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Advantages And Disadvantages Of ATM Is A Deterministic...
ATM is a connection–oriented, unreliable, virtual circuit packet switching technology. Unlike most
connectionless networking protocols, ATM is a deterministic networking system. It provides
predictable, guaranteed quality of service. From end to end, every component in an ATM network
provides a high level of control. ATM technology has:–
Scalable Performance– ATM can send data across network quickly and accurately, regardless of the
size of the network. ATM works well on both very low and very high–speed media.
Flexible, guaranteed Quality of Service– ATM allows the accuracy and speed of data transfer to be
specified by the client. The QoS feature of ATM also supports time dependent traffic. Each virtual
circuit in an ATM network ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Point–to–Multipoint Connection
Point–to–multipoint connects a single–source end system (known as the root node) to multiple
destination end systems (known as leaves). Such connections are unidirectional only.
ADVANTAGES OF ATM
 Better utilization of the bandwidth
 It can also be used to transfer very large amounts of data over WAN and LAN.
 ATM can also be used between WAN and LAN as well.
 Allows for end–to–end flow and error control
 The speed of asynchronous transfer mode can reach up to 10 billion bytes/sec.
DISADVANTAGES OF ATM
 ATM has not been widely accepted.
 ATM switch costs much more than inexpensive LAN hardware.
 Assumption of Homogeneity: ATM is designed to be a single, universal networking
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Asynchronous Transfer Mode Wireless Network
Project name: ATM wireless network ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) has been advocated as
an important technology for all types of services and networks. Most people believe that ATM will
be the standard for the future B–ISDN (Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network). From the
service point of view, ATM combines both the data and multimedia information into the wired
networks while scales well from backbones to the customer premises networks. To ensure the
success of ATM, lots of the design issues have been standardized by ATM Forum. Wireless personal
communication networks (PCN) has been growing very fast in the last decade. Nowadays, laptop,
cellular phone, and pagers are very popular. Many systems have been developed to provide different
services, such as, Personal Communications Service (PCS), Portable Telephone Systems, and
Satellite Communications System. Usually, these services do not guarantee QoS (Quality of
Services) so they are not suitable for the fast growing multimedia applications. Due to the success of
ATM on wired networks, wireless ATM (WATM) is a direct t result of the ATM "everywhere"
movement. WATM can be viewed as a solution for next–generation personal communication
networks, or a wireless extension of the B–ISDN networks, which will support integrated data
transmission (data, voice and video) with guaranteed QoS. WATM architecture and protocols are
already being well discussed. The ATM Forum are currently involved in defining the baseline
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How The Bank Organization Affect The Implementation Of...
a. Explain how the bank organization could be benefited due to the implementation of computer
networks and how the resources could be utilized in an efficient manner with the computer network
 The Benefits of having computers networks for organisation are: Users can access their files from
any network. Within the network covered, expensive devices such as laser printers or scanners can
be shared. The software and resources within the area of networks can be well organized and
centrally managed. Files can be shared on a central computer allowing data to be shared throughout
an organization. Important files and data can be backed up more easily when they are scattered
across a number of independent workstations and saved on a ... Show more content on
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This is all connected together in a network in order to deliver a very well Service. Therefore,
topologies of network are defined as the schemes of joining a number of computers in the form of
network. Two or more computers and devices are connected together to link for a data
communication. The topology of network is considered as the geometric representation of the
relationship of all the links and nodes (communication devices) to one another. The network
topologies are classified into two categories: i. Bus topology ii. Ring topology iii. Star topology i.
Bus topology In this type of network, all nodes are connected to the common communication
medium or central cable. The central physical cable that connects nodes is known as bus. This type
of topology used the multipoint connection and the central single cable acts as a backbone to link all
the devices to the network. The advantages of bus topology are: It is easy to install and maintain and
it is less expensive. The nodes are not affected if one node is failed. The network is not affected if
nodes is added and removed from the network. The disadvantages of bus topology are: I t promotes
and support only a small number of nodes. The entire networks fail if there is any problem with
central cable. ii. Ring topology: In this type of networking, each node has a dedicated point–to–
point connection only with the
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Mba Of Information Communications And Technology
Bachelor of Information Communications and Technology T301 Network Design Submitted By
Lecturer Nirmal Thomas Graeme Richards (1491153) 1.Load Balancing and High Availability Load
balancing is an important solution used to distribute incoming traffic among servers. So if any
failure happens to one server it can load from another server. Thus we get maximum availability.
Increase in new servers according to demand will make sure accessibility and responsiveness, and
load balancer share in formations with new servers. It shares all the data with two or more servers.
So it's easy to get more amount of work in the same amount of time. Therefore server gets faster. It's
a good solution to implement in U20 football to maintain availability of uninterrupted Media
content. Database servers can work together and read only database servers can work easily. But all
data servers have read and write enabled data. So the best way is to copy read only data to servers.
Sync problem is the main problem to work severs together. There is no single solution to avoid the
sync problem. There are multiple solutions and all solutions
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Nt1310 Packets And Frames
Your question: Explain what packets and frames are? Describe the different characteristics between
each other.
Packets also known as frames are grouped amounts of data that are sent across a network. However,
packets differ from frames in that a packet contains that data to be sent, including the source and
destination Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. A frame is packet that contains the data, the source and
destination IP addresses, Media Access Control (MAC) source and destination addresses, and error
checking. The MAC addresses are added at the beginning of the data also known as a header. An
error checking code is also added to the end of the data which is referred to as a trailer. After the
packet has been "framed", the frame is then sent over the networking medium (i.e. Ethernet cable).
This will decrease the amount of bandwidth available to all machines. Wired switches send frames
to single ports allowing workstations to utilize the full amount of dedicated bandwidth available. If a
wired switch is capable of 100MBps and there are twenty workstations on the network, each
computer is capable of sending 100mbps in both directions. Wireless AP's share bandwidth with all
workstations on the network and require ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Subnetting involves borrowing host bits from an ip address to create multiple IP addresses that can
either be used or saved for future workstations. This mechanism also allows an organisation to
divide its network into groups which can represent departments in an organisation (i.e. Financial
department), this also ensures that only the workstations within the subnetwork can access the
network resources given to that department making the network more secure by restricting other
departments who are not authorized to view or deal with the data
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Computer Networks And Its Impact On The World
WAN Technologies Paper
Naomi Woolford–Drakes
Wilmington University
Data Communications and Networking
IST 7040
Salb, James A WAN Technologies Paper
Over the last decade, the way we perceive computer networks in the world has drastically changed
because of things such as remote access, web–based applications and wireless devices. Additionally,
businesses networks around the world can be accessible virtually anytime from anywhere through
assets such as Cloud Computing or virtual private networking (VPN). Today's technology has been
the savior to some of the world's biggest problems in education, agriculture, transportation, Health
Care and many more avenues and the main reason is because of the expansion and diversity of the
Wide Area Network (WAN) networks. Wide Area Network (WAN) technologies has provide many
ways to accelerate and optimizing business processes and procedures through Point–to–Point
topology, Packet Switched, and Circuit Switched WAN protocols, circuits and types. The
assortments of available WAN services and its costs usually depends on the geographical region and
the available provider. A WAN is comprised of several computer networks linked together usually
through or over the Internet and it's used to connect other types of networks for businesses,
campuses or government together such as Local Area Network (LAN) and its rudimentary
equipment are a station and a node. (White, 2016)
To begin, the Point–to–Point Protocol (PPP) is a protocol
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Asynchronous Transfer Mode for Transmitting Information Essay
ATM is called Asynchronous Transfer Mode. ATM is a networking technology which transmits
information in the form fixed cells. The main vision behind designing ATM was integration of
services and performance requirements of both telephony and data networking which was shortly
called Broadband Integrated Service Vision (B–ISDN). This cell relay protocol was designed by
ATM forum and was universally adopted by ITU–T. Usually the size of the fixed cells is about 53
bytes with 5 bytes for header and 48 bytes payload. When compared to the cell sizes used in the
previous technologies, the size of an ATM is small. The smaller size of the ATM cells gives us a
major advantage. ATM enables us to transmit video, audio and data over the same network ... Show
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This should be done without any degradation in the performance or without requiring any
replacement. 3. The design must be implemented in a less expensive method. In case the ATM
becomes the backbone of the international communications the cost of implementing it should not
be a major barrier. 4. The proposed system must ensure accurate and predictable delivery. This is
possible only if ATM is a Connection–Oriented system. 5. The major objective of ATM was to move
most of the functionalities to the hardware side and have comparatively less functionalities in the
software. This will ensure higher speed in the delivery of packets. It is clear from the above points
that the major goal of ATM was to ensure guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS). To ensure this
various service classes were defined by the ATM forum like Constant Bit–Rate, Real time Variable
Bit–Rate, Non Real time Variable Bit–Rate, Unspecified Bit–Rate, Available Bit–Rate.
ARCHITECTURE OF ATM NETWORKS The ATM is a cell–switched network as discussed
previously. There are two important interfaces which acts as a backbone to the whole architecture of
ATM. The first is Network–to–Network interface (NNI) and the other is the User–to–Network
interface (UNI). The User–to–Network interface is used to connect the User access devices or the
end points to the switches, while the Network–to–Network interface is used to connect various
switches. The connection between two end
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What Are Digital Circuits?
What are digital circuits? Those circuits wherever the signal should be one in every of 2 distinct
levels is referred to as digital circuit. Every level is taken into account jointly of 2 completely
different states. Example– on/off, 0/1, true/false etc. In comparison to analog circuits, digital circuits
are less susceptible to noise or degradation in quality, additionally the errors are detected and
corrected simply with the assistance of digital signals. EDA– ELECTRONIC style AUTOMATION
tools (a style of package that improves or enhance the logic in digital circuit) is employed by the
engineer to automatize the method of coming up with such circuits. ADVANTAGES Some of the
essential benefits of digital signals are– 1) they 're less costly 2) a lot are reliable than analog
circuits. 3)they 're straightforward to govern 4) a lot versatile 5) higher Compatibility with
alternative digital systems 6) solely digitised data is transported through a loud channel without any
of the degradation 7) integrated networks. DISADVANTAGES– Some of the Disadvantages of
digital circuit are– they use a lot of energy than the alternative style of circuits to perform same style
of calculations and signal processes tasks, ultimately resulting in the production of heat. This can be
a major limiting factor in portable or battery powered systems. OTHER MAJOR DRAWBACKS
ARE– THE universe or real world is principally ANALOG–signals in this world like light,
temperature, sound, electrical
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India 's Largest Data Security Breach
3.2 million debit cards issued by some of India's largest banks were exposed to a malware induced
security breakdown around Mid–2016 making it one of India's largest data security breach. Malware
that could damage ATM system was injected into the ATM payment service machine, which
permitted unauthorized persons to access credentials of users. The NPCI (National Payments
Council of India), an umbrella organization facilitating retail payments warned banks that
unauthorized transactions were being generated from China and USA. SISA, a security auditing
firm reported that a sophisticated injection of malware (a piece of malicious software code) in the
Hitachi Payments Services Systems led to the compromise of the details of these debit cards. ...
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Later in September, banks again reported transactions to the company after which an external audit
agency, SISA Information Security was called to conduct a forensic audit on the case. (Source:
Deccan Herald, Oct 20, 2016)
SISA completed its final assessment report on the breach of security protocols, which led to the
potential compromise of debit cards between May 21 and July 11, 2016. SISA's report pointed out a
sophisticated malware injected (a piece of malicious software code) in the Hitachi Payments
Services systems, which could compromise the details of these debit cards. The code was written in
such a manner that it concealed its traces during the compromise period. "While behavior of the
malware and the penetration into the network has been deciphered, the amount of data exfiltrated
during the above compromise period is unascertainable due to secure deletion by the malware" said
Loney Anthony. (Source: Press Release by Hitachi Payment Services).
The Reserve Bank of India has been asking banks to enhance their digital security and the Hitachi
statement comes a day after the central bank announced formation of an inter–disciplinary standing
committee on cyber–security to review threats, study security standards and suggest appropriate
policy interventions. (Source: Press Trust of India, 09 Feb 2017)
Method
Working of ATM network
ATM systems of most of the banks in the country are delegated to third parties who supply the ATM
machine and the
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Analysis Of RFP For ATM Monitoring
A judgement call that I made which did not allow for analysis or information gathering due to time
constraints was when a large Southern Financial institution that I was leading Distributed Service
Delivery for put out a large RFP for ATM monitoring; they had approximately 3600 ATMs all being
serviced and monitored by Diebold, as the Program Manager over this account all RFPs ran through
me. I pulled in what experts we had on ATM monitoring to provide a thorough response document,
it was assumed throughout my company that we were likely being used solely for leverage with
Diebold more so than having a chance at this business. We were told within a couple weeks that
Diebold was being awarded the bid so I stopped our internal evaluations on ... Show more content
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I had a Team responsible for Monitoring and Management of thousands of endpoint network devices
for this customer in an offsite location with desks available. Connectivity to the ATMs was quickly
available due to already having connectivity within the customers network, I just needed resources
and training. I had daily scrum type calls with Recruiting to track progress, make sure interviews
could get quickly setup, and knock down any blockers slowing them down.
Recruiting stepped up and sourced 5 of the 7 resources within three weeks and my RIMM Team
with the addition of these 5 resources and the shadowing from the customers tier 3 engineers were
able to successfully come up to speed and deliver on this new service. I had a complete team of 7
resources before the end of the first 30 days.
This became a great win for Pomeroy and for the Customer. For the Customer, we were offering a
tier 2 level Service at a tier 3 three price point, well under their original T1 provider in this space.
We were able to deliver through my Team the quality and speed that they wanted in responding to
alerts and issues, with an expanded Team being able to share the work across my full RIMM Team
and over the
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“Asynchronous V/S Synchronous Circuits”
TERM PAPER ON
"ASYNCHRONOUS v/s SYNCHRONOUS CIRCUITS"
COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE
(CSE 2011)
SUBMITTED BY:– RAGHVENDRA SINGH
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take this opportunity to thank certain people without
whom I would not have been able to make this project report.
Firstly, I would like to express my gratitude towards my teacher, Mr. Harshpreet Singh Walia,
Assistant Professor, Department of CSE, for his kind co–operation and encouragement which helped
me in completion of this project.
I am highly indebted to my friends for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for
providing necessary information regarding the project.
Lastly, I would like to thank my family members who ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
2) Lower power dissipation for a given performance level
3) Highest possible execution speeds.
Disadvantages 1. The biggest disadvantage of the clockless CPU is that most CPU design tools
assume a clocked CPU (i.e., a synchronous circuit). Many tools "enforce synchronous design
practices". Making a clockless CPU (designing an asynchronous circuit) involves modifying the
design tools to handle clockless logic and doing extra testing to ensure the design avoids metastable
problems. 2. Hardware effort may be up to double the number of circuit elements (transistors)
depending on level. 3. Serial designs benefit more than massively parallel ones. 4. Requires people
experienced in synchronous design to learn a new style. 5. Synchronous designs are inherently
easier to debug than asynchronous designs. 6. Performance analysis of asynchronous circuits may be
challenging.
Clock Signal
In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal
that oscillates between a high and a low state and is utilized like a metronome to coordinate actions
of circuits. Although the word signal has a number of other meanings, the term here is used for
"transmitted energy that can carry information".
A clock signal is produced by a clock generator. Although more complex arrangements are used, the
most common clock signal is in the form of a square wave with a 50% duty cycle, usually
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Dtmf Remote Appliance Control System Using Mobile Phone
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This project "DTMF REMOTE APPLIANCE CONTROL
SYSTEM USING MOBILE PHONE" is used to control appliances which are far away from the
user using mobile phone. The aim of the proposed system is to develop a cost effective solution that
will provide controlling of home appliances remotely and enable home security against intrusion in
the absence of homeowner. The devices connected as home and office appliances consume electrical
power and they should be controlled as well as turn on /off if required. Most of the time, it was done
manually. Now it is a necessity to control devices more effectively and efficiently at anytime from
anywhere. Take an instant when we are going to office and suddenly remembered that to ... Show
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Relays allow a small current flow circuit to control a high current circuit. 1.2.8 Devices: The devices
can be micro–wave oven, bulbs, fans, air cooler, etc which are far away from the user. The micro–
controller plays the intelligent part in controlling these devices. 1.3 Working: This project is used to
control the appliances present at a distance using a mobile phone. The first step is the user should
make a call to the mobile phone, which is in auto answer mode and thus call gets connected. The
user presses the digits present over the keypad of his phone for controlling the appliances present at
home or office. Whenever a button is pressed a tone is generated and it is transferred to the mobile
phone present in the home or office, which is interfaced with the DTMF transceiver. The DTMF
receiver decodes the tone generated and it activates the controller accordingly. The controller
operates the devices according to the coding set by the user. The status of the devices whether they
are ON/OFF is indicated in the LCD. CHAPTER 2 MT8888 DTMF TRANSCEIVER Introduction:
The MT8888C is a monolithic DTMF transceiver with call progress filter. It is fabricated using
CMOS technology and it offers low power consumption and high reliability. The receiver section is
based upon the industry standard MT8870
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Data Communication : Unit Standard 6852 V7
Describe Data Communication
Unit Standard 6852 v7
Level 4 Credit 4
Research Projects Assessment Task 1: Data communication types historically used, developments
leading to Local Area Network, current data communication, and trends from emerging
developments. Communication among humans has always been there from the very start and the
modes of communication developed as they moved further apart from each other. The early
centuries records of people messengers who were used to transport messages as fast as they could.
Pigeons were trained to transport messages. There is indications that Heliographs were used for
serious signaling purposes. A code book was issued by the 16th century for British navy including
flags with different meanings to communicate during the war. Then there were watchman who had
the responsibility of data transmission. There were various ways of transmitting data without the
help of electricity (Holzmann and Pehrson, 2015).
The age of electric telegraphed information came into picture in the late 1800's when the first Trans–
Atlantic cable was laid. The basic elements of Morse code were used. "Mr. Watson, come here, I
want you." These were the first words spoken by Alexander Graham Bell while working with his
invention, the telephone. The wireless telegraph was a major breakthrough in the development of
broadcast communication (Holzmann and Pehrson, 2015).
The turn of the nineteenth century saw the invention of tele typewriter. Tele printer
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An Effective Knowledge Management System
Introduction
In the contemporary corporate cultural based world, a knowledge management system (KMS) is
considered an important element to assist the sharing and integration of knowledge within the
organization. An effective knowledge management strategy is capable of resolving knowledge
management issue arises at any level in the organization (top management–to–bottom management
level). A successful KMS also helps in increasing the overall business performance through ensuring
staff performance, project management, organizational change management, quality of deliverables
and the satisfaction of the staffs and customers. On the other side a lack of implementation of proper
knowledge management system may hinder the performance of the staffs and the overall
productiveness for the organization.
The objective of this discussion paper is to analyze the recent knowledge management (KM) issue
in Australian Customs and Border Protection (ACBP) agency and to address it with the help of basic
knowledge management components. In order to analyze the knowledge management issue, the
knowledge ecosystem model mentioned in Australian Standard (AS 5037) is utilized.
At the initial part of the discussion paper, it will discuss the contemporary knowledge management
issue in ACBP. In the second part, the paper will discuss a number of KMS components with the aim
of addressing knowledge management issues in ACBP. The paper will be concluded providing some
recommendations to resolve the raised
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Mobile Phone and Bluetooth Security Bluetooth
Abstract – This paper is a report on Bluetooth wireless technology. In this report, we have included
an introduction to the emerging technology, scenarios, existing research issue, problem statements,
suggestions to improve and conclusion. In the introduction, we explained about what is Bluetooth,
how does it communicate, and technical standards and performance levels of Bluetooth. In
scenarios, we explained the applications of Bluetooth. For the existing research issue, we have
included 2 researches on Bluetooth which is types of device that use Bluetooth and Bluetooth
accessible services. Explanation of problems faced by users when using Bluetooth is included in the
problem statement. The solution for these problems will be included in ... Show more content on
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[7]
The Bluetooth specification has 2 power levels; a lower power that covers the shorter personal area
within a room, and a higher power level that can cover a medium range, such as within a home. The
distance covered by Bluetooth is commonly 30ft, but it can also cover larger area up to 100 ft.
Bluetooth supports ad hoc voice and data transmission. The Bluetooth devices find each other and
spontaneously create a network called a piconet, which can link up to 8 devices, with one being the
primary and the rest secondaries. A secondary however can serve as a primary in another piconet, to
form a scatternet.
The Bluetooth baseband protocol is a combination of circuit and packet switching. Time slots can be
reserved for synchronous packets. A frequency hop is done for each packet that is transmitted. A
packet nominally covers a single time slot, but can be extended to cover up to five slots. [1]
Bluetooth can support;
an asynchronous data channel, or
up to 3 simultaneous synchronous voice channels, or
a channel which simultaneously supports asynchronous data and synchronous voice.
2. Scenario
The scenarios that Bluetooth makes possible are almost as numerous as the devices where Bluetooth
will reside. For example, the most common application of Bluetooth is wireless control of and
communication between a mobile phone and a hands–free headset. Bluetooth enable headsets for
hands free calling using your cell phone will remove the need for that irritating
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Location Convenience Is An Important Factor When Customers...
Introduction Location convenience is an important factor when customers select a financial
institution (see Mylonakis et al. 1998; Driscoll 1999). A customer may find a bank convenient if it
has a branch or an Automated Teller Machine (ATM) near his / her residence or workplace, say
within 2 Km1. To stay competitive, banks usually attempt to increase convenience (be as close as
possible to customers) by expanding their bank and / or ATM networks. Basically, such expansions
could be done in at least two ways (see Birkin et al 2002a): by building branches / installing ATMs
in new locations (so called organic growth); or by acquiring an existing (e.g. competitor, partner,
etc.) network. The former option is likely to be expensive and time consuming, so many banks resort
to acquiring or partnering with already established ATM and / or branch networks. Although the
second option is a relatively quick way to increase network coverage, an acquired branch / ATM
network is unlikely to be a 'perfect' complement to an existing 1 ATMs are common in the USA (and
much of the world). Customers can use ATMs to access their bank accounts to obtain cash money or
check available funds, etc. ATMs are available in banks and in facilities such as malls, shopping
centers, gas stations, parking facilities, etc. 3 network, due to possible coverage overlap and / or lack
of coverage. Therefore, such acquisition / partnership opportunities should be evaluated carefully so
that opportunities resulting
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Accident Spot Identification Using Gsm & Gps: Is It Really...
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Now–a–days, it became very difficult to know that an accident has occurred and to locate the
position where it has happened. It's very difficult for the lives of victims until anyone noticed and
informed it to the ambulance or to any hospital and if it occurs in remote areas there will be no hope
to survive. To overcome these, GSM and GPS technologies are used. The GPS based vehicle
accident identification module contains a vibrating sensor and a GPS modem connected to the
microcontroller. When an accident occurs, the vibration sensor gives the signal to the
microcontroller, which sends the information to the LCD display through GSM network. The
vehicle is tracked for every five minutes using GPS ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The LPC2148 configures the ARM7TDMI–S processor in little–endian byte order. AHB peripherals
are allocated a 2 megabyte range of addresses at the very top of the 4 gigabyte ARM memory space.
Each AHB peripheral is allocated a 16 kB address space within the AHB address space. LPC2148
peripheral functions (other than the interrupt controller) are connected to the VPB bus. The AHB to
VPB bridge interfaces the VPB bus to the AHB bus. VPB peripherals are also allocated a 2
megabyte range of addresses, beginning at the 3.5 gigabyte address point. Each VPB peripheral is
allocated a 16 kB address space within the VPB address space. The connection of on–chip
peripherals to device pins is controlled by a Pin Connect Block (see chapter "Pin Connect Block" on
page 75). This must be configured by software to fit specific application requirements for the use of
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Computers And Its Impact On Modern Society Essay
Computers
In between 1943 and 1946, ENIAC was designed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at
University of Pennsylvania, U.S. ENIAC was a modular computer, collected of separate panels to
perform different functions. Twenty of these parts were accumulators, which could not only add and
subtract but hold a ten–digit decimal number in memory. Numbers were passed between these units
across several general–purpose buses. In order to achieve its high speed, the panels had to send and
receive numbers, save the answer and produce the next operation, all without any moving parts. Key
to its usefulness was the ability to branch; it could produce different operations, depending on the
sign of a computed result. ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum tubes, 7200 crystal diodes, 1500 relays,
70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors and about 5,000,000 hand–soldered joints. It weighed more than
30 tons, was roughly 2.4m × 0.9m × 30m in size, and consumed 150 kW of electricity. This power
requirement led to the rumour that whenever the computer was switched on, lights in Philadelphia
dimmed.
UNIVAC I MAINFRAME COMPUTER
UNIVAC I mainframe computer of 1951, which became known for predicting the outcome of the
U.S. presidential election the following year. This incident is particularly important because the
computer predicted an Eisenhower landslide when traditional pollsters all called it for Adlai
Stevenson. The numbers were so skewed that CBS 's news boss in New York, Mickelson, decided
the
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Integrated Services Digital Network ( Isdn )
Before we get into the discussion, let's briefly introduce some of the technologies used in WANs and
the different characteristics of each one:
Point–to–point links
A so called point–to–point link (Fig. 2.0) provides a pre–established WAN communication path
from the user's location trough a telephone company's network, also known as the carrier. For this
kind of line, the carrier dedicates pairs of wire and hardware to that line only. This kind of circuits
are priced depending on bandwidth needed and distance to be covered.
(Figure 2.0 – Point–to–point link)
Circuit Switching
Work like a normal telephone line. Data connections can be started when needed and terminated
when the communication is over. An example of circuit switching is called Integrated Services
Digital Network (ISDN). When a router receives data that's intended to go to a specific remote site,
the switched circuit (Fig. 2.1) is initiated with a specific circuit number for that particular network.
As soon the two networks that are trying to connect get the authentication done, it is possible to
transfer data. When data transmission is over, the communication gets terminated.
(Figure 2.1 – Switched Circuit)
Packet Switching
Here users share common carrier resources (Fig. 2.2). This is a more cost effective solution
compared for example to point–to–point lines. The carrier can make more efficient use of its
infrastructure. Connections into the carrier's network are shared between many customers and
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Digital Communication, Data, And Codes
When we enter data onto a computer system or other device by way of the keyboard, each character
is encoded into an equivalent binary coded pattern, using one of the standard coding schemes that
are used for the transposition of information. When representing all characters on a keyboard, an
exclusive pattern of 7 or 8 bits in size is used. The use of 7 bits means that 128 different elements
can be represented, while 8 bits can represent 256 elements. At the receiving end the process is
reversed to show the character key strike instead of the binary code.
The most commonly used code patterns are the Extended Binary Coded Decimal (EBCDIC) and the
American Standard Code for Information Interchange codes (ASCII). Both coding schemes support
all the normal alphabetic, numeric, and punctuation characters, more commonly referred to as
printable characters and a range of additional control characters, known as non–printable characters.
This paper will be discussing what data transmission is. Other points we will discuss will be: What
is digital communication, data communication, data transfer, and what is transmission as used in
telecommunications?
Data transmission is the movement of data in form of bits between multiple devices. The transfer
can take place by using various materials such as coaxial cables and Fiber Optics. There are two
types of data transmissions, parallel and serial.
Digital data transmission can occur in two basic modes: serial or parallel. Data within a
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Egypt Economy
Egypt's economic policy during 2004–2008 is best described as a command economy due to the
government's involvement in the process of reforming economic policies that were hindering the
country ability to grow economically. The government's involvement did help boost the growth rate
by liberalizing trade. Egypt reduced the tariffs, tax cuts, deregulation, and made changes in
investment regulations to fuel their economic growth. Eventually, with these changes Egypt saw
great economic growth. Big name companies like Oracle and Microsoft built new office buildings
and construction could be seen throughout the country. The reformed economic policies definitely
helped boost Egypt's growth rate as it provided more jobs and allowed outside ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
The ALU performs operations such as addition, subtraction and logic operations such as AND, OR
and exclusive OR.
REGISTER ARRAY
These are storage devices to store data temporarily.
There are different types of registers depending upon the Microprocessors.
These registers are primarily used to store data temporarily during the execution of a program and
are accessible to the user through the instructions.
General purpose Registers of 8086 includes AL, AH, BL, BH, CL, CH, DL, DH.
CONTROL UNIT
The Control Unit Provides the necessary timing and control signals to all the operations in the
Microcomputer
It controls the flow of data between the Microprocessor and Memory and Peripherals.
The Control unit performs 2 basic tasks o Sequencing o Execution
1. SEQUENCING
The control unit causes the processor to step through a series of micro–operations in the proper
sequence, based on the program being executed.
2. EXECUTION
The control unit causes each micro operation to be performed.
CONTROL SIGNALS
For the control unit to perform its function it must have inputs that allow it to determine the state of
the system and outputs that allow it to control the behavior of the system.
Inputs : Clock , Instruction Register, Flags
Outputs : o Control signals to Memory
o Control signals to I/O
o Control Signals within the Processor. EVOLUTION OF MICROPROCESSOR: INTEL
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Smart Purchase in Supermarkets Using Rfid
SMART PURCHASE IN SUPERMARKETS USING RFID
OBJECTIVE:
To provide effective customer service in supermarkets by rising the efficiency of total supply chain
through quick billing of products.
To achieve operational excellence and effective supply chain management.
ABSTRACT:
Shopping seems to be a good entertainment. But the huge queue in the supermarkets to scan the
products frustrates the customers . Barcode scanning is a time consuming process engaging the
customers to stick to the billing section for a long time. Hence there is a need to switch to a Radio
Frequency Identification (RFID) system for smart purchase and instant billing .
Our Application blends Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and wireless technologies to ...
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Passive tags
Passive tags can be either battery or non–battery operated, as determined by the intended
application. Passive tags reflect the RF signal transmitted to them from a reader or transceiver and
add information by modulating the reflected signal. A passive tag does not use a battery to boost the
energy of the reflected signal. A passive tag may use a battery to maintain memory in the tag or
power the electronics that enable the tag to modulate the reflected signal.
PIC: The PIC16F877 Microcontroller is used in the project. The PIC Microcontroller is a Microchip
product. This microcontroller has an built memory, CPU, Peripheral devices. The PIC
microcontroller is divided into three ranges, based on the instruction set. They are,
Low Range PIC – 12 bits
Mid Range PIC – 14 bits
High Range PIC – 16 bits
PERIPHERAL FEATURES:
 Operating frequency: DC–20 MHz clock input.
 DC–200 ns instruction cycle.
 Wide operating voltage range (2.0V – 5.5V).
 14–bit wide instructions, 8–bit wide data path.
 13–bit program counter, 8 level stack (13–bit).
 Up to 368 byte of data memory (RAM).
 Timer0: 8–bit timer/counter with 8–bit prescaler.
 Timer1: 16–bit timer/counter with prescalar can be
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Mobile Networks : The New Norm For Networks
Latest trends such as mobiles, IT–as–a–Service, Server Virtualization and the requirement to
respond rapidly to developing business conditions are placing demands on the network, which
cannot be handled by today's conventional network architectures. Software–Defined Networking
proposes new approach to avoid the traditional vertically integrated networking stack in order to
improve the present basic network architecture by improving architectural flexibility and
manageability. SDN enables "mass customization" of network operations to better support
differentiated services. With this technology a single program can control the behavior of entire
networks.
Networking in future will rely completely on software, which will help increase the ... Show more
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All these transformation of high level policies into low level configuration commands with adaption
to changing network conditions is done manually. Frequently, they likewise need to finish these
exceptionally perplexing errands with access to extremely constrained instruments. As a result,
system administration and execution tuning is very testing and subsequently slip inclined. The way
that system gadgets are generally vertically–coordinated secret elements worsens the test system
administrators and chairmen face.
An alternate practically unsurmountable test system professionals furthermore analysts face has
been alluded to as "Internet ossification". Due to its tremendous organization base and the actuality
it is viewed as a major aspect of our societies critical infrastructure (much the same as transportation
and force frameworks), the Internet has gotten to be greatly difficult to develop both as far as its
physical framework and in addition its conventions and execution. Then again, as present and rising
Internet applications and administrations get to be progressively more unpredictable and requesting,
it is basic that the Internet have the capacity to advance to address these new difficult.
The thought of "programmable networks" has been proposed as an approach to encourage system
development. Specifically, Software Defined Networking (SDN) is another systems administration
ideal
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Interrupt Vs. Asynchronous Communication
Operating System | Assignment #1 | | Information System | 2012–03–29 | |
1. What is the purpose of interrupts? What are the differences between a trap and an interrupt? Can
traps be generated intentionally by a user program? If so, for what purpose? (Chapter 1)
Interrupt is that causes a computer processor to temporarily stop executing its current program and
execute another program instead, finally returning control to the original program. So it prevent that
more important task goes back because of less important task.
The main difference between a trap and an interrupt is where they are generated. An interrupt is a
hardware–generated. And it can be used to signal the completion of an I/O to obviate the need for
device ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
(Ex, Memory, Processor, disk space, etc.) Last one is the level of human resources needed to support
the OS.
6. What are the benefits and detriments of each of the following? Consider both the systems and the
programmers' levels. (Chapter 3)
a) Synchronous and asynchronous communication
b) Automatic and explicit buffering
a) Synchronous vs asynchronous can be called to blocking vs non–blocking communication. The
benefit of synchronous communication is the simplicity and accuracy. However blocking may not be
necessary and waste time. Asynchronous communication allows messages to be delivered without
waiting. However this communication has less reliability than blocking one. b) Automatic buffering
provides a queue with in definite length; thus ensuring the sender will never have to block while
waiting to copy a message. There are no specifications how automatic buffering will be provided;
one scheme may reserve sufficiently large memory where much of the memory is wasted. Explicit
buffering specifies how large the buffer is. In this situation, the sender may be blocked while waiting
for available space in the queue. However, it is less likely memory will be wasted with explicit
buffering.
7. Describe the differences among short–term, medium–term, and long– term scheduling.
(Chapter 3)
1) Short–term scheduling: It selects from jobs in memory, those jobs which are ready to execute, and
allocates the CPU to one of them. CPU selects
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Virtual Private Network ( Vpn )
Introduction – The Past:
Thirty years ago, there was no such need of privacy and data encryption as the Internet age had not
taken off. In the 90s, VPN technology was still a fairly new technology but was predicted that it
would be the next big thing in the early 2000s. Only large companies could afford the price to use
dedicated lines to connect to remote locations. However, the disadvantages of the lease line are quite
clear: Although large companies have the capitals and needs for building private networks, small
and medium companies could rely on the less expensive, packet switched X.25 network. As the size
of the Internet continued to grow, both small and large companies began to connect their private
network with the public network. This brings a convenience but with one obvious problem – privacy
and security.
Virtual private network (VPN) was developed in 19XX by Stan Hanks, who build IP VPN based on
TCP/IP–over–X.25 stack for CSNET. Its goal was to ensure privacies and data integrities of
communication and information. Thanks to the helps of many engineers and people such as XXX
decided not to patent the XXXX technology when he was in Microsoft, VPN technology was
growing rapidly during the early 2000s. Over the year, its flexibilities make travelled businessmen
able to connect back to their companies' networks, it also made employees work from home
possible. Although some may argue that this makes the line between home and work space less
clear, others claim that it
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Nt1310 Unit 9 Study Guide
1. What is a communication protocol?
A.
A communications protocol characterizes the guidelines for sending pieces of information starting
with one hub in a system then onto the next hub. Conventions are regularly characterized in a
layered way and give all or part of the administrations indicated by a layer of the OSI reference
show. A convention characterizes the operation of the convention and may likewise propose how the
convention ought to be actualized. It comprises of three sections:
2. Why do we need communication protocols?
A.
3. List the major protocols discussed in this chapter.
A.
HTTP – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
SMTP – 10mnSimple Mail Transfer Protocol
TCP/IP – Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
FTP – File Transfer Protocol
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In addition to ISO and TCP/IP, what are the other models?
A.
5. Discuss two LAN technologies that are not Ethernet or token ring.
A.
1. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)
2. Fiber distributed data interface (FDDI)
6. Why is Ethernet technology more appealing to users than the rest of the LAN technologies?
A.
7. What do you think are the weak points of TCP/IP?
A.
8. Discuss the pros and cons of the four LAN technologies.
A.
9. List four WAN technologies.
A.
1. ISDN – Integrated Services Digital Network
2.
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Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) A Case Study
Table of Contents:
Introduction ....................................... 3
Overview ....................................... 3
Innovative Aspects ......................................... 5
Advantages .......................................... 6
Disadvantages .......................................... 6
Conclusion .......................................... 7
Introduction:
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a high speed network technology which is designed to
support both voice and data communications. It was initially developed to meet the needs of the
Broadband Integrated ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Each ATM cell contains exactly 53 octets, 5 octets for header 48 octets for data. As a core protocol,
ATM is used in Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET)/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH),
which are backbone of Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Internet Service Providers
(ISPs) use Asynchronous Transfer Mode on their long–distance private networks. ATMs operate at
the Layer 2 (Data Link layer) of the OSI model, over fiber cable or twisted–pair cable
(http://www.wanredundancy.com).
The ATM transport hierarchy is shown in the figure below. The physical layer can be divided into
three functional levels:
Transmission Path Level: This extends between network elements that assemble and disassemble the
payload of a transmission system. For end–to–end communication, the payload is end–user
information. For user–to–network communication, the payload may be call–control signaling
information (call setup and call termination). Cell delineation and header error–control functions are
required at the end points of each transmission path.
Digital Section Level: This refers to the exchanges or signal transfer points in a network that are
involved in switching data streams.
Regenerator Section Level: This is a part of the digital section.
Virtual Channels and Virtual Paths
Logical connections in ATM are referred to as virtual channels. A virtual channel is analogous to a
virtual circuit in X.25 or a frame–relay logical connection. It's
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Advantages And Disadvantages Of RS-422
RS–422: RS–422 ,also known as TIA/EIA–422 is a technical standard originated by Electronic
Industries Alliance that specifies electrical characteristics of a digital signaling circuit.It is the
physical interface used for uni–directional or bi–directional communication of OBC of PNSS–1
with different units i–e DHU(data handling unit),MGT,earth sensor,sun
sensor,magnetorquer,magnetometer and with reaction wheels.It is serial communication standard
which provides asynchronous communication capabilities such as hardware flow control,software
flow control and parity check. One of the key advantage of using RS–422 standard is that each
signal line consist of two wires that are twisted together to reduce noise that results in high data
rates.The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
IP of AMBA is implemented on FPGA that supports plug and play method for available IP cores
from Gaisler Research IP Library (GRLIB).Among five different interfaces within AMBA
specification,AHB(Advanced High–performance Bus) architechture has some additional features i–
e single clock edge protocol,split transactions,several bus masters,pipelined operation,large bus
width(64/128 bit) etc. Typical AMBAAHB system design consist of the following components:
AHB master: AHB master is able to start read and write operation by providing address and control
information.Only one bus master can use it at a time. AHB slave: It basically responds to the read
and write operation within specific range.Signals are transmitted back to the master which indicates
the success or failure of the data transfer. AHB arbiter: This basically ensures that only one bus
master can initiate data transfer.Any arbitration algorithm such as highest priority or fair access can
be implemented according to application requirement. AHB
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Petty Officer Williams Case Study
Petty Officer Williams is a proven leader and exceptional manager who is continuously engaged
with junior Sailors and leadership.
He instills a sense of ownership, pride, and camaraderie at all levels in the command and displays a
keen foresight that results in continual process improvement focused on mission accomplishment.
His vast influence throughout the command is evident in the command's successes and overall
positive climate. He is a leader amongst his peers who demands excellence with unstoppable
initiative and dedication.
Specific accomplishments include:
–As Regional Maintenance and Material Management (3M) Coordinator, he revitalized the 3M
program, which enhanced the command's material readiness. He guided 16 Assistants and ... Show
more content on Helpwriting.net ...
He provided 100 hours of EIDWS training to personnel assigned to the command and Commander,
Fleet Activities Yokosuka (CFAY) tenant commands enrolled in the EIDWS program. He sat 16
boards leading to the qualification of 24 personnel. Furthermore, he also generated four new EIDWS
examinations for use by EIDWS program enrollees, and administered 60 examinations.
– Petty Officer Williams acted as a Command Readiness Training Team member. He assessed 25
drills and exercises, provided training to five watch section personnel increasing the command
efficiency and readiness for the upcoming ULTRA–S assessment. His training and expertise ensured
that NCTS Far East successfully passed ULTRA–S certification with a 95.7 percent, the highest
score assessed throughout the NAVIFOR domain.
– He has volunteered 100 hours to Children Youth Programs coaching children from ages 3–5 in
soccer and flag football. Additionally, he assisted with the 2014 and 2015 Shinsen Children's Home
Halloween Trick or Treat
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Frame Relay and Leased Lines Essay
Frame Relay and Leased Lines
In networking there are many options in having data transferred from one location to another. Two
of which include frame relay and leased lines. Frame relay is a communication method that transfers
data by dividing information into packets and sending them over a virtual network. Frame relay is a
difficult process to understand and to accomplish. Leased lines, however, is the permanent
connection between two stations. Leased lines are simpler to understand and do not take a lot of
effort to achieve.
According to Computer Networks, frame relay came into existence to overcome the complex
protocols caused by slow telephone lines, and expensive computers. Today, telephone lines are fast
and inexpensive, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Switched virtual circuits also can provide "bandwidth–on–demand" meaning that when the line is at
its peak carrying information more bandwidth can be made available. Also switched virtual circuits
allow charges for connection to be made only for what the customer uses, unlike leased lines where
you have to pay a flat rate (828–829).
In the May 1999 issue of "Computerworld", a trading company decided to change its networking
architecture. DCH (Da Chong Hong), in the past, used a multiple leased line architecture consisting
of over 50 separate lines (See Figure 1). Figure 1 proves the fact that when transferring data between
multiple sites, frame relay decreases the amount of lines that need to be leased. DCH knew it had to
change its architecture to keep up with data rate technological advances. DCH decided to switch to a
networking architecture that consisted of ATM and frame relay. This venture saved DCH over
$129,000 per year. ATM is another form of a packet–switching data communication method.
One problem with transferring information over a frame relay network is the fact at times the
network can become congested. The LAN Times Encyclopedia of Networking reports the fact that
"when a frame relay network becomes congested, frames are arbitrarily discarded". The end nodes
are responsible for retransmitting the message frames or either they can be discarded permanently if
the customer wants them to (387). Frame relay also
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Frame-Relay
.
Unit 3
Kaplan University
IT530
Professor Jeffrey Robinson
August 20, 2013 Abstract
In this discussion we look at some of the history around frame–relay. We then look at some of the
equipment necessary to create the frame relay connections, as well as how the connections work
both logically and physically. Some limiting factors are discussed as well as committed information
rates, burst rates, an error handling. Some of the positive aspects of frame–relay are identified along
with some options for the future of WAN technologies.
Frame–Relay
Operating at the physical and datalink layers of the OSI model, frame relay is a high–performing
WAN protocol. It was ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
This allows frame–relay to provide a low cost of ownership while adhering to standards and
internetworking with other services. A highly reliable WAN may be achieved through frame–relay
and a good service level agreement (SLA) from the provider.
Frame–relay can be thought of as a simple principle because it allows the higher–level protocols to
deal with many of the problems. Although, it can include optional features such as congestion
notification and signaling mechanisms. Ideally, a committed information rate (CIR) is selected that
best meets the needs of the customer. This is the maximum burst rate, which when exceeded can
cause the frames to be discard eligible (DE). In reality, the nature of frame–relay allows all bits to be
discard eligible, but the error correction is handled by the upper layers. Some configurations allow
speeds to burst above the CIR, but never more than the physical capacity of the circuit. The DLCI is
the connection identifier for the PVC in the connection oriented datalink protocol that is frame–
relay. By switching variable length frames, statistical multiplexing is achieved. Even though frame–
relay may be susceptible to traffic delays it can still be optimized for delay sensitive traffic such as
voice over IP.
Because the frame–relay path is known, it is used to connect the customer premises equipment
(CPE) to the frame–relay switch. The LMI keep alive signaling happens
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Mobile Devices For A Large Geographical Area Wirelessly Essay
#1 The concept of a wireless network is to be able to provide a broad range of coverage to a large
geographical area wirelessly (Techtarget, n. d.). Further, a wireless network gives one an advantage
to connect wirelessly to other devices in separate areas of coverage. In healthcare, a wireless
network is used to improve access, reduce errors and deliver an accurate healthcare information
anywhere and at any given period among patients and healthcare providers (IEEE, 2003). Mobile
devices, such as tablets, smartphones, personal digital assistant (PDA) and other handheld devices
have made it possible to have a broad range of efficient healthcare applications (IEEE,2003). The
mobile devices used by healthcare providers at a patient bedside can be used to monitor and manage
patient information's wirelessly (searchhealthIT, 2016).
Some of the examples of the wireless WAN I am familiar with are (a) Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM) that is a new computer and communication technology used to transfer data, voice, and
video to transfer information consecutively over a communication line. Also, ATM is a technology
that is connection oriented and universally enable the transfer mode of choice broadband integrated
services digital network; and in ATM, information field is transferred transparently (Rajan &
Selvakumar, 2016). Additionally, ATM data are broken down into fixed sizes and sent over WAN
network, and it also causes minimal latency (Cowley, 2012). (b) Frame relay is similar
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Questions On The Protocol Architecture
Assignment 1
2.3 Protocol:
A protocol is predefined set of rules or conventions which governs the way in which two entities co–
ordinately cooperate to exchange data.
2.4 Protocol Data Unit(PDU):
A PDU is the combination of data from the next higher communications layer and control
information.
2.5 Protocol Architecture:
The software structure that implements the communications function. Typically, the protocol
architecture consists of a layered set of protocols, with one or more protocols at each layer.
2.6 TCP/IP:
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are the two protocols which were
designed to provide low level support for internetworking. The term is also used generically to refer
to a more comprehensive collection of protocols developed by the U.S. Department of Defense and
the Internet community.
2.7 Advantages of Layering in TCP/IP architecture:
Layering is the process which is used and helped to reduce the overall problem, which is huge in
size, to number of sub problems, which are manageable is size.
2.8 Router:
A router is a device that is used to connect dissimilar device. It is present and operates at the
Network layer of the OSI model.
2.9 Version of IP, that is prevalent today:
IPv4, is the version of IP that is prevalent today. It may also be expected that IPv6 may be prevalent
in the future.
2.10 Does all Traffic on internet use TCP ?
No, we cannot say like that as there are other protocols such as UDP, which are also used
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The Basics Of Synchronous And Asynchronous Circuits
ABSTRACT The aim of the presented report is to understand the basics of synchronous and
asynchronous circuits. The term paper is about synchronous and asynchronous circuits and their
differences. The advantages and disadvantages of both synchronous and asynchronous circuits are
discussed further. Digital circuits and sequential circuits are also described in brief at the beginning
of the report. The clock gating, self–clock gating and clock signals are explained. Further, the
sequential machines moore and mealy are discussed along with their differences and variations. In
the end, the differences between the two types of circuits are highlighted. Also, the term paper is
summed with a conclusion in the end. What are digital circuits? Those circuits wherever the signal
should be one in every of 2 distinct levels is referred to as digital circuit. Every level is taken into
account jointly of 2 completely different states. Example– on/off, 0/1, true/false etc. In comparison
to analog circuits, digital circuits are less susceptible to noise or degradation in quality, additionally
the errors are detected and corrected simply with the assistance of digital signals. EDA–
ELECTRONIC style AUTOMATION tools (a style of package that improves or enhance the logic in
digital circuit) is employed by the engineer to automatize the method of coming up with such
circuits. ADVANTAGES Some of the essential benefits of
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Kudler Fine Foods Network Analysis
The review of the current network used at Kudler Fine Foods was determine to be a bus topology as
the network topology that is being used. The bus network is set–up in such a way that all the
network components are connected via CAT5 to the bus or communication line. This configuration
is true at sites in the corporation for their workstations, servers, and stand–alone UPS. A 56k modem
is the device that is used by all of the networks communicating to the internet.
Hardware and Software The current hardware and software components will need to be upgraded at
the three locations for this new network. For starters, each location will need to have a Network
Interface Card (NIC) implemented. This will allow the workstations or any other ... Show more
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Most business networks today use switches to connect computers, printers and servers within a
building or campus. A switch serves as a controller, enabling networked devices to talk to each other
efficiently. Routers, on the other hand, are a much more sophisticated piece of technology. They are
small like a switch and look like modems in which multiple nodes can be connected. Today's routers
are actually designed for the purpose of connecting multiple 'area networks' (both local and wide).
In terms of the internet, routers actually serve as a temporary destination for network traffic. Routers
are capable of transmitting and receiving data packets but will actually 'read' the packet to get its IP
address for determining the packet's destination. Unlike the switch, routers are capable of joining the
multiple networks together; in the case of Kudler Fine Foods, their three store locations. "Cable is
the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. There
are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs. In some cases, a network will
utilize only one type of cable, other networks will use a variety of cable types. The type of cable
chosen for a network is related to the network's topology, protocol, and size." (FCITC, 1997) There
are four basic types of cable: Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial
Cable, and Fiber Optic Cable. Unshielded twisted pair can range from basic telephone–grade wiring
to high–speed cabling. This cable consist of four pairs of wires inside the outer covering each pair
twisted with a different number of twists per inch to reduce/eliminate interference from adjacent pair
or other devices. The tighter the twisting the higher data rates it supports but it also will increase the
cost of the cable. Shielded twisted pair cables are actually shielded from radio and electrical
frequencies and
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Advantages Of P1 Network Types And Protocols
Task1– P1 Network Types and Protocols
I will be discussing what is the best type of network for AKA Partners and which ones aren't so good
also what connection I would suggest AKA uses in the conference.
What's a Network?
A Network is two or more computers connected to each other. The purpose of a network is to enable
the sharing of files and information between multiple systems. Computer networks can be connected
through cables, for instance Ethernet cables or phone lines, or even wirelessly.
Pros of Networks:
Most Applications require you to have a network to install applications. With a network you can run
the install via the network at a faster speed
Remote network gives employees access to work from home.
Viruses and Trojans ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Ring consists of all computers and other devices that are connected in a loop. A Ring network can be
found in Local Area Networks. In a ring network each node connects to two neighbouring nodes.
Advantages of a Ring Topology:
Correcting errors is easy to do if a node fails.
If your Repairing or removing failing nodes and the network will continue to function.
Disadvantages of a Ring Topology:
A network admin has to physically terminate the entire network to install a new node between
existing nodes.
If a node fails will affect the entire LAN.
Tree combines the characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. Tree consists of groups of star
workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable. Tree allows the expansion of an existing
network, and enables schools to configure a network to meet their needs. Advantages of a Tree
Topology:
Spotting the errors and correcting errors are simple.
Tree networks can be expanded in the future.
Point–Point networks are available on tree topology
Disadvantages of a Tree Topology:
The length of each segment is limited by the type of cables being used.
If the backbone line breaks or fails, the whole line goes
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Nt1330 Unit 4 Research Project 1
Unit 4 Research Project 1: Chapter 5 Mind Maps
Component Physical Function Logical Function
CPU Operates operations that lead to making a PC work. Mastermind of the computer
NIC Furnishes a PC with a physical connection to the PC system.
Cables and Connectors Coaxial Cable, UTP, RJ45 Interfaces the PC to different things, for example,
force source, Ethernet.
Local area switch ,Router ,Bridge System extension used to make an association between two
different PC systems or to gap one system into two. LAN switch–gives a focal association between
two or more PCs on a system. Switch advances information parcels between PC systems
OS ,Microsoft Windows,Linux. Operating systems, memory management is the function responsible
for managing the computer's ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Permits the PC to perform different assignments send and get email, turn upward sites, and so on
2. Important types of local area network and wide area networks technologies:
LAN Technologies How used in Data Network WAN Technologies How Used in Data Network
Ethernet Physical systems administration innovation used to convey information over the web. Point
to Point Protocol =PPP For correspondence between two PCs utilizing a serial interface or a PC
joined by telephone line to a server.
Logical Ring Joined in a ring or star topology and a bit–or token–passing plan is utilized as a part of
request to keep the impact of information between two PCs that need to send messages in the
meantime. Abnormal state Data Link Control Information is composed into a unit (called an edge)
and sent over a system to a destination that confirms its effective entry likewise deals with the
stream or pacing at which information is sent.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface. Measures for information transmission on fiber optic lines–can
stretch out in reach up to 124 miles. Asynchronous Transfer Mode =ATM composes computerized
information into 53–byte cell units and transmits them more than a physical medium utilizing
advanced sign
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Network Built For Local Area Networks Essay
WANs are systems built for information exchange that connects computers from anywhere in the
world across the globe. A wide area network (WAN) is generally used by large corporations or
organizations. WANs are very useful to these sorts of associations because it easily allows them to
deploy data from their computers to disseminate offices. Large organizations that use multiple
facilities usually end up using WANs. Smaller businesses are increasingly using WANs as well.
They are able to use WANs if they have at least two secluded sites. WAN usually connects two or
more LANs together. LAN stands for local area networks. The internet that we all use is very much
considered a WAN. WANs have existed for many years. They are methodical and controlled much
differently from other types of telecommunication systems. WANs are very similar to LANs because
they serve almost the same purpose. WANs are still a bit more intricate than LANs of course. In
order for a user to use WAN, they first would have to subscribe to a telecommunication providers
service. The organizations that choose to use WANs do not own or control any of the
communication lines that connect the secluded network systems to other computers. WANs are not
used to connect individual computers with each other. They were built to link different LANs
together. When the WAN connects the LANs to each other this is called internetwork. Routers and
remote bridges play a part to the internetwork as
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Virtual Network : Virtual Private Network Essay
Today, the technology VPN (Virtual Private Network) has established strong recognition among IT
people and every administrator is committed to organize VPN–channels for employees working
outside the office. Virtual Private Network is an association of individual machines, or virtual LAN
network, which ensures the integrity and security of data transmitting. It has the properties of a
dedicated private network and allows data transfer between two computers via an intermediate
network such as Internet. VPN has a number of economic advantages over other methods of remote
access. Firstly, users can access the corporate network, without installing with its switched
connection, thus eliminating the need to use modems. Secondly, there is no need for the leased line,
which helps to reduce a cost. The main reason that companies use secure VPN, is that they want to
send "sensitive" and / or confidential information over the Internet, without fear that someone will
be able to intercept and read the transmitted data. Providers implementing technology trusted VPN,
interested in transferring data at a pre–specified routes through a network of one or more trusted
providers. Differences between trusted and secure VPN stand at the stage of defining requirements
to the network. Secure VPN guarantee the confidentiality of information transmitted, but not
responsible for the transmission routes. Trusted VPN provides the necessary routing and delivery
time, maintaining the required level of
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Advantages And Disadvantages Of ATM Is A Deterministic...

  • 1. Advantages And Disadvantages Of ATM Is A Deterministic... ATM is a connection–oriented, unreliable, virtual circuit packet switching technology. Unlike most connectionless networking protocols, ATM is a deterministic networking system. It provides predictable, guaranteed quality of service. From end to end, every component in an ATM network provides a high level of control. ATM technology has:– Scalable Performance– ATM can send data across network quickly and accurately, regardless of the size of the network. ATM works well on both very low and very high–speed media. Flexible, guaranteed Quality of Service– ATM allows the accuracy and speed of data transfer to be specified by the client. The QoS feature of ATM also supports time dependent traffic. Each virtual circuit in an ATM network ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Point–to–Multipoint Connection Point–to–multipoint connects a single–source end system (known as the root node) to multiple destination end systems (known as leaves). Such connections are unidirectional only. ADVANTAGES OF ATM  Better utilization of the bandwidth  It can also be used to transfer very large amounts of data over WAN and LAN.  ATM can also be used between WAN and LAN as well.  Allows for end–to–end flow and error control  The speed of asynchronous transfer mode can reach up to 10 billion bytes/sec. DISADVANTAGES OF ATM  ATM has not been widely accepted.  ATM switch costs much more than inexpensive LAN hardware.  Assumption of Homogeneity: ATM is designed to be a single, universal networking ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
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  • 5. Asynchronous Transfer Mode Wireless Network Project name: ATM wireless network ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) has been advocated as an important technology for all types of services and networks. Most people believe that ATM will be the standard for the future B–ISDN (Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network). From the service point of view, ATM combines both the data and multimedia information into the wired networks while scales well from backbones to the customer premises networks. To ensure the success of ATM, lots of the design issues have been standardized by ATM Forum. Wireless personal communication networks (PCN) has been growing very fast in the last decade. Nowadays, laptop, cellular phone, and pagers are very popular. Many systems have been developed to provide different services, such as, Personal Communications Service (PCS), Portable Telephone Systems, and Satellite Communications System. Usually, these services do not guarantee QoS (Quality of Services) so they are not suitable for the fast growing multimedia applications. Due to the success of ATM on wired networks, wireless ATM (WATM) is a direct t result of the ATM "everywhere" movement. WATM can be viewed as a solution for next–generation personal communication networks, or a wireless extension of the B–ISDN networks, which will support integrated data transmission (data, voice and video) with guaranteed QoS. WATM architecture and protocols are already being well discussed. The ATM Forum are currently involved in defining the baseline ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 9. How The Bank Organization Affect The Implementation Of... a. Explain how the bank organization could be benefited due to the implementation of computer networks and how the resources could be utilized in an efficient manner with the computer network  The Benefits of having computers networks for organisation are: Users can access their files from any network. Within the network covered, expensive devices such as laser printers or scanners can be shared. The software and resources within the area of networks can be well organized and centrally managed. Files can be shared on a central computer allowing data to be shared throughout an organization. Important files and data can be backed up more easily when they are scattered across a number of independent workstations and saved on a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This is all connected together in a network in order to deliver a very well Service. Therefore, topologies of network are defined as the schemes of joining a number of computers in the form of network. Two or more computers and devices are connected together to link for a data communication. The topology of network is considered as the geometric representation of the relationship of all the links and nodes (communication devices) to one another. The network topologies are classified into two categories: i. Bus topology ii. Ring topology iii. Star topology i. Bus topology In this type of network, all nodes are connected to the common communication medium or central cable. The central physical cable that connects nodes is known as bus. This type of topology used the multipoint connection and the central single cable acts as a backbone to link all the devices to the network. The advantages of bus topology are: It is easy to install and maintain and it is less expensive. The nodes are not affected if one node is failed. The network is not affected if nodes is added and removed from the network. The disadvantages of bus topology are: I t promotes and support only a small number of nodes. The entire networks fail if there is any problem with central cable. ii. Ring topology: In this type of networking, each node has a dedicated point–to– point connection only with the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 13. Mba Of Information Communications And Technology Bachelor of Information Communications and Technology T301 Network Design Submitted By Lecturer Nirmal Thomas Graeme Richards (1491153) 1.Load Balancing and High Availability Load balancing is an important solution used to distribute incoming traffic among servers. So if any failure happens to one server it can load from another server. Thus we get maximum availability. Increase in new servers according to demand will make sure accessibility and responsiveness, and load balancer share in formations with new servers. It shares all the data with two or more servers. So it's easy to get more amount of work in the same amount of time. Therefore server gets faster. It's a good solution to implement in U20 football to maintain availability of uninterrupted Media content. Database servers can work together and read only database servers can work easily. But all data servers have read and write enabled data. So the best way is to copy read only data to servers. Sync problem is the main problem to work severs together. There is no single solution to avoid the sync problem. There are multiple solutions and all solutions ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 17. Nt1310 Packets And Frames Your question: Explain what packets and frames are? Describe the different characteristics between each other. Packets also known as frames are grouped amounts of data that are sent across a network. However, packets differ from frames in that a packet contains that data to be sent, including the source and destination Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. A frame is packet that contains the data, the source and destination IP addresses, Media Access Control (MAC) source and destination addresses, and error checking. The MAC addresses are added at the beginning of the data also known as a header. An error checking code is also added to the end of the data which is referred to as a trailer. After the packet has been "framed", the frame is then sent over the networking medium (i.e. Ethernet cable). This will decrease the amount of bandwidth available to all machines. Wired switches send frames to single ports allowing workstations to utilize the full amount of dedicated bandwidth available. If a wired switch is capable of 100MBps and there are twenty workstations on the network, each computer is capable of sending 100mbps in both directions. Wireless AP's share bandwidth with all workstations on the network and require ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Subnetting involves borrowing host bits from an ip address to create multiple IP addresses that can either be used or saved for future workstations. This mechanism also allows an organisation to divide its network into groups which can represent departments in an organisation (i.e. Financial department), this also ensures that only the workstations within the subnetwork can access the network resources given to that department making the network more secure by restricting other departments who are not authorized to view or deal with the data ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 21. Computer Networks And Its Impact On The World WAN Technologies Paper Naomi Woolford–Drakes Wilmington University Data Communications and Networking IST 7040 Salb, James A WAN Technologies Paper Over the last decade, the way we perceive computer networks in the world has drastically changed because of things such as remote access, web–based applications and wireless devices. Additionally, businesses networks around the world can be accessible virtually anytime from anywhere through assets such as Cloud Computing or virtual private networking (VPN). Today's technology has been the savior to some of the world's biggest problems in education, agriculture, transportation, Health Care and many more avenues and the main reason is because of the expansion and diversity of the Wide Area Network (WAN) networks. Wide Area Network (WAN) technologies has provide many ways to accelerate and optimizing business processes and procedures through Point–to–Point topology, Packet Switched, and Circuit Switched WAN protocols, circuits and types. The assortments of available WAN services and its costs usually depends on the geographical region and the available provider. A WAN is comprised of several computer networks linked together usually through or over the Internet and it's used to connect other types of networks for businesses, campuses or government together such as Local Area Network (LAN) and its rudimentary equipment are a station and a node. (White, 2016) To begin, the Point–to–Point Protocol (PPP) is a protocol ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 25. Asynchronous Transfer Mode for Transmitting Information Essay ATM is called Asynchronous Transfer Mode. ATM is a networking technology which transmits information in the form fixed cells. The main vision behind designing ATM was integration of services and performance requirements of both telephony and data networking which was shortly called Broadband Integrated Service Vision (B–ISDN). This cell relay protocol was designed by ATM forum and was universally adopted by ITU–T. Usually the size of the fixed cells is about 53 bytes with 5 bytes for header and 48 bytes payload. When compared to the cell sizes used in the previous technologies, the size of an ATM is small. The smaller size of the ATM cells gives us a major advantage. ATM enables us to transmit video, audio and data over the same network ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This should be done without any degradation in the performance or without requiring any replacement. 3. The design must be implemented in a less expensive method. In case the ATM becomes the backbone of the international communications the cost of implementing it should not be a major barrier. 4. The proposed system must ensure accurate and predictable delivery. This is possible only if ATM is a Connection–Oriented system. 5. The major objective of ATM was to move most of the functionalities to the hardware side and have comparatively less functionalities in the software. This will ensure higher speed in the delivery of packets. It is clear from the above points that the major goal of ATM was to ensure guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS). To ensure this various service classes were defined by the ATM forum like Constant Bit–Rate, Real time Variable Bit–Rate, Non Real time Variable Bit–Rate, Unspecified Bit–Rate, Available Bit–Rate. ARCHITECTURE OF ATM NETWORKS The ATM is a cell–switched network as discussed previously. There are two important interfaces which acts as a backbone to the whole architecture of ATM. The first is Network–to–Network interface (NNI) and the other is the User–to–Network interface (UNI). The User–to–Network interface is used to connect the User access devices or the end points to the switches, while the Network–to–Network interface is used to connect various switches. The connection between two end ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 29. What Are Digital Circuits? What are digital circuits? Those circuits wherever the signal should be one in every of 2 distinct levels is referred to as digital circuit. Every level is taken into account jointly of 2 completely different states. Example– on/off, 0/1, true/false etc. In comparison to analog circuits, digital circuits are less susceptible to noise or degradation in quality, additionally the errors are detected and corrected simply with the assistance of digital signals. EDA– ELECTRONIC style AUTOMATION tools (a style of package that improves or enhance the logic in digital circuit) is employed by the engineer to automatize the method of coming up with such circuits. ADVANTAGES Some of the essential benefits of digital signals are– 1) they 're less costly 2) a lot are reliable than analog circuits. 3)they 're straightforward to govern 4) a lot versatile 5) higher Compatibility with alternative digital systems 6) solely digitised data is transported through a loud channel without any of the degradation 7) integrated networks. DISADVANTAGES– Some of the Disadvantages of digital circuit are– they use a lot of energy than the alternative style of circuits to perform same style of calculations and signal processes tasks, ultimately resulting in the production of heat. This can be a major limiting factor in portable or battery powered systems. OTHER MAJOR DRAWBACKS ARE– THE universe or real world is principally ANALOG–signals in this world like light, temperature, sound, electrical ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 33. India 's Largest Data Security Breach 3.2 million debit cards issued by some of India's largest banks were exposed to a malware induced security breakdown around Mid–2016 making it one of India's largest data security breach. Malware that could damage ATM system was injected into the ATM payment service machine, which permitted unauthorized persons to access credentials of users. The NPCI (National Payments Council of India), an umbrella organization facilitating retail payments warned banks that unauthorized transactions were being generated from China and USA. SISA, a security auditing firm reported that a sophisticated injection of malware (a piece of malicious software code) in the Hitachi Payments Services Systems led to the compromise of the details of these debit cards. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Later in September, banks again reported transactions to the company after which an external audit agency, SISA Information Security was called to conduct a forensic audit on the case. (Source: Deccan Herald, Oct 20, 2016) SISA completed its final assessment report on the breach of security protocols, which led to the potential compromise of debit cards between May 21 and July 11, 2016. SISA's report pointed out a sophisticated malware injected (a piece of malicious software code) in the Hitachi Payments Services systems, which could compromise the details of these debit cards. The code was written in such a manner that it concealed its traces during the compromise period. "While behavior of the malware and the penetration into the network has been deciphered, the amount of data exfiltrated during the above compromise period is unascertainable due to secure deletion by the malware" said Loney Anthony. (Source: Press Release by Hitachi Payment Services). The Reserve Bank of India has been asking banks to enhance their digital security and the Hitachi statement comes a day after the central bank announced formation of an inter–disciplinary standing committee on cyber–security to review threats, study security standards and suggest appropriate policy interventions. (Source: Press Trust of India, 09 Feb 2017) Method Working of ATM network ATM systems of most of the banks in the country are delegated to third parties who supply the ATM machine and the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 37. Analysis Of RFP For ATM Monitoring A judgement call that I made which did not allow for analysis or information gathering due to time constraints was when a large Southern Financial institution that I was leading Distributed Service Delivery for put out a large RFP for ATM monitoring; they had approximately 3600 ATMs all being serviced and monitored by Diebold, as the Program Manager over this account all RFPs ran through me. I pulled in what experts we had on ATM monitoring to provide a thorough response document, it was assumed throughout my company that we were likely being used solely for leverage with Diebold more so than having a chance at this business. We were told within a couple weeks that Diebold was being awarded the bid so I stopped our internal evaluations on ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... I had a Team responsible for Monitoring and Management of thousands of endpoint network devices for this customer in an offsite location with desks available. Connectivity to the ATMs was quickly available due to already having connectivity within the customers network, I just needed resources and training. I had daily scrum type calls with Recruiting to track progress, make sure interviews could get quickly setup, and knock down any blockers slowing them down. Recruiting stepped up and sourced 5 of the 7 resources within three weeks and my RIMM Team with the addition of these 5 resources and the shadowing from the customers tier 3 engineers were able to successfully come up to speed and deliver on this new service. I had a complete team of 7 resources before the end of the first 30 days. This became a great win for Pomeroy and for the Customer. For the Customer, we were offering a tier 2 level Service at a tier 3 three price point, well under their original T1 provider in this space. We were able to deliver through my Team the quality and speed that they wanted in responding to alerts and issues, with an expanded Team being able to share the work across my full RIMM Team and over the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 41. “Asynchronous V/S Synchronous Circuits” TERM PAPER ON "ASYNCHRONOUS v/s SYNCHRONOUS CIRCUITS" COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE (CSE 2011) SUBMITTED BY:– RAGHVENDRA SINGH ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take this opportunity to thank certain people without whom I would not have been able to make this project report. Firstly, I would like to express my gratitude towards my teacher, Mr. Harshpreet Singh Walia, Assistant Professor, Department of CSE, for his kind co–operation and encouragement which helped me in completion of this project. I am highly indebted to my friends for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project. Lastly, I would like to thank my family members who ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 2) Lower power dissipation for a given performance level 3) Highest possible execution speeds. Disadvantages 1. The biggest disadvantage of the clockless CPU is that most CPU design tools assume a clocked CPU (i.e., a synchronous circuit). Many tools "enforce synchronous design practices". Making a clockless CPU (designing an asynchronous circuit) involves modifying the design tools to handle clockless logic and doing extra testing to ensure the design avoids metastable problems. 2. Hardware effort may be up to double the number of circuit elements (transistors) depending on level. 3. Serial designs benefit more than massively parallel ones. 4. Requires people experienced in synchronous design to learn a new style. 5. Synchronous designs are inherently easier to debug than asynchronous designs. 6. Performance analysis of asynchronous circuits may be challenging. Clock Signal In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is utilized like a metronome to coordinate actions of circuits. Although the word signal has a number of other meanings, the term here is used for "transmitted energy that can carry information".
  • 42. A clock signal is produced by a clock generator. Although more complex arrangements are used, the most common clock signal is in the form of a square wave with a 50% duty cycle, usually ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 46. Dtmf Remote Appliance Control System Using Mobile Phone CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This project "DTMF REMOTE APPLIANCE CONTROL SYSTEM USING MOBILE PHONE" is used to control appliances which are far away from the user using mobile phone. The aim of the proposed system is to develop a cost effective solution that will provide controlling of home appliances remotely and enable home security against intrusion in the absence of homeowner. The devices connected as home and office appliances consume electrical power and they should be controlled as well as turn on /off if required. Most of the time, it was done manually. Now it is a necessity to control devices more effectively and efficiently at anytime from anywhere. Take an instant when we are going to office and suddenly remembered that to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Relays allow a small current flow circuit to control a high current circuit. 1.2.8 Devices: The devices can be micro–wave oven, bulbs, fans, air cooler, etc which are far away from the user. The micro– controller plays the intelligent part in controlling these devices. 1.3 Working: This project is used to control the appliances present at a distance using a mobile phone. The first step is the user should make a call to the mobile phone, which is in auto answer mode and thus call gets connected. The user presses the digits present over the keypad of his phone for controlling the appliances present at home or office. Whenever a button is pressed a tone is generated and it is transferred to the mobile phone present in the home or office, which is interfaced with the DTMF transceiver. The DTMF receiver decodes the tone generated and it activates the controller accordingly. The controller operates the devices according to the coding set by the user. The status of the devices whether they are ON/OFF is indicated in the LCD. CHAPTER 2 MT8888 DTMF TRANSCEIVER Introduction: The MT8888C is a monolithic DTMF transceiver with call progress filter. It is fabricated using CMOS technology and it offers low power consumption and high reliability. The receiver section is based upon the industry standard MT8870 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 50. Data Communication : Unit Standard 6852 V7 Describe Data Communication Unit Standard 6852 v7 Level 4 Credit 4 Research Projects Assessment Task 1: Data communication types historically used, developments leading to Local Area Network, current data communication, and trends from emerging developments. Communication among humans has always been there from the very start and the modes of communication developed as they moved further apart from each other. The early centuries records of people messengers who were used to transport messages as fast as they could. Pigeons were trained to transport messages. There is indications that Heliographs were used for serious signaling purposes. A code book was issued by the 16th century for British navy including flags with different meanings to communicate during the war. Then there were watchman who had the responsibility of data transmission. There were various ways of transmitting data without the help of electricity (Holzmann and Pehrson, 2015). The age of electric telegraphed information came into picture in the late 1800's when the first Trans– Atlantic cable was laid. The basic elements of Morse code were used. "Mr. Watson, come here, I want you." These were the first words spoken by Alexander Graham Bell while working with his invention, the telephone. The wireless telegraph was a major breakthrough in the development of broadcast communication (Holzmann and Pehrson, 2015). The turn of the nineteenth century saw the invention of tele typewriter. Tele printer ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 54. An Effective Knowledge Management System Introduction In the contemporary corporate cultural based world, a knowledge management system (KMS) is considered an important element to assist the sharing and integration of knowledge within the organization. An effective knowledge management strategy is capable of resolving knowledge management issue arises at any level in the organization (top management–to–bottom management level). A successful KMS also helps in increasing the overall business performance through ensuring staff performance, project management, organizational change management, quality of deliverables and the satisfaction of the staffs and customers. On the other side a lack of implementation of proper knowledge management system may hinder the performance of the staffs and the overall productiveness for the organization. The objective of this discussion paper is to analyze the recent knowledge management (KM) issue in Australian Customs and Border Protection (ACBP) agency and to address it with the help of basic knowledge management components. In order to analyze the knowledge management issue, the knowledge ecosystem model mentioned in Australian Standard (AS 5037) is utilized. At the initial part of the discussion paper, it will discuss the contemporary knowledge management issue in ACBP. In the second part, the paper will discuss a number of KMS components with the aim of addressing knowledge management issues in ACBP. The paper will be concluded providing some recommendations to resolve the raised ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 58. Mobile Phone and Bluetooth Security Bluetooth Abstract – This paper is a report on Bluetooth wireless technology. In this report, we have included an introduction to the emerging technology, scenarios, existing research issue, problem statements, suggestions to improve and conclusion. In the introduction, we explained about what is Bluetooth, how does it communicate, and technical standards and performance levels of Bluetooth. In scenarios, we explained the applications of Bluetooth. For the existing research issue, we have included 2 researches on Bluetooth which is types of device that use Bluetooth and Bluetooth accessible services. Explanation of problems faced by users when using Bluetooth is included in the problem statement. The solution for these problems will be included in ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... [7] The Bluetooth specification has 2 power levels; a lower power that covers the shorter personal area within a room, and a higher power level that can cover a medium range, such as within a home. The distance covered by Bluetooth is commonly 30ft, but it can also cover larger area up to 100 ft. Bluetooth supports ad hoc voice and data transmission. The Bluetooth devices find each other and spontaneously create a network called a piconet, which can link up to 8 devices, with one being the primary and the rest secondaries. A secondary however can serve as a primary in another piconet, to form a scatternet. The Bluetooth baseband protocol is a combination of circuit and packet switching. Time slots can be reserved for synchronous packets. A frequency hop is done for each packet that is transmitted. A packet nominally covers a single time slot, but can be extended to cover up to five slots. [1] Bluetooth can support; an asynchronous data channel, or up to 3 simultaneous synchronous voice channels, or a channel which simultaneously supports asynchronous data and synchronous voice. 2. Scenario The scenarios that Bluetooth makes possible are almost as numerous as the devices where Bluetooth will reside. For example, the most common application of Bluetooth is wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a hands–free headset. Bluetooth enable headsets for hands free calling using your cell phone will remove the need for that irritating ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 62. Location Convenience Is An Important Factor When Customers... Introduction Location convenience is an important factor when customers select a financial institution (see Mylonakis et al. 1998; Driscoll 1999). A customer may find a bank convenient if it has a branch or an Automated Teller Machine (ATM) near his / her residence or workplace, say within 2 Km1. To stay competitive, banks usually attempt to increase convenience (be as close as possible to customers) by expanding their bank and / or ATM networks. Basically, such expansions could be done in at least two ways (see Birkin et al 2002a): by building branches / installing ATMs in new locations (so called organic growth); or by acquiring an existing (e.g. competitor, partner, etc.) network. The former option is likely to be expensive and time consuming, so many banks resort to acquiring or partnering with already established ATM and / or branch networks. Although the second option is a relatively quick way to increase network coverage, an acquired branch / ATM network is unlikely to be a 'perfect' complement to an existing 1 ATMs are common in the USA (and much of the world). Customers can use ATMs to access their bank accounts to obtain cash money or check available funds, etc. ATMs are available in banks and in facilities such as malls, shopping centers, gas stations, parking facilities, etc. 3 network, due to possible coverage overlap and / or lack of coverage. Therefore, such acquisition / partnership opportunities should be evaluated carefully so that opportunities resulting ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 66. Accident Spot Identification Using Gsm & Gps: Is It Really... CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Now–a–days, it became very difficult to know that an accident has occurred and to locate the position where it has happened. It's very difficult for the lives of victims until anyone noticed and informed it to the ambulance or to any hospital and if it occurs in remote areas there will be no hope to survive. To overcome these, GSM and GPS technologies are used. The GPS based vehicle accident identification module contains a vibrating sensor and a GPS modem connected to the microcontroller. When an accident occurs, the vibration sensor gives the signal to the microcontroller, which sends the information to the LCD display through GSM network. The vehicle is tracked for every five minutes using GPS ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The LPC2148 configures the ARM7TDMI–S processor in little–endian byte order. AHB peripherals are allocated a 2 megabyte range of addresses at the very top of the 4 gigabyte ARM memory space. Each AHB peripheral is allocated a 16 kB address space within the AHB address space. LPC2148 peripheral functions (other than the interrupt controller) are connected to the VPB bus. The AHB to VPB bridge interfaces the VPB bus to the AHB bus. VPB peripherals are also allocated a 2 megabyte range of addresses, beginning at the 3.5 gigabyte address point. Each VPB peripheral is allocated a 16 kB address space within the VPB address space. The connection of on–chip peripherals to device pins is controlled by a Pin Connect Block (see chapter "Pin Connect Block" on page 75). This must be configured by software to fit specific application requirements for the use of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 70. Computers And Its Impact On Modern Society Essay Computers In between 1943 and 1946, ENIAC was designed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at University of Pennsylvania, U.S. ENIAC was a modular computer, collected of separate panels to perform different functions. Twenty of these parts were accumulators, which could not only add and subtract but hold a ten–digit decimal number in memory. Numbers were passed between these units across several general–purpose buses. In order to achieve its high speed, the panels had to send and receive numbers, save the answer and produce the next operation, all without any moving parts. Key to its usefulness was the ability to branch; it could produce different operations, depending on the sign of a computed result. ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum tubes, 7200 crystal diodes, 1500 relays, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors and about 5,000,000 hand–soldered joints. It weighed more than 30 tons, was roughly 2.4m × 0.9m × 30m in size, and consumed 150 kW of electricity. This power requirement led to the rumour that whenever the computer was switched on, lights in Philadelphia dimmed. UNIVAC I MAINFRAME COMPUTER UNIVAC I mainframe computer of 1951, which became known for predicting the outcome of the U.S. presidential election the following year. This incident is particularly important because the computer predicted an Eisenhower landslide when traditional pollsters all called it for Adlai Stevenson. The numbers were so skewed that CBS 's news boss in New York, Mickelson, decided the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 74. Integrated Services Digital Network ( Isdn ) Before we get into the discussion, let's briefly introduce some of the technologies used in WANs and the different characteristics of each one: Point–to–point links A so called point–to–point link (Fig. 2.0) provides a pre–established WAN communication path from the user's location trough a telephone company's network, also known as the carrier. For this kind of line, the carrier dedicates pairs of wire and hardware to that line only. This kind of circuits are priced depending on bandwidth needed and distance to be covered. (Figure 2.0 – Point–to–point link) Circuit Switching Work like a normal telephone line. Data connections can be started when needed and terminated when the communication is over. An example of circuit switching is called Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). When a router receives data that's intended to go to a specific remote site, the switched circuit (Fig. 2.1) is initiated with a specific circuit number for that particular network. As soon the two networks that are trying to connect get the authentication done, it is possible to transfer data. When data transmission is over, the communication gets terminated. (Figure 2.1 – Switched Circuit) Packet Switching Here users share common carrier resources (Fig. 2.2). This is a more cost effective solution compared for example to point–to–point lines. The carrier can make more efficient use of its infrastructure. Connections into the carrier's network are shared between many customers and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 78. Digital Communication, Data, And Codes When we enter data onto a computer system or other device by way of the keyboard, each character is encoded into an equivalent binary coded pattern, using one of the standard coding schemes that are used for the transposition of information. When representing all characters on a keyboard, an exclusive pattern of 7 or 8 bits in size is used. The use of 7 bits means that 128 different elements can be represented, while 8 bits can represent 256 elements. At the receiving end the process is reversed to show the character key strike instead of the binary code. The most commonly used code patterns are the Extended Binary Coded Decimal (EBCDIC) and the American Standard Code for Information Interchange codes (ASCII). Both coding schemes support all the normal alphabetic, numeric, and punctuation characters, more commonly referred to as printable characters and a range of additional control characters, known as non–printable characters. This paper will be discussing what data transmission is. Other points we will discuss will be: What is digital communication, data communication, data transfer, and what is transmission as used in telecommunications? Data transmission is the movement of data in form of bits between multiple devices. The transfer can take place by using various materials such as coaxial cables and Fiber Optics. There are two types of data transmissions, parallel and serial. Digital data transmission can occur in two basic modes: serial or parallel. Data within a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 82. Egypt Economy Egypt's economic policy during 2004–2008 is best described as a command economy due to the government's involvement in the process of reforming economic policies that were hindering the country ability to grow economically. The government's involvement did help boost the growth rate by liberalizing trade. Egypt reduced the tariffs, tax cuts, deregulation, and made changes in investment regulations to fuel their economic growth. Eventually, with these changes Egypt saw great economic growth. Big name companies like Oracle and Microsoft built new office buildings and construction could be seen throughout the country. The reformed economic policies definitely helped boost Egypt's growth rate as it provided more jobs and allowed outside ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The ALU performs operations such as addition, subtraction and logic operations such as AND, OR and exclusive OR. REGISTER ARRAY These are storage devices to store data temporarily. There are different types of registers depending upon the Microprocessors. These registers are primarily used to store data temporarily during the execution of a program and are accessible to the user through the instructions. General purpose Registers of 8086 includes AL, AH, BL, BH, CL, CH, DL, DH. CONTROL UNIT The Control Unit Provides the necessary timing and control signals to all the operations in the Microcomputer It controls the flow of data between the Microprocessor and Memory and Peripherals. The Control unit performs 2 basic tasks o Sequencing o Execution 1. SEQUENCING The control unit causes the processor to step through a series of micro–operations in the proper sequence, based on the program being executed. 2. EXECUTION The control unit causes each micro operation to be performed.
  • 83. CONTROL SIGNALS For the control unit to perform its function it must have inputs that allow it to determine the state of the system and outputs that allow it to control the behavior of the system. Inputs : Clock , Instruction Register, Flags Outputs : o Control signals to Memory o Control signals to I/O o Control Signals within the Processor. EVOLUTION OF MICROPROCESSOR: INTEL ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 87. Smart Purchase in Supermarkets Using Rfid SMART PURCHASE IN SUPERMARKETS USING RFID OBJECTIVE: To provide effective customer service in supermarkets by rising the efficiency of total supply chain through quick billing of products. To achieve operational excellence and effective supply chain management. ABSTRACT: Shopping seems to be a good entertainment. But the huge queue in the supermarkets to scan the products frustrates the customers . Barcode scanning is a time consuming process engaging the customers to stick to the billing section for a long time. Hence there is a need to switch to a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system for smart purchase and instant billing . Our Application blends Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and wireless technologies to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Passive tags Passive tags can be either battery or non–battery operated, as determined by the intended application. Passive tags reflect the RF signal transmitted to them from a reader or transceiver and add information by modulating the reflected signal. A passive tag does not use a battery to boost the energy of the reflected signal. A passive tag may use a battery to maintain memory in the tag or power the electronics that enable the tag to modulate the reflected signal. PIC: The PIC16F877 Microcontroller is used in the project. The PIC Microcontroller is a Microchip product. This microcontroller has an built memory, CPU, Peripheral devices. The PIC microcontroller is divided into three ranges, based on the instruction set. They are, Low Range PIC – 12 bits Mid Range PIC – 14 bits High Range PIC – 16 bits PERIPHERAL FEATURES:  Operating frequency: DC–20 MHz clock input.  DC–200 ns instruction cycle.  Wide operating voltage range (2.0V – 5.5V).  14–bit wide instructions, 8–bit wide data path.  13–bit program counter, 8 level stack (13–bit).  Up to 368 byte of data memory (RAM).
  • 88.  Timer0: 8–bit timer/counter with 8–bit prescaler.  Timer1: 16–bit timer/counter with prescalar can be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 92. Mobile Networks : The New Norm For Networks Latest trends such as mobiles, IT–as–a–Service, Server Virtualization and the requirement to respond rapidly to developing business conditions are placing demands on the network, which cannot be handled by today's conventional network architectures. Software–Defined Networking proposes new approach to avoid the traditional vertically integrated networking stack in order to improve the present basic network architecture by improving architectural flexibility and manageability. SDN enables "mass customization" of network operations to better support differentiated services. With this technology a single program can control the behavior of entire networks. Networking in future will rely completely on software, which will help increase the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... All these transformation of high level policies into low level configuration commands with adaption to changing network conditions is done manually. Frequently, they likewise need to finish these exceptionally perplexing errands with access to extremely constrained instruments. As a result, system administration and execution tuning is very testing and subsequently slip inclined. The way that system gadgets are generally vertically–coordinated secret elements worsens the test system administrators and chairmen face. An alternate practically unsurmountable test system professionals furthermore analysts face has been alluded to as "Internet ossification". Due to its tremendous organization base and the actuality it is viewed as a major aspect of our societies critical infrastructure (much the same as transportation and force frameworks), the Internet has gotten to be greatly difficult to develop both as far as its physical framework and in addition its conventions and execution. Then again, as present and rising Internet applications and administrations get to be progressively more unpredictable and requesting, it is basic that the Internet have the capacity to advance to address these new difficult. The thought of "programmable networks" has been proposed as an approach to encourage system development. Specifically, Software Defined Networking (SDN) is another systems administration ideal ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 96. Interrupt Vs. Asynchronous Communication Operating System | Assignment #1 | | Information System | 2012–03–29 | | 1. What is the purpose of interrupts? What are the differences between a trap and an interrupt? Can traps be generated intentionally by a user program? If so, for what purpose? (Chapter 1) Interrupt is that causes a computer processor to temporarily stop executing its current program and execute another program instead, finally returning control to the original program. So it prevent that more important task goes back because of less important task. The main difference between a trap and an interrupt is where they are generated. An interrupt is a hardware–generated. And it can be used to signal the completion of an I/O to obviate the need for device ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (Ex, Memory, Processor, disk space, etc.) Last one is the level of human resources needed to support the OS. 6. What are the benefits and detriments of each of the following? Consider both the systems and the programmers' levels. (Chapter 3) a) Synchronous and asynchronous communication b) Automatic and explicit buffering a) Synchronous vs asynchronous can be called to blocking vs non–blocking communication. The benefit of synchronous communication is the simplicity and accuracy. However blocking may not be necessary and waste time. Asynchronous communication allows messages to be delivered without waiting. However this communication has less reliability than blocking one. b) Automatic buffering provides a queue with in definite length; thus ensuring the sender will never have to block while waiting to copy a message. There are no specifications how automatic buffering will be provided; one scheme may reserve sufficiently large memory where much of the memory is wasted. Explicit buffering specifies how large the buffer is. In this situation, the sender may be blocked while waiting for available space in the queue. However, it is less likely memory will be wasted with explicit buffering. 7. Describe the differences among short–term, medium–term, and long– term scheduling. (Chapter 3)
  • 97. 1) Short–term scheduling: It selects from jobs in memory, those jobs which are ready to execute, and allocates the CPU to one of them. CPU selects ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 101. Virtual Private Network ( Vpn ) Introduction – The Past: Thirty years ago, there was no such need of privacy and data encryption as the Internet age had not taken off. In the 90s, VPN technology was still a fairly new technology but was predicted that it would be the next big thing in the early 2000s. Only large companies could afford the price to use dedicated lines to connect to remote locations. However, the disadvantages of the lease line are quite clear: Although large companies have the capitals and needs for building private networks, small and medium companies could rely on the less expensive, packet switched X.25 network. As the size of the Internet continued to grow, both small and large companies began to connect their private network with the public network. This brings a convenience but with one obvious problem – privacy and security. Virtual private network (VPN) was developed in 19XX by Stan Hanks, who build IP VPN based on TCP/IP–over–X.25 stack for CSNET. Its goal was to ensure privacies and data integrities of communication and information. Thanks to the helps of many engineers and people such as XXX decided not to patent the XXXX technology when he was in Microsoft, VPN technology was growing rapidly during the early 2000s. Over the year, its flexibilities make travelled businessmen able to connect back to their companies' networks, it also made employees work from home possible. Although some may argue that this makes the line between home and work space less clear, others claim that it ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 105. Nt1310 Unit 9 Study Guide 1. What is a communication protocol? A. A communications protocol characterizes the guidelines for sending pieces of information starting with one hub in a system then onto the next hub. Conventions are regularly characterized in a layered way and give all or part of the administrations indicated by a layer of the OSI reference show. A convention characterizes the operation of the convention and may likewise propose how the convention ought to be actualized. It comprises of three sections: 2. Why do we need communication protocols? A. 3. List the major protocols discussed in this chapter. A. HTTP – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol SMTP – 10mnSimple Mail Transfer Protocol TCP/IP – Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol FTP – File Transfer Protocol ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In addition to ISO and TCP/IP, what are the other models? A. 5. Discuss two LAN technologies that are not Ethernet or token ring. A. 1. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) 2. Fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) 6. Why is Ethernet technology more appealing to users than the rest of the LAN technologies? A. 7. What do you think are the weak points of TCP/IP? A. 8. Discuss the pros and cons of the four LAN technologies. A. 9. List four WAN technologies. A. 1. ISDN – Integrated Services Digital Network 2.
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  • 110. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) A Case Study Table of Contents: Introduction ....................................... 3 Overview ....................................... 3 Innovative Aspects ......................................... 5 Advantages .......................................... 6 Disadvantages .......................................... 6 Conclusion .......................................... 7 Introduction: Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a high speed network technology which is designed to support both voice and data communications. It was initially developed to meet the needs of the Broadband Integrated ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Each ATM cell contains exactly 53 octets, 5 octets for header 48 octets for data. As a core protocol, ATM is used in Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET)/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH), which are backbone of Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Internet Service Providers (ISPs) use Asynchronous Transfer Mode on their long–distance private networks. ATMs operate at the Layer 2 (Data Link layer) of the OSI model, over fiber cable or twisted–pair cable (http://www.wanredundancy.com). The ATM transport hierarchy is shown in the figure below. The physical layer can be divided into three functional levels: Transmission Path Level: This extends between network elements that assemble and disassemble the payload of a transmission system. For end–to–end communication, the payload is end–user information. For user–to–network communication, the payload may be call–control signaling information (call setup and call termination). Cell delineation and header error–control functions are required at the end points of each transmission path. Digital Section Level: This refers to the exchanges or signal transfer points in a network that are involved in switching data streams. Regenerator Section Level: This is a part of the digital section. Virtual Channels and Virtual Paths Logical connections in ATM are referred to as virtual channels. A virtual channel is analogous to a virtual circuit in X.25 or a frame–relay logical connection. It's
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  • 115. Advantages And Disadvantages Of RS-422 RS–422: RS–422 ,also known as TIA/EIA–422 is a technical standard originated by Electronic Industries Alliance that specifies electrical characteristics of a digital signaling circuit.It is the physical interface used for uni–directional or bi–directional communication of OBC of PNSS–1 with different units i–e DHU(data handling unit),MGT,earth sensor,sun sensor,magnetorquer,magnetometer and with reaction wheels.It is serial communication standard which provides asynchronous communication capabilities such as hardware flow control,software flow control and parity check. One of the key advantage of using RS–422 standard is that each signal line consist of two wires that are twisted together to reduce noise that results in high data rates.The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... IP of AMBA is implemented on FPGA that supports plug and play method for available IP cores from Gaisler Research IP Library (GRLIB).Among five different interfaces within AMBA specification,AHB(Advanced High–performance Bus) architechture has some additional features i– e single clock edge protocol,split transactions,several bus masters,pipelined operation,large bus width(64/128 bit) etc. Typical AMBAAHB system design consist of the following components: AHB master: AHB master is able to start read and write operation by providing address and control information.Only one bus master can use it at a time. AHB slave: It basically responds to the read and write operation within specific range.Signals are transmitted back to the master which indicates the success or failure of the data transfer. AHB arbiter: This basically ensures that only one bus master can initiate data transfer.Any arbitration algorithm such as highest priority or fair access can be implemented according to application requirement. AHB ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 119. Petty Officer Williams Case Study Petty Officer Williams is a proven leader and exceptional manager who is continuously engaged with junior Sailors and leadership. He instills a sense of ownership, pride, and camaraderie at all levels in the command and displays a keen foresight that results in continual process improvement focused on mission accomplishment. His vast influence throughout the command is evident in the command's successes and overall positive climate. He is a leader amongst his peers who demands excellence with unstoppable initiative and dedication. Specific accomplishments include: –As Regional Maintenance and Material Management (3M) Coordinator, he revitalized the 3M program, which enhanced the command's material readiness. He guided 16 Assistants and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... He provided 100 hours of EIDWS training to personnel assigned to the command and Commander, Fleet Activities Yokosuka (CFAY) tenant commands enrolled in the EIDWS program. He sat 16 boards leading to the qualification of 24 personnel. Furthermore, he also generated four new EIDWS examinations for use by EIDWS program enrollees, and administered 60 examinations. – Petty Officer Williams acted as a Command Readiness Training Team member. He assessed 25 drills and exercises, provided training to five watch section personnel increasing the command efficiency and readiness for the upcoming ULTRA–S assessment. His training and expertise ensured that NCTS Far East successfully passed ULTRA–S certification with a 95.7 percent, the highest score assessed throughout the NAVIFOR domain. – He has volunteered 100 hours to Children Youth Programs coaching children from ages 3–5 in soccer and flag football. Additionally, he assisted with the 2014 and 2015 Shinsen Children's Home Halloween Trick or Treat ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 123. Frame Relay and Leased Lines Essay Frame Relay and Leased Lines In networking there are many options in having data transferred from one location to another. Two of which include frame relay and leased lines. Frame relay is a communication method that transfers data by dividing information into packets and sending them over a virtual network. Frame relay is a difficult process to understand and to accomplish. Leased lines, however, is the permanent connection between two stations. Leased lines are simpler to understand and do not take a lot of effort to achieve. According to Computer Networks, frame relay came into existence to overcome the complex protocols caused by slow telephone lines, and expensive computers. Today, telephone lines are fast and inexpensive, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Switched virtual circuits also can provide "bandwidth–on–demand" meaning that when the line is at its peak carrying information more bandwidth can be made available. Also switched virtual circuits allow charges for connection to be made only for what the customer uses, unlike leased lines where you have to pay a flat rate (828–829). In the May 1999 issue of "Computerworld", a trading company decided to change its networking architecture. DCH (Da Chong Hong), in the past, used a multiple leased line architecture consisting of over 50 separate lines (See Figure 1). Figure 1 proves the fact that when transferring data between multiple sites, frame relay decreases the amount of lines that need to be leased. DCH knew it had to change its architecture to keep up with data rate technological advances. DCH decided to switch to a networking architecture that consisted of ATM and frame relay. This venture saved DCH over $129,000 per year. ATM is another form of a packet–switching data communication method. One problem with transferring information over a frame relay network is the fact at times the network can become congested. The LAN Times Encyclopedia of Networking reports the fact that "when a frame relay network becomes congested, frames are arbitrarily discarded". The end nodes are responsible for retransmitting the message frames or either they can be discarded permanently if the customer wants them to (387). Frame relay also ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 127. Frame-Relay . Unit 3 Kaplan University IT530 Professor Jeffrey Robinson August 20, 2013 Abstract In this discussion we look at some of the history around frame–relay. We then look at some of the equipment necessary to create the frame relay connections, as well as how the connections work both logically and physically. Some limiting factors are discussed as well as committed information rates, burst rates, an error handling. Some of the positive aspects of frame–relay are identified along with some options for the future of WAN technologies. Frame–Relay Operating at the physical and datalink layers of the OSI model, frame relay is a high–performing WAN protocol. It was ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This allows frame–relay to provide a low cost of ownership while adhering to standards and internetworking with other services. A highly reliable WAN may be achieved through frame–relay and a good service level agreement (SLA) from the provider. Frame–relay can be thought of as a simple principle because it allows the higher–level protocols to deal with many of the problems. Although, it can include optional features such as congestion notification and signaling mechanisms. Ideally, a committed information rate (CIR) is selected that best meets the needs of the customer. This is the maximum burst rate, which when exceeded can cause the frames to be discard eligible (DE). In reality, the nature of frame–relay allows all bits to be discard eligible, but the error correction is handled by the upper layers. Some configurations allow speeds to burst above the CIR, but never more than the physical capacity of the circuit. The DLCI is the connection identifier for the PVC in the connection oriented datalink protocol that is frame– relay. By switching variable length frames, statistical multiplexing is achieved. Even though frame– relay may be susceptible to traffic delays it can still be optimized for delay sensitive traffic such as voice over IP. Because the frame–relay path is known, it is used to connect the customer premises equipment (CPE) to the frame–relay switch. The LMI keep alive signaling happens
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  • 132. Mobile Devices For A Large Geographical Area Wirelessly Essay #1 The concept of a wireless network is to be able to provide a broad range of coverage to a large geographical area wirelessly (Techtarget, n. d.). Further, a wireless network gives one an advantage to connect wirelessly to other devices in separate areas of coverage. In healthcare, a wireless network is used to improve access, reduce errors and deliver an accurate healthcare information anywhere and at any given period among patients and healthcare providers (IEEE, 2003). Mobile devices, such as tablets, smartphones, personal digital assistant (PDA) and other handheld devices have made it possible to have a broad range of efficient healthcare applications (IEEE,2003). The mobile devices used by healthcare providers at a patient bedside can be used to monitor and manage patient information's wirelessly (searchhealthIT, 2016). Some of the examples of the wireless WAN I am familiar with are (a) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) that is a new computer and communication technology used to transfer data, voice, and video to transfer information consecutively over a communication line. Also, ATM is a technology that is connection oriented and universally enable the transfer mode of choice broadband integrated services digital network; and in ATM, information field is transferred transparently (Rajan & Selvakumar, 2016). Additionally, ATM data are broken down into fixed sizes and sent over WAN network, and it also causes minimal latency (Cowley, 2012). (b) Frame relay is similar ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 136. Questions On The Protocol Architecture Assignment 1 2.3 Protocol: A protocol is predefined set of rules or conventions which governs the way in which two entities co– ordinately cooperate to exchange data. 2.4 Protocol Data Unit(PDU): A PDU is the combination of data from the next higher communications layer and control information. 2.5 Protocol Architecture: The software structure that implements the communications function. Typically, the protocol architecture consists of a layered set of protocols, with one or more protocols at each layer. 2.6 TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are the two protocols which were designed to provide low level support for internetworking. The term is also used generically to refer to a more comprehensive collection of protocols developed by the U.S. Department of Defense and the Internet community. 2.7 Advantages of Layering in TCP/IP architecture: Layering is the process which is used and helped to reduce the overall problem, which is huge in size, to number of sub problems, which are manageable is size. 2.8 Router: A router is a device that is used to connect dissimilar device. It is present and operates at the Network layer of the OSI model. 2.9 Version of IP, that is prevalent today:
  • 137. IPv4, is the version of IP that is prevalent today. It may also be expected that IPv6 may be prevalent in the future. 2.10 Does all Traffic on internet use TCP ? No, we cannot say like that as there are other protocols such as UDP, which are also used ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 141. The Basics Of Synchronous And Asynchronous Circuits ABSTRACT The aim of the presented report is to understand the basics of synchronous and asynchronous circuits. The term paper is about synchronous and asynchronous circuits and their differences. The advantages and disadvantages of both synchronous and asynchronous circuits are discussed further. Digital circuits and sequential circuits are also described in brief at the beginning of the report. The clock gating, self–clock gating and clock signals are explained. Further, the sequential machines moore and mealy are discussed along with their differences and variations. In the end, the differences between the two types of circuits are highlighted. Also, the term paper is summed with a conclusion in the end. What are digital circuits? Those circuits wherever the signal should be one in every of 2 distinct levels is referred to as digital circuit. Every level is taken into account jointly of 2 completely different states. Example– on/off, 0/1, true/false etc. In comparison to analog circuits, digital circuits are less susceptible to noise or degradation in quality, additionally the errors are detected and corrected simply with the assistance of digital signals. EDA– ELECTRONIC style AUTOMATION tools (a style of package that improves or enhance the logic in digital circuit) is employed by the engineer to automatize the method of coming up with such circuits. ADVANTAGES Some of the essential benefits of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 145. Kudler Fine Foods Network Analysis The review of the current network used at Kudler Fine Foods was determine to be a bus topology as the network topology that is being used. The bus network is set–up in such a way that all the network components are connected via CAT5 to the bus or communication line. This configuration is true at sites in the corporation for their workstations, servers, and stand–alone UPS. A 56k modem is the device that is used by all of the networks communicating to the internet. Hardware and Software The current hardware and software components will need to be upgraded at the three locations for this new network. For starters, each location will need to have a Network Interface Card (NIC) implemented. This will allow the workstations or any other ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Most business networks today use switches to connect computers, printers and servers within a building or campus. A switch serves as a controller, enabling networked devices to talk to each other efficiently. Routers, on the other hand, are a much more sophisticated piece of technology. They are small like a switch and look like modems in which multiple nodes can be connected. Today's routers are actually designed for the purpose of connecting multiple 'area networks' (both local and wide). In terms of the internet, routers actually serve as a temporary destination for network traffic. Routers are capable of transmitting and receiving data packets but will actually 'read' the packet to get its IP address for determining the packet's destination. Unlike the switch, routers are capable of joining the multiple networks together; in the case of Kudler Fine Foods, their three store locations. "Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs. In some cases, a network will utilize only one type of cable, other networks will use a variety of cable types. The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network's topology, protocol, and size." (FCITC, 1997) There are four basic types of cable: Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial Cable, and Fiber Optic Cable. Unshielded twisted pair can range from basic telephone–grade wiring to high–speed cabling. This cable consist of four pairs of wires inside the outer covering each pair twisted with a different number of twists per inch to reduce/eliminate interference from adjacent pair or other devices. The tighter the twisting the higher data rates it supports but it also will increase the cost of the cable. Shielded twisted pair cables are actually shielded from radio and electrical frequencies and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 149. Advantages Of P1 Network Types And Protocols Task1– P1 Network Types and Protocols I will be discussing what is the best type of network for AKA Partners and which ones aren't so good also what connection I would suggest AKA uses in the conference. What's a Network? A Network is two or more computers connected to each other. The purpose of a network is to enable the sharing of files and information between multiple systems. Computer networks can be connected through cables, for instance Ethernet cables or phone lines, or even wirelessly. Pros of Networks: Most Applications require you to have a network to install applications. With a network you can run the install via the network at a faster speed Remote network gives employees access to work from home. Viruses and Trojans ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Ring consists of all computers and other devices that are connected in a loop. A Ring network can be found in Local Area Networks. In a ring network each node connects to two neighbouring nodes. Advantages of a Ring Topology: Correcting errors is easy to do if a node fails. If your Repairing or removing failing nodes and the network will continue to function. Disadvantages of a Ring Topology: A network admin has to physically terminate the entire network to install a new node between existing nodes. If a node fails will affect the entire LAN. Tree combines the characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. Tree consists of groups of star workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable. Tree allows the expansion of an existing network, and enables schools to configure a network to meet their needs. Advantages of a Tree Topology: Spotting the errors and correcting errors are simple. Tree networks can be expanded in the future. Point–Point networks are available on tree topology Disadvantages of a Tree Topology: The length of each segment is limited by the type of cables being used. If the backbone line breaks or fails, the whole line goes
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  • 154. Nt1330 Unit 4 Research Project 1 Unit 4 Research Project 1: Chapter 5 Mind Maps Component Physical Function Logical Function CPU Operates operations that lead to making a PC work. Mastermind of the computer NIC Furnishes a PC with a physical connection to the PC system. Cables and Connectors Coaxial Cable, UTP, RJ45 Interfaces the PC to different things, for example, force source, Ethernet. Local area switch ,Router ,Bridge System extension used to make an association between two different PC systems or to gap one system into two. LAN switch–gives a focal association between two or more PCs on a system. Switch advances information parcels between PC systems OS ,Microsoft Windows,Linux. Operating systems, memory management is the function responsible for managing the computer's ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Permits the PC to perform different assignments send and get email, turn upward sites, and so on 2. Important types of local area network and wide area networks technologies: LAN Technologies How used in Data Network WAN Technologies How Used in Data Network Ethernet Physical systems administration innovation used to convey information over the web. Point to Point Protocol =PPP For correspondence between two PCs utilizing a serial interface or a PC joined by telephone line to a server. Logical Ring Joined in a ring or star topology and a bit–or token–passing plan is utilized as a part of request to keep the impact of information between two PCs that need to send messages in the meantime. Abnormal state Data Link Control Information is composed into a unit (called an edge) and sent over a system to a destination that confirms its effective entry likewise deals with the stream or pacing at which information is sent. Fiber Distributed Data Interface. Measures for information transmission on fiber optic lines–can stretch out in reach up to 124 miles. Asynchronous Transfer Mode =ATM composes computerized information into 53–byte cell units and transmits them more than a physical medium utilizing advanced sign ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 158. Network Built For Local Area Networks Essay WANs are systems built for information exchange that connects computers from anywhere in the world across the globe. A wide area network (WAN) is generally used by large corporations or organizations. WANs are very useful to these sorts of associations because it easily allows them to deploy data from their computers to disseminate offices. Large organizations that use multiple facilities usually end up using WANs. Smaller businesses are increasingly using WANs as well. They are able to use WANs if they have at least two secluded sites. WAN usually connects two or more LANs together. LAN stands for local area networks. The internet that we all use is very much considered a WAN. WANs have existed for many years. They are methodical and controlled much differently from other types of telecommunication systems. WANs are very similar to LANs because they serve almost the same purpose. WANs are still a bit more intricate than LANs of course. In order for a user to use WAN, they first would have to subscribe to a telecommunication providers service. The organizations that choose to use WANs do not own or control any of the communication lines that connect the secluded network systems to other computers. WANs are not used to connect individual computers with each other. They were built to link different LANs together. When the WAN connects the LANs to each other this is called internetwork. Routers and remote bridges play a part to the internetwork as ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 162. Virtual Network : Virtual Private Network Essay Today, the technology VPN (Virtual Private Network) has established strong recognition among IT people and every administrator is committed to organize VPN–channels for employees working outside the office. Virtual Private Network is an association of individual machines, or virtual LAN network, which ensures the integrity and security of data transmitting. It has the properties of a dedicated private network and allows data transfer between two computers via an intermediate network such as Internet. VPN has a number of economic advantages over other methods of remote access. Firstly, users can access the corporate network, without installing with its switched connection, thus eliminating the need to use modems. Secondly, there is no need for the leased line, which helps to reduce a cost. The main reason that companies use secure VPN, is that they want to send "sensitive" and / or confidential information over the Internet, without fear that someone will be able to intercept and read the transmitted data. Providers implementing technology trusted VPN, interested in transferring data at a pre–specified routes through a network of one or more trusted providers. Differences between trusted and secure VPN stand at the stage of defining requirements to the network. Secure VPN guarantee the confidentiality of information transmitted, but not responsible for the transmission routes. Trusted VPN provides the necessary routing and delivery time, maintaining the required level of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...