euphoria means an exaggerated buoyancy and
sense of bodily health.
Definition or Paraphrase Clues
Sometimes you can determine the meaning of a word by the way the writer describes the word by
defining or paraphrasing it. We call this description a definition, or paraphrase, clue. A definition
clue is one that actually defines a term, and a paraphrase clue is a phrase that restates the term in
question.
You will often find definition clues in science and technical books, where the writers must
constantly define new terms. Sometimes, commas set off the definition of paraphrase, which
immediately follows the target word. In other instances, the definition or paraphrase comes later
in the sentence or paragraph. The phrase is called or the word often indicates a definition clue.
For example, "The set of rules that govern how Microsoft programs run is called the Windows
Operating System," shows how the phrase Windows Operating System is defined in usage.
Example Clues
In some instances, writers provide you with examples of the unfamiliar word that help you figure
out its meaning. Often, parentheses, commas, or dashes offset an example clue. For example, in
this sentence, "You can use almost any legume— such as black, navy, and kidney beans—to
make a rich and hearty soup," the offset words tell you what a legume is, even if you have never
farmed or cooked and have no idea what a legume is.
Noticing examples can help you infer the meaning of a word, and expressions like the following
often precede an example clue:
· such as
· for example
· for instance
· to illustrate
· including
Comparison and Contrast Clues
You can also discern the meaning of a word through comparison clues, wherein a writer
compares or contrasts one word or point with another. A comparison clue tells you how things
are the same, whereas a contrast clue tells you how things are different.
For example, examine this sentence, "Mike is rather withdrawn and subdued today and is rather
lacking in his usual display of bonhomie and zeal". You might not understand the word
bonhomie, but you most likely understand the word withdrawn. From this contrast, you can
determine that Mike does not want to socialize today and that bonhomie means that Mike is
normally of a genial, social nature and is very enthusiastic about life in general.
If you pay attention, you will see introduction words that tip you off that you have a comparison
clue, like these:
· but
· however
· instead
· although
· though
· on the other hand
· still
Words like these, on the other hand, often introduce comparison clues:
· and
· another
· like
· as
UNIT – III
Writing Skills (Resume)
A resume is a one- to two-page document presenting key facts about your professional
experience, educational background, and skills, A resume is used for job search or to a higher
position.
Curriculum Vitae (CV)
● A CV (Curriculum Vitae) is a longer document that details the whole course of your career.
● It generally lists out every skill, jobs, degrees, and professional affiliations, usually in
chronological order.
● It displays general talent rather than specific skills for any specific positions. ● A C.V., is
the preferred option for fresh graduates, people looking for a career change,and those applying
for academic positions.
Bio Data
● The emphasis in a bio data is on personal particulars like date of birth, religion, gender, race,
nationality, residence, marital status.
● Next comes a chronological listing of education and experience.
Types of Resumes
● The Chronological Resume
● The Functional Resume
● The Combination Resume
Chronological Resume:
A chronological resume lists your work history in order of when you held each position, with
your most recent job listed at the top of the section (i.e. reverse-chronological order). The
chronological resume is the most commonly used resume format and is ideal for most job seekers
because it presents qualifications in a logical way and accommodates people with all levels of
experience.
Functional Resume:
A functional resume is a resume format that focuses on your professional skills rather than each
job you held and when you held it. The functional resume emphasizes your skills rather than your
career progression, it is great for career changers, job seekers with employment gaps, and people
with highly developed skill sets.
Combination Resume:
A combination resume is for highly-trained job seekers with previous work experience. It’s
called “combination” because it combines the most notable features of both the functional
resume format and the chronological resume. It is also referred to as a hybrid resume.
Structure of the Resume:
Contact Information
Summary/ Career Objective
Education
Projects
Technical Skills/ Soft Skills
Certifications and Professional Memberships
Achievements and Awards
Hobbies/Interests
Declaration
Contact Information:
● Your Name
● Professional title
● Phone Number (The one you answer.)
● Professional Email
● Social Media Handles (Twitter and LinkedIn)
● URL to Your Personal Website, Blog, or Portfolio
Summary/ Career Objective:
● Objective is a brief statement that communicates your career goals, such as the type of job
or industry you want to work in.
● Secure a responsible career opportunity to fully utilize my training and skills, while making
a significant contribution to the success of the company.
● Seeking an entry-level position to begin my career in a high-level professional environment.
Education:
● Should include all the educational details in a chronological order.
Projects:
● A short description of Academic Projects,
Technical Skills/ Soft Skills:
List out all the technical skills and soft skills in bullet points.
● Technical Skills:
○ Programming languages. (C, C++, Java, Python…)
○ Common operating systems. (Microsoft,,...)
○ Software proficiency.
● Soft Skills: Effective communication, Teamwork, Adaptability, Conflict resolution,
Flexibility, Leadership, Problem-solving.
Certifications and Professional Memberships:
● List out all the certification courses.
Achievements and Awards:
● List out all the achievements- academic and personal.
Hobbies/Interests:
● Should be informative and useful.
Declaration: A formal or explicit statement about the details provided by the candidate to prove
its originality.
Note: Write an effective resume using your details.
Report writing
Definition
A report is a brief account of an event that has already taken place. The report helps in recording the events of
importance that occur in our day-to-day life. It attempts to present the firsthand information of an incident or event. A
report of an event presents a record of events that took place. A report of an event includes one’s ideas, opinions and
impressions about the event.
Report writing describes and examines an event or occurrence precisely. It is important to make use of appropriate
words while writing a report (based on an event e.g. book fair, sports meet, accident etc)
A report is a written account of something that one has observed, heard, done, or investigated. It is a systematic and
well organised presentation of facts and findings of an event that has already taken place somewhere. Reports are used
as a form of written assessment to find out what you have learned from your reading, research or experience and to
give you experience of an important skill that is widely used in the work place.
OBJECTIVES :
• To understand and appreciate the different languages of report writing
• Developing skills of writing a report
• Exposure to journalism/media
• Writing report for a project work, any assignment
UNDERSTANDING THE STRATEGIES OF WRITING A REPORT
CONTENTS
Style:
• Clarity
• Sequence-Linking
• Formal Language
• Tense
• Direct & Indirect Speech – (a witness, anyone
involved or associated may be quoted)
Points to Remember:
•Mention the place, date, time and other relevant facts about the event.
•Include information collected from the people around or affected by the event.
•Write the name of the reporter.
•Provide a suitable title/heading.
•Write in past tense.
•Write in reported speech and use passive form of expression.
•Develop ideas (causes, reasons, consequences, opinions) logically.
•Write in a less formal and more descriptive manner, while writing a report for a school magazine.
•Present your ideas and impressions to make the report interesting.
A well written report must possess the following traits:
- Adherence to the specifications of report brief;
- Analysis of relevant information;
- Structuring material in a logical and coherent order;
-Presentation in a consistent manner according to the instructions of the
report brief;
-Making appropriate conclusions that are supported by the evidence and
analysis of the report;
FORMAT
HEADLINE
(catchy, no running sentence)
Reported by : XYZ
Designation if any e.g. Staff Reporter
Place, Date : _______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
________Contenst (120-150 words) ________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
Conclusion___________________________________
SAMPLE REPORT
Q1. MMD School, Nashik, recently organized a science symposium on the topic:'Effect of pollution on quality
of life’ , NASHIK '. You are Amit/Amita Raazdan, editor of the school magazine. Write a report on the event
for your school magazine. (120 – 150 words)
SCIENCE SYMPOSIUM HELD AT MMD SCHOOL, NASHIK
By Amit/ Amita Raazdan
Editor, School Magazine
MMD School, Nashik conducted a symposium on "Effect of Pollution on Quality of Life“ on 7 December 2020. All
the science students were a part of the elucidative programme.
The event started with the felicitation of the guest speakers by Sh. Suraj Prakash, the Principal. He acquainted the
participants with the objectives and goals of the workshop. The resource person Dr. Hari Om Gupta reflected his
profound knowledge on the topic and highlighted how important it is to curb the menace of pollution. An exalting
demonstration of the effects of pollution on our lives galvanized the engrossed participants. After the lunch break Dr.
K.K. Arora, Resource Person, exhibited the possible steps that can be undertaken at the personal level to reduce
pollution. It was followed by another session on the basic concept behind pollution reduction which triggered the
young minds into thinking innovative ways.
Conclusion………………………………………………….
UNIT – IV
Presentation Skills (Technical), Group Discussion- Dynamics of Group Discussions
Presentation skills are crucial to almost every aspect of academic/business life, from meetings,
interviews, conferences, to trade shows/job fairs. Oftentimes leadership and presentation skills go
hand in hand. In order to give the best presentation one has to Put themself in the shoes of the
people who will be listening to their presentation.
Analyzing The Audience
Values: What is important to them?
Needs: What information do they want?
Constraints: Understand their level of knowledge on the subject and target them appropriately
Demographics: Size of audience and location may influence the presentation
Components of a Good Presentation
Structure
Introduction
• Build Rapport with Audience
• State preference for questions - during or after?
• Set stage: provide agenda and objective – grab their attention
• State the bottom line and your key supporting points
Body
• Deliver your message logically and structured
• Use appropriate anecdotes, examples
• illustrate key points
• establish credibility
• connect with audience
Conclusion
• Restate bottom line and key supporting points
• Prompting for questions
Body Language and Movement
● Open Body Posture
● Eye Contact
● Facial Expressions
● Gestures
● Posture
Verbal Delivery
1. Volume
Speaking too quietly will not impress the audience
2. Speed
Speaking too quickly hinders the audience comprehension
3. Variety
Monotone, lack of expression can create “dull” delivery with little animation
4. Avoid Fillers
Hesitation, excessive pauses, using distracting fillers (“um”, “ah”)
5. Emphasis
Stress on unimportant words clouds meaning
Poor phrasing, putting pauses in the wrong places
Note: Write your presentation topic using interactive PPT (not more than 8 Slides)…..
Group Discussion
Introduction:
Over the recent years, Group Discussion became a popular method of assessing a candidate’s soft
skills. The contenders who are shortlisted on the basis of written exams have qualified with their
intelligence quotient, i.e., aptitude and knowledge. However, since the significance of emotional
quotient arose, new tools such as GD were devised to gauge candidates’ social and interpersonal
skills. Organizations conduct GDs to find out whether candidates possess the critical
qualities/skills to contribute effectively to the goal accomplishment process.
Definition of Group Discussion:
A group discussion is simply a method instrumental in judging the team spirit, leadership
qualities, out of the box thinking, and other managerial qualities in an individual.
Importance of Group Discussion
● Increases confidence
● Focuses on Deep thinking
● Improves Communication Skills
● Removes hesitation of speaking
● Team Work, Behavior
● Improves Listening Skills
● Supports Diversity in the Ideas
Important Phrases for GD
Asking for Opinions
Could you tell me….?
What do you think about….?
What’s your opinion about…?
Do you think/feel….?
How do you feel about….?
May I ask you….?
Asking for an explanation
Could you explain to me….?
Could someone please tell me….?
Just tell me the reason why….?
Are you saying that….?
What do you mean by that?
I beg your pardon?
Giving your opinion
First of all/To start with I’d like to point out
As far as I can see/I’m concerned…. The
way/As I see it Everyone knows…. Let me
put it this/another way…. Let’s get this
clear (first)….
Sorry to interrupt you, but….
Giving an explanation
What I mean is…
The main problem is….
Just let me explain….
Well, the reason is…
Above all we must keep in mind that….
Agreeing with an opinion
I (quite) agree.
That’s just how I feel about it, too.
That’s a very good/important point.
That’s exactly what I mean.
I’m all in favour of what you’ve been saying.
Qualified agreement
Yes, possibly, although….
Yes, but on the other hand….
I agree up to a certain point, but….
I don’t think it’s as simple as that…..
I see what you mean, but I think that’s not the whole story
Yes, but there’s also another aspect to consider.
Polite disagreement
I disagree (with you), I’m afraid.
I don’t quite agree there.
I’m sorry I can’t agree.
You don’t really mean that, do you?
I don’t think you’re right/that’s right.
Note: Write a discussion between a group of people on any topic following the rules of GD.
(Characters should not be less than 4 people)
UNIT – V
Interview Skills
An interview is a formal conversation between an interviewer and interviewee where the former
seeks answers from the latter, which checks their capability in joining the desired post. When
broken down into two separate terms, interviews are 'inter' and 'view,' meaning seeing each other.
An interview is a source of accurate information of the interviewee only when it is handled
carefully. It plays an important role in the entire selection procedure of a candidate. It serves as
the basis for analyzing the interviewee's job-related proficiency, abilities, and technicalities. An
interview is a structured conversation where recruiters ask questions, and the interviewee delivers
answers.
Interviews can also be unstructured, open-ended, and free-flowing conversations without
predetermined questions. Interviews usually have a limited duration for the process. The
traditional or professional face to face interview, commonly known as a one-on-one interview,
permits direct questions and follow-ups.
Types of Interviews:
1. Structured Interview
2. Unstructured Interview
3. Stress Interview
4. One to One Interview
5. Panel Interview
6. Telephonic Interview
7. Video Interview
8. Depth Interview
9. Open Call Interview
There are different steps involved in interview preparation they are:
Step 1:
Understand Yourself
Take an inventory of your attributes like Education, Experience (both paid and unpaid),
Accomplishments and achievements, Skills and competencies, Community service, Clubs and
organizations, Extra-Curricular activities, Work ethics, Values.
Step 2:
Create Your Personal Profile
● Create a professional resume.
● Look for ways to put a positive spin on your career history.
● Create a powerful, competent and experienced image by using action words to describe
yourself and your accomplishments.
● Give yourself all the credit you deserve.
● Be totally honest, but don’t shortchange yourself by underestimating or minimizing your
accomplishments.
● Have a professional critique of your resume.
Step 3:
Make sure you and the position are a match.
● Duties of the position
● Compensation range
● Location
● Work schedules
● Benefits
Step 4:
Know the Organization
● Organization’s name
● Private or public
● What products or services
● Key management team
Step5:
Last minute brushup
● Map your route to the interview site so you’re not late.
● Appropriate business attire is a must.
● Refer to your achievements often before your interview date, so they’re fresh in your mind.
● Know your answers to probable questions before you walk in the door. ● Practice, practice,
practice your answers and your delivery. Ask others to critique you. ● If you have access to a
video recorder, tape a mock interview so you can see your nonverbal communication.
● The image you project and how you present yourself will be either a deal-maker or
deal-breaker.
● Think about questions you need to ask. Write them down to jog your memory.
Body language (Posture)
1. Focus on your posture.
2. Control your hand gestures.
3. Don’t cross or fold your arms.
4. Keep your head straight.
5. Smile.
Frequently asked questions & answers:
Traditional HR Questions
● Tell me about yourself.
● Why do you want to work for our company?
● What are your greatest strengths and weaknesses?
● Why are you looking for a change?
● Tell me about the gap in your resume.
● How would you rate yourself on a scale of 1 to 10?
● What is your biggest achievement so far?
● Where do you see yourself in 5 years?
● Why should we hire you?
● How do you deal with criticism?
Behavioural HR Interview Questions
● Tell me about a time when you were not satisfied with your performance? ● Tell me about
a time when you were made to work under close supervision. ● Can you tell me about a time
where you were happy with your work and what was your reaction?
● Tell me about a time where you experienced difficulty at work while working on a project.
● Tell me about a time where you displayed leadership skills.
● Was there any point in your career where you made any mistake? Tell me about it.
● How did you handle disagreements with your manager?
● Tell me how you would handle it if suddenly the priorities of a project were changed?
Opinion based HR Interview Questions
● Consider the scenario - You win a million-dollar lottery. Would you still be working?
● What would you do if you were working under a bad boss?
● What do you think is an ideal work environment?
● What does motivation mean to you?
● What is your dream company like?
● What do you do to ensure that a certain number of tasks is completed effectively?
● What would you prefer - being liked or being feared?
● How long do you think you will be working for us if you are hired?
● If you were reborn as an animal, what animal would you want to be?
● Will you lie for the company under any circumstances?
Brainteasers HR Interview Questions
● What do you think is better - being perfect and delivering late or being good and delivering
on time?
● Judy’s mother had 4 children. The eldest one was April, the second child was May and the
third child was June. What was the name of the fourth child?
● How many times in a day does the clock’s hand overlap?
● You have only two vessels of 3l and 5l volume and you are given an unending supply of
water. Can you find out how to get 4l of water just by using these two vessels?
Note: Take any 5 most common interview questions and write your own answers.

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AECS Record.pdf

  • 1. Unit I Vocabulary Skills Introduction Vocabulary plays an integral part of the process of reading and readers’ comprehension. It refers to the words needed for communicating effectively. It implies receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary. Receptive vocabulary refers to the words that we hear and read while expressive vocabulary implies the words that we speak and write. Vocabulary in English can be categorized into two types, namely, active and passive vocabulary. The words that we use and understand in day to day language are termed as active vocabulary while the ones which we know but use rarely are said to be passive vocabulary. Importance of Vocabulary 1. Vocabulary is essential for communication and expression 2. It forms the basis of reading comprehension 3. It is important for Language Development. 4. Vocabulary also forms a basis for judgement. 5. For conveying and expressing information effectively. Three Tiers of vocabulary Vocabulary is described with the following three tiers: 1. Basic Vocabulary The basic words form the first tier of vocabulary. These words normally have a single meaning and do not require instruction. Early reading words, sight words, adjectives, verbs, nouns, etc are portrayed at this tier. 8000 word family in English comprises in this tier 2. High-frequency Vocabulary Also called multiple meaning vocabulary tier, this tier comprises words used in a variety of domains, communication, literature, etc. It influences reading and speaking. 7000 word families
  • 2. comprise this tier. 3. Low-frequency Vocabulary The words that are used only when specifically required or in a particular domain like weather, technology, geographical region, occupation, hobbies, school, etc. comprise this tier. The four lakh words about vocabulary in English comprise this tier. Root Words A root word is a word or word part that forms the basis of new words through the addition of prefixes and suffixes. In traditional root words, these words come from Latin and Greek, and typically do not stand alone as a complete word. For example, “egotist” has a root word of “ego” plus the suffix -ist. “Acting” has the root word “act” and -ing is merely the suffix. Common Latin Roots Latin Root Definition Examples ambi both ambiguous, ambidextrous aqua water aquarium, aquamarine bene good benefactor, benevolent cent one hundred century, percent Common Greek Roots Greek Root Definition Examples anthropo man; human; humanity anthropologist, philanthropy auto self autobiography, automobile chron time chronological, chronic
  • 3. dyna power dynamic, dynamite Prefix A prefix is defined as a syllable or group of syllables added to the beginning of a word or a root word stem to alter its meaning. Prefix Meaning Examples anti- against, opposing, contrary to antibiotic, antifreeze, antisocial contra- contrary to, against, opposing contraindicated, contralateral, contraflow counter- opposing, contrary to, against counterproposal, counteroffer, counter-attack de- reverse, undo, remove deactivate, de-ice, deplane dis- remove, separate, apart from disagree, disapprove, disconnect Suffix A suffix is a letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to change its meaning or function. Suffix Meaning Example -er someone who performs an action helper, teacher, preacher, dancer -able, -ible capable of being preventable, adaptable, predictable, credible -al pertaining to theatrical, natural, criminal, seasonal -ion the action or process of celebration, opinion, decision, revision
  • 4. Idioms An idiom is a term whose meaning cannot be determined from the literal meanings of the words it is made of. Many idioms are figurative—they are intended to create an image, association, or other effect in the mind of the listener or reader that goes beyond the literal meaning or expected use of the words involved. It is raining cats and dogs is a common English idiom. Literally, that sentence would mean animals are falling from the clouds. What the idiom actually means is that it is raining very heavily. Here are some more examples of common English idioms: ● Hit the sack means going to sleep. ● Under the weather means being sick. ● You can say that again means a person has said something true and you agree. Example ● Books and music stay by your side through thick and thin. Meaning: Through good and bad times ● Listen to the news straight from the horse’s mouth, his factory burned down right in front of his eyes. Meaning: Directly from the person involved. ● If we want to stay ahead of the pack, we’ll have to increase our marketing budget. Meaning: To be more successful than the competition Note: Write 5 Idioms and use them in your own examples Phrase Phrase is a group of words that stands together and it plays an important role in the sentences as a conceptual unit. Phrases do not have a subject and a verb. So it does not express a complete sentence, they are a unit of a complete sentence. There are broadly eight types of phrases:
  • 5. Noun Phrase The lost puppy was a wet and stinky dog. The flu clinic had seen many cases of infectious disease. Verb Phrase She was upset when it didn't boil. You have been sleeping for a long time. Infinitive Phrase To make lemonade, you have to start with lemons. She organized a boycott to make a statement. Gerund Phrase Singing for his supper was how he earned his keep. Pulling an all-nighter did not improve his test scores. Appositive Phrase My favorite pastime, needlepoint, surprises some people. Her horse, an Arabian, was her pride and joy. Participial Phrase Washed with my clothes, my cell phone no longer worked. Knowing what I know now, I wish I had never come here. Prepositional Phrase She was lost in the dark of night. He was between a rock and a hard place. Absolute Phrase His tail between his legs, the dog walked out the door.
  • 6. Picnic basket in hand, she set off for her date. Note: Write 5 phrases and use them in your own examples Discourse Skills: A Discourse is a term used to explain the transfer of information from one person to another. It can be Oral or Written It implies the use of words and sentences in context for the purpose of conveying meaning Speech acts, which are functions of communication that might include congratulating, ordering, demanding, promising, hinting, warning, or greeting. Discourse Markers For adding: also, moreover, furthermore, additionally, besides, in addition For comparing: similarly, likewise, in the same way, For generalizing: on the whole, in general, broadly speaking, as a rule, in most cases For showing cause and effect: therefore, thus, consequently, hence, as a result For contrasting: however, although, whereas, despite this fact, on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, still, nonetheless, instead, alternatively, in contrast For indicating time: in the past, not so long ago, recently, For sequencing: firstly, at first, first of all, in the first place, to begin with, in the beginning, once upon a time, secondly, thirdly, subsequently, earlier, meanwhile, later, afterwards For emphasizing: above all, specially, in particular, specifically, as a matter of fact, more
  • 7. importantly For repeating: again and again, over and over, once again, as stated For giving examples: for example, for instance, such as, namely, in other words For concluding: in conclusion, finally, to sum it up, in the end, lastly, in short, eventually Note: Write 10 Discourse markers and use them in your own examples Collocations Collocations are words that are frequently placed together. So, a collocation in English is a group of two or more words that are often found together either in English speech or English writing. There are different types of collocations. Adverbs and Adjectives: fully aware, happily married, highly controversial, highly effective, Adjective and Noun: internal injury, irreparable damage, joint account, key issue, key role Noun and Verb: Lions roar Verb and Noun: go on a date, go on a picnic, go on foot, have a fight, have a game, keep quiet, keep records… Verbs and Expressions with Prepositions: allow for, apologize for, ask for, object to, pray to, prefer to Verb and Adverb: go upstairs, guess correctly, hit hard, judge harshly, know well… Noun and Noun: Sense of pride, core values, corporate finance, cottage industry, Adverb and adverb: only just, pretty well, quite a lot, quite enough, quite often, right away… Adverb and verb: badly damaged, deeply rooted (in), never knew, quite agree…
  • 8. Adjective and preposition: comfortable with, concerned with, furious about, guilty about Noun and preposition: date with, dealing with, Connotation An idea or feeling which a word invokes for a person in addition to its literal or primary meaning is called a connotation. In other words it is a feeling or an emotion that is associated with a word on top of the literal meaning of the word. Connotation has an emotional meaning and a word can be in either a positive or negative way basing on Culture, Social situation or Class and Personal experiences associated with the word ● Her dress was very cheap / inexpensive ● The stench / aroma of my mother’s cooking filled the kitchen. ● My brother is a very confident / arrogant man. ● This man is loaded / privileged. ● My sister is extremely stingy / frugal. Note: Write 5 Example sentences of Connotations.
  • 9. UNIT – II Reading Comprehension Global comprehension means understanding the general meaning of what you are reading Local comprehension is one of the skills that helps to read a piece of text intensively to extract specific information from the text. Local comprehension skills are also called intensive reading skills. Skimming: Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. When you read the newspaper, you're probably not reading it word-by-word, instead you're scanning the text. Skimming is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading. People often skim when they have lots of material to read in a limited amount of time. Use skimming when you want to see if an article may be of interest in your research. There are many strategies that can be used when skimming. Some people read the first and last paragraphs using headings, summarizes and other organizers as they move down the page or screen. You might read the title, subtitles, subheading, and illustrations. Consider reading the first sentence of each paragraph. This technique is useful when you're seeking specific information rather than reading for comprehension. Skimming works well to find dates, names, and places. It might be used to review graphs, tables, and charts. Scanning: Scanning is a technique you often use when looking up a word in the telephone book or dictionary. You search for key words or ideas. In most cases, you know what you're looking for,
  • 10. so you're concentrating on finding a particular answer. Scanning involves moving your eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. Scanning is also used when you first find a resource to determine whether it will answer your questions. Once you've scanned the document, you might go back and skim it. When scanning, look for the author's use of organizers such as numbers, letters, steps, or the words, first, second, or next. Look for words that are bold faced, italics, or in a different font size, style, or color. Sometimes the author will put key ideas in the margin. Intensive Reading To read intensively is to completely deconstruct a text, with the goal of absorbing as much meaning from it as possible. This is done by taking a text, and systematically looking up every word, phrase, or collocation that you do not understand. This is an activity that requires great mental effort and focus. Because of this, the learner who engages in intensive reading must be careful to follow specific guidelines, or else risk boredom and burnout. Specifically, if you wish to read a text intensively, you must take care to read texts that are interesting and short, to read only for brief periods of time, and to do so when you have the most mental energy. How to Skim: * Read the title. * Read the introduction or the first paragraph. * Read the first sentence of every other paragraph. * Read any headings and subheadings. * Notice any pictures, charts, or graphs. * Notice any italicized or boldface words or phrases. * Read the summary or last paragraph. Scanning is a reading technique to be used when you want to find specific information quickly. In scanning you have a question in your mind and you read a passage only to find the answer, ignoring unrelated information.
  • 11. How to Scan: * State the specific information you are looking for. * Try to anticipate how the answer will appear and what clues you might use to help you locate the answer. For example, if you were looking for a certain date, you would quickly read the paragraph looking only for numbers. * Use headings and any other aids that will help you identify which sections might contain the information you are looking for. * Selectively read and skip through sections of the passage. Inferring: The skill of inferring is a skill we do all day long, similar to “reading” people or “reading” a situation. If it has been snowing outside and some cars have snow on them and some cars do not, we infer that those without snow have been parked in the garage. Inferring is not only about reading expressions, tones and body language, it is about “reading” text, often said as, “reading between the lines” where the answers are not explicitly stated. Predicting is related to inferring, but we predict events, actions or outcomes that can be checked or confirmed as correct or incorrect by reading on or reading to the end of the story. I’ve heard it said that predicting is like thinking ahead but inferring is about looking back and reflecting about what has already been read. Predicting is like this, you are reading along, you stop and ask, “What will happen next?” Inferring is like this, you are reading along, you stop and ask, “I wonder What did the author mean?” Inferences are more open-ended and often uncheckable meaning that the reader is unable to truly know if an inference is correct. When students read, think and make an inference about text they have just read, they must use their schema, and prior knowledge and crosscheck it with clues and evidence from the text. Guessing meaning from the Context:
  • 12. Context = the surrounding circumstances, ideas and words woven together to form the setting or background for an event, statement, or idea. Context—the words or ideas expressed before and after— provides us with the information we need to fully understand, evaluate or interpret the ideas in the passage. When you are reading and come across an unfamiliar word, you can often look at the context to help you figure out at least an approximate definition for that word. The other words in the rest of the sentence or paragraph influence and clarify the unfamiliar word and provide its context. The context provides a setting for the word. Further, context clues help provide meaning and usage for the word. The most common context clues are discussed in more detail later in the chapter, but they are listed as follows: ● Experience clues ● Definition clues ● Example clues ● Comparison clues Even if you don't know a certain term, you can put together clues from the context, a clue's tip-off phrase, or a suggested idea, to formulate a guess as to the meaning of a particular word. In addition, a sample context is a sentence or a part of a sentence that clarifies a definition, distinguishes similar meanings, and illustrates the level and mode of usage. For example, the test might present the following type of question: The nice young man courteously opened the door. A. Hastily B. Rudely C. Slowly D. Politely In this type of question, you need to find a synonym for the underscored word. By understanding the rest of the words in the sentence, you can assume that the young man was kind and polite in
  • 13. opening the door. Although you might not always be able to look up a new word promptly, seeing the new word in its proper context is very important. You are more likely to remember a new word presented in context than if you were to simply study words from a list. The first couple of times you come across a new word, you might ignore it and skim to the next familiar word. However, after several encounters, you will begin to recall other times you have seen that same word. You are also likely to start noticing incidences of the new word when you hear it in conversation or on the radio or television. When you do learn its definition, you are more likely to remember it because of your experience with that word. Experience Clues Sometimes, you can guess at the meaning of an unfamiliar word simply because you have had a similar experience to the one the sentence or paragraph discusses. We can all relate to a number of common experiences, such as feelings you have upon receiving an award for commendable work, the death of a loved one, or falling in love. For example, consider this sentence: "Not even the caterer's late arrival could take away from the bride's euphoria." You might not understand the term euphoria, but you understand the extreme happiness that a bride feels on her wedding day, and you can therefore vaguely understand that euphoria means an exaggerated buoyancy and sense of bodily health. Definition or Paraphrase Clues Sometimes you can determine the meaning of a word by the way the writer describes the word by defining or paraphrasing it. We call this description a definition, or paraphrase, clue. A definition clue is one that actually defines a term, and a paraphrase clue is a phrase that restates the term in question. You will often find definition clues in science and technical books, where the writers must constantly define new terms. Sometimes, commas set off the definition of paraphrase, which immediately follows the target word. In other instances, the definition or paraphrase comes later in the sentence or paragraph. The phrase is called or the word often indicates a definition clue. For example, "The set of rules that govern how Microsoft programs run is called the Windows
  • 14. Operating System," shows how the phrase Windows Operating System is defined in usage. Example Clues In some instances, writers provide you with examples of the unfamiliar word that help you figure out its meaning. Often, parentheses, commas, or dashes offset an example clue. For example, in this sentence, "You can use almost any legume— such as black, navy, and kidney beans—to make a rich and hearty soup," the offset words tell you what a legume is, even if you have never farmed or cooked and have no idea what a legume is. Noticing examples can help you infer the meaning of a word, and expressions like the following often precede an example clue: · such as · for example · for instance · to illustrate · including Comparison and Contrast Clues You can also discern the meaning of a word through comparison clues, wherein a writer compares or contrasts one word or point with another. A comparison clue tells you how things are the same, whereas a contrast clue tells you how things are different. For example, examine this sentence, "Mike is rather withdrawn and subdued today and is rather lacking in his usual display of bonhomie and zeal". You might not understand the word bonhomie, but you most likely understand the word withdrawn. From this contrast, you can determine that Mike does not want to socialize today and that bonhomie means that Mike is normally of a genial, social nature and is very enthusiastic about life in general. If you pay attention, you will see introduction words that tip you off that you have a comparison clue, like these: · but · however
  • 15. · instead · although · though · on the other hand · still Words like these, on the other hand, often introduce comparison clues: · and · another · like · as
  • 16. UNIT – III Writing Skills (Resume) A resume is a one- to two-page document presenting key facts about your professional experience, educational background, and skills, A resume is used for job search or to a higher position. Curriculum Vitae (CV) ● A CV (Curriculum Vitae) is a longer document that details the whole course of your career. ● It generally lists out every skill, jobs, degrees, and professional affiliations, usually in chronological order. ● It displays general talent rather than specific skills for any specific positions. ● A C.V., is the preferred option for fresh graduates, people looking for a career change,and those applying for academic positions. Bio Data ● The emphasis in a bio data is on personal particulars like date of birth, religion, gender, race, nationality, residence, marital status. ● Next comes a chronological listing of education and experience. Types of Resumes ● The Chronological Resume ● The Functional Resume ● The Combination Resume Chronological Resume:
  • 17. A chronological resume lists your work history in order of when you held each position, with your most recent job listed at the top of the section (i.e. reverse-chronological order). The chronological resume is the most commonly used resume format and is ideal for most job seekers because it presents qualifications in a logical way and accommodates people with all levels of experience. Functional Resume: A functional resume is a resume format that focuses on your professional skills rather than each job you held and when you held it. The functional resume emphasizes your skills rather than your career progression, it is great for career changers, job seekers with employment gaps, and people with highly developed skill sets. Combination Resume: A combination resume is for highly-trained job seekers with previous work experience. It’s called “combination” because it combines the most notable features of both the functional resume format and the chronological resume. It is also referred to as a hybrid resume. Structure of the Resume: Contact Information Summary/ Career Objective Education Projects Technical Skills/ Soft Skills Certifications and Professional Memberships Achievements and Awards Hobbies/Interests Declaration Contact Information:
  • 18. ● Your Name ● Professional title ● Phone Number (The one you answer.) ● Professional Email ● Social Media Handles (Twitter and LinkedIn) ● URL to Your Personal Website, Blog, or Portfolio Summary/ Career Objective: ● Objective is a brief statement that communicates your career goals, such as the type of job or industry you want to work in. ● Secure a responsible career opportunity to fully utilize my training and skills, while making a significant contribution to the success of the company. ● Seeking an entry-level position to begin my career in a high-level professional environment. Education: ● Should include all the educational details in a chronological order. Projects: ● A short description of Academic Projects, Technical Skills/ Soft Skills: List out all the technical skills and soft skills in bullet points. ● Technical Skills: ○ Programming languages. (C, C++, Java, Python…) ○ Common operating systems. (Microsoft,,...) ○ Software proficiency. ● Soft Skills: Effective communication, Teamwork, Adaptability, Conflict resolution,
  • 19. Flexibility, Leadership, Problem-solving. Certifications and Professional Memberships: ● List out all the certification courses. Achievements and Awards: ● List out all the achievements- academic and personal. Hobbies/Interests: ● Should be informative and useful. Declaration: A formal or explicit statement about the details provided by the candidate to prove its originality. Note: Write an effective resume using your details.
  • 20. Report writing Definition A report is a brief account of an event that has already taken place. The report helps in recording the events of importance that occur in our day-to-day life. It attempts to present the firsthand information of an incident or event. A report of an event presents a record of events that took place. A report of an event includes one’s ideas, opinions and impressions about the event. Report writing describes and examines an event or occurrence precisely. It is important to make use of appropriate words while writing a report (based on an event e.g. book fair, sports meet, accident etc) A report is a written account of something that one has observed, heard, done, or investigated. It is a systematic and well organised presentation of facts and findings of an event that has already taken place somewhere. Reports are used as a form of written assessment to find out what you have learned from your reading, research or experience and to give you experience of an important skill that is widely used in the work place. OBJECTIVES : • To understand and appreciate the different languages of report writing • Developing skills of writing a report • Exposure to journalism/media • Writing report for a project work, any assignment UNDERSTANDING THE STRATEGIES OF WRITING A REPORT CONTENTS Style: • Clarity • Sequence-Linking • Formal Language • Tense • Direct & Indirect Speech – (a witness, anyone involved or associated may be quoted)
  • 21. Points to Remember: •Mention the place, date, time and other relevant facts about the event. •Include information collected from the people around or affected by the event. •Write the name of the reporter. •Provide a suitable title/heading. •Write in past tense. •Write in reported speech and use passive form of expression. •Develop ideas (causes, reasons, consequences, opinions) logically. •Write in a less formal and more descriptive manner, while writing a report for a school magazine. •Present your ideas and impressions to make the report interesting. A well written report must possess the following traits: - Adherence to the specifications of report brief; - Analysis of relevant information; - Structuring material in a logical and coherent order; -Presentation in a consistent manner according to the instructions of the report brief; -Making appropriate conclusions that are supported by the evidence and analysis of the report;
  • 22. FORMAT HEADLINE (catchy, no running sentence) Reported by : XYZ Designation if any e.g. Staff Reporter Place, Date : _______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Contenst (120-150 words) ________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion___________________________________
  • 23. SAMPLE REPORT Q1. MMD School, Nashik, recently organized a science symposium on the topic:'Effect of pollution on quality of life’ , NASHIK '. You are Amit/Amita Raazdan, editor of the school magazine. Write a report on the event for your school magazine. (120 – 150 words) SCIENCE SYMPOSIUM HELD AT MMD SCHOOL, NASHIK By Amit/ Amita Raazdan Editor, School Magazine MMD School, Nashik conducted a symposium on "Effect of Pollution on Quality of Life“ on 7 December 2020. All the science students were a part of the elucidative programme. The event started with the felicitation of the guest speakers by Sh. Suraj Prakash, the Principal. He acquainted the participants with the objectives and goals of the workshop. The resource person Dr. Hari Om Gupta reflected his profound knowledge on the topic and highlighted how important it is to curb the menace of pollution. An exalting demonstration of the effects of pollution on our lives galvanized the engrossed participants. After the lunch break Dr. K.K. Arora, Resource Person, exhibited the possible steps that can be undertaken at the personal level to reduce pollution. It was followed by another session on the basic concept behind pollution reduction which triggered the young minds into thinking innovative ways. Conclusion………………………………………………….
  • 24. UNIT – IV Presentation Skills (Technical), Group Discussion- Dynamics of Group Discussions Presentation skills are crucial to almost every aspect of academic/business life, from meetings, interviews, conferences, to trade shows/job fairs. Oftentimes leadership and presentation skills go hand in hand. In order to give the best presentation one has to Put themself in the shoes of the people who will be listening to their presentation. Analyzing The Audience Values: What is important to them? Needs: What information do they want? Constraints: Understand their level of knowledge on the subject and target them appropriately Demographics: Size of audience and location may influence the presentation Components of a Good Presentation Structure Introduction • Build Rapport with Audience • State preference for questions - during or after? • Set stage: provide agenda and objective – grab their attention • State the bottom line and your key supporting points Body • Deliver your message logically and structured • Use appropriate anecdotes, examples • illustrate key points • establish credibility • connect with audience
  • 25. Conclusion • Restate bottom line and key supporting points • Prompting for questions Body Language and Movement ● Open Body Posture ● Eye Contact ● Facial Expressions ● Gestures ● Posture Verbal Delivery 1. Volume Speaking too quietly will not impress the audience 2. Speed Speaking too quickly hinders the audience comprehension 3. Variety Monotone, lack of expression can create “dull” delivery with little animation 4. Avoid Fillers Hesitation, excessive pauses, using distracting fillers (“um”, “ah”) 5. Emphasis Stress on unimportant words clouds meaning Poor phrasing, putting pauses in the wrong places Note: Write your presentation topic using interactive PPT (not more than 8 Slides)…..
  • 26. Group Discussion Introduction: Over the recent years, Group Discussion became a popular method of assessing a candidate’s soft skills. The contenders who are shortlisted on the basis of written exams have qualified with their intelligence quotient, i.e., aptitude and knowledge. However, since the significance of emotional quotient arose, new tools such as GD were devised to gauge candidates’ social and interpersonal skills. Organizations conduct GDs to find out whether candidates possess the critical qualities/skills to contribute effectively to the goal accomplishment process. Definition of Group Discussion: A group discussion is simply a method instrumental in judging the team spirit, leadership qualities, out of the box thinking, and other managerial qualities in an individual. Importance of Group Discussion ● Increases confidence ● Focuses on Deep thinking ● Improves Communication Skills ● Removes hesitation of speaking ● Team Work, Behavior ● Improves Listening Skills ● Supports Diversity in the Ideas Important Phrases for GD Asking for Opinions Could you tell me….? What do you think about….?
  • 27. What’s your opinion about…? Do you think/feel….? How do you feel about….? May I ask you….? Asking for an explanation Could you explain to me….? Could someone please tell me….? Just tell me the reason why….? Are you saying that….? What do you mean by that? I beg your pardon? Giving your opinion First of all/To start with I’d like to point out As far as I can see/I’m concerned…. The way/As I see it Everyone knows…. Let me put it this/another way…. Let’s get this clear (first)…. Sorry to interrupt you, but…. Giving an explanation What I mean is… The main problem is…. Just let me explain…. Well, the reason is… Above all we must keep in mind that…. Agreeing with an opinion I (quite) agree.
  • 28. That’s just how I feel about it, too. That’s a very good/important point. That’s exactly what I mean. I’m all in favour of what you’ve been saying. Qualified agreement Yes, possibly, although…. Yes, but on the other hand…. I agree up to a certain point, but…. I don’t think it’s as simple as that….. I see what you mean, but I think that’s not the whole story Yes, but there’s also another aspect to consider. Polite disagreement I disagree (with you), I’m afraid. I don’t quite agree there. I’m sorry I can’t agree. You don’t really mean that, do you? I don’t think you’re right/that’s right. Note: Write a discussion between a group of people on any topic following the rules of GD. (Characters should not be less than 4 people)
  • 29. UNIT – V Interview Skills An interview is a formal conversation between an interviewer and interviewee where the former seeks answers from the latter, which checks their capability in joining the desired post. When broken down into two separate terms, interviews are 'inter' and 'view,' meaning seeing each other. An interview is a source of accurate information of the interviewee only when it is handled carefully. It plays an important role in the entire selection procedure of a candidate. It serves as the basis for analyzing the interviewee's job-related proficiency, abilities, and technicalities. An interview is a structured conversation where recruiters ask questions, and the interviewee delivers answers. Interviews can also be unstructured, open-ended, and free-flowing conversations without predetermined questions. Interviews usually have a limited duration for the process. The traditional or professional face to face interview, commonly known as a one-on-one interview, permits direct questions and follow-ups. Types of Interviews: 1. Structured Interview 2. Unstructured Interview 3. Stress Interview 4. One to One Interview 5. Panel Interview 6. Telephonic Interview 7. Video Interview 8. Depth Interview 9. Open Call Interview There are different steps involved in interview preparation they are: Step 1: Understand Yourself
  • 30. Take an inventory of your attributes like Education, Experience (both paid and unpaid), Accomplishments and achievements, Skills and competencies, Community service, Clubs and organizations, Extra-Curricular activities, Work ethics, Values. Step 2: Create Your Personal Profile ● Create a professional resume. ● Look for ways to put a positive spin on your career history. ● Create a powerful, competent and experienced image by using action words to describe yourself and your accomplishments. ● Give yourself all the credit you deserve. ● Be totally honest, but don’t shortchange yourself by underestimating or minimizing your accomplishments. ● Have a professional critique of your resume. Step 3: Make sure you and the position are a match. ● Duties of the position ● Compensation range ● Location ● Work schedules ● Benefits Step 4: Know the Organization ● Organization’s name ● Private or public ● What products or services ● Key management team
  • 31. Step5: Last minute brushup ● Map your route to the interview site so you’re not late. ● Appropriate business attire is a must. ● Refer to your achievements often before your interview date, so they’re fresh in your mind. ● Know your answers to probable questions before you walk in the door. ● Practice, practice, practice your answers and your delivery. Ask others to critique you. ● If you have access to a video recorder, tape a mock interview so you can see your nonverbal communication. ● The image you project and how you present yourself will be either a deal-maker or deal-breaker. ● Think about questions you need to ask. Write them down to jog your memory. Body language (Posture) 1. Focus on your posture. 2. Control your hand gestures. 3. Don’t cross or fold your arms. 4. Keep your head straight. 5. Smile. Frequently asked questions & answers: Traditional HR Questions ● Tell me about yourself. ● Why do you want to work for our company? ● What are your greatest strengths and weaknesses? ● Why are you looking for a change? ● Tell me about the gap in your resume. ● How would you rate yourself on a scale of 1 to 10? ● What is your biggest achievement so far?
  • 32. ● Where do you see yourself in 5 years? ● Why should we hire you? ● How do you deal with criticism? Behavioural HR Interview Questions ● Tell me about a time when you were not satisfied with your performance? ● Tell me about a time when you were made to work under close supervision. ● Can you tell me about a time where you were happy with your work and what was your reaction? ● Tell me about a time where you experienced difficulty at work while working on a project. ● Tell me about a time where you displayed leadership skills. ● Was there any point in your career where you made any mistake? Tell me about it. ● How did you handle disagreements with your manager? ● Tell me how you would handle it if suddenly the priorities of a project were changed? Opinion based HR Interview Questions ● Consider the scenario - You win a million-dollar lottery. Would you still be working? ● What would you do if you were working under a bad boss? ● What do you think is an ideal work environment? ● What does motivation mean to you? ● What is your dream company like? ● What do you do to ensure that a certain number of tasks is completed effectively? ● What would you prefer - being liked or being feared? ● How long do you think you will be working for us if you are hired? ● If you were reborn as an animal, what animal would you want to be? ● Will you lie for the company under any circumstances? Brainteasers HR Interview Questions
  • 33. ● What do you think is better - being perfect and delivering late or being good and delivering on time? ● Judy’s mother had 4 children. The eldest one was April, the second child was May and the third child was June. What was the name of the fourth child? ● How many times in a day does the clock’s hand overlap? ● You have only two vessels of 3l and 5l volume and you are given an unending supply of water. Can you find out how to get 4l of water just by using these two vessels? Note: Take any 5 most common interview questions and write your own answers.