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POLICE CRITICAL
INCIDENT
MANAGEMENT
A critical incident (CI) is defined as:
•any incident where the
effectiveness of the police response
is likely to have a significant impact
on the confidence of the victim,
their family and/or the community.
Critical Incident Management
•defines the process of organization's
operations, services and functions to
manage high-priority assets and situations.
A Critical Incident is also defined as ‘a
threat to the operation, safety or
reputation of an organization and these
threats are unpredictable and surprising.
•Police critical incident management was created
in order to serve its purpose which is to restore
the normal operation, services and functions of
such management.
•Furthermore, incident management provides a
plan to avoid or lessen the damage that could
be done because these threats are
unpredictable and surprising incident
management gives significant impact when it
comes to preparation and readiness to the
outcome of the critical incident.
PRINCIPLES OF
CRITICAL INCIDENT
MANAGEMENT
• Critical incident management (CIM) is intended
to provide a response which satisfies the needs of
the victim, their family and the community, but also
provides an effective and proportionate outcome
to an incident.
• The definition is deliberately broad and should
ensure that incidents which are likely to escalate
into a CI are not missed. It recognizes the
fundamental importance of community confidence
and trust in the police response to CIs, and applies
equally to serious, less serious and internal
incidents.
•Although high-profile and/or large-
scale incidents are more likely to
develop into or contain multiple CIs,
less serious incidents and internal
incidents can, and do, escalate.
A CI may appear to come from
nowhere, but usually there are
warning signs.
Keywords
•Effectiveness
•Significant impact
•Confidence
•Likely
Police Response
•An incident can escalate to a CI when
the police response to crime,
disorder or anti-social behavior (ASB)
fails to meet the expectations of the
victim, their family and/or the
community.
PERSONAL TRAITS IN
INCIDENT
MANAGEMENT
1.INITIATIVE
•Officers must have the zeal to fight crime.
Although much police work does not
specifically address illegal acts, crime can
cause major problems in communities and
create social unrest. Law enforcement
personnel need to remain aware of
chances to discover such issues and act
accordingly.
2. SENSE OF ETHICS
• Law enforcement personnel must strive to behave
ethically—to do the right thing. They must commit
to proper principles and values as guides to their
actions and adhere to the Constitution and
pertinent statutory laws. The pursuit of ethical
behavior never ends. Police administrators,
managers, supervisors, and, most important,
patrol officers should consider the promotion of
ethical behavior a top concern.
3. RESPECT AND KNOWLEDGE OF LAWS
• Police applicants must know and adhere to
federal and state laws. The Constitution serves
as the founding legal document and provides
the basic parameters of much of the activity of
law enforcement personnel. It is not negotiable.
Officers should appreciate this fact and conduct
themselves accordingly. Although they may
find it challenging, as custodians of the
Constitution police officers must respect its
boundaries.
4. COMMUNICATION SKILLS
• Recruiters must focus on applicants’ verbal and nonverbal
communication abilities. Although writing skills are valuable
and warrant examination, officers’ ability to effectively relate
face-to-face with community members holds the most
importance. In the current environment of policing, with heavy
emphasis on tactical maneuvers, officers seldom favor training
to sharpen their communication skills. However, officers spend
much more time talking to complainants, witnesses, suspects,
and the public at large than they do engaging in tactical
encounters, although all police contacts involve some degree
of proper tactics. Clearly, the relationship between the two
must be understood.
5. COMMON SENSE
• Common sense is “the ability to think and behave in a
reasonable way and to make good decisions” and “sound
and prudent judgment based on a simple perception of
the situation.
• ”2 Synonyms, like horse sense and levelheadedness,
coupled with related words, such as street smarts and
practicality, sum it up. Officers need to make common
sense part of all their decisions and avoid the extremes
on either end of the continuum. Having and applying
common sense can both solve and prevent problems.
6. CIVILITY
• Characteristics of civility—represented by action or
inaction—include tolerance, kindness, consideration,
and understanding. It has been described as a
willingness to sacrifice personal desires for the
betterment of the community.
• In policing, the proper use of civility is crucial to
overall success. Officers who have appropriate
“bedside manner” with citizens avoid many of the
verbal and physical hazards prevalent in policing.
Civility is not a sign of weakness, and, properly
exercised, it can enhance officer safety.
7. SERVICE MENTALITY
•People choose their careers for a variety of
reasons. When they select policing, it is
critical for long-term success that they want
to help people. The internal desire to make
the community better by protecting and
serving should drive police applicants.
Individuals who do not like interacting with
and helping people should not explore
policing as an employment option.
Maximum Tolerance and Presumption of Duty
•Maximum tolerance means the highest
degree of restraint that the military, police
and other peace keeping authorities shall
observe during a. public assembly or in the
dispersal of the same. It is frequently said
that a presumption of regularity the
performance of administrative duties.
Duties of PNP Critical Crisis Management
•The PNP shall act as the first
responder in the affected area in
order to provide area security and
support in the conduct of search,
rescue and retrieval operations to
be spearheaded by the area
DRRMCs
TYPES,
CHARACTERISTICS AND
PHASES OF CRITICAL
INCIDENT
MANAGEMENT
GROUP 2
Human-induced (man-made) critical incidents are the
responsibilities of the National and Local Peace and Order
Council (NPOC) while Natural calamities and disasters
are the responsibilities of the National and Local Disaster
Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC).
Lower-level organizations of the NPOC and NDRRMC take
cognizance of the responsibilities ascribed in their national
organization. The PNP, being at the forefront of crisis
situations, must play an active role by organizing its own
Critical Incident Management Committee (CIMC) to
support the NPOC and NDRRMC.
TYPES OF CRITICAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT
NATURAL
[1] Natural Calamity and Disaster. In the event of natural calamity and disaster,
the PNP shall act as the first responder in the affected area in order to provide area
security and support in the conduct of search, rescue and retrieval operations to be
spearheaded by the area DRRMCs.
The following are considered Natural Disaster Incidents:
1. Incidents:
2. Floods;
3. Landslides;
4. Volcanic Eruption;
5. Earthquake;
6. Tidal Wave;
7. Tsunami;
8. Storm surge;
9. Forest fire;
10. Drought;
11. Meteorite impact;
12. Tornado; and
13. Other natural hazards that may lead to colossal loss of
property and lives.
MAN-MADE
[2] Human-Induced Incidents. In the event of human-
induced incidents, the PNP shall respond to two different
situations:
 To manage an incident that could be resolved by
ordinary police response without the involvement of
the Crisis Management Committee (CMC);
 To manage an incident that needs a CMC–directed
operation requiring the implementation of special
tasks by one or more of the urgent services of the
Philippine government.
11. Mass Transport Accidents;
12. Aircraft Hijackings;
13. Sea Mishaps;
14. Bombings;
15. Indiscriminate active shooting;
16. Mass actions;
17. Mass poisoning;
18. Drone attack;
19. Gas leaks;
20. Nuclear and Radiation Accidents21.
Chemical Disaster;
22. Biological Disaster;
23. Cyber-attacks;
24. Epidemic;
25. Pandemic;
26. Stampede;
27. Industrial Accident;
28. Oil spills; and
29. Other similar human-induced critical
incidents that may result in human
casualties and/or mass destruction of
properties and the environment.
The following are considered human-induced critical incidents:
1. Abduction involving prominent personalities
such as national and local government
officials, foreign nationals (diplomats,
ambassadors, consuls, attaches, foreign
tourists), religious leaders from various
religious congregations, and other
personalities whose involvement in incidents
may result in controversies;
2. Attacks on vital installations, communities,
and prominent personalities
3. Jailbreaks;
4. Heinous crimes like assassination, ambush
involving prominent personalities;
5. Robbery hold-up, armored van robbery, and
bank robbery perpetrated by syndicated
groups;
6. Election-Related Violent Incident (ERV);
7. Major Events (International and National)
8. Terrorism;
9. Conflagration Incidents;
10. Major Road Accidents;
Both actions of the PNP in either situation follow the ICS
operational procedures.
 All actions of the PNP in addressing these critical incidents
are in support of the POC – CMCs and DRRMCs with
common objectives of saving lives and properties,
resolution of the critical incidents at the earliest possible
time, and restoration of normalcy in the affected areas.
 Based on the National Crisis Management Core Manual
series of 2012, the National Crisis Management
Framework provides a comprehensive approach to
understand the components of a crisis or the 5Ps of Crisis
Management: Predict, Prevent, Prepare, Perform, and
Post-Action and Assessment (Annex “AA”).
Incident Command System (ICS)
The ICS, provided under National Crisis Management
Core Manual, is structured on six major functional areas:
Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, Finance,
Administration, and Intelligence/Investigation as an optional
seventh functional area that is activated on a case-to-case basis.
(Annex “BB”)
ALERT LEVELS
Alert Levels During Human-Induced Critical Incident. Terrorism and threat group
alert levels shall be disseminated by TDI to all concerned offices based on the
information provided by NICA.
Level 1 (Low) – There is no information to suggest a specific human-induced
critical incident may occur.
Level 2 (Moderate) –Human-induced critical incident is possible, but not likely
Level 3 (High) – There is a strong possibility that human-induced critical
incidents may occur within a short period of time.
Level 4 (Extreme) – A human-induced critical incident has just occurred or has
just been pre-empted;
NOTE: Below is an example of the US Homeland Security during Terror Threat. Do we have
this?
CHARACTERISTICS OF
CRITICAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT
1. POLICE RESPONSE
An incident can escalate to a CI when the police response to crime,
disorder or anti social behavior (ASB) fail to meet the expectation of the
victim, their family and / or the community
2. COMMUNITY IMPACT
A CI may have a significant and potentially long term impact on
community engagement and neighborhood policing. It may also generate
insecurity among vulnerable member of the community and increase fear of
crime and disorder. There is an additional risk that by failing to provide an
effective response, the police may cause repeat victimization
PHASES OF INCIDENT MANAGEMENT
The 5Ps of Crisis Management
Based on the new National Crisis Management Core Manual series of
2012, the National Crisis Management Framework provides a comprehensive
approach to understand the components of a crisis or the 5Ps of Crisis
Management: Predict, Provent, Prepare, Perform and Post- Action and
Assessment." Although the 5Ps are interrelated crucial components of effective
crisis management, these components do not happen in phases, whether
sequential or consequential. Addressing complex or multi-dimensional crises
require activities under Predict. Prepare and Prevent to happen simultaneously
and in a continuous manner even while executing activities under Perform or
responding to an ongoing crisis or conducting Post- Action and Assessment
activities.
Prevent
and Prepare), Reactive Phase (Perform) and Post Conflict Phase (Post-
Action and Assessment)
1.) PROACTIVE PHASE- is designed to predict or prevent the probability of
occurrence of crises at the same time prepare to handle them when such
occur.
a) Predict attempts to remove uncertainty from the future. The Predict
component is undertaken through Strategic, Operational and Tactical Situation
Awareness (SA) processes. Strategic SA is producing foresight and conveying
strategic warnings through Horizon Scanning or Strategic Forecasting. It
scans the environment, identifying weak signals, drivers, inhibitors, wildcards,
threats, hazards, risks, opportunities, and vulnerabilities, among others,
develops foresight and conveys strategic warnings. Operational and Tactical
SA is producing detailed reports against a specified threat, describing the
operating environment where a threat or a crisis could emerge, the threat or
the crisis itself, its potential of becoming a crisis and current efforts and
capabilities of agencies/departments addressing the threat or crisis:
b) Prevent a deliberate action aimed at avoiding future harm by
addressing its causes. It is closely related to mitigation, which accepts that a
potentially harmful incident cannot be prevented, but harmful
consequences arising from it can be minimized by precautionary measures.
There are two preventive measures: the first involves a long-term strategy
that is expected to yield effects. over years; and, the other is operational in
nature (e.g. target hardening). Prevention capability is essentially physical
security. It is the responsibility of government security forces with the
support of Barangay Peacekeeping Action Teams (BPATS) and/or Barangay
Enforcement Teams (BETS) For human-induced incidents, the same
require vigilance and alertness to signs and manifestations of suspicious
looking individuals, warning and alert systems have to be established to
alert the population to minimize the effects of terrorism attacks in terms of
casualties and damages, active and passive security measures; and
c) Prepare essential for effective
response. It covers six essential activities: Plan,
Organize, Train, Equip, Exercise, and Evaluate
and Improve. Simulation and tabletop exercises
evaluate the effectiveness of preparations, bring
out flaws and weaknesses and enable corrections
and remedies to be undertaken, to heighten levels
of readiness of systems, procedures,
organization, equipment and logistics, to bet er
cope with actual crisis.
2) REACTIVE PHASE is the institution of passive and
active security measures, remedy or solution to
destabilizing factors or security flaws to such crisis, or
emergency, vigilance and alertness to signs or
manifestations of developing crisis, or emergency and
establishment of alert systems:
Perform - the actual implementation of contingency
plans when a crisis occurs, despite the proactive
measures undertaken. Once a crisis occurs, priorities
shift from building or enhancing capabilities to
employing resources to save lives, protect property
and environment. and preserve the social, economic,
and political structure of the jurisdiction
3) POST CONFLICT PHASE is the situation when
the proactive sec reactive phases were all done, and
plans for post action and security are the focus and
put into full implementation:
Post-Action and Assessment - a component
which begins when the crisis has been addressed
and the situation is deemed clear. It is in this phase
where the organization is returning to business as
usual. Post- Action activities seek ways to evaluate
and improve prevention.
METHOD AND TECHNIQUESIN
HANDLING CRISIS INCIDENT
MANAGEMENT
Receipt of Hostage Taking(Barricaded) IncidentReport
•Incident Recording
•Deployment of FirstResponder
•Initial Assessment
•Alert all concerned authorities/taskedgroups
MANAGEMENT OF HOSTAGETAKING
(BARRICADED) INCIDENT
Receipt of Hostage Taking(Barricaded) IncidentReport
•Incident Recording
•Deployment of FirstResponder
•Initial Assessment
•Alert all concerned authorities/taskedgroups
MANAGEMENT OF HOSTAGETAKING
(BARRICADED) INCIDENT
Inform immediate commander of thesituation
Assessand continue setting up policeline
Continue to assesscrowd control to preserve theincident/crime
scene
Identify the victim/s and suspect/s, if possible
Establish contact with the hostage taker, if possible
Evacuate other victim/s not takenashostage/s, ifany
Gather information to support future investigation
Continue to assessgroundsituation
Render situationreport
Initial policeresponse
Inform immediate commander of thesituation
Assessand continue setting up policeline
Continue to assesscrowd control to preserve theincident/crime
scene
Identify the victim/s and suspect/s, if possible
Establish contact with the hostage taker, if possible
Evacuate other victim/s not takenashostage/s, ifany
Gather information to support future investigation
Continue to assessgroundsituation
Render situationreport
Initial policeresponse
Receipt of Hostage Taking(Barricaded) IncidentReport
•Incident Recording
•Deployment of FirstResponder
•Initial Assessment
•Alert all concerned authorities/taskedgroups
MANAGEMENT OFKIDNAPPING INCIDENT
Deployment of First Responder:
Upon receipt of the report
Identify exactlocation of incident
Notify Higher Headquarters of the
situation Upon arrival at thescene
Incident/Crime scene safety andassessment
Notify Higher Headquarters of the situation
Life savingmeasures
Incident/Crime scene security andcontrol
MANAGEMENT OFKIDNAPPING INCIDENT
Alert all concerned authorities/tasked groups
PNP TerritorialUnits
PNP CIDG
PACER
Case Referral to PNP Territorial Unit
MakeAssessment of the classification of types ofkidnapping
incident.
Confirm if kidnapping incident istrue.
Refer caseto PACER,other concerned PNP territorial units orto
higher authorit
MANAGEMENT OF KIDNAPPINGINCIDENT
JTF/CIMC/CIMTG Operational Response
Conduct Intelligence Operations to locate victim/s and suspect/s
Once the location ofvictim/s and suspect/s hasbeen determined,
the following shall apply for operationalresponse:
Neighborhood Investigation
Seal and contain thearea
Coordination with other LawEnforcementAgencies
Negotiation for diversionarytactics
Rescuethe victim/s
Apprehend thesuspect/s
MANAGEMENT OF KIDNAPPINGINCIDENT
MANAGEMENT OF DISASTERINCIDENT
(TYPHOON, FLOODING, EARTHQUAKE,
VOLCANIC ERUPTION and TSUNAMI)
KIDNAPPING INCIDENT
Receipt of Forecast/Warning from
Concerned Government Agencies1
(Typhoon1, Flooding1, Earthquake1,
Volcanic Eruption1 AndTsunami1)
Initiate Pre-Disaster IncidentPreparations/Actions2
(Typhoon2, Flooding2, Earthquake2, Volcanic Eruption2
AndTsunami2)
• Coordination with localDRRMC
• Activation of DIMTGs
• Employment of WarningSystem
• Pre-emptive Evacuation
• Readiness of SARassets
• Other Pre-Disaster activities
Application of Collective Disaster Response Action of
Local DIMTG and DRRMC3 (Typhoon3, Flooding3,
Earthquake3, Volcanic Eruption3And Tsunami3)
Forced evacuation/relocation
Detail security at evacuation areas
Otherapplicable disaster response actions
Deployment of SARassets
Preparations for and impending Typhoon/Tropical Storm:
Activation of Disaster Incident Management TaskGroups inareas
expected to be hit by the serious weather disturbance prior to the
expected landfall
Declaration of full disaster response status of PNP units in
affected area until the situationnormalizes
Employ alarm and warning systems asstipulated under DILGMC
2009- 165:
Patrol car sirens
Ringing of churchbells
Useof megaphones
Preparations for and impending Typhoon/Tropical Storm:
Coordinate with local DRRMC for advisory and to support its
disaster response
Activation of Command Center by TaskGroups whosearea ishit
by thedisaster
Assistin the forced relocation/pre-emptive evacuation of
residents in flood-prone areas in coordination with
corresponding LDRRMC
Institute police visibility in vacatedareas
Provide security at designated Evacuation Centers
Ensure readiness of the SARequipment and
supplies
Preparations for and impending Typhoon/Tropical Storm:
Coordinate with local DRRMC for advisory and to support its
disaster response
Activation of Command Center by TaskGroups whosearea ishit
by thedisaster
Assistin the forced relocation/pre-emptive evacuation of
residents in flood-prone areas in coordination with
corresponding LDRRMC
Institute police visibility in vacatedareas
Provide security at designated Evacuation Centers
Ensure readiness of the SARequipment and
supplies
PNP DISASTER RESPONSE CHECKLIST(EARTHQUAKE)
Preparations that a PNP member or unit should do:
Establishment of primary and secondaryevacuation centers
in coordination with concerned agencies andLGUs;
Capability and capacityenhancement:
Earthquake drills/simulation exercises
Inventory of SARequipment
Meetings and coordination with concerned agencies andLGUs;
Public Information Effort on earthquake preparations
thru community visits;
PNP DISASTER RESPONSE CHECKLIST(EARTHQUAKE)
Post Action andAssessment:
•Coordinate with other agenciesfor damageassessment
•Assistin the conduct ofmedical and relief operations
•Continued presence of security at evacuationcenters
•Assistin the clearing of roads from debris and obstacles
•Conduct debriefing on all involved personnel
Handling of media and management ofpress
releases
•Compile lessons learned and bestpractices
•Document disaster responseactivities
PNP DISASTER RESPONSE CHECKLIST (VOLCANICERUPTION)
Preparations for an Impending Volcanic Eruption:
Activate Disaster Incident Management TaskGroup (asper
LOI 35/10 SakloloRevised)
Coordinate with the local Disaster RiskReductionand
Management Council
Alert residents thru previously established warning
system: Patrol carsirens
Ringing of churchbells
Useof megaphones
PNP DISASTER RESPONSE CHECKLIST(TSUNAMI)
Application of Collective Disaster Response Action of Local DIMTG and
DRRMC:
Assist in the imposition of forced relocation of remaining residents to
evacuation centers
Get to higher ground as far inland as possible
Avoid watching a tsunami approaching. It could put you in grave
danger. If you can see the wave, you are too close to escape it
Adjacent PNP units/offices to assist severely affected areas
Operational Response
Designate the On Scene/Ground Commander who will act as the incident
manager
Organize and deploy CDM contingent K9 units and Bomb Squad
Provisions of non lethal weapons such a
s tear gas, rubber bullets, flash bombs, smoke grenades Provision of CDM
equipments Availability of service support such as medical teams,
ambulance, fire andtow trucks Availability of Camera and Video Cam
MANAGEMENT OF CIVIL DISTURBANCE
INCIDENT CHECKLIST
Operational Response
Designate the On Scene/Ground Commander who will act as the incident
manager
Organize and deploy CDM contingent
K9 units and Bomb Squad
Provisions of non lethal weapons such a
s tear gas, rubber bullets, flash bombs, smoke grenades
Provision of CDM equipments
Availability of service support such as medical teams, ambulance, fire and
tow trucks
Availability of Camera and Video Cam
MANAGEMENT OF CIVIL DISTURBANCE
INCIDENT CHECKLIST
Deployment of FirstResponder:
Upon receipt of the report, the First Responder shall:
Identify exact location of incident/crime
Notify Higher Headquarters of the situation
Upon arrival at the scene, the First Responder shall:
Conduct incident/crime scene safety and assessment
Notify higher headquarters of the situation
Perform life saving measures, if necessary
Conduct incident/crime scene security and control
MANAGEMENT OF CRITICAL ROAD (TRAFFIC)INCIDENT
Initial Police Response:
Save and preservelife
Request support immediately from emergency medical services (EMS)
Secure the incident scene to prevent entry of unauthorized persons within
the
cordoned area
Apprehend suspects, if any
Cordon the crime scene with whatever available materials like ropes, straws,
human barricade, police line, wood and chain
Conduct traffic direction and control
Brief and assist the Traffic Investigator-on-Case (TIOC)
Maintain security and crowd control
MANAGEMENT OF CRITICAL ROAD (TRAFFIC)INCIDENT
• Preserve evidence and take
custody of witness/suspects Take
note of names of possible witnesses
and/or suspects
• and other information to
support future
investigation Render
situation reportas
necessary
MANAGEMENT OF CRITICAL ROAD (TRAFFIC)INCIDENT
PREPANDEMIC STAGE- ALERT LEVEL1
(Reference: World Health Organization Alert Level)
NHQ
Master Plan REVISEDSAKLOLO as reference
Direct/inform operating units in all areas to be watchful for entry of biologic agent
based on official health advisories
Conduct community preparedness and disaster prevention
Conduct info campaign thru tri-media and production/dissemination of information
materials
Coordinate with DOH and other concerned government agencies
Direct lower units to submit periodic reports to NHQ
Inventory of PPEs and stockpiling of medicines
MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIC/PANDEMIC
OUTBREAK INCIDENT
PREPANDEMIC STAGE- ALERT LEVEL2
NHQ
Monitoring of cases in coordination with DOH and DA and other concerned agencies
if requested
Direct lower units to establish checkpoints in coordination with DOH and DA
Continuous conduct of information campaign thru tri-media and
production/dissemination of information materials and prevention awareness
Train NHQ units on Rapid Containment and Quarantine Procedures
Direct lower units to submit periodic reports to NHQ
MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIC/PANDEMIC
OUTBREAK INCIDENT
Proactive management of poultries and livestock (keeping bird flu free)
• Watchful for entry of biological agents:
Assist in biosecuritymeasures
Enforcing hygienic activities like standardized footbath
Confiscation and destruction of unlicensed cargo
Banning of all poultry and poultry products from positive infected countries
Assist in border surveillance
Conduct vaccination for all poultry workers and handler
MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIC/PANDEMIC
OUTBREAK INCIDENT
Police Action:
PANDEMIC ALERT LEVEL3
NHQ
Activation of OPLAN SAKLOLO REVISED Subcommitee on Epidemic / Pandemic
Response
Liaison with DOH regarding Pandemic Preparedness Plans
Conduct training on Rapid Containment, Quarantine Safety and Force Protection
Monitoring of cases in coordination with DOH and DA
Direct lower units to establish checkpoints in coordination with DOH and DA
Continuous conduct of information campaign thru tri-media and
production/dissemination of information materials for Prevention Awareness
Prepare for Quarantine and Rapid Containment
Direct lower units to submit periodic reports to NH
MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIC/PANDEMIC
OUTBREAK INCIDENT
CIMC/CIMTG Operational Response
PANDEMIC ALERT LEVEL4
NHQ
Activate the Crisis ManagementCommittee
Activate deployment of TaskForces
Declare alert status in coordinationwith NDRRMC Issuanceof appropriate protective
equipment Continuous conduct of information campaign thru tri-media and
production/dissemination of information materials Continuous conduct of Prevention
awareness Continuous monitoring of casesinaffected areas Linkagesand coordination
with DOH/DA and other concernedgovernment agencies Formation of rapidcontainment
Teamand put on alert status Continuous conduct of on threat/risk assessment Direct
lower units to submit periodicreports
MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIC/PANDEMIC
OUTBREAK INCIDENT
ALERT LEVEL 5 (WHOPHASE 5)
NHQ
Activate the Crisis Management Committee
Activate TaskForces
Declare alert status in coordination with NDRRMC
Issuance of appropriate protective equipment
Continuous conduct of information campaign thru tri-media and
production/dissemination of informationmaterials
Continuous conduct of prevention awareness
Continuous monitoring of cases in affected areas
Linkages and coordination with DOH/DA and other concerned government/ agencies
Continuous conduct of on threat/risk assessment
Rapid Containment Team on Full Alert status
Direct lower units to submit periodic reports
MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIC/PANDEMIC
OUTBREAK INCIDENT
PNP OPERATION DUTIES INSIDETHE HOTZONE
Maintain Peace andOrder
Provide Security forRequesting agency
Conduct normal Police operations but personnel should use appropriate
PPEs &
appropriately briefed on Preventive Measures
Health Service will provide free protection and Healthcare
Assist in the overall Pandemic response effort
MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIC/PANDEMIC
OUTBREAK INCIDENT
Initial police response:
Control the different access points
Assess the establishment of inner and outer perimeter security
Advise control tower to direct pilot in command to bring the aircraft to Isolated
Parking Area (IPA)
Initiate counter intelligenceoperation
Activate Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
Deploy Snipers, Negotiation Team, Tactical Teams, and other Support Groups
MANAGEMENT OF AIRCRAFT HIJACKINGINCIDENT
Initiate Negotiation:
Designate Hostage Negotiator
Set an organized approach and pace of negotiation
Establish communication with the hijackers/suspects
Identify hijackers and determine their weapons
Identify and account passengers being held hostage
Determine motives, objectives and demands of hijackers
Seek the safe release of the hostages
Provide the intelligence information required to support tactical operations and
subsequent investigation and follow-up operations
MANAGEMENT OF AIRCRAFT HIJACKINGINCIDENT
In responding to this kind of incident, the first responder shall ensure that
there is no threat to his safety and security against hazards such as
chemical spill, possible explosions and fire by wearing safety gears (combat
shoes, helmet, gloves, and eye protectors).
MANAGEMENT OF AIRCRAFT CRASHINCIDENT
In case of Land Crash (Off-Airport):
Category 1 (with survivors)
Assist in extricating the victims from the scene, away from the fire
Assist in the evacuation priorities of victims for medical attention
Cordon, secure and preserve the crash site
Coordinate/follow-up assistance from other responding units
Establish ACP in coordination with local officials
Conduct initial interview of survivors, witnesses and account number of victims
Document (take photographs/video) the scene and victims
Conduct briefing to the lead investigating authority prior to turn-over of
responsibility
Prepare and submit incident report
MANAGEMENT OF AIRCRAFT CRASHINCIDENT
• Category 2 (withoutsurvivors)
•Cordon, secure and
preserve the crash site
Coordinate/follow-up
assistance from other
responding units
Establish ACP in
coordination with local
officials
• Conduct initial interview of witnesses
and account number
of fatalities
• Document (take photographs/video) the
MANAGEMENT OF AIRCRAFT CRASHINCIDENT
• Category 2 (withoutsurvivors)
•Cordon, secure and
preserve the crash site
Coordinate/follow-up
assistance from other
responding units
Establish ACP in
coordination with local
officials
• Conduct initial interview of witnesses
and account number
of fatalities
• Document (take photographs/video) the
MANAGEMENT OF AIRCRAFT CRASHINCIDENT
ASSESSMENT OF CRISIS
IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
GROUP 5
• Crisis - Greek word krises, "to separate".
• Crisis - turning point in the progress of an affair or series of events.
• Disaster- serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving
widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which
exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
• Management- process of directing and controlling people and things so that organizational
objectives can be accomplished
• Disaster Management- the organization, planning and application of measures preparing for,
responding to and recovering from disasters.
• Three elements are common to a crisis:
(a) A threat to the organization,
(b) The element of surprise, and
(c) a short decision time.
Venette argues that "crisis is a process of transformation where the
old system can no longer be maintained". Therefore, the fourth
defining quality is the need for change. If change is not needed, the
event could more accurately be described as a failure or incident.
OBJECTIVES OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT
1. Accomplish the task within the framework of current community standards.
2. Safety of all participants.
3. Apprehension of all perpetrators.
4. Resolve crisis without further incident.
1. Natural
*Marine/Air Disasters *Tsunami (tidal wave) Food scarcity/Famine
*Volcanic eruption *Fuel shortage
*Conflagrations *Floods
*Structural collapse *Drought
*Pestillence/epidemic *Earthquake
*Hazardous spills *Typhoon
*Nuclear accidents
*Utilities failure (power, water, telephone)
TYPES OF CRISIS
2. Man Made Crises
a. Boarder Incident c. War
-Conventional
b. Terrorism -Nuclear
-Extortion
-Intimidation d. Revolt
- Bombing -Insurrection
-Arson -Mutiny
-Coup d'etat
e. Civil Disturbance f. Hijacking
- Violent labor strikes - Land
-Riots - Air
-Anarchy -Sea
-Disorderly Mass Demonstration
-Revolution g. Hostage Taking
-Kidnapping
-Attacks/ Raids on gov't installations/ facilities
GENERAL TASKING
Peace and Order Council/National Peace and Order Council
-agency under the DILG
-act on the crisis situation that arises out of man-made emergencies
NATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK REDUCTION COUNCIL (NDRRMC)
-Former National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC)
-Created October 19, 1970
-under the Department of National Defense
-responsible for ensuring the protection and welfare of the people during disasters or
emergencies
-located in Camp Aguinaldo, EDSA cor. Boni Serrano, Q.C.
THE 4P OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT MODEL
1. Prediction
2. Prevention
3. Preparation
4. Performance
PHASES OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT
1. Pro-Active Phase- predict or prevent the probability of occurrence of crises prepare to
handle them when crisis occur
a. Prediction- foretelling the likelihood of crises occurring whether natural or
man-made
b. Prevention- involves the institutions of passive and active security measures,
as well as the remedy of resolution of destabilizing factors and/or
security flaws leading to such crises/emergencies.
c. Preparation - planning, organization, training, and stockpiling of equipment and
supplies
2. Reactive Phase- actual execution or implementation of contingency plan when a
crisis situation occurs
Stages:
a. Initial Action- monitoring the progress of the incident, securing the scene,
protecting the unit, establishing perimeter security, evaluating
innocent civilians, if possible, and preventing the escape of
the perpetrators, until the designated security and tactical
elements/units augment the unit as they arrive.
b. Action- negotiation and tactical action or interventions
c. Post Action- begins as soon as the perpetrators surrender, captured or
neutralized and the crisis situation is deemed cleared
HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION
AND RECOVERY
Definition of Terms:
1. Hostage taker- person who holds other people as hostage
2. Hostage- person held as security for the hostage taker
3. Negotiator- person charged with establishing communication with the hostage
taker(s)
4. Negotiate to arrange or settle by conferring or discussion
PRIORITIES IN HOSTAGE TAKING
1. Preservation of everyone's life; the hostage, hostage taker and the public:
2. Arrest the hostage taker, and
3. Recover and protect property.
PRINCIPLES OF HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION AND RECOVERY
-The hostage has no value to the taker. His only value is a tool to get what the hostage
taker wants, not from the hostage, but from the authorities. For a hostage situation not to
go violent, the negotiator must consider the interest of the hostage taker, as well as the
authorities. In case it goes violent, the authorities must always come out the victor.
Priorities in a hostage situation are preservation of life, the
apprehension of the hostage taker(s) and recovery and protection of
property. To successfully negotiate, there must be a need to live on the part
of the hostage taker because a hostage taker who is bent on killing himself is
a non-negotiable case. If he is not bent on killing himself, his intent therefore
is to free the hostage and not to harm him.
TYPES OF HOSTAGE TAKER
Terrorists
-uses force to achieve a political end
-intimidate or coerce a government, individuals or groups to modify their behavior or
policies
-ideologically inspired individuals or groups who want prestige and power for a
collective goal or higher cause
-Under a leader of the group.
-claiming to be revolutionaries, they resolve to die for a cause
Mentally-deranged
-These people commit terrorist acts during a period of psychiatric disturbance like delusion or
hallucination.
Severe Depression
-He suffers an intense feeling of sadness and misery, which are unwarranted by his physical
condition and external environment.
Personality Disorder (anti-social)
-He is characterized by continuing violation of the rights of others through aggressive harmful
behavior without remorse or loyalty to anyone.
Sociopathic Personality
-He is sociable, easy-going and carefree but bereft of conscience and impulsive.
Paranoid
-He is characterized by suspicious, rigidity, envy, hypersensitivity, excessive self-
importance.
NEGOTIATORS shall be designated by the GROUND COMMANDER No one shall
beallowed to talk to the HOSTAGE-TAKER/S without clearance from the NEGOTIATOR
or ground commander. (Rule 26, Section 3 of the 2010 PNP Operational Procedure).
THE VICTIM (Captivity of Hostages)
One of the notable inquiries revealed a startling result. The case which happened in
Stockholm, Sweden, involved female hostages who were held, together with the robbers.
in a vault for several days. It has been observed that there has been a change of values-
set on the part of hostages after their release; they expressed strong attachment to their
captors, to the point of not testifying against them.
Syndromes in hostage negotiations
1. Stockholm syndrome- This term is used to describe a paradoxical psychological
phenomenon wherein hostages express adulation and have a positive feeling towards
their captors that appear irrational in light of the danger or risk endured by the victim.
(Stockholm Syndrome was coined by Nils Bejerot)
2. Lima Syndrome- An inverse of Stockholm Syndrome called "Lima Syndrome" has
been proposed, in which abductors develop sympathy for their hostages. (it was named
after the abduction of Japanese Embassy in Lima Peru in 1996) 3. London Syndrome one
or more hostages respond to captors with belligerence and non-cooperation.
TO KNOW:
a. All units to know whose command they are under:
b. Rescue effort should run from top to bottom;
c. There should be no flights of imagination and daring actions from individual members
1. Several negotiators should be trained - with knowledge of different dialects or each of
themajor dialects of the Philippines. The group to train in various locations of the place (city,
town etc.) on probable site of incidents, routes and place of destinations (air terminals to
attune them on various situations).
2. Psychology analyze various situations and develop strategies using psychological
technique rather than to obtain release of hostages. Point of training is to provide basis for
understanding and anticipating hostage takers' moves, as well as possible reactions to police
tactics.
3. Physical Training physical conditioning, weapon disarming method and unarmed self-
defense.
4. Firearms - .38 and 45 caliber; sniper scope rifle; shotgun (double barrel); sub-machine
gun; tear gas launcher with bullet proof vest.
5. Electronic Equipment- familiarization with the use of monophony, wireless
transmitter, electric tracking devices, walkie-talkie, etc.
6. Emergency Rescue Ambulance- how to use or operate auxiliary equipments;
public address system; fire unit; first aid gear-ambulance may be used as a safe base
to start negotiation.
7. Vehicle Operation- escape vehicle and chase vehicle with attention placed on street
and routes from various locations in the site of incidents to destination (airport or other
terminals).
8. Liaison jurisdiction matters cleared; cooperation with other agencies routes must
be sought.
Upon arrival at the scene of the incident the negotiator should execute/act immediately the
following.
1. Containment- controlling situation and area by people involved. Other people/bystanders must
be obliged to get out from the area as they may add more problems.
2. Establish Contact- immediately after positioning at advantage position, communicate with the
leader.
- He may introduce himself by saying "My name is_____. I am a _____. I am willing to help."
-Never tell him your rank; the hostage taker might think you can give all. So that he may ask for
impossible demand.
-Neither should the negotiator give the feeling that he has the authority to decide. Do not bluff.
Deal only with the leader to avoid complication and further demand.
3. Time Lengthening- give more time to the police to organize and coordinate plan of action.
4. Telephone Negotiation Technique- Be the caller, plan and prepare, be ready with graceful exit,
and discipline yourself to listen. Do not tell that you are the commander, neither your rank.
Use delaying tactics to wear down the hostage taker(s), physically and psychologically. Give time
for the police to organize and coordinate plans or course of action.
Where the demand is impossible to get, stall time by explaining that you still need to talk to other
people. Hold on to your concession. But when concession is granted, try to get something in return.
Say, a grant of food, get the release of sick or old people in exchange. When there is no demand,
hostage taker may really have no demand at all.
5. Need of face-to-face- Don't be over anxious, prepare for proper psychological, physical
and emotional confrontation. Wear body armor, possess a weapon, but if asks to come without
weapon, ensure that they too should lay down arms before entering. In entering, see to it that
you are protected with tactical back up. And consider that hostage taker might have body trap
in some portions of the area - door or window of the building. Coming up on face-to-face
situation, maintain proper distance, observe their movement. Elicit a promise or motivate them
to surrender.
6. Surrender Approach start with a position approach; act as if hostage will surrender. Do not
talk too much. Gradually ask him to surrender. Reassurance is the wisest thing to do. Talk
details of surrender process. And explain why now is better than later.
WHY THE COMMANDER SHOULD NOT BE THE
NEGOTIATOR:
1. Hostage taker will have sense of importance.
2. He may make impossible demands, knowing that he is dealing with the
commander.
3. Conflict of Commander as negotiator and commander.
4. As a cardinal rule, commander do not negotiate, negotiator do not command.
ADVANTAGES OF COMMUNICATION (between the hostage taker and the negotiator)
1. Lessens tension of hostage taker(s).
2. Gives more time for authorities to plan and coordinate course of action.
DISADVANTAGE OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATION
1. Impersonal- cannot see the hostage reaction.
SURRENDER APPROACH
1. Start with a positive approach. Act as if the hostage taker will surrender;
2. Don't talk too much;
3. Ask why hostage taker is reluctant-assure him of security;
4. Make sure hostage taker understands;
5. Gradually ask him to surrender:
6. Don't impose; never go to him at once.
WHAT ARE NON-NEGOTIABLE ITEMS?
Weapons
Ammunitions
HOSTAGE TAKER-NEGOTIATOR RELATIONSHIP
1. Trust and Rapport- While trust must be there, beware of it.
2. Deceit- tell lies but do not be caught.
DEMAND OF HOSTAGE TAKER(S):
-Money
-Containing people
-Escape
-Vehicle
RULES:
1. Delay, impress with the hostage taker(s) that even simple demands are hard to get;
that you need to talk with the commander or other people, etc;
2. Get something in return for every concession granted, like aged, sick and youngster
hostages;
3. Don't give concession at once; it will be interpreted that you could be gotten easily.
FACE-TO-FACE NEGOTIATION
1. Don't be over anxious;
2. Wear body armor:
3. Have tactical back-up (snipers);
4. Enter the premises without gun being pointed at you:
5. Face-to-face, mountain distance;
a. Personal distance - 1 to 3 feet
b. Intimate distance- about 6 inches
6. Hostage taker's demand may be reduced;
7. Stockholm Syndrome may be develop
PLANNING AND PREPARATION FOR HOSTAGE SITUATION
Designation of Duties:
1. Field Commander
a. Takes charge of all forces
b. Provides containment of hostage taker-sealed off place, evaluate civilians
c. Establishes contact with hostage taker
d. Consults with the commanding officer (high authority) regarding other options
e. Wears civilian clothes
2. Operational Aide
a. Reports to field negotiator
b. Sets up temporary headquarters
c. Coordinates assignment of off-duty personnel arriving at the scene
d. Assigns units as necessary
e. Relays orders/ information to personnel involved; receive requests
3. Administrative Aide
a. Reports of field negotiator
b. Supervises temporary headquarters
c. Maintains record of operation and units at the scene
4. Patrol Personnel (with one leader)
5. Assault Team (with one leader)
a. Sharpshooters (with high powered arms, on flak vests (protective armor)
b. Chemical agent
NEEDED FACILITIES (walkie-talkie) FOR EACH OF THE ABOVE AND WHAT TO DO:
1. Radio set in single frequency (strict discipline needed)
2. Communication to originate from operation aide - form of orders, request or updating
information
WHAT IS IMPORTANT?
Dry Run- a simulated or practice performance or rehearsal of hostage operation:
- one way to ensure hostage-negotiating units is capable of establishing control over a
situation
Considerable Screening
- members, once chosen, should be given free reign in handling and evaluating incidents;
-should a senior officer begins countermanding orders in the site; the results will certainly
be bungled
1. Patrol units, assault unit, etc. should know exactly whose command they are under.
2. Rescue efforts have to run strictly from the top down.
IMPLEMENTATION OF METHODS TO DEAL WITH HOSTAGE SITUATION
Phase 1 (Scene of Incident) after stabilizing situation, hostage takers have been
contained and civilians evacuated out of the area of incident.
1. Set-up communication with hostage taker (establish swiftly) by:
-Telephone lines Walkie-talkie sets in frequency not being used by police
-Written notes
-Face-to-face verbal exchange
-A line-communication may be established to and from the setting - through medical
personnel and ambulance on stand-by.
2. Behavior Guidelines (during negotiation)
-Be the caller,
-Use of civilian clothes;
- Use protective armor:
-Do not suggest of any demand:
-Give room to negotiate-do not cramp, avoid disturbance;
-Stay relaxed;
-Talk to the leader only:
-Elicit a promise;
-Distance 12 to 25 ft (by telephone);
-Make sure you have good cover (hidden or otherwise)
Conserve concession-hold giving in to demand; if giving in at once, demand may come more (say, needs
approval from higher authority etc.) One giving in, ask something in return (say, food, provisions ask for
release of aged/sick). Delay works in favor of authorities.
ON FACE-TO-FACE NEGOTIATIONS:
-Have firearms- if hostage taker demands without firearms, ask him to throw way his
firearms too;
-Have cover (snipers somewhere) to protect you;
-When entering place of hostage taker- be on the lookout for bombs, it may be hidden
behind the door or windows;
-Maintain distance - initially-1 to 3 feet; intimate - 6 inches;
-Be observant of movements;
-Elicit promise;
-Do not allow gun to be pointed at you;
-Reassure hostage taker of security. Explain why now is better than later to surrender.
-Don't ever react- no rigid guidelines in every case. But flexibility is dependent on the
movement of the hostage takers.
-Be observant of movements;
-Elicit promise:
-Do not allow gun to be pointed at you;
-Reassure hostage taker of security. Explain why now is better than later to surrender.
-Don't ever react- no rigid guidelines in every case. But flexibility is dependent on the
movement of the hostage takers.
Crisis and Crimes
Reported by: Group 6
INDIVIDUAL CRISIS
Personal Crisis
Events that have special meaning to individuals and only individuals suffers- failing
exams, divorce, being unemployed, etc.
Confrontation Crisis
 e.g. disputes
Acts of Malevolence
e.g. terrorism, kidnapping
Misconduct Crisis
 e.g. harassment, corruption, fraud, false invoicing
Smoldering Crisis
Problems or issues that start out small and could be fixed if someone was paying
attention or recognized the potential for trouble e.g. financial crisis in an organization,
strike by union etc.
Business-related Crisis
 Sudden death of a crucial leader, serious breach of law, vendor fails to deliver
critical supplies, employee stealing from a client.
BEHAVIORAL CRISIS
BEHAVIORAL CRISIS
A behavioral emergency, also called a behavioral crisis or psychiatric emergency,
occurs when someone's behavior is so out of control that the person becomes a
danger to everyone. The situation is so extreme that the person must be treated
promptly to avoid injury to themselves or others.
SYMPTOMS OF BEHAVIORAL
CRISIS
● Extreme agitation
● Threatening to harm your self or others
● Yelling or screaming
● Irrational thoughts
● Throwing objects and other volatile behavior
REASONS FOR BEHAVIORAL
CRISIS
● Due to Mental illness
● Substance Abuse
● Medical Condition
CONFLICT’s Role
in Behavioral Crisis
CONFLICT
- the word conflict has been
derived from a Latin word
“conflictus” from the two words
com- meaning “together” + fligere-
“to strike”.
- According to Merriam Webster
“a struggle for power, property,
etc.” is known to be a conflict.
- Conflict may be defined as a
friction between two desires,
motives, needs.
Causes of the Behavioral Aspect of Conflict
● The values or the perception of situation by an individual could cause a conflict.
● Personal biases related with religion race or sex can also generate conflict.
● Different view points of individuals about the same thing can also generate conflict.
● The increasing gap between the rich and the poor also causes conflict as the unrealized
expectation of the under privileged causes frustration in their mind which leads to conflict
among the different classes of societies.
● There could be a conflict between the organizational goals and the psychological needs of the
individual employees. The in-consistency between the two can create conflict.
FRUSTRATION’s
Role in Behavioral
Crisis
FRUSTRATION
-is an emotional that
occurs in situations where a
person is blocked from
reaching a desired
outcome.
Signs of Frustration
● Losing your temper
● Incessant bodily movement, such as tapping fingers constantly and perpetual
sighing
● Giving up, leaving
● Feeling sad or anxious
● Lacking self-confidence
● Trouble sleeping
● Turning to drugs and alcohol
● Bodily abuse, starving oneself, or irregular eating habits
BEHAVIORAL DISORDER
● also known as disruptive behavioral disorders, are the most
common reasons that parents are told to take their kids for
mental health assessments and treatment. Behavioral disorders
are also common in adults. If left untreated in childhood, these
disorders can negatively affect a person’s ability to hold a job and
maintain relationships.
Causes of a Behavioral Disorder
● Physical illness or disability
● Malnutrition
● Brain damage
● Hereditary factors
Factors to behaviors associated
with a behavioral disorder
● Divorce or other emotional upset at home
● Coercion from parents
● Unhealthy or inconsistent discipline style
● Poor attitude toward education or schooling
Symptoms of Behavioral Disorders
● Easily getting annoyed or nervous
● Often appearing angry
● Putting blame on others
● Refusing to follow rules or questioning authority
● Arguing and throwing temper tantrums
● Having difficulty in handling frustration
SEXUAL CRISIS LEAD TO
CRIMES
SEXUAL CRISIS
● Sexual abuse is sexual behavior or a sexual act forced upon a
woman, man or child without their consent. Sexual abuse
includes abuse of a woman, man or child by a man, woman or
child
PARAPHILIA / SEXUAL PERVERSION
AND SEXUAL DEVIATION
● Sexual perversion is an old-fashioned diagnostic term that is served as a
label for sexual activities considered outside the norm of heterosexual
sexual desire and activity. This norm was defined as coitus with a person
of the opposite sex with the aim of achieving orgasm through genital
penetration. In short, Paraphilia or Sexual perversion and sexual
deviation are the experiences of intense sexual arousal to typical objects,
situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals.
TYPES OF PARAPHILIA OR
SEAXUAL PERVERSION
AND SEXUAL DEVIATION
EXHIBITIONISTIC
DISORDER
● Exhibitionism is characterized by achievement of sexual excitement through
genital exposure, usually to an unsuspecting stranger. It may also refer to a strong
desire to be observed by other people during sexual activity. It involves acting on
these urges with a nonconsenting person or experiencing significant distress or
functional impairment because of such urges and impulses
● are people who show their sexual organs to other people at a
distance. They do not touch or physically harm the people to
whom they expose their body.
PURE
EXHIBITIONISTS
EXCLUSIVE
EXHIBITIONISTS
● they are individuals who
struggle with being involved in
a romantic relationship and
they are unable to have
sexual relations normally.
Exposing themselves in their
way to get the sexual
satisfaction.
IS EXHIBITIONISTIC
DISIORDER LEAD TO
CRIMES?
For the Criminal Justice System, exhibitionism is a crime, and in almost all
jurisdictions it is considered a misdemeanor, with maximum sentencing being eleven
months and twenty nine days. Although those in the criminal justice system may feel
that exhibitionists need treatment, they also view the behavior as requiring
punishment.
FROTTEURISM
DISORDER
● It is a condition defined as a recurrent and intense sexual arousal from
touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting person,as manifested by
fantasies, urges or behaviors or by rubbing against non-consenting
people for sexual stimulation.
CAUSES OF
FROTTEURISM
● Childhood trauma, such as sexual abuse or an anxiety disorder, can keep
a person from having a normal psychosexual development. People with
this condition may feel contact with strangers is a form of foreplay and
intimacy.
IS FROTTEURISM LEADS TO
CRIME?
Legally, frotteurism is treated as a sexual assault or battery in most jurisdictions.
A sexual assault is a criminal offense and therefore carries potentially serious penalties.
Depending upon the particular circumstances, frotteurism may constitute a
misdemeanor or a felony criminal offense. However, it is usually classified as a
misdemeanor. As a result, legal penalties are often minor. It is difficult to prosecute
frotteurs as intent to touch is difficult to prove
PEDOPHILIC
DISORDER
It is characterized by recurring, intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behavior
involving children usually 13 years old or younger. Pedophiles may be attracted to young
boys, young girls or both, and they may be attracted only to children or to children and
adults. We need to remember that pedophilia, really is folks who target or are sexually
interested in pre-pubescent children, while ephebophiles target teenagers.
PEDOPHILIC DISORDER MAY PRESENT AS:
EXCLUSIVE- attraction is only toward children
NONEXCLUSIVE-you’re attracted to both children and adults
IS PEDOPHILIC DISORDER LEADS TO CRIME?
Adult sexual contact with an underage minor is a crime and a serious moral
wrong REPUBLIC ACT 7610: SPECIAL PROTECTION OF CHILDREN
AGAINST ABUSE,EXPLOITATION AND DISCRIMINATION ACT. AN ACT
PROVIDING FOR STRONGER DETERRENCE AND SPECIAL
PROTECTION AGAINST CHILD ABUSE,EXPLOITATION AND
DISCRIMINATION,PROVIDING PENALTIES FOR IT’S VIOLATION AND
FOR OTHER PURPOSES.
SEXUAL MASOCHISM DISORDER
It is an intentional participation in an activity that involves being humiliated, beaten, bound,
or otherwise abused to experience sexual excitement. Sexual masochism disorder causes significant
distress or significantly impairs functioning. They may seek a partner who may be a sexual sadist. It is
infliction of physical or psychologic suffering humiliation, terror on other person to stimulate sexual
excitement and orgasm.
Activities with a partner include being
• BOUND
• BLINDFOLDED
• SPANKED
• FLAGELLATED
• HUMILIATED BY BEING URINATED OR DEFECATED ON
• FORCED TO CROSS DRESS
• PART OF SIMULATED RAPE
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Police Critical Incident Management Guide

  • 2. A critical incident (CI) is defined as: •any incident where the effectiveness of the police response is likely to have a significant impact on the confidence of the victim, their family and/or the community.
  • 3. Critical Incident Management •defines the process of organization's operations, services and functions to manage high-priority assets and situations. A Critical Incident is also defined as ‘a threat to the operation, safety or reputation of an organization and these threats are unpredictable and surprising.
  • 4. •Police critical incident management was created in order to serve its purpose which is to restore the normal operation, services and functions of such management. •Furthermore, incident management provides a plan to avoid or lessen the damage that could be done because these threats are unpredictable and surprising incident management gives significant impact when it comes to preparation and readiness to the outcome of the critical incident.
  • 6. • Critical incident management (CIM) is intended to provide a response which satisfies the needs of the victim, their family and the community, but also provides an effective and proportionate outcome to an incident. • The definition is deliberately broad and should ensure that incidents which are likely to escalate into a CI are not missed. It recognizes the fundamental importance of community confidence and trust in the police response to CIs, and applies equally to serious, less serious and internal incidents.
  • 7. •Although high-profile and/or large- scale incidents are more likely to develop into or contain multiple CIs, less serious incidents and internal incidents can, and do, escalate. A CI may appear to come from nowhere, but usually there are warning signs.
  • 9. Police Response •An incident can escalate to a CI when the police response to crime, disorder or anti-social behavior (ASB) fails to meet the expectations of the victim, their family and/or the community.
  • 11. 1.INITIATIVE •Officers must have the zeal to fight crime. Although much police work does not specifically address illegal acts, crime can cause major problems in communities and create social unrest. Law enforcement personnel need to remain aware of chances to discover such issues and act accordingly.
  • 12. 2. SENSE OF ETHICS • Law enforcement personnel must strive to behave ethically—to do the right thing. They must commit to proper principles and values as guides to their actions and adhere to the Constitution and pertinent statutory laws. The pursuit of ethical behavior never ends. Police administrators, managers, supervisors, and, most important, patrol officers should consider the promotion of ethical behavior a top concern.
  • 13. 3. RESPECT AND KNOWLEDGE OF LAWS • Police applicants must know and adhere to federal and state laws. The Constitution serves as the founding legal document and provides the basic parameters of much of the activity of law enforcement personnel. It is not negotiable. Officers should appreciate this fact and conduct themselves accordingly. Although they may find it challenging, as custodians of the Constitution police officers must respect its boundaries.
  • 14. 4. COMMUNICATION SKILLS • Recruiters must focus on applicants’ verbal and nonverbal communication abilities. Although writing skills are valuable and warrant examination, officers’ ability to effectively relate face-to-face with community members holds the most importance. In the current environment of policing, with heavy emphasis on tactical maneuvers, officers seldom favor training to sharpen their communication skills. However, officers spend much more time talking to complainants, witnesses, suspects, and the public at large than they do engaging in tactical encounters, although all police contacts involve some degree of proper tactics. Clearly, the relationship between the two must be understood.
  • 15. 5. COMMON SENSE • Common sense is “the ability to think and behave in a reasonable way and to make good decisions” and “sound and prudent judgment based on a simple perception of the situation. • ”2 Synonyms, like horse sense and levelheadedness, coupled with related words, such as street smarts and practicality, sum it up. Officers need to make common sense part of all their decisions and avoid the extremes on either end of the continuum. Having and applying common sense can both solve and prevent problems.
  • 16. 6. CIVILITY • Characteristics of civility—represented by action or inaction—include tolerance, kindness, consideration, and understanding. It has been described as a willingness to sacrifice personal desires for the betterment of the community. • In policing, the proper use of civility is crucial to overall success. Officers who have appropriate “bedside manner” with citizens avoid many of the verbal and physical hazards prevalent in policing. Civility is not a sign of weakness, and, properly exercised, it can enhance officer safety.
  • 17. 7. SERVICE MENTALITY •People choose their careers for a variety of reasons. When they select policing, it is critical for long-term success that they want to help people. The internal desire to make the community better by protecting and serving should drive police applicants. Individuals who do not like interacting with and helping people should not explore policing as an employment option.
  • 18. Maximum Tolerance and Presumption of Duty •Maximum tolerance means the highest degree of restraint that the military, police and other peace keeping authorities shall observe during a. public assembly or in the dispersal of the same. It is frequently said that a presumption of regularity the performance of administrative duties.
  • 19. Duties of PNP Critical Crisis Management •The PNP shall act as the first responder in the affected area in order to provide area security and support in the conduct of search, rescue and retrieval operations to be spearheaded by the area DRRMCs
  • 20. TYPES, CHARACTERISTICS AND PHASES OF CRITICAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT GROUP 2
  • 21. Human-induced (man-made) critical incidents are the responsibilities of the National and Local Peace and Order Council (NPOC) while Natural calamities and disasters are the responsibilities of the National and Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC). Lower-level organizations of the NPOC and NDRRMC take cognizance of the responsibilities ascribed in their national organization. The PNP, being at the forefront of crisis situations, must play an active role by organizing its own Critical Incident Management Committee (CIMC) to support the NPOC and NDRRMC. TYPES OF CRITICAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT
  • 22. NATURAL [1] Natural Calamity and Disaster. In the event of natural calamity and disaster, the PNP shall act as the first responder in the affected area in order to provide area security and support in the conduct of search, rescue and retrieval operations to be spearheaded by the area DRRMCs.
  • 23. The following are considered Natural Disaster Incidents: 1. Incidents: 2. Floods; 3. Landslides; 4. Volcanic Eruption; 5. Earthquake; 6. Tidal Wave; 7. Tsunami; 8. Storm surge; 9. Forest fire; 10. Drought; 11. Meteorite impact; 12. Tornado; and 13. Other natural hazards that may lead to colossal loss of property and lives.
  • 24. MAN-MADE [2] Human-Induced Incidents. In the event of human- induced incidents, the PNP shall respond to two different situations:  To manage an incident that could be resolved by ordinary police response without the involvement of the Crisis Management Committee (CMC);  To manage an incident that needs a CMC–directed operation requiring the implementation of special tasks by one or more of the urgent services of the Philippine government.
  • 25.
  • 26. 11. Mass Transport Accidents; 12. Aircraft Hijackings; 13. Sea Mishaps; 14. Bombings; 15. Indiscriminate active shooting; 16. Mass actions; 17. Mass poisoning; 18. Drone attack; 19. Gas leaks; 20. Nuclear and Radiation Accidents21. Chemical Disaster; 22. Biological Disaster; 23. Cyber-attacks; 24. Epidemic; 25. Pandemic; 26. Stampede; 27. Industrial Accident; 28. Oil spills; and 29. Other similar human-induced critical incidents that may result in human casualties and/or mass destruction of properties and the environment. The following are considered human-induced critical incidents: 1. Abduction involving prominent personalities such as national and local government officials, foreign nationals (diplomats, ambassadors, consuls, attaches, foreign tourists), religious leaders from various religious congregations, and other personalities whose involvement in incidents may result in controversies; 2. Attacks on vital installations, communities, and prominent personalities 3. Jailbreaks; 4. Heinous crimes like assassination, ambush involving prominent personalities; 5. Robbery hold-up, armored van robbery, and bank robbery perpetrated by syndicated groups; 6. Election-Related Violent Incident (ERV); 7. Major Events (International and National) 8. Terrorism; 9. Conflagration Incidents; 10. Major Road Accidents;
  • 27. Both actions of the PNP in either situation follow the ICS operational procedures.  All actions of the PNP in addressing these critical incidents are in support of the POC – CMCs and DRRMCs with common objectives of saving lives and properties, resolution of the critical incidents at the earliest possible time, and restoration of normalcy in the affected areas.  Based on the National Crisis Management Core Manual series of 2012, the National Crisis Management Framework provides a comprehensive approach to understand the components of a crisis or the 5Ps of Crisis Management: Predict, Prevent, Prepare, Perform, and Post-Action and Assessment (Annex “AA”).
  • 28. Incident Command System (ICS) The ICS, provided under National Crisis Management Core Manual, is structured on six major functional areas: Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, Finance, Administration, and Intelligence/Investigation as an optional seventh functional area that is activated on a case-to-case basis. (Annex “BB”)
  • 29. ALERT LEVELS Alert Levels During Human-Induced Critical Incident. Terrorism and threat group alert levels shall be disseminated by TDI to all concerned offices based on the information provided by NICA. Level 1 (Low) – There is no information to suggest a specific human-induced critical incident may occur. Level 2 (Moderate) –Human-induced critical incident is possible, but not likely Level 3 (High) – There is a strong possibility that human-induced critical incidents may occur within a short period of time. Level 4 (Extreme) – A human-induced critical incident has just occurred or has just been pre-empted; NOTE: Below is an example of the US Homeland Security during Terror Threat. Do we have this?
  • 30.
  • 31. CHARACTERISTICS OF CRITICAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT 1. POLICE RESPONSE An incident can escalate to a CI when the police response to crime, disorder or anti social behavior (ASB) fail to meet the expectation of the victim, their family and / or the community
  • 32. 2. COMMUNITY IMPACT A CI may have a significant and potentially long term impact on community engagement and neighborhood policing. It may also generate insecurity among vulnerable member of the community and increase fear of crime and disorder. There is an additional risk that by failing to provide an effective response, the police may cause repeat victimization
  • 33. PHASES OF INCIDENT MANAGEMENT The 5Ps of Crisis Management Based on the new National Crisis Management Core Manual series of 2012, the National Crisis Management Framework provides a comprehensive approach to understand the components of a crisis or the 5Ps of Crisis Management: Predict, Provent, Prepare, Perform and Post- Action and Assessment." Although the 5Ps are interrelated crucial components of effective crisis management, these components do not happen in phases, whether sequential or consequential. Addressing complex or multi-dimensional crises require activities under Predict. Prepare and Prevent to happen simultaneously and in a continuous manner even while executing activities under Perform or responding to an ongoing crisis or conducting Post- Action and Assessment activities.
  • 34.
  • 35. Prevent and Prepare), Reactive Phase (Perform) and Post Conflict Phase (Post- Action and Assessment) 1.) PROACTIVE PHASE- is designed to predict or prevent the probability of occurrence of crises at the same time prepare to handle them when such occur. a) Predict attempts to remove uncertainty from the future. The Predict component is undertaken through Strategic, Operational and Tactical Situation Awareness (SA) processes. Strategic SA is producing foresight and conveying strategic warnings through Horizon Scanning or Strategic Forecasting. It scans the environment, identifying weak signals, drivers, inhibitors, wildcards, threats, hazards, risks, opportunities, and vulnerabilities, among others, develops foresight and conveys strategic warnings. Operational and Tactical SA is producing detailed reports against a specified threat, describing the operating environment where a threat or a crisis could emerge, the threat or the crisis itself, its potential of becoming a crisis and current efforts and capabilities of agencies/departments addressing the threat or crisis:
  • 36.
  • 37. b) Prevent a deliberate action aimed at avoiding future harm by addressing its causes. It is closely related to mitigation, which accepts that a potentially harmful incident cannot be prevented, but harmful consequences arising from it can be minimized by precautionary measures. There are two preventive measures: the first involves a long-term strategy that is expected to yield effects. over years; and, the other is operational in nature (e.g. target hardening). Prevention capability is essentially physical security. It is the responsibility of government security forces with the support of Barangay Peacekeeping Action Teams (BPATS) and/or Barangay Enforcement Teams (BETS) For human-induced incidents, the same require vigilance and alertness to signs and manifestations of suspicious looking individuals, warning and alert systems have to be established to alert the population to minimize the effects of terrorism attacks in terms of casualties and damages, active and passive security measures; and
  • 38.
  • 39. c) Prepare essential for effective response. It covers six essential activities: Plan, Organize, Train, Equip, Exercise, and Evaluate and Improve. Simulation and tabletop exercises evaluate the effectiveness of preparations, bring out flaws and weaknesses and enable corrections and remedies to be undertaken, to heighten levels of readiness of systems, procedures, organization, equipment and logistics, to bet er cope with actual crisis.
  • 40.
  • 41. 2) REACTIVE PHASE is the institution of passive and active security measures, remedy or solution to destabilizing factors or security flaws to such crisis, or emergency, vigilance and alertness to signs or manifestations of developing crisis, or emergency and establishment of alert systems: Perform - the actual implementation of contingency plans when a crisis occurs, despite the proactive measures undertaken. Once a crisis occurs, priorities shift from building or enhancing capabilities to employing resources to save lives, protect property and environment. and preserve the social, economic, and political structure of the jurisdiction
  • 42.
  • 43. 3) POST CONFLICT PHASE is the situation when the proactive sec reactive phases were all done, and plans for post action and security are the focus and put into full implementation: Post-Action and Assessment - a component which begins when the crisis has been addressed and the situation is deemed clear. It is in this phase where the organization is returning to business as usual. Post- Action activities seek ways to evaluate and improve prevention.
  • 44.
  • 45. METHOD AND TECHNIQUESIN HANDLING CRISIS INCIDENT MANAGEMENT
  • 46. Receipt of Hostage Taking(Barricaded) IncidentReport •Incident Recording •Deployment of FirstResponder •Initial Assessment •Alert all concerned authorities/taskedgroups MANAGEMENT OF HOSTAGETAKING (BARRICADED) INCIDENT
  • 47. Receipt of Hostage Taking(Barricaded) IncidentReport •Incident Recording •Deployment of FirstResponder •Initial Assessment •Alert all concerned authorities/taskedgroups MANAGEMENT OF HOSTAGETAKING (BARRICADED) INCIDENT
  • 48. Inform immediate commander of thesituation Assessand continue setting up policeline Continue to assesscrowd control to preserve theincident/crime scene Identify the victim/s and suspect/s, if possible Establish contact with the hostage taker, if possible Evacuate other victim/s not takenashostage/s, ifany Gather information to support future investigation Continue to assessgroundsituation Render situationreport Initial policeresponse
  • 49. Inform immediate commander of thesituation Assessand continue setting up policeline Continue to assesscrowd control to preserve theincident/crime scene Identify the victim/s and suspect/s, if possible Establish contact with the hostage taker, if possible Evacuate other victim/s not takenashostage/s, ifany Gather information to support future investigation Continue to assessgroundsituation Render situationreport Initial policeresponse
  • 50. Receipt of Hostage Taking(Barricaded) IncidentReport •Incident Recording •Deployment of FirstResponder •Initial Assessment •Alert all concerned authorities/taskedgroups MANAGEMENT OFKIDNAPPING INCIDENT
  • 51. Deployment of First Responder: Upon receipt of the report Identify exactlocation of incident Notify Higher Headquarters of the situation Upon arrival at thescene Incident/Crime scene safety andassessment Notify Higher Headquarters of the situation Life savingmeasures Incident/Crime scene security andcontrol MANAGEMENT OFKIDNAPPING INCIDENT
  • 52. Alert all concerned authorities/tasked groups PNP TerritorialUnits PNP CIDG PACER Case Referral to PNP Territorial Unit MakeAssessment of the classification of types ofkidnapping incident. Confirm if kidnapping incident istrue. Refer caseto PACER,other concerned PNP territorial units orto higher authorit MANAGEMENT OF KIDNAPPINGINCIDENT
  • 53. JTF/CIMC/CIMTG Operational Response Conduct Intelligence Operations to locate victim/s and suspect/s Once the location ofvictim/s and suspect/s hasbeen determined, the following shall apply for operationalresponse: Neighborhood Investigation Seal and contain thearea Coordination with other LawEnforcementAgencies Negotiation for diversionarytactics Rescuethe victim/s Apprehend thesuspect/s MANAGEMENT OF KIDNAPPINGINCIDENT
  • 54. MANAGEMENT OF DISASTERINCIDENT (TYPHOON, FLOODING, EARTHQUAKE, VOLCANIC ERUPTION and TSUNAMI) KIDNAPPING INCIDENT
  • 55. Receipt of Forecast/Warning from Concerned Government Agencies1 (Typhoon1, Flooding1, Earthquake1, Volcanic Eruption1 AndTsunami1)
  • 56. Initiate Pre-Disaster IncidentPreparations/Actions2 (Typhoon2, Flooding2, Earthquake2, Volcanic Eruption2 AndTsunami2) • Coordination with localDRRMC • Activation of DIMTGs • Employment of WarningSystem • Pre-emptive Evacuation • Readiness of SARassets • Other Pre-Disaster activities
  • 57. Application of Collective Disaster Response Action of Local DIMTG and DRRMC3 (Typhoon3, Flooding3, Earthquake3, Volcanic Eruption3And Tsunami3) Forced evacuation/relocation Detail security at evacuation areas Otherapplicable disaster response actions Deployment of SARassets
  • 58. Preparations for and impending Typhoon/Tropical Storm: Activation of Disaster Incident Management TaskGroups inareas expected to be hit by the serious weather disturbance prior to the expected landfall Declaration of full disaster response status of PNP units in affected area until the situationnormalizes Employ alarm and warning systems asstipulated under DILGMC 2009- 165: Patrol car sirens Ringing of churchbells Useof megaphones
  • 59. Preparations for and impending Typhoon/Tropical Storm: Coordinate with local DRRMC for advisory and to support its disaster response Activation of Command Center by TaskGroups whosearea ishit by thedisaster Assistin the forced relocation/pre-emptive evacuation of residents in flood-prone areas in coordination with corresponding LDRRMC Institute police visibility in vacatedareas Provide security at designated Evacuation Centers Ensure readiness of the SARequipment and supplies
  • 60. Preparations for and impending Typhoon/Tropical Storm: Coordinate with local DRRMC for advisory and to support its disaster response Activation of Command Center by TaskGroups whosearea ishit by thedisaster Assistin the forced relocation/pre-emptive evacuation of residents in flood-prone areas in coordination with corresponding LDRRMC Institute police visibility in vacatedareas Provide security at designated Evacuation Centers Ensure readiness of the SARequipment and supplies
  • 61. PNP DISASTER RESPONSE CHECKLIST(EARTHQUAKE) Preparations that a PNP member or unit should do: Establishment of primary and secondaryevacuation centers in coordination with concerned agencies andLGUs; Capability and capacityenhancement: Earthquake drills/simulation exercises Inventory of SARequipment Meetings and coordination with concerned agencies andLGUs; Public Information Effort on earthquake preparations thru community visits;
  • 62. PNP DISASTER RESPONSE CHECKLIST(EARTHQUAKE) Post Action andAssessment: •Coordinate with other agenciesfor damageassessment •Assistin the conduct ofmedical and relief operations •Continued presence of security at evacuationcenters •Assistin the clearing of roads from debris and obstacles •Conduct debriefing on all involved personnel Handling of media and management ofpress releases •Compile lessons learned and bestpractices •Document disaster responseactivities
  • 63. PNP DISASTER RESPONSE CHECKLIST (VOLCANICERUPTION) Preparations for an Impending Volcanic Eruption: Activate Disaster Incident Management TaskGroup (asper LOI 35/10 SakloloRevised) Coordinate with the local Disaster RiskReductionand Management Council Alert residents thru previously established warning system: Patrol carsirens Ringing of churchbells Useof megaphones
  • 64. PNP DISASTER RESPONSE CHECKLIST(TSUNAMI) Application of Collective Disaster Response Action of Local DIMTG and DRRMC: Assist in the imposition of forced relocation of remaining residents to evacuation centers Get to higher ground as far inland as possible Avoid watching a tsunami approaching. It could put you in grave danger. If you can see the wave, you are too close to escape it Adjacent PNP units/offices to assist severely affected areas
  • 65. Operational Response Designate the On Scene/Ground Commander who will act as the incident manager Organize and deploy CDM contingent K9 units and Bomb Squad Provisions of non lethal weapons such a s tear gas, rubber bullets, flash bombs, smoke grenades Provision of CDM equipments Availability of service support such as medical teams, ambulance, fire andtow trucks Availability of Camera and Video Cam MANAGEMENT OF CIVIL DISTURBANCE INCIDENT CHECKLIST
  • 66. Operational Response Designate the On Scene/Ground Commander who will act as the incident manager Organize and deploy CDM contingent K9 units and Bomb Squad Provisions of non lethal weapons such a s tear gas, rubber bullets, flash bombs, smoke grenades Provision of CDM equipments Availability of service support such as medical teams, ambulance, fire and tow trucks Availability of Camera and Video Cam MANAGEMENT OF CIVIL DISTURBANCE INCIDENT CHECKLIST
  • 67. Deployment of FirstResponder: Upon receipt of the report, the First Responder shall: Identify exact location of incident/crime Notify Higher Headquarters of the situation Upon arrival at the scene, the First Responder shall: Conduct incident/crime scene safety and assessment Notify higher headquarters of the situation Perform life saving measures, if necessary Conduct incident/crime scene security and control MANAGEMENT OF CRITICAL ROAD (TRAFFIC)INCIDENT
  • 68. Initial Police Response: Save and preservelife Request support immediately from emergency medical services (EMS) Secure the incident scene to prevent entry of unauthorized persons within the cordoned area Apprehend suspects, if any Cordon the crime scene with whatever available materials like ropes, straws, human barricade, police line, wood and chain Conduct traffic direction and control Brief and assist the Traffic Investigator-on-Case (TIOC) Maintain security and crowd control MANAGEMENT OF CRITICAL ROAD (TRAFFIC)INCIDENT
  • 69. • Preserve evidence and take custody of witness/suspects Take note of names of possible witnesses and/or suspects • and other information to support future investigation Render situation reportas necessary MANAGEMENT OF CRITICAL ROAD (TRAFFIC)INCIDENT
  • 70. PREPANDEMIC STAGE- ALERT LEVEL1 (Reference: World Health Organization Alert Level) NHQ Master Plan REVISEDSAKLOLO as reference Direct/inform operating units in all areas to be watchful for entry of biologic agent based on official health advisories Conduct community preparedness and disaster prevention Conduct info campaign thru tri-media and production/dissemination of information materials Coordinate with DOH and other concerned government agencies Direct lower units to submit periodic reports to NHQ Inventory of PPEs and stockpiling of medicines MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIC/PANDEMIC OUTBREAK INCIDENT
  • 71. PREPANDEMIC STAGE- ALERT LEVEL2 NHQ Monitoring of cases in coordination with DOH and DA and other concerned agencies if requested Direct lower units to establish checkpoints in coordination with DOH and DA Continuous conduct of information campaign thru tri-media and production/dissemination of information materials and prevention awareness Train NHQ units on Rapid Containment and Quarantine Procedures Direct lower units to submit periodic reports to NHQ MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIC/PANDEMIC OUTBREAK INCIDENT
  • 72. Proactive management of poultries and livestock (keeping bird flu free) • Watchful for entry of biological agents: Assist in biosecuritymeasures Enforcing hygienic activities like standardized footbath Confiscation and destruction of unlicensed cargo Banning of all poultry and poultry products from positive infected countries Assist in border surveillance Conduct vaccination for all poultry workers and handler MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIC/PANDEMIC OUTBREAK INCIDENT
  • 73. Police Action: PANDEMIC ALERT LEVEL3 NHQ Activation of OPLAN SAKLOLO REVISED Subcommitee on Epidemic / Pandemic Response Liaison with DOH regarding Pandemic Preparedness Plans Conduct training on Rapid Containment, Quarantine Safety and Force Protection Monitoring of cases in coordination with DOH and DA Direct lower units to establish checkpoints in coordination with DOH and DA Continuous conduct of information campaign thru tri-media and production/dissemination of information materials for Prevention Awareness Prepare for Quarantine and Rapid Containment Direct lower units to submit periodic reports to NH MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIC/PANDEMIC OUTBREAK INCIDENT
  • 74. CIMC/CIMTG Operational Response PANDEMIC ALERT LEVEL4 NHQ Activate the Crisis ManagementCommittee Activate deployment of TaskForces Declare alert status in coordinationwith NDRRMC Issuanceof appropriate protective equipment Continuous conduct of information campaign thru tri-media and production/dissemination of information materials Continuous conduct of Prevention awareness Continuous monitoring of casesinaffected areas Linkagesand coordination with DOH/DA and other concernedgovernment agencies Formation of rapidcontainment Teamand put on alert status Continuous conduct of on threat/risk assessment Direct lower units to submit periodicreports MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIC/PANDEMIC OUTBREAK INCIDENT
  • 75. ALERT LEVEL 5 (WHOPHASE 5) NHQ Activate the Crisis Management Committee Activate TaskForces Declare alert status in coordination with NDRRMC Issuance of appropriate protective equipment Continuous conduct of information campaign thru tri-media and production/dissemination of informationmaterials Continuous conduct of prevention awareness Continuous monitoring of cases in affected areas Linkages and coordination with DOH/DA and other concerned government/ agencies Continuous conduct of on threat/risk assessment Rapid Containment Team on Full Alert status Direct lower units to submit periodic reports MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIC/PANDEMIC OUTBREAK INCIDENT
  • 76. PNP OPERATION DUTIES INSIDETHE HOTZONE Maintain Peace andOrder Provide Security forRequesting agency Conduct normal Police operations but personnel should use appropriate PPEs & appropriately briefed on Preventive Measures Health Service will provide free protection and Healthcare Assist in the overall Pandemic response effort MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIC/PANDEMIC OUTBREAK INCIDENT
  • 77. Initial police response: Control the different access points Assess the establishment of inner and outer perimeter security Advise control tower to direct pilot in command to bring the aircraft to Isolated Parking Area (IPA) Initiate counter intelligenceoperation Activate Emergency Operations Center (EOC) Deploy Snipers, Negotiation Team, Tactical Teams, and other Support Groups MANAGEMENT OF AIRCRAFT HIJACKINGINCIDENT
  • 78. Initiate Negotiation: Designate Hostage Negotiator Set an organized approach and pace of negotiation Establish communication with the hijackers/suspects Identify hijackers and determine their weapons Identify and account passengers being held hostage Determine motives, objectives and demands of hijackers Seek the safe release of the hostages Provide the intelligence information required to support tactical operations and subsequent investigation and follow-up operations MANAGEMENT OF AIRCRAFT HIJACKINGINCIDENT
  • 79. In responding to this kind of incident, the first responder shall ensure that there is no threat to his safety and security against hazards such as chemical spill, possible explosions and fire by wearing safety gears (combat shoes, helmet, gloves, and eye protectors). MANAGEMENT OF AIRCRAFT CRASHINCIDENT
  • 80. In case of Land Crash (Off-Airport): Category 1 (with survivors) Assist in extricating the victims from the scene, away from the fire Assist in the evacuation priorities of victims for medical attention Cordon, secure and preserve the crash site Coordinate/follow-up assistance from other responding units Establish ACP in coordination with local officials Conduct initial interview of survivors, witnesses and account number of victims Document (take photographs/video) the scene and victims Conduct briefing to the lead investigating authority prior to turn-over of responsibility Prepare and submit incident report MANAGEMENT OF AIRCRAFT CRASHINCIDENT
  • 81. • Category 2 (withoutsurvivors) •Cordon, secure and preserve the crash site Coordinate/follow-up assistance from other responding units Establish ACP in coordination with local officials • Conduct initial interview of witnesses and account number of fatalities • Document (take photographs/video) the MANAGEMENT OF AIRCRAFT CRASHINCIDENT
  • 82. • Category 2 (withoutsurvivors) •Cordon, secure and preserve the crash site Coordinate/follow-up assistance from other responding units Establish ACP in coordination with local officials • Conduct initial interview of witnesses and account number of fatalities • Document (take photographs/video) the MANAGEMENT OF AIRCRAFT CRASHINCIDENT
  • 83. ASSESSMENT OF CRISIS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT GROUP 5
  • 84. • Crisis - Greek word krises, "to separate". • Crisis - turning point in the progress of an affair or series of events.
  • 85. • Disaster- serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. • Management- process of directing and controlling people and things so that organizational objectives can be accomplished • Disaster Management- the organization, planning and application of measures preparing for, responding to and recovering from disasters.
  • 86. • Three elements are common to a crisis: (a) A threat to the organization, (b) The element of surprise, and (c) a short decision time. Venette argues that "crisis is a process of transformation where the old system can no longer be maintained". Therefore, the fourth defining quality is the need for change. If change is not needed, the event could more accurately be described as a failure or incident.
  • 87. OBJECTIVES OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT 1. Accomplish the task within the framework of current community standards. 2. Safety of all participants. 3. Apprehension of all perpetrators. 4. Resolve crisis without further incident.
  • 88. 1. Natural *Marine/Air Disasters *Tsunami (tidal wave) Food scarcity/Famine *Volcanic eruption *Fuel shortage *Conflagrations *Floods *Structural collapse *Drought *Pestillence/epidemic *Earthquake *Hazardous spills *Typhoon *Nuclear accidents *Utilities failure (power, water, telephone) TYPES OF CRISIS
  • 89. 2. Man Made Crises a. Boarder Incident c. War -Conventional b. Terrorism -Nuclear -Extortion -Intimidation d. Revolt - Bombing -Insurrection -Arson -Mutiny -Coup d'etat
  • 90. e. Civil Disturbance f. Hijacking - Violent labor strikes - Land -Riots - Air -Anarchy -Sea -Disorderly Mass Demonstration -Revolution g. Hostage Taking -Kidnapping -Attacks/ Raids on gov't installations/ facilities
  • 91. GENERAL TASKING Peace and Order Council/National Peace and Order Council -agency under the DILG -act on the crisis situation that arises out of man-made emergencies
  • 92. NATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK REDUCTION COUNCIL (NDRRMC) -Former National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) -Created October 19, 1970 -under the Department of National Defense -responsible for ensuring the protection and welfare of the people during disasters or emergencies -located in Camp Aguinaldo, EDSA cor. Boni Serrano, Q.C.
  • 93. THE 4P OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT MODEL 1. Prediction 2. Prevention 3. Preparation 4. Performance
  • 94. PHASES OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT 1. Pro-Active Phase- predict or prevent the probability of occurrence of crises prepare to handle them when crisis occur a. Prediction- foretelling the likelihood of crises occurring whether natural or man-made b. Prevention- involves the institutions of passive and active security measures, as well as the remedy of resolution of destabilizing factors and/or security flaws leading to such crises/emergencies. c. Preparation - planning, organization, training, and stockpiling of equipment and supplies 2. Reactive Phase- actual execution or implementation of contingency plan when a crisis situation occurs
  • 95. Stages: a. Initial Action- monitoring the progress of the incident, securing the scene, protecting the unit, establishing perimeter security, evaluating innocent civilians, if possible, and preventing the escape of the perpetrators, until the designated security and tactical elements/units augment the unit as they arrive. b. Action- negotiation and tactical action or interventions c. Post Action- begins as soon as the perpetrators surrender, captured or neutralized and the crisis situation is deemed cleared
  • 96. HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION AND RECOVERY Definition of Terms: 1. Hostage taker- person who holds other people as hostage 2. Hostage- person held as security for the hostage taker 3. Negotiator- person charged with establishing communication with the hostage taker(s) 4. Negotiate to arrange or settle by conferring or discussion
  • 97. PRIORITIES IN HOSTAGE TAKING 1. Preservation of everyone's life; the hostage, hostage taker and the public: 2. Arrest the hostage taker, and 3. Recover and protect property.
  • 98. PRINCIPLES OF HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION AND RECOVERY -The hostage has no value to the taker. His only value is a tool to get what the hostage taker wants, not from the hostage, but from the authorities. For a hostage situation not to go violent, the negotiator must consider the interest of the hostage taker, as well as the authorities. In case it goes violent, the authorities must always come out the victor. Priorities in a hostage situation are preservation of life, the apprehension of the hostage taker(s) and recovery and protection of property. To successfully negotiate, there must be a need to live on the part of the hostage taker because a hostage taker who is bent on killing himself is a non-negotiable case. If he is not bent on killing himself, his intent therefore is to free the hostage and not to harm him.
  • 99. TYPES OF HOSTAGE TAKER Terrorists -uses force to achieve a political end -intimidate or coerce a government, individuals or groups to modify their behavior or policies -ideologically inspired individuals or groups who want prestige and power for a collective goal or higher cause -Under a leader of the group. -claiming to be revolutionaries, they resolve to die for a cause
  • 100. Mentally-deranged -These people commit terrorist acts during a period of psychiatric disturbance like delusion or hallucination. Severe Depression -He suffers an intense feeling of sadness and misery, which are unwarranted by his physical condition and external environment. Personality Disorder (anti-social) -He is characterized by continuing violation of the rights of others through aggressive harmful behavior without remorse or loyalty to anyone.
  • 101. Sociopathic Personality -He is sociable, easy-going and carefree but bereft of conscience and impulsive. Paranoid -He is characterized by suspicious, rigidity, envy, hypersensitivity, excessive self- importance.
  • 102. NEGOTIATORS shall be designated by the GROUND COMMANDER No one shall beallowed to talk to the HOSTAGE-TAKER/S without clearance from the NEGOTIATOR or ground commander. (Rule 26, Section 3 of the 2010 PNP Operational Procedure). THE VICTIM (Captivity of Hostages) One of the notable inquiries revealed a startling result. The case which happened in Stockholm, Sweden, involved female hostages who were held, together with the robbers. in a vault for several days. It has been observed that there has been a change of values- set on the part of hostages after their release; they expressed strong attachment to their captors, to the point of not testifying against them.
  • 103. Syndromes in hostage negotiations 1. Stockholm syndrome- This term is used to describe a paradoxical psychological phenomenon wherein hostages express adulation and have a positive feeling towards their captors that appear irrational in light of the danger or risk endured by the victim. (Stockholm Syndrome was coined by Nils Bejerot) 2. Lima Syndrome- An inverse of Stockholm Syndrome called "Lima Syndrome" has been proposed, in which abductors develop sympathy for their hostages. (it was named after the abduction of Japanese Embassy in Lima Peru in 1996) 3. London Syndrome one or more hostages respond to captors with belligerence and non-cooperation.
  • 104. TO KNOW: a. All units to know whose command they are under: b. Rescue effort should run from top to bottom; c. There should be no flights of imagination and daring actions from individual members
  • 105. 1. Several negotiators should be trained - with knowledge of different dialects or each of themajor dialects of the Philippines. The group to train in various locations of the place (city, town etc.) on probable site of incidents, routes and place of destinations (air terminals to attune them on various situations). 2. Psychology analyze various situations and develop strategies using psychological technique rather than to obtain release of hostages. Point of training is to provide basis for understanding and anticipating hostage takers' moves, as well as possible reactions to police tactics. 3. Physical Training physical conditioning, weapon disarming method and unarmed self- defense. 4. Firearms - .38 and 45 caliber; sniper scope rifle; shotgun (double barrel); sub-machine gun; tear gas launcher with bullet proof vest.
  • 106. 5. Electronic Equipment- familiarization with the use of monophony, wireless transmitter, electric tracking devices, walkie-talkie, etc. 6. Emergency Rescue Ambulance- how to use or operate auxiliary equipments; public address system; fire unit; first aid gear-ambulance may be used as a safe base to start negotiation. 7. Vehicle Operation- escape vehicle and chase vehicle with attention placed on street and routes from various locations in the site of incidents to destination (airport or other terminals). 8. Liaison jurisdiction matters cleared; cooperation with other agencies routes must be sought.
  • 107. Upon arrival at the scene of the incident the negotiator should execute/act immediately the following. 1. Containment- controlling situation and area by people involved. Other people/bystanders must be obliged to get out from the area as they may add more problems. 2. Establish Contact- immediately after positioning at advantage position, communicate with the leader. - He may introduce himself by saying "My name is_____. I am a _____. I am willing to help." -Never tell him your rank; the hostage taker might think you can give all. So that he may ask for impossible demand. -Neither should the negotiator give the feeling that he has the authority to decide. Do not bluff. Deal only with the leader to avoid complication and further demand.
  • 108. 3. Time Lengthening- give more time to the police to organize and coordinate plan of action. 4. Telephone Negotiation Technique- Be the caller, plan and prepare, be ready with graceful exit, and discipline yourself to listen. Do not tell that you are the commander, neither your rank. Use delaying tactics to wear down the hostage taker(s), physically and psychologically. Give time for the police to organize and coordinate plans or course of action. Where the demand is impossible to get, stall time by explaining that you still need to talk to other people. Hold on to your concession. But when concession is granted, try to get something in return. Say, a grant of food, get the release of sick or old people in exchange. When there is no demand, hostage taker may really have no demand at all.
  • 109. 5. Need of face-to-face- Don't be over anxious, prepare for proper psychological, physical and emotional confrontation. Wear body armor, possess a weapon, but if asks to come without weapon, ensure that they too should lay down arms before entering. In entering, see to it that you are protected with tactical back up. And consider that hostage taker might have body trap in some portions of the area - door or window of the building. Coming up on face-to-face situation, maintain proper distance, observe their movement. Elicit a promise or motivate them to surrender. 6. Surrender Approach start with a position approach; act as if hostage will surrender. Do not talk too much. Gradually ask him to surrender. Reassurance is the wisest thing to do. Talk details of surrender process. And explain why now is better than later.
  • 110. WHY THE COMMANDER SHOULD NOT BE THE NEGOTIATOR: 1. Hostage taker will have sense of importance. 2. He may make impossible demands, knowing that he is dealing with the commander. 3. Conflict of Commander as negotiator and commander. 4. As a cardinal rule, commander do not negotiate, negotiator do not command.
  • 111. ADVANTAGES OF COMMUNICATION (between the hostage taker and the negotiator) 1. Lessens tension of hostage taker(s). 2. Gives more time for authorities to plan and coordinate course of action. DISADVANTAGE OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATION 1. Impersonal- cannot see the hostage reaction.
  • 112. SURRENDER APPROACH 1. Start with a positive approach. Act as if the hostage taker will surrender; 2. Don't talk too much; 3. Ask why hostage taker is reluctant-assure him of security; 4. Make sure hostage taker understands; 5. Gradually ask him to surrender: 6. Don't impose; never go to him at once. WHAT ARE NON-NEGOTIABLE ITEMS? Weapons Ammunitions
  • 113. HOSTAGE TAKER-NEGOTIATOR RELATIONSHIP 1. Trust and Rapport- While trust must be there, beware of it. 2. Deceit- tell lies but do not be caught. DEMAND OF HOSTAGE TAKER(S): -Money -Containing people -Escape -Vehicle
  • 114. RULES: 1. Delay, impress with the hostage taker(s) that even simple demands are hard to get; that you need to talk with the commander or other people, etc; 2. Get something in return for every concession granted, like aged, sick and youngster hostages; 3. Don't give concession at once; it will be interpreted that you could be gotten easily.
  • 115. FACE-TO-FACE NEGOTIATION 1. Don't be over anxious; 2. Wear body armor: 3. Have tactical back-up (snipers); 4. Enter the premises without gun being pointed at you: 5. Face-to-face, mountain distance; a. Personal distance - 1 to 3 feet b. Intimate distance- about 6 inches 6. Hostage taker's demand may be reduced; 7. Stockholm Syndrome may be develop
  • 116. PLANNING AND PREPARATION FOR HOSTAGE SITUATION Designation of Duties: 1. Field Commander a. Takes charge of all forces b. Provides containment of hostage taker-sealed off place, evaluate civilians c. Establishes contact with hostage taker d. Consults with the commanding officer (high authority) regarding other options e. Wears civilian clothes
  • 117. 2. Operational Aide a. Reports to field negotiator b. Sets up temporary headquarters c. Coordinates assignment of off-duty personnel arriving at the scene d. Assigns units as necessary e. Relays orders/ information to personnel involved; receive requests 3. Administrative Aide a. Reports of field negotiator b. Supervises temporary headquarters c. Maintains record of operation and units at the scene
  • 118. 4. Patrol Personnel (with one leader) 5. Assault Team (with one leader) a. Sharpshooters (with high powered arms, on flak vests (protective armor) b. Chemical agent NEEDED FACILITIES (walkie-talkie) FOR EACH OF THE ABOVE AND WHAT TO DO: 1. Radio set in single frequency (strict discipline needed) 2. Communication to originate from operation aide - form of orders, request or updating information
  • 119. WHAT IS IMPORTANT? Dry Run- a simulated or practice performance or rehearsal of hostage operation: - one way to ensure hostage-negotiating units is capable of establishing control over a situation Considerable Screening - members, once chosen, should be given free reign in handling and evaluating incidents; -should a senior officer begins countermanding orders in the site; the results will certainly be bungled 1. Patrol units, assault unit, etc. should know exactly whose command they are under. 2. Rescue efforts have to run strictly from the top down.
  • 120. IMPLEMENTATION OF METHODS TO DEAL WITH HOSTAGE SITUATION Phase 1 (Scene of Incident) after stabilizing situation, hostage takers have been contained and civilians evacuated out of the area of incident. 1. Set-up communication with hostage taker (establish swiftly) by: -Telephone lines Walkie-talkie sets in frequency not being used by police -Written notes -Face-to-face verbal exchange -A line-communication may be established to and from the setting - through medical personnel and ambulance on stand-by.
  • 121. 2. Behavior Guidelines (during negotiation) -Be the caller, -Use of civilian clothes; - Use protective armor: -Do not suggest of any demand: -Give room to negotiate-do not cramp, avoid disturbance; -Stay relaxed; -Talk to the leader only: -Elicit a promise; -Distance 12 to 25 ft (by telephone); -Make sure you have good cover (hidden or otherwise) Conserve concession-hold giving in to demand; if giving in at once, demand may come more (say, needs approval from higher authority etc.) One giving in, ask something in return (say, food, provisions ask for release of aged/sick). Delay works in favor of authorities.
  • 122. ON FACE-TO-FACE NEGOTIATIONS: -Have firearms- if hostage taker demands without firearms, ask him to throw way his firearms too; -Have cover (snipers somewhere) to protect you; -When entering place of hostage taker- be on the lookout for bombs, it may be hidden behind the door or windows; -Maintain distance - initially-1 to 3 feet; intimate - 6 inches; -Be observant of movements; -Elicit promise; -Do not allow gun to be pointed at you;
  • 123. -Reassure hostage taker of security. Explain why now is better than later to surrender. -Don't ever react- no rigid guidelines in every case. But flexibility is dependent on the movement of the hostage takers. -Be observant of movements; -Elicit promise: -Do not allow gun to be pointed at you; -Reassure hostage taker of security. Explain why now is better than later to surrender. -Don't ever react- no rigid guidelines in every case. But flexibility is dependent on the movement of the hostage takers.
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  • 140. Personal Crisis Events that have special meaning to individuals and only individuals suffers- failing exams, divorce, being unemployed, etc. Confrontation Crisis  e.g. disputes
  • 141. Acts of Malevolence e.g. terrorism, kidnapping Misconduct Crisis  e.g. harassment, corruption, fraud, false invoicing
  • 142. Smoldering Crisis Problems or issues that start out small and could be fixed if someone was paying attention or recognized the potential for trouble e.g. financial crisis in an organization, strike by union etc. Business-related Crisis  Sudden death of a crucial leader, serious breach of law, vendor fails to deliver critical supplies, employee stealing from a client.
  • 144. BEHAVIORAL CRISIS A behavioral emergency, also called a behavioral crisis or psychiatric emergency, occurs when someone's behavior is so out of control that the person becomes a danger to everyone. The situation is so extreme that the person must be treated promptly to avoid injury to themselves or others.
  • 145. SYMPTOMS OF BEHAVIORAL CRISIS ● Extreme agitation ● Threatening to harm your self or others ● Yelling or screaming ● Irrational thoughts ● Throwing objects and other volatile behavior REASONS FOR BEHAVIORAL CRISIS ● Due to Mental illness ● Substance Abuse ● Medical Condition
  • 146. CONFLICT’s Role in Behavioral Crisis CONFLICT - the word conflict has been derived from a Latin word “conflictus” from the two words com- meaning “together” + fligere- “to strike”. - According to Merriam Webster “a struggle for power, property, etc.” is known to be a conflict. - Conflict may be defined as a friction between two desires, motives, needs.
  • 147. Causes of the Behavioral Aspect of Conflict ● The values or the perception of situation by an individual could cause a conflict. ● Personal biases related with religion race or sex can also generate conflict. ● Different view points of individuals about the same thing can also generate conflict. ● The increasing gap between the rich and the poor also causes conflict as the unrealized expectation of the under privileged causes frustration in their mind which leads to conflict among the different classes of societies. ● There could be a conflict between the organizational goals and the psychological needs of the individual employees. The in-consistency between the two can create conflict.
  • 148. FRUSTRATION’s Role in Behavioral Crisis FRUSTRATION -is an emotional that occurs in situations where a person is blocked from reaching a desired outcome.
  • 149. Signs of Frustration ● Losing your temper ● Incessant bodily movement, such as tapping fingers constantly and perpetual sighing ● Giving up, leaving ● Feeling sad or anxious ● Lacking self-confidence ● Trouble sleeping ● Turning to drugs and alcohol ● Bodily abuse, starving oneself, or irregular eating habits
  • 150. BEHAVIORAL DISORDER ● also known as disruptive behavioral disorders, are the most common reasons that parents are told to take their kids for mental health assessments and treatment. Behavioral disorders are also common in adults. If left untreated in childhood, these disorders can negatively affect a person’s ability to hold a job and maintain relationships.
  • 151. Causes of a Behavioral Disorder ● Physical illness or disability ● Malnutrition ● Brain damage ● Hereditary factors Factors to behaviors associated with a behavioral disorder ● Divorce or other emotional upset at home ● Coercion from parents ● Unhealthy or inconsistent discipline style ● Poor attitude toward education or schooling
  • 152. Symptoms of Behavioral Disorders ● Easily getting annoyed or nervous ● Often appearing angry ● Putting blame on others ● Refusing to follow rules or questioning authority ● Arguing and throwing temper tantrums ● Having difficulty in handling frustration
  • 153. SEXUAL CRISIS LEAD TO CRIMES
  • 154. SEXUAL CRISIS ● Sexual abuse is sexual behavior or a sexual act forced upon a woman, man or child without their consent. Sexual abuse includes abuse of a woman, man or child by a man, woman or child
  • 155. PARAPHILIA / SEXUAL PERVERSION AND SEXUAL DEVIATION ● Sexual perversion is an old-fashioned diagnostic term that is served as a label for sexual activities considered outside the norm of heterosexual sexual desire and activity. This norm was defined as coitus with a person of the opposite sex with the aim of achieving orgasm through genital penetration. In short, Paraphilia or Sexual perversion and sexual deviation are the experiences of intense sexual arousal to typical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals.
  • 156. TYPES OF PARAPHILIA OR SEAXUAL PERVERSION AND SEXUAL DEVIATION
  • 157. EXHIBITIONISTIC DISORDER ● Exhibitionism is characterized by achievement of sexual excitement through genital exposure, usually to an unsuspecting stranger. It may also refer to a strong desire to be observed by other people during sexual activity. It involves acting on these urges with a nonconsenting person or experiencing significant distress or functional impairment because of such urges and impulses
  • 158. ● are people who show their sexual organs to other people at a distance. They do not touch or physically harm the people to whom they expose their body. PURE EXHIBITIONISTS EXCLUSIVE EXHIBITIONISTS ● they are individuals who struggle with being involved in a romantic relationship and they are unable to have sexual relations normally. Exposing themselves in their way to get the sexual satisfaction.
  • 159. IS EXHIBITIONISTIC DISIORDER LEAD TO CRIMES? For the Criminal Justice System, exhibitionism is a crime, and in almost all jurisdictions it is considered a misdemeanor, with maximum sentencing being eleven months and twenty nine days. Although those in the criminal justice system may feel that exhibitionists need treatment, they also view the behavior as requiring punishment.
  • 160. FROTTEURISM DISORDER ● It is a condition defined as a recurrent and intense sexual arousal from touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting person,as manifested by fantasies, urges or behaviors or by rubbing against non-consenting people for sexual stimulation.
  • 161. CAUSES OF FROTTEURISM ● Childhood trauma, such as sexual abuse or an anxiety disorder, can keep a person from having a normal psychosexual development. People with this condition may feel contact with strangers is a form of foreplay and intimacy.
  • 162. IS FROTTEURISM LEADS TO CRIME? Legally, frotteurism is treated as a sexual assault or battery in most jurisdictions. A sexual assault is a criminal offense and therefore carries potentially serious penalties. Depending upon the particular circumstances, frotteurism may constitute a misdemeanor or a felony criminal offense. However, it is usually classified as a misdemeanor. As a result, legal penalties are often minor. It is difficult to prosecute frotteurs as intent to touch is difficult to prove
  • 163. PEDOPHILIC DISORDER It is characterized by recurring, intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behavior involving children usually 13 years old or younger. Pedophiles may be attracted to young boys, young girls or both, and they may be attracted only to children or to children and adults. We need to remember that pedophilia, really is folks who target or are sexually interested in pre-pubescent children, while ephebophiles target teenagers. PEDOPHILIC DISORDER MAY PRESENT AS: EXCLUSIVE- attraction is only toward children NONEXCLUSIVE-you’re attracted to both children and adults
  • 164. IS PEDOPHILIC DISORDER LEADS TO CRIME? Adult sexual contact with an underage minor is a crime and a serious moral wrong REPUBLIC ACT 7610: SPECIAL PROTECTION OF CHILDREN AGAINST ABUSE,EXPLOITATION AND DISCRIMINATION ACT. AN ACT PROVIDING FOR STRONGER DETERRENCE AND SPECIAL PROTECTION AGAINST CHILD ABUSE,EXPLOITATION AND DISCRIMINATION,PROVIDING PENALTIES FOR IT’S VIOLATION AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.
  • 165. SEXUAL MASOCHISM DISORDER It is an intentional participation in an activity that involves being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise abused to experience sexual excitement. Sexual masochism disorder causes significant distress or significantly impairs functioning. They may seek a partner who may be a sexual sadist. It is infliction of physical or psychologic suffering humiliation, terror on other person to stimulate sexual excitement and orgasm. Activities with a partner include being • BOUND • BLINDFOLDED • SPANKED • FLAGELLATED • HUMILIATED BY BEING URINATED OR DEFECATED ON • FORCED TO CROSS DRESS • PART OF SIMULATED RAPE