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20EC305
ANALOG AND DIGITAL
COMMUNICATION
ADC UNIT I PPT
ADC UNIT I PPT
ADC UNIT I PPT
ADC UNIT I PPT
ADC UNIT I PPT
ADC UNIT I PPT
ADC UNIT I PPT
ADC UNIT I PPT
ADC UNIT I PPT
ADC UNIT I PPT
ADC UNIT I PPT
ADC UNIT I PPT
UNIT I - AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Elements of Communication Systems – AM: Theory,
Envelope Detection, LimitationsDouble Sideband
Suppressed Carrier Modulation: Theory, Coherent
Detection – Quadrature Carrier Multiplexing – Single
Sideband Modulation: Theory, Modulators for SSB,
Coherent Detection, Frequency Translation- Vestigial
Sideband Modulation: Motivation, Sideband Shaping
Filter, Coherent Detection.
Basic Elements used in Communication
System process
AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM)
Amplitude Modulation (or) Linear Carrier Wave Modulation is
defined as the process of varying the amplitude of the high
frequency carrier signal with respect to the amplitude of the
modulating signal, keeping the frequency and phase of the
carrier signal constant.
Mathematical Expression for Amplitude Modulated Signal:
Consider a sinusoidal carrier signal c(t) defined as:
c(t) = Ac cos(2πf c t)
where,
Ac is the carrier amplitude and f c is the carrier frequency.
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It is clear from the above equation that:
• There is no output from the ring modulator at the carrier
frequency. Thus the carrier is entirely eliminated.
• The modulator output consists entirely of modulation products.
Coherent Detection of DSB-SC Signal:
The message signal m(t) is recovered from a DSB-SC signal s(t) by first multiplying
s(t) with a locally generated sinusoidal signal and then low pass filtering the product
as shown in Figure 1.21. The assumption is that the local oscillator output is exactly
coherent or synchronized in both frequency and phase with the carrier signal c(t)
used in the product modulator to generate s(t). This method of demodulation is
known as coherent detection or synchronous detection.
ADC UNIT I PPT
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QUADRATURE CARRIER MULTIPLEXING
• A Quadrature Carrier Multiplexing (QCM) or Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation (QAM) method enables two DSBSC modulated waves,
resulting from two different message signals to occupy the same
transmission band width and two message signals can be separated at the
receiver.
• The transmitter involves the use of two separate product modulators that
are supplied with two carrier waves of the same frequency but differing in
phase by -90o . The multiplexed signal s(t) consists of the sum of the two
product modulator outputs given by the equation
s(t) =Acm1(t)cos(2ᴨfc t)+Acm2(t)sin(2ᴨfc t)
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Generation of SSB Signal
• The three practical methods for generating the SSB signal are filter method,
phase-shift method and Weaver’s method. The first two techniques are based on
frequency domain and time domain description of the SSB signal respectively
(i) Frequency Discrimination (or) Filter Method:
• This method is used to generate an SSB signal when the baseband is restricted
and appropriately related to the carrier frequency. Under these conditions the
desired sideband will appear in a non overlapping interval in the spectrum in
such a way that it may be selected by an appropriate filter
• In designing the band pass filter in the SSB modulation scheme, it must satisfy
two basic requirements:
• a. The passband of the filter occupies the same frequency range as the spectrum
of the desired SSB signal.
• b. The width of the transition band of the filters separating the passband from
the stopband, where the unwanted sideband of the filter input lies is twice the
lower frequency component of the modulating signal.
ADC UNIT I PPT
Phase discrimination method for generating
SSB signal
Third method or Weaver’s method:
Coherent Detection of SSB Signal:
Thus the product modulator output is given by:
ADC UNIT I PPT
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Frequency Spectrum and Bandwidth of VSB Signal
Power Distributions in VSB Signal
ADC UNIT I PPT
Generation of VSB Signal
(i) Filter Method:
(ii) Phase Discrimination Method:
Detection of VSB signal
(i) Coherent Detection:
ADC UNIT I PPT

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ADC UNIT I PPT

  • 14. UNIT I - AMPLITUDE MODULATION Elements of Communication Systems – AM: Theory, Envelope Detection, LimitationsDouble Sideband Suppressed Carrier Modulation: Theory, Coherent Detection – Quadrature Carrier Multiplexing – Single Sideband Modulation: Theory, Modulators for SSB, Coherent Detection, Frequency Translation- Vestigial Sideband Modulation: Motivation, Sideband Shaping Filter, Coherent Detection.
  • 15. Basic Elements used in Communication System process
  • 16. AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM) Amplitude Modulation (or) Linear Carrier Wave Modulation is defined as the process of varying the amplitude of the high frequency carrier signal with respect to the amplitude of the modulating signal, keeping the frequency and phase of the carrier signal constant. Mathematical Expression for Amplitude Modulated Signal: Consider a sinusoidal carrier signal c(t) defined as: c(t) = Ac cos(2πf c t) where, Ac is the carrier amplitude and f c is the carrier frequency.
  • 47. It is clear from the above equation that: • There is no output from the ring modulator at the carrier frequency. Thus the carrier is entirely eliminated. • The modulator output consists entirely of modulation products.
  • 48. Coherent Detection of DSB-SC Signal: The message signal m(t) is recovered from a DSB-SC signal s(t) by first multiplying s(t) with a locally generated sinusoidal signal and then low pass filtering the product as shown in Figure 1.21. The assumption is that the local oscillator output is exactly coherent or synchronized in both frequency and phase with the carrier signal c(t) used in the product modulator to generate s(t). This method of demodulation is known as coherent detection or synchronous detection.
  • 52. QUADRATURE CARRIER MULTIPLEXING • A Quadrature Carrier Multiplexing (QCM) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) method enables two DSBSC modulated waves, resulting from two different message signals to occupy the same transmission band width and two message signals can be separated at the receiver. • The transmitter involves the use of two separate product modulators that are supplied with two carrier waves of the same frequency but differing in phase by -90o . The multiplexed signal s(t) consists of the sum of the two product modulator outputs given by the equation s(t) =Acm1(t)cos(2ᴨfc t)+Acm2(t)sin(2ᴨfc t)
  • 58. Generation of SSB Signal • The three practical methods for generating the SSB signal are filter method, phase-shift method and Weaver’s method. The first two techniques are based on frequency domain and time domain description of the SSB signal respectively (i) Frequency Discrimination (or) Filter Method: • This method is used to generate an SSB signal when the baseband is restricted and appropriately related to the carrier frequency. Under these conditions the desired sideband will appear in a non overlapping interval in the spectrum in such a way that it may be selected by an appropriate filter • In designing the band pass filter in the SSB modulation scheme, it must satisfy two basic requirements: • a. The passband of the filter occupies the same frequency range as the spectrum of the desired SSB signal. • b. The width of the transition band of the filters separating the passband from the stopband, where the unwanted sideband of the filter input lies is twice the lower frequency component of the modulating signal.
  • 60. Phase discrimination method for generating SSB signal
  • 61. Third method or Weaver’s method:
  • 62. Coherent Detection of SSB Signal: Thus the product modulator output is given by:
  • 65. Frequency Spectrum and Bandwidth of VSB Signal
  • 68. Generation of VSB Signal (i) Filter Method:
  • 70. Detection of VSB signal (i) Coherent Detection: