SlideShare a Scribd company logo
ACOUSTICPARKING
SENSORS
(APS)
Seminar Links
ACOUSTIC PARKING SENSORS
Parking sensors are proximity sensors for road vehicles designed to
alert the driver to obstacles while parking. These systems, which use
either electromagnetic or ultrasonic sensors, are marketed variously by
vehicle manufacturers under proprietary brand names such as Park
Distance Control, Park Assist or Parktronic.
Visit www.seminarlinks.blogspot.com to Download
ULTRASONIC PARKING SYSTEMS
These systems feature ultrasonic
proximity detectors to measure
the distances to nearby objects
via sensors located in the front
and/or rear bumper fascias or
visually minimized within
adjacent grills or recesses.
ULTRASONIC PARKING SYSTEMS: WORKING
• The sensors emit acoustic pulses, with a
control unit measuring the return interval of
each reflected signal and calculating object
distances.
• The system in turns warns the driver with
acoustic tones, the frequency indicating
object distance, with faster tones indicating
closer proximity and a continuous tone
indicating a minimal pre-defined distance.
• Systems may also include visual aids, such as
LED or LCD readouts to indicate object
distance.
• A vehicle may include a vehicle pictogram
on the car's infotainment screen, with a
representation of the nearby objects as
coloured blocks.
If an object is detected, the sensor beeps. Faster beeps indicate the car is coming closer to the obstacle.
Visit www.seminarlinks.blogspot.com to Download
ULTRASONIC PARKING SYSTEMS: WORKING
• Rear sensors may be activated when
reverse gear is selected and deactivated as
soon as any other gear is selected.
• Front sensors may be activated manually
and deactivated automatically when the
vehicle reaches a pre-determined speed —
to avoid subsequent nuisance warnings.
• As an ultrasonic systems relies on the
reflection of sound waves, the system may
not detect flat objects or object
insufficiently large to reflect sound — e.g., a
narrow pole or a longitudinal object
pointed directly at the vehicle or near an
object.
• Objects with flat surfaces angled from the
vertical may deflect return sound waves
away from the sensors, hindering detection.
• The main characteristics of ultrasonic sensors for rear sonar are directivity,
ringing time, sensitivity and sound pressure.
• Directivity of an ultrasonic sensor corresponds to the size and shape of the
vibrating surface (that is emitting the ultrasound) and the frequency at which it
vibrates.
• Figure(Below) indicates directivity of a disc type transducer.
• Narrower directivity can be achieved at higher frequency when the size remains
the same, or at larger size when the frequency remains the same. Difference in
detection distance with varying frequency at the same size is indicated on next
slide.
FREQUENCY (DIRECTIVITY) AND INFLUENCE OF THE GROUND
• By using higher frequency and selecting an appropriate amplifier (gain), we
can increase the influence of ground objects, such as wheel stoppers.
• While narrower vertical directivity improves sensor usability, wider horizontal
directivity can provide wider coverage with fewer sensors. 'Asymmetric'
ultrasonic sensors are used in such situations.
DIRECTIVITY TYPE FOR ULTRASONIC SENSORS
• Since rear sonar ultrasonic sensors handle both sending and receiving of ultrasound,
unless the emitting sound wave dissipates without ringing quickly, it cannot start
receiving its reflection.
• The shorter the ringing time, the closer the detection range can be.
ADVANTAGES ULTRASONIC PARKING SENSORS
• The ultrasonic backup sensors have difficulty to detect inclined
surfaces or slightly reflective obstacles as shrubs and wire mesh.
• They also only detect objects directly behind or in front of the car,
and may not work if the sensors are dirty or out of alignment.
• Fitting usually requires drilling the bumper, but stick-on sensors are
available (though unattractive).
• Ultrasonic parking sensors not be suitable for use with a tow bar.
DISADVANTAGES OF ULTRASONIC PARKING SENSORS
• The cheapest form of parking aid.
• Sensors detect objects even when the car is stationary.
ELECTROMAGNETIC PARKING SYSTEMS
• Electromagnetic sensors rely on the vehicle
moving slowly and smoothly towards the
object to be avoided.
• Once detected, the obstacle, if the vehicle
momentarily stops on its approach, the
sensor continues to give signal of presence
of the obstacle.
• If the vehicle then resumes its manoeuvre
the alarm signal becomes more and more
impressive as the obstacle approaches.
• Electromagnetic parking sensors are often
sold as not requiring any holes to be drilled
offering a unique design that discreetly
mounts on the inner side of the bumper
preserving the 'new factory look' of your
vehicle
ELECTROMAGNETIC PARKING SYSTEMS: WORKING
• A system provides an alarm indicative of a
presence of an obstacle in a vicinity of a vehicle.
• The system operates by electromagnetic
detection, and generates an oscillating
radiofrequency signal.
• A transmitter transmits the generated oscillated
radiofrequency signal to create, all around the
transmitter, an electromagnetic radiofrequency
near field.
• A receiver receives the electromagnetic
radiofrequency near field.
• A detector is connected to the receiver and
detects a perturbation resulting in a reduction of
an oscillation amplitude of the electromagnetic
radiofrequency near field, and an indicator
indicates the detected perturbation of the
received electromagnetic radiofrequency near
field.
• Based on this operation, an obstacle in a vicinity
of the vehicle can be detected.
ADVANTAGES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC PARKING SENSORS
• Suitable for use with tow bars, cycle racks, etc.
• Capability to approach the obstacle up to few centimetres.
• Electromagnetic sensors are mounted inside the bumper, so there's
no need for drilling.
DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC PARKING SENSORS
• Electronic parking sensors are more expensive –The factory-fitted
cost is about the same as ultrasonic sensors.
• Electromagnetic sensors only detect objects once the car has started
moving."
CONCLUSION
• In a country like India where the parking space is always less than desired,
sometimes due to heavy traffic and sometimes due to the irrational
parking of others, such a parking assist system can be of great help.
• The only thing that repels the consumer from buying these systems is the
heavy cost they have to pay for them.
• A vehicle with these systems can cost the buyer anywhere between 30k to
50k more in comparison to the ones which don’t have them.
• Indians, who are more comfortable with their “simple” cars than in paying
the hefty price, often try to avoid the installation of these systems.
• If the cost is reduced and the people are convinced by the car
manufacturers of the benefits of these systems, they may consider buying
them for the sake of their vehicle’s safety.
REFERENCES
•Newelectronics
•Mechanics.Stackexchange
•Telematicswire
•Toyotaownersclub
•Proxel
•Parkingdynamics
•Self.Gutenberg
Thank YouVisit www.seminarlinks.blogspot.com to Download

More Related Content

More from Seminar Links

Three-dimensional Holographic Projection Technology PPT | 2018
Three-dimensional Holographic Projection Technology PPT | 2018Three-dimensional Holographic Projection Technology PPT | 2018
Three-dimensional Holographic Projection Technology PPT | 2018
Seminar Links
 
MicroLED : Latest Display Technology | PPT
MicroLED : Latest Display Technology | PPTMicroLED : Latest Display Technology | PPT
MicroLED : Latest Display Technology | PPT
Seminar Links
 
Performance of 400 kV line insulators under pollution | PDF | DOC | PPT
Performance of 400 kV line insulators under pollution | PDF | DOC | PPTPerformance of 400 kV line insulators under pollution | PDF | DOC | PPT
Performance of 400 kV line insulators under pollution | PDF | DOC | PPT
Seminar Links
 
Box Pushing Technique
Box Pushing TechniqueBox Pushing Technique
Box Pushing Technique
Seminar Links
 
Highest Largest Tallest Longest in India 2018
Highest Largest Tallest Longest in India 2018Highest Largest Tallest Longest in India 2018
Highest Largest Tallest Longest in India 2018
Seminar Links
 
Artificial photosynthesis PPT
Artificial photosynthesis PPTArtificial photosynthesis PPT
Artificial photosynthesis PPT
Seminar Links
 
How to prevent WannaCry Ransomware
How to prevent WannaCry RansomwareHow to prevent WannaCry Ransomware
How to prevent WannaCry Ransomware
Seminar Links
 
Dams PPT
Dams PPTDams PPT
Dams PPT
Seminar Links
 
Bio mass Energy
Bio mass EnergyBio mass Energy
Bio mass Energy
Seminar Links
 
Babbitt material ppt
Babbitt material pptBabbitt material ppt
Babbitt material ppt
Seminar Links
 
Ceramic Bearing ppt
Ceramic Bearing pptCeramic Bearing ppt
Ceramic Bearing ppt
Seminar Links
 
Carbon Foam Military Applications
Carbon Foam Military ApplicationsCarbon Foam Military Applications
Carbon Foam Military Applications
Seminar Links
 
Future challenges in computer science
Future challenges in computer scienceFuture challenges in computer science
Future challenges in computer science
Seminar Links
 
उपभोक्तावादी संस्कृति
उपभोक्तावादी संस्कृतिउपभोक्तावादी संस्कृति
उपभोक्तावादी संस्कृति
Seminar Links
 
Electronic Paper (e-Paper)
Electronic Paper (e-Paper)Electronic Paper (e-Paper)
Electronic Paper (e-Paper)
Seminar Links
 
Biosensor ppt
Biosensor pptBiosensor ppt
Biosensor ppt
Seminar Links
 
Six-Stroke Engine
Six-Stroke Engine Six-Stroke Engine
Six-Stroke Engine
Seminar Links
 
Solar Roadways PPT
Solar Roadways PPTSolar Roadways PPT
Solar Roadways PPT
Seminar Links
 
Stirling Engine
Stirling EngineStirling Engine
Stirling Engine
Seminar Links
 
WiMAX
WiMAXWiMAX

More from Seminar Links (20)

Three-dimensional Holographic Projection Technology PPT | 2018
Three-dimensional Holographic Projection Technology PPT | 2018Three-dimensional Holographic Projection Technology PPT | 2018
Three-dimensional Holographic Projection Technology PPT | 2018
 
MicroLED : Latest Display Technology | PPT
MicroLED : Latest Display Technology | PPTMicroLED : Latest Display Technology | PPT
MicroLED : Latest Display Technology | PPT
 
Performance of 400 kV line insulators under pollution | PDF | DOC | PPT
Performance of 400 kV line insulators under pollution | PDF | DOC | PPTPerformance of 400 kV line insulators under pollution | PDF | DOC | PPT
Performance of 400 kV line insulators under pollution | PDF | DOC | PPT
 
Box Pushing Technique
Box Pushing TechniqueBox Pushing Technique
Box Pushing Technique
 
Highest Largest Tallest Longest in India 2018
Highest Largest Tallest Longest in India 2018Highest Largest Tallest Longest in India 2018
Highest Largest Tallest Longest in India 2018
 
Artificial photosynthesis PPT
Artificial photosynthesis PPTArtificial photosynthesis PPT
Artificial photosynthesis PPT
 
How to prevent WannaCry Ransomware
How to prevent WannaCry RansomwareHow to prevent WannaCry Ransomware
How to prevent WannaCry Ransomware
 
Dams PPT
Dams PPTDams PPT
Dams PPT
 
Bio mass Energy
Bio mass EnergyBio mass Energy
Bio mass Energy
 
Babbitt material ppt
Babbitt material pptBabbitt material ppt
Babbitt material ppt
 
Ceramic Bearing ppt
Ceramic Bearing pptCeramic Bearing ppt
Ceramic Bearing ppt
 
Carbon Foam Military Applications
Carbon Foam Military ApplicationsCarbon Foam Military Applications
Carbon Foam Military Applications
 
Future challenges in computer science
Future challenges in computer scienceFuture challenges in computer science
Future challenges in computer science
 
उपभोक्तावादी संस्कृति
उपभोक्तावादी संस्कृतिउपभोक्तावादी संस्कृति
उपभोक्तावादी संस्कृति
 
Electronic Paper (e-Paper)
Electronic Paper (e-Paper)Electronic Paper (e-Paper)
Electronic Paper (e-Paper)
 
Biosensor ppt
Biosensor pptBiosensor ppt
Biosensor ppt
 
Six-Stroke Engine
Six-Stroke Engine Six-Stroke Engine
Six-Stroke Engine
 
Solar Roadways PPT
Solar Roadways PPTSolar Roadways PPT
Solar Roadways PPT
 
Stirling Engine
Stirling EngineStirling Engine
Stirling Engine
 
WiMAX
WiMAXWiMAX
WiMAX
 

Recently uploaded

Step-By-Step Process to Develop a Mobile App From Scratch
Step-By-Step Process to Develop a Mobile App From ScratchStep-By-Step Process to Develop a Mobile App From Scratch
Step-By-Step Process to Develop a Mobile App From Scratch
softsuave
 
Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024
Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024
Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024
siddu769252
 
MAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptx
MAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptxMAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptx
MAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptx
janagijoythi
 
Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
maigasapphire
 
Gen AI: Privacy Risks of Large Language Models (LLMs)
Gen AI: Privacy Risks of Large Language Models (LLMs)Gen AI: Privacy Risks of Large Language Models (LLMs)
Gen AI: Privacy Risks of Large Language Models (LLMs)
Debmalya Biswas
 
Redefining Cybersecurity with AI Capabilities
Redefining Cybersecurity with AI CapabilitiesRedefining Cybersecurity with AI Capabilities
Redefining Cybersecurity with AI Capabilities
Priyanka Aash
 
Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery
Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery
Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery
sunilverma7884
 
Camunda Chapter NY Meetup July 2024.pptx
Camunda Chapter NY Meetup July 2024.pptxCamunda Chapter NY Meetup July 2024.pptx
Camunda Chapter NY Meetup July 2024.pptx
ZachWylie3
 
Finetuning GenAI For Hacking and Defending
Finetuning GenAI For Hacking and DefendingFinetuning GenAI For Hacking and Defending
Finetuning GenAI For Hacking and Defending
Priyanka Aash
 
The Path to General-Purpose Robots - Coatue
The Path to General-Purpose Robots - CoatueThe Path to General-Purpose Robots - Coatue
The Path to General-Purpose Robots - Coatue
Razin Mustafiz
 
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
shanihomely
 
The History of Embeddings & Multimodal Embeddings
The History of Embeddings & Multimodal EmbeddingsThe History of Embeddings & Multimodal Embeddings
The History of Embeddings & Multimodal Embeddings
Zilliz
 
Feature sql server terbaru performance.pptx
Feature sql server terbaru performance.pptxFeature sql server terbaru performance.pptx
Feature sql server terbaru performance.pptx
ssuser1915fe1
 
Mastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for Success
Mastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for SuccessMastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for Success
Mastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for Success
David Wilson
 
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct vs. NetSuite _ NOW CFO.pdf
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct vs. NetSuite _ NOW CFO.pdfAcumatica vs. Sage Intacct vs. NetSuite _ NOW CFO.pdf
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct vs. NetSuite _ NOW CFO.pdf
BrainSell Technologies
 
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and MilvusUsing LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Zilliz
 
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python CodebaseEuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
Jimmy Lai
 
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptxAcumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
BrainSell Technologies
 
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and Disadvantages
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and DisadvantagesBLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and Disadvantages
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and Disadvantages
SAI KAILASH R
 
Improving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning Content
Improving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning ContentImproving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning Content
Improving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning Content
Enterprise Knowledge
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Step-By-Step Process to Develop a Mobile App From Scratch
Step-By-Step Process to Develop a Mobile App From ScratchStep-By-Step Process to Develop a Mobile App From Scratch
Step-By-Step Process to Develop a Mobile App From Scratch
 
Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024
Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024
Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024
 
MAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptx
MAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptxMAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptx
MAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptx
 
Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
 
Gen AI: Privacy Risks of Large Language Models (LLMs)
Gen AI: Privacy Risks of Large Language Models (LLMs)Gen AI: Privacy Risks of Large Language Models (LLMs)
Gen AI: Privacy Risks of Large Language Models (LLMs)
 
Redefining Cybersecurity with AI Capabilities
Redefining Cybersecurity with AI CapabilitiesRedefining Cybersecurity with AI Capabilities
Redefining Cybersecurity with AI Capabilities
 
Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery
Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery
Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery
 
Camunda Chapter NY Meetup July 2024.pptx
Camunda Chapter NY Meetup July 2024.pptxCamunda Chapter NY Meetup July 2024.pptx
Camunda Chapter NY Meetup July 2024.pptx
 
Finetuning GenAI For Hacking and Defending
Finetuning GenAI For Hacking and DefendingFinetuning GenAI For Hacking and Defending
Finetuning GenAI For Hacking and Defending
 
The Path to General-Purpose Robots - Coatue
The Path to General-Purpose Robots - CoatueThe Path to General-Purpose Robots - Coatue
The Path to General-Purpose Robots - Coatue
 
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
 
The History of Embeddings & Multimodal Embeddings
The History of Embeddings & Multimodal EmbeddingsThe History of Embeddings & Multimodal Embeddings
The History of Embeddings & Multimodal Embeddings
 
Feature sql server terbaru performance.pptx
Feature sql server terbaru performance.pptxFeature sql server terbaru performance.pptx
Feature sql server terbaru performance.pptx
 
Mastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for Success
Mastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for SuccessMastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for Success
Mastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for Success
 
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct vs. NetSuite _ NOW CFO.pdf
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct vs. NetSuite _ NOW CFO.pdfAcumatica vs. Sage Intacct vs. NetSuite _ NOW CFO.pdf
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct vs. NetSuite _ NOW CFO.pdf
 
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and MilvusUsing LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
 
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python CodebaseEuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
 
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptxAcumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
 
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and Disadvantages
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and DisadvantagesBLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and Disadvantages
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY - Advantages and Disadvantages
 
Improving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning Content
Improving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning ContentImproving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning Content
Improving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning Content
 

Acoustic Parking System (APS)

  • 2. ACOUSTIC PARKING SENSORS Parking sensors are proximity sensors for road vehicles designed to alert the driver to obstacles while parking. These systems, which use either electromagnetic or ultrasonic sensors, are marketed variously by vehicle manufacturers under proprietary brand names such as Park Distance Control, Park Assist or Parktronic. Visit www.seminarlinks.blogspot.com to Download
  • 3. ULTRASONIC PARKING SYSTEMS These systems feature ultrasonic proximity detectors to measure the distances to nearby objects via sensors located in the front and/or rear bumper fascias or visually minimized within adjacent grills or recesses.
  • 4. ULTRASONIC PARKING SYSTEMS: WORKING • The sensors emit acoustic pulses, with a control unit measuring the return interval of each reflected signal and calculating object distances. • The system in turns warns the driver with acoustic tones, the frequency indicating object distance, with faster tones indicating closer proximity and a continuous tone indicating a minimal pre-defined distance. • Systems may also include visual aids, such as LED or LCD readouts to indicate object distance. • A vehicle may include a vehicle pictogram on the car's infotainment screen, with a representation of the nearby objects as coloured blocks.
  • 5. If an object is detected, the sensor beeps. Faster beeps indicate the car is coming closer to the obstacle. Visit www.seminarlinks.blogspot.com to Download
  • 6. ULTRASONIC PARKING SYSTEMS: WORKING • Rear sensors may be activated when reverse gear is selected and deactivated as soon as any other gear is selected. • Front sensors may be activated manually and deactivated automatically when the vehicle reaches a pre-determined speed — to avoid subsequent nuisance warnings. • As an ultrasonic systems relies on the reflection of sound waves, the system may not detect flat objects or object insufficiently large to reflect sound — e.g., a narrow pole or a longitudinal object pointed directly at the vehicle or near an object. • Objects with flat surfaces angled from the vertical may deflect return sound waves away from the sensors, hindering detection.
  • 7. • The main characteristics of ultrasonic sensors for rear sonar are directivity, ringing time, sensitivity and sound pressure. • Directivity of an ultrasonic sensor corresponds to the size and shape of the vibrating surface (that is emitting the ultrasound) and the frequency at which it vibrates. • Figure(Below) indicates directivity of a disc type transducer. • Narrower directivity can be achieved at higher frequency when the size remains the same, or at larger size when the frequency remains the same. Difference in detection distance with varying frequency at the same size is indicated on next slide.
  • 8. FREQUENCY (DIRECTIVITY) AND INFLUENCE OF THE GROUND • By using higher frequency and selecting an appropriate amplifier (gain), we can increase the influence of ground objects, such as wheel stoppers. • While narrower vertical directivity improves sensor usability, wider horizontal directivity can provide wider coverage with fewer sensors. 'Asymmetric' ultrasonic sensors are used in such situations.
  • 9. DIRECTIVITY TYPE FOR ULTRASONIC SENSORS • Since rear sonar ultrasonic sensors handle both sending and receiving of ultrasound, unless the emitting sound wave dissipates without ringing quickly, it cannot start receiving its reflection. • The shorter the ringing time, the closer the detection range can be.
  • 10. ADVANTAGES ULTRASONIC PARKING SENSORS • The ultrasonic backup sensors have difficulty to detect inclined surfaces or slightly reflective obstacles as shrubs and wire mesh. • They also only detect objects directly behind or in front of the car, and may not work if the sensors are dirty or out of alignment. • Fitting usually requires drilling the bumper, but stick-on sensors are available (though unattractive). • Ultrasonic parking sensors not be suitable for use with a tow bar. DISADVANTAGES OF ULTRASONIC PARKING SENSORS • The cheapest form of parking aid. • Sensors detect objects even when the car is stationary.
  • 11. ELECTROMAGNETIC PARKING SYSTEMS • Electromagnetic sensors rely on the vehicle moving slowly and smoothly towards the object to be avoided. • Once detected, the obstacle, if the vehicle momentarily stops on its approach, the sensor continues to give signal of presence of the obstacle. • If the vehicle then resumes its manoeuvre the alarm signal becomes more and more impressive as the obstacle approaches. • Electromagnetic parking sensors are often sold as not requiring any holes to be drilled offering a unique design that discreetly mounts on the inner side of the bumper preserving the 'new factory look' of your vehicle
  • 12. ELECTROMAGNETIC PARKING SYSTEMS: WORKING • A system provides an alarm indicative of a presence of an obstacle in a vicinity of a vehicle. • The system operates by electromagnetic detection, and generates an oscillating radiofrequency signal. • A transmitter transmits the generated oscillated radiofrequency signal to create, all around the transmitter, an electromagnetic radiofrequency near field. • A receiver receives the electromagnetic radiofrequency near field. • A detector is connected to the receiver and detects a perturbation resulting in a reduction of an oscillation amplitude of the electromagnetic radiofrequency near field, and an indicator indicates the detected perturbation of the received electromagnetic radiofrequency near field. • Based on this operation, an obstacle in a vicinity of the vehicle can be detected.
  • 13. ADVANTAGES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC PARKING SENSORS • Suitable for use with tow bars, cycle racks, etc. • Capability to approach the obstacle up to few centimetres. • Electromagnetic sensors are mounted inside the bumper, so there's no need for drilling. DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC PARKING SENSORS • Electronic parking sensors are more expensive –The factory-fitted cost is about the same as ultrasonic sensors. • Electromagnetic sensors only detect objects once the car has started moving."
  • 14. CONCLUSION • In a country like India where the parking space is always less than desired, sometimes due to heavy traffic and sometimes due to the irrational parking of others, such a parking assist system can be of great help. • The only thing that repels the consumer from buying these systems is the heavy cost they have to pay for them. • A vehicle with these systems can cost the buyer anywhere between 30k to 50k more in comparison to the ones which don’t have them. • Indians, who are more comfortable with their “simple” cars than in paying the hefty price, often try to avoid the installation of these systems. • If the cost is reduced and the people are convinced by the car manufacturers of the benefits of these systems, they may consider buying them for the sake of their vehicle’s safety.