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DSV SU/IbisSoft
1
Adaptive Case Management as a Process
of Construction of and Movement in a
State Space
Ilia Bider - IbisSoft/DSV SU, Stockholm, Sweden
Amin Jalali, Jens Ohlsson- DSV SU Stockholm, Sweden
Pre-proceedings: http://bit.ly/1elNT9e
Presentation at the workshop on “Adaptive Case Management and Other Non-
workflow approaches to BPM”, Graz, Austria, September 2013
http://acm2013.blogs.dsv.su.se/
DSV SU/IbisSoft
2
Goal with presentation
Outline a theory/model that can be used for
analysis, comparison and development of ACM
systems.
Why do we need a theory
1. “There is nothing more practical than a good theory” - Kurt
Levin
2. Existing theories are activities/task based, which does not
satisfies the needs of ACM
Why the latter is not satisfactory?
DSV SU/IbisSoft
3
Activity-based CM theory outline VS …
From “Case handling: a new
paradigm for business
process support”
Activity is an integrated part
and cannot be excluded from
the CM/ACM system
DSV SU/IbisSoft
4
… VS Non-activity-based CM outline
A CM system does
not mandatory need
to support
activities/tasks/
operations
Supporting progress of
reaching goals and producing
results has enough value on
its own
DSV SU/IbisSoft
5
Corresponds to practice -
form/template based CM
Application
Form
Decision-
making
Form
Decision
delivery
Form
Application/Decision-making/
Decision Delivery
Form
Quite common in Swedish municipalities and other public offices
DSV SU/IbisSoft
6
Example of a form
How a theory for form based CM and ACM should look like?
A form for BBiC case – social office of a Swedish municipalities
DSV SU/IbisSoft
7
Background for the theory: state-
oriented view on business processes
Main notions (borrowed from the dynamical systems
theory)
• Process instance - a trajectory in a multidimensional state
space (+time)
• Process type/model – a set of allowed trajectories in the state
space (+time)
• Goal - an end point of an allowed trajectory
• Activity –movement in the state space directed towards the
goal
DSV SU/IbisSoft
8
Illustration of the main notions
• For each item Ordered = Delivered
• To pay = Total + Freight + Tax
• Ordered > Delivered shipment
• To pay > Invoiced invoicing
• Invoiced = To pay
• Paid = Invoiced
State space
Goal definition
Activities
DSV SU/IbisSoft
9
Advantages of state-oriented view
• Allows both imperative and constraint-based definition of a
process-type.
• Imperative – specify a set of valid trajectories via chain of
movements
• Constraint-based – forbid movements between certain points of
the state space
• Provide a tool of determining the progress achieved in the
process instance independently of how it was historically
achieved
• Can serve as a basis for developing process support system that
does not understand the notion of activity. Defining a process
state and its visualization give the user possibility to track the
progress of each case
DSV SU/IbisSoft
10
Using state-oriented view as a
theoretical backing of the form-
based CM/ACM
• Possible to use in the following manner:
• Forms – visualization of the state space.
• Fields – visualization of dimensions
• Problems with Adaptive Case Management :
• there can be many different forms related to the process
type, while only few is used for any particular instance/case
• The same form can be used multiple times
• Solution – consider the state space not fixed but constructed on
the fly during the process instance/case life span
DSV SU/IbisSoft
11
Example: Course occasion in DSV SU
Forms to fill during preparation and giving a course
Could be a first occasion of a completely new course or a
regular occasion of an existing course
DSV SU/IbisSoft
12
Example of a form
Form for lecture/lesson
DSV SU/IbisSoft
13
A course case in progress
Legend:
• Blue – filled form
• Green – partially filled form
• White – form that can be filled
• Gray – form that cannot be filled as yet
Restrictions on filling forms
Form synchronizations
DSV SU/IbisSoft
14
Synchronization
Form for lecture/lesson
Synchronized form for
teacher feedback
DSV SU/IbisSoft
15
Specifying restrictions
A matrix that specifies dependencies between the forms
DSV SU/IbisSoft
16
Specifying synchronization
A matrix that specifies synchronization between the forms
DSV SU/IbisSoft
17
Interpretation from
state-oriented view
Each form specifies a
fragment of the state
space
DSV SU/IbisSoft
18
Interpretation from state-oriented
view
• Field - a dimension of a state space
• Form – a fragment of the state space
• Picking a form - adding a fragment to the overall state-space
of the given process instance/case
• Filling a form - moving in the sub-space defined by a form
• Form synchronization - restrictions on construction of the
state space (an example – there can be others)
• Restrictions on the order of filling forms – restrictions on
movements in the overall state-space
Summary handling a case in ACM is constructing and moving in
the state space
DSV SU/IbisSoft
19
Possible usage & work to-do
Usage:
• Building ACM systems and/or tools for ACM system development
• Analyzing the existing ACM tools and systems, e.g.:
• Whether they support form synchronization
• Whether they supports restrictions on movement and which
types
To-do:
• List of useful restrictions on state-space construction and
movement (similar to the workflow patterns)
DSV SU/IbisSoft
20
Thank you for your attention!
Q & A
Ilia Bider, DSV SU/IbisSoft
Email: ilia@dsv.su.se
ilia@ibissoft.se

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Adaptive Case Management as a Process of Construction of and Movement in a State Space

  • 1. DSV SU/IbisSoft 1 Adaptive Case Management as a Process of Construction of and Movement in a State Space Ilia Bider - IbisSoft/DSV SU, Stockholm, Sweden Amin Jalali, Jens Ohlsson- DSV SU Stockholm, Sweden Pre-proceedings: http://bit.ly/1elNT9e Presentation at the workshop on “Adaptive Case Management and Other Non- workflow approaches to BPM”, Graz, Austria, September 2013 http://acm2013.blogs.dsv.su.se/
  • 2. DSV SU/IbisSoft 2 Goal with presentation Outline a theory/model that can be used for analysis, comparison and development of ACM systems. Why do we need a theory 1. “There is nothing more practical than a good theory” - Kurt Levin 2. Existing theories are activities/task based, which does not satisfies the needs of ACM Why the latter is not satisfactory?
  • 3. DSV SU/IbisSoft 3 Activity-based CM theory outline VS … From “Case handling: a new paradigm for business process support” Activity is an integrated part and cannot be excluded from the CM/ACM system
  • 4. DSV SU/IbisSoft 4 … VS Non-activity-based CM outline A CM system does not mandatory need to support activities/tasks/ operations Supporting progress of reaching goals and producing results has enough value on its own
  • 5. DSV SU/IbisSoft 5 Corresponds to practice - form/template based CM Application Form Decision- making Form Decision delivery Form Application/Decision-making/ Decision Delivery Form Quite common in Swedish municipalities and other public offices
  • 6. DSV SU/IbisSoft 6 Example of a form How a theory for form based CM and ACM should look like? A form for BBiC case – social office of a Swedish municipalities
  • 7. DSV SU/IbisSoft 7 Background for the theory: state- oriented view on business processes Main notions (borrowed from the dynamical systems theory) • Process instance - a trajectory in a multidimensional state space (+time) • Process type/model – a set of allowed trajectories in the state space (+time) • Goal - an end point of an allowed trajectory • Activity –movement in the state space directed towards the goal
  • 8. DSV SU/IbisSoft 8 Illustration of the main notions • For each item Ordered = Delivered • To pay = Total + Freight + Tax • Ordered > Delivered shipment • To pay > Invoiced invoicing • Invoiced = To pay • Paid = Invoiced State space Goal definition Activities
  • 9. DSV SU/IbisSoft 9 Advantages of state-oriented view • Allows both imperative and constraint-based definition of a process-type. • Imperative – specify a set of valid trajectories via chain of movements • Constraint-based – forbid movements between certain points of the state space • Provide a tool of determining the progress achieved in the process instance independently of how it was historically achieved • Can serve as a basis for developing process support system that does not understand the notion of activity. Defining a process state and its visualization give the user possibility to track the progress of each case
  • 10. DSV SU/IbisSoft 10 Using state-oriented view as a theoretical backing of the form- based CM/ACM • Possible to use in the following manner: • Forms – visualization of the state space. • Fields – visualization of dimensions • Problems with Adaptive Case Management : • there can be many different forms related to the process type, while only few is used for any particular instance/case • The same form can be used multiple times • Solution – consider the state space not fixed but constructed on the fly during the process instance/case life span
  • 11. DSV SU/IbisSoft 11 Example: Course occasion in DSV SU Forms to fill during preparation and giving a course Could be a first occasion of a completely new course or a regular occasion of an existing course
  • 12. DSV SU/IbisSoft 12 Example of a form Form for lecture/lesson
  • 13. DSV SU/IbisSoft 13 A course case in progress Legend: • Blue – filled form • Green – partially filled form • White – form that can be filled • Gray – form that cannot be filled as yet Restrictions on filling forms Form synchronizations
  • 14. DSV SU/IbisSoft 14 Synchronization Form for lecture/lesson Synchronized form for teacher feedback
  • 15. DSV SU/IbisSoft 15 Specifying restrictions A matrix that specifies dependencies between the forms
  • 16. DSV SU/IbisSoft 16 Specifying synchronization A matrix that specifies synchronization between the forms
  • 17. DSV SU/IbisSoft 17 Interpretation from state-oriented view Each form specifies a fragment of the state space
  • 18. DSV SU/IbisSoft 18 Interpretation from state-oriented view • Field - a dimension of a state space • Form – a fragment of the state space • Picking a form - adding a fragment to the overall state-space of the given process instance/case • Filling a form - moving in the sub-space defined by a form • Form synchronization - restrictions on construction of the state space (an example – there can be others) • Restrictions on the order of filling forms – restrictions on movements in the overall state-space Summary handling a case in ACM is constructing and moving in the state space
  • 19. DSV SU/IbisSoft 19 Possible usage & work to-do Usage: • Building ACM systems and/or tools for ACM system development • Analyzing the existing ACM tools and systems, e.g.: • Whether they support form synchronization • Whether they supports restrictions on movement and which types To-do: • List of useful restrictions on state-space construction and movement (similar to the workflow patterns)
  • 20. DSV SU/IbisSoft 20 Thank you for your attention! Q & A Ilia Bider, DSV SU/IbisSoft Email: ilia@dsv.su.se ilia@ibissoft.se