SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Catabolism Of Carbon Skeleton
Of Amino Acids
By
N. Santhosh Kumar
Asst. Professor
Department of Biochemistry
SIMS&RH, Tumkur
• After the removal of α-amino group as ammonia the carbon
skeletons of amino acids forms amphibolic intermediates.
• Which are either converted into glucose (glucogenic) or to fats
and ketone bodes (ketogenic)
Metabolism
of
GLYCINE
Simple and Neutral amino acid
Nutritionally non essential
Glucogenic amino acid
Optically inactive but metabolically very active
amino acid
Glycine
ANABOLISM/ BIOSYNTHESIS
OH methyl transferase
SERINE GLYCINE+H2O
THFA Methylene THFA
Metabolic Fate Of Glycine
Heme Glycine with Succinyl CoA
Glutathione γ- glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine
Purine ring It provides C4,C5, N7 of purine ring
Bile acids - Glycine conjugated with cholic acid &
chenodeoxycholic acid to form glycocholic acid
and glycochenodeoxy cholic acid
- Conjugation lowers the pK of the bile salts,
making them better detergents
Creatine - Requires Glycine + Arginine + Methionine
- Present in muscle as high energy compound
creatine-Phosphate
Metabolic Fate Of Glycine
Detoxification
function
Benzoic acid conjugating with glycine to
hippuric acid
Collagen
formation
Glycine occurs at every 3rd position of a
chain of the triple helix
Glucogenic a.a Involved in synthesis of glucose
Formation of
Glyoxylate
–Glycine oxidatively deaminated by glycine
oxidase to form glyoxylate. Further
decarboxylated to formate & CO2
Converted to malate – TCA cycle
Oxidized to oxalate and excreted
Formation of serine
GLYCINE
CATABOLISM
OH methyl transferase:
Glycine +N-methylene-THF Serine + THFA
Serine Undergoes Non Oxidative Deamination By
Hydratase & PLP to Pyruvate + NH3
Glycine is Glucogenic in nature? (in gluconeogenesis)
Glycine cleavage system/ glycine synthase
• oxidative cleavage glycine into CO2, NH3, Methylene(-CH2)
group, which is accepted by THF.
• Catalyzed by Glycine cleavage system (glycine synthase).
• Further ammonia converted to urea.
• Glycine cleavage system is a multienzyme complex
Multienzyme complex
• Catalyzed by Glycine cleavage system
– Glycine decarboxylase with PLP,
– Amino methyl transferase with Lipoamide,
– Methylne-THF synthesis enzyme and
– Lipoamide dehydrogenase with NAD, all attached to H-
protein.
• Defect of these system, leads to abnormal accumulation of glycine –
Non ketotic Hyperglycinemia,
Glycine Glyoxylic acid
H2O H2O2
Glycine oxidase
Oxalate
(Excreted)
Malate TCA cycle
Formate N10 Formyl-THF
oxidized
DC
Oxidatively deaminated
Glyoxalate + (O) Oxalate
Oxalate + Ca Calcium Oxalate
Oxalate also formed on Deamination of Glycine
Glycine + Pyruvate Glyoxalate + Alanine
Transamination
Glycine Metabolic Disorders
Primary Hyperoxaluria
• It is an inborn error- high urinary excretion of oxalate.
 ↑sed transamination of glycine forms more glyoxalate
 failure to catabolized glyoxylate
 more glyoxalate gets oxidized to Oxalates
↓
↑sed Oxalates –urolithiasis (stones in UT)
Normal urine Oxalates is 50mg/day (leads to 600mg/day)
• More oxalates with calcium, deposits as crystals to results
in stones in urinary tract, kidneys etc.,
• Urolithiasis (stones in urinary tract)
• Nephrolithiasis (stones in kidneys)
• Recurrent urinary tract infections in infant
• Death in early life from renal failure/hypertension
Treatment:
• Increases oxalate excretion by increased water intake,
washed & minimized
• Oxalate free diet (restricting tea, cocoa, beetroot,
spinach, sesame seeds and leafy vegetables).
Non ketotic Hyper-glycinemia
• Defect in glycine cleavage system enzyme / Glycine synthase.
• Defective synthesis and accumulation of glycine in blood,
urine and CSF.
• Severe mental retardation
• Inhibits neurotransmitters leading to neurological defects
• Death in very early childhood.
GLYCINURIA
– Inborn error characterized by excretion of glycine
through urine
– Blood conc. is normal
– Due to defect in renal tubular reabsorption of glycine
– Characterized by increased tendency for the formation
of oxalate renal stones
Synthesis &Catabolism
of
Alanine
Pyruvate
+
L-Glutamate
L- Alanine
+
α- Ketoglutarate
ALT / SGPT
PLP
Non essential amino acid
Glucogenic amino acid
• Alanine is important NH3
transporter from muscle to
liver by glucose – alanine
cycle (in fasting & starvation).
• Glutamate can transfer its α-
amino group to pyruvate by
the action of ALT to form
alanine.
• Alanine has an imp role in
maintaining the fasting blood
glucose level by way of
gluconeogenesis
THANK YOU
HAVE A NICE DAY

More Related Content

What's hot

Phenylalanine & tyrosine amino acid metabolism
Phenylalanine & tyrosine amino acid metabolismPhenylalanine & tyrosine amino acid metabolism
Phenylalanine & tyrosine amino acid metabolism
Dipesh Tamrakar
 
Metabolism of amino acids (general metabolism)
Metabolism of amino acids (general metabolism)Metabolism of amino acids (general metabolism)
Metabolism of amino acids (general metabolism)
Ashok Katta
 
LYSINE METABOLISM
LYSINE METABOLISMLYSINE METABOLISM
LYSINE METABOLISM
YESANNA
 
Sulphur containing amino acids metabolism
Sulphur containing  amino acids metabolism Sulphur containing  amino acids metabolism
Sulphur containing amino acids metabolism
Dhiraj Trivedi
 
Metabolism of nucleotides new
Metabolism of nucleotides newMetabolism of nucleotides new
Metabolism of nucleotides new
Dr.M.Prasad Naidu
 
Metabolism of glycine
Metabolism of glycineMetabolism of glycine
Metabolism of glycine
Dhiraj Trivedi
 
Formation and fate of ammonia
Formation and fate of ammoniaFormation and fate of ammonia
Formation and fate of ammonia
Dhiraj Trivedi
 
Urea cycle
Urea cycleUrea cycle
Purine & pyrimidine metabolism and disorders
Purine & pyrimidine metabolism and disordersPurine & pyrimidine metabolism and disorders
Purine & pyrimidine metabolism and disorders
International Medicine School - Management and Science University
 
Glycine metabolism
Glycine metabolismGlycine metabolism
Glycine metabolism
Prof Viyatprajna Acharya
 
Metabolism of Glycine. .
Metabolism of Glycine. .Metabolism of Glycine. .
Metabolism of Glycine. .
Ashok Katta
 
Nucleotide metabolism
Nucleotide metabolism Nucleotide metabolism
Nucleotide metabolism
Anup Shamsher Budhathoki
 
HEME SYNTHESIS
HEME SYNTHESISHEME SYNTHESIS
HEME SYNTHESIS
YESANNA
 
Ketone bodies
Ketone bodiesKetone bodies
Ketone bodies
Dr.M.Prasad Naidu
 
Metabolism of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine
Metabolism of Phenylalanine and TyrosineMetabolism of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine
Metabolism of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine
Ashok Katta
 
Urea cycle
Urea cycleUrea cycle
Urea cycle
Dr Megha Khandode
 
Aromatic amino acid metabolism by dr.anita verma
Aromatic amino acid metabolism by dr.anita vermaAromatic amino acid metabolism by dr.anita verma
Aromatic amino acid metabolism by dr.anita verma
sp medical coolege
 
Glycogen metabolism
Glycogen metabolismGlycogen metabolism
Glycogen metabolism
Namrata Chhabra
 
Metabolism of amino acids
Metabolism of amino acids Metabolism of amino acids
Metabolism of amino acids
Arun Geetha Viswanathan
 
Metabolism of Protein and Amino Acids
Metabolism of Protein and Amino AcidsMetabolism of Protein and Amino Acids
Metabolism of Protein and Amino Acids
Farhana Atia
 

What's hot (20)

Phenylalanine & tyrosine amino acid metabolism
Phenylalanine & tyrosine amino acid metabolismPhenylalanine & tyrosine amino acid metabolism
Phenylalanine & tyrosine amino acid metabolism
 
Metabolism of amino acids (general metabolism)
Metabolism of amino acids (general metabolism)Metabolism of amino acids (general metabolism)
Metabolism of amino acids (general metabolism)
 
LYSINE METABOLISM
LYSINE METABOLISMLYSINE METABOLISM
LYSINE METABOLISM
 
Sulphur containing amino acids metabolism
Sulphur containing  amino acids metabolism Sulphur containing  amino acids metabolism
Sulphur containing amino acids metabolism
 
Metabolism of nucleotides new
Metabolism of nucleotides newMetabolism of nucleotides new
Metabolism of nucleotides new
 
Metabolism of glycine
Metabolism of glycineMetabolism of glycine
Metabolism of glycine
 
Formation and fate of ammonia
Formation and fate of ammoniaFormation and fate of ammonia
Formation and fate of ammonia
 
Urea cycle
Urea cycleUrea cycle
Urea cycle
 
Purine & pyrimidine metabolism and disorders
Purine & pyrimidine metabolism and disordersPurine & pyrimidine metabolism and disorders
Purine & pyrimidine metabolism and disorders
 
Glycine metabolism
Glycine metabolismGlycine metabolism
Glycine metabolism
 
Metabolism of Glycine. .
Metabolism of Glycine. .Metabolism of Glycine. .
Metabolism of Glycine. .
 
Nucleotide metabolism
Nucleotide metabolism Nucleotide metabolism
Nucleotide metabolism
 
HEME SYNTHESIS
HEME SYNTHESISHEME SYNTHESIS
HEME SYNTHESIS
 
Ketone bodies
Ketone bodiesKetone bodies
Ketone bodies
 
Metabolism of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine
Metabolism of Phenylalanine and TyrosineMetabolism of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine
Metabolism of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine
 
Urea cycle
Urea cycleUrea cycle
Urea cycle
 
Aromatic amino acid metabolism by dr.anita verma
Aromatic amino acid metabolism by dr.anita vermaAromatic amino acid metabolism by dr.anita verma
Aromatic amino acid metabolism by dr.anita verma
 
Glycogen metabolism
Glycogen metabolismGlycogen metabolism
Glycogen metabolism
 
Metabolism of amino acids
Metabolism of amino acids Metabolism of amino acids
Metabolism of amino acids
 
Metabolism of Protein and Amino Acids
Metabolism of Protein and Amino AcidsMetabolism of Protein and Amino Acids
Metabolism of Protein and Amino Acids
 

Similar to AAM-4: Metabolism of Glycine & Alanine

Pathway of metabolism.pptx
Pathway of metabolism.pptxPathway of metabolism.pptx
Pathway of metabolism.pptx
ssuser141478
 
Glycine metabolism and specialised products of amino acids
Glycine metabolism and specialised products of amino acidsGlycine metabolism and specialised products of amino acids
Glycine metabolism and specialised products of amino acids
SWETA DAS
 
HEME METABOLISM MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
HEME  METABOLISM  MUHAMMAD MUSTANSARHEME  METABOLISM  MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
HEME METABOLISM MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
Dr Muhammad Mustansar
 
Protein metabolism.ppt
Protein metabolism.pptProtein metabolism.ppt
Protein metabolism.ppt
DrirFaisalHasan
 
GLYCINE METABOLISM
GLYCINE METABOLISMGLYCINE METABOLISM
GLYCINE METABOLISM
YESANNA
 
Protein Metabolism .ppt
Protein Metabolism .pptProtein Metabolism .ppt
Protein Metabolism .ppt
awaissaleem42
 
Urea
UreaUrea
glycine-metabolism.ppt
glycine-metabolism.pptglycine-metabolism.ppt
glycine-metabolism.ppt
FATIMAMIRZA27
 
M-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptx
M-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptxM-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptx
M-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
urea- tca cycle(0).pdf
urea- tca cycle(0).pdfurea- tca cycle(0).pdf
urea- tca cycle(0).pdf
MishiSoza
 
Digestion and absorption of Lipids.pptx
Digestion and absorption of Lipids.pptxDigestion and absorption of Lipids.pptx
Digestion and absorption of Lipids.pptx
jaswant kaur
 
BIOC 202 Metabolism of lipids 2-1.ppt
BIOC 202 Metabolism of lipids 2-1.pptBIOC 202 Metabolism of lipids 2-1.ppt
BIOC 202 Metabolism of lipids 2-1.ppt
PaulNjoroge23
 
The citric acid cycle
The citric acid cycleThe citric acid cycle
The citric acid cycle
Farhana Atia
 
S containing AA Metabolism Met, Cys-Methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and ...
S containing AA Metabolism  Met, Cys-Methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and ...S containing AA Metabolism  Met, Cys-Methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and ...
S containing AA Metabolism Met, Cys-Methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and ...
ivvalashaker1
 
Fate of nitrogen in the body
Fate of nitrogen in the bodyFate of nitrogen in the body
Fate of nitrogen in the body
Kshema Thakur
 
Beta oxidation & protein catabolism
Beta oxidation & protein catabolismBeta oxidation & protein catabolism
Beta oxidation & protein catabolism
obanbrahma
 
Lec12 ureacyc
Lec12 ureacycLec12 ureacyc
Lec12 ureacyc
dream10f
 
Ketoacidosis
KetoacidosisKetoacidosis
Ketoacidosis
Ali Faris
 
Fat metabolism
Fat metabolismFat metabolism
Fat metabolism
MD. ASIFUR RAHMAN
 
Amino acids metabolism
Amino acids metabolismAmino acids metabolism
Amino acids metabolism
Abhra Ghosh
 

Similar to AAM-4: Metabolism of Glycine & Alanine (20)

Pathway of metabolism.pptx
Pathway of metabolism.pptxPathway of metabolism.pptx
Pathway of metabolism.pptx
 
Glycine metabolism and specialised products of amino acids
Glycine metabolism and specialised products of amino acidsGlycine metabolism and specialised products of amino acids
Glycine metabolism and specialised products of amino acids
 
HEME METABOLISM MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
HEME  METABOLISM  MUHAMMAD MUSTANSARHEME  METABOLISM  MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
HEME METABOLISM MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
 
Protein metabolism.ppt
Protein metabolism.pptProtein metabolism.ppt
Protein metabolism.ppt
 
GLYCINE METABOLISM
GLYCINE METABOLISMGLYCINE METABOLISM
GLYCINE METABOLISM
 
Protein Metabolism .ppt
Protein Metabolism .pptProtein Metabolism .ppt
Protein Metabolism .ppt
 
Urea
UreaUrea
Urea
 
glycine-metabolism.ppt
glycine-metabolism.pptglycine-metabolism.ppt
glycine-metabolism.ppt
 
M-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptx
M-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptxM-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptx
M-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptx
 
urea- tca cycle(0).pdf
urea- tca cycle(0).pdfurea- tca cycle(0).pdf
urea- tca cycle(0).pdf
 
Digestion and absorption of Lipids.pptx
Digestion and absorption of Lipids.pptxDigestion and absorption of Lipids.pptx
Digestion and absorption of Lipids.pptx
 
BIOC 202 Metabolism of lipids 2-1.ppt
BIOC 202 Metabolism of lipids 2-1.pptBIOC 202 Metabolism of lipids 2-1.ppt
BIOC 202 Metabolism of lipids 2-1.ppt
 
The citric acid cycle
The citric acid cycleThe citric acid cycle
The citric acid cycle
 
S containing AA Metabolism Met, Cys-Methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and ...
S containing AA Metabolism  Met, Cys-Methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and ...S containing AA Metabolism  Met, Cys-Methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and ...
S containing AA Metabolism Met, Cys-Methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and ...
 
Fate of nitrogen in the body
Fate of nitrogen in the bodyFate of nitrogen in the body
Fate of nitrogen in the body
 
Beta oxidation & protein catabolism
Beta oxidation & protein catabolismBeta oxidation & protein catabolism
Beta oxidation & protein catabolism
 
Lec12 ureacyc
Lec12 ureacycLec12 ureacyc
Lec12 ureacyc
 
Ketoacidosis
KetoacidosisKetoacidosis
Ketoacidosis
 
Fat metabolism
Fat metabolismFat metabolism
Fat metabolism
 
Amino acids metabolism
Amino acids metabolismAmino acids metabolism
Amino acids metabolism
 

More from Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N

Alcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptx
Alcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptxAlcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptx
Alcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Metabolism of lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptx
Metabolism of  lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptxMetabolism of  lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptx
Metabolism of lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Metabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptx
Metabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptxMetabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptx
Metabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptxMetabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
HM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptx
HM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptxHM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptx
HM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
HM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptx
HM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptxHM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptx
HM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
class -2 Simple & Compound lipids.pptx
class -2  Simple & Compound lipids.pptxclass -2  Simple & Compound lipids.pptx
class -2 Simple & Compound lipids.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
class-3 Derived lipids (steorids).pptx
class-3   Derived lipids (steorids).pptxclass-3   Derived lipids (steorids).pptx
class-3 Derived lipids (steorids).pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
OFT 04- AFTs.pptx
OFT 04- AFTs.pptxOFT 04- AFTs.pptx
OFT 04- AFTs.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
0FT 02. RFT.pptx
0FT 02. RFT.pptx0FT 02. RFT.pptx
0FT 02. RFT.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
OFT 03. TFT.pptx
OFT 03. TFT.pptxOFT 03. TFT.pptx
OFT 03. TFT.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docx
DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docxDIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docx
DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Basic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docx
Basic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docxBasic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docx
Basic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
CH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptx
CH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptxCH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptx
CH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Estimation of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptx
Estimation  of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptxEstimation  of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptx
Estimation of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx
2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx
2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx
1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx
1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Thiamine & Riboflavin.pptx
Thiamine & Riboflavin.pptxThiamine & Riboflavin.pptx
Thiamine & Riboflavin.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Vitamin - B3 and B6.pptx
Vitamin - B3 and B6.pptxVitamin - B3 and B6.pptx
Vitamin - B3 and B6.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Vitamine -E & K.pptx
Vitamine -E & K.pptxVitamine -E & K.pptx
Vitamine -E & K.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 

More from Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N (20)

Alcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptx
Alcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptxAlcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptx
Alcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptx
 
Metabolism of lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptx
Metabolism of  lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptxMetabolism of  lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptx
Metabolism of lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptx
 
Metabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptx
Metabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptxMetabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptx
Metabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptx
 
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptxMetabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
 
HM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptx
HM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptxHM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptx
HM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptx
 
HM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptx
HM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptxHM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptx
HM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptx
 
class -2 Simple & Compound lipids.pptx
class -2  Simple & Compound lipids.pptxclass -2  Simple & Compound lipids.pptx
class -2 Simple & Compound lipids.pptx
 
class-3 Derived lipids (steorids).pptx
class-3   Derived lipids (steorids).pptxclass-3   Derived lipids (steorids).pptx
class-3 Derived lipids (steorids).pptx
 
OFT 04- AFTs.pptx
OFT 04- AFTs.pptxOFT 04- AFTs.pptx
OFT 04- AFTs.pptx
 
0FT 02. RFT.pptx
0FT 02. RFT.pptx0FT 02. RFT.pptx
0FT 02. RFT.pptx
 
OFT 03. TFT.pptx
OFT 03. TFT.pptxOFT 03. TFT.pptx
OFT 03. TFT.pptx
 
DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docx
DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docxDIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docx
DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docx
 
Basic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docx
Basic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docxBasic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docx
Basic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docx
 
CH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptx
CH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptxCH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptx
CH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptx
 
Estimation of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptx
Estimation  of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptxEstimation  of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptx
Estimation of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptx
 
2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx
2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx
2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx
 
1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx
1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx
1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx
 
Thiamine & Riboflavin.pptx
Thiamine & Riboflavin.pptxThiamine & Riboflavin.pptx
Thiamine & Riboflavin.pptx
 
Vitamin - B3 and B6.pptx
Vitamin - B3 and B6.pptxVitamin - B3 and B6.pptx
Vitamin - B3 and B6.pptx
 
Vitamine -E & K.pptx
Vitamine -E & K.pptxVitamine -E & K.pptx
Vitamine -E & K.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptxRecent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
DrGirishJHoogar
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
rishi2789
 
10 Benefits an EPCR Software should Bring to EMS Organizations
10 Benefits an EPCR Software should Bring to EMS Organizations   10 Benefits an EPCR Software should Bring to EMS Organizations
10 Benefits an EPCR Software should Bring to EMS Organizations
Traumasoft LLC
 
Acute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdf
Acute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdfAcute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdf
Acute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdf
Jim Jacob Roy
 
Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024
Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024
Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024
Torstein Dalen-Lorentsen
 
LOW BIRTH WEIGHT. PRETERM BABIES OR SMALL FOR DATES BABIES
LOW BIRTH WEIGHT. PRETERM BABIES OR SMALL FOR DATES BABIESLOW BIRTH WEIGHT. PRETERM BABIES OR SMALL FOR DATES BABIES
LOW BIRTH WEIGHT. PRETERM BABIES OR SMALL FOR DATES BABIES
ShraddhaTamshettiwar
 
Pharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and Antagonist
Pharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and AntagonistPharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and Antagonist
Pharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and Antagonist
Dr. Nikhilkumar Sakle
 
Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)
Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)
Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)
Josep Vidal-Alaball
 
Breast cancer: Post menopausal endocrine therapy
Breast cancer: Post menopausal endocrine therapyBreast cancer: Post menopausal endocrine therapy
Breast cancer: Post menopausal endocrine therapy
Dr. Sumit KUMAR
 
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public HealthAgeing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
phuakl
 
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdfOsteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Jim Jacob Roy
 
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdfpharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
KerlynIgnacio
 
What are the different types of Dental implants.
What are the different types of Dental implants.What are the different types of Dental implants.
What are the different types of Dental implants.
Gokuldas Hospital
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdf
rishi2789
 
Cervical Disc Arthroplasty ORSI 2024.pptx
Cervical Disc Arthroplasty ORSI 2024.pptxCervical Disc Arthroplasty ORSI 2024.pptx
Cervical Disc Arthroplasty ORSI 2024.pptx
LEFLOT Jean-Louis
 
CLEAR ALIGNER THERAPY IN ORTHODONTICS .pptx
CLEAR ALIGNER THERAPY IN ORTHODONTICS .pptxCLEAR ALIGNER THERAPY IN ORTHODONTICS .pptx
CLEAR ALIGNER THERAPY IN ORTHODONTICS .pptx
Government Dental College & Hospital Srinagar
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
rishi2789
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
rishi2789
 
The Nervous and Chemical Regulation of Respiration
The Nervous and Chemical Regulation of RespirationThe Nervous and Chemical Regulation of Respiration
The Nervous and Chemical Regulation of Respiration
MedicoseAcademics
 
Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.
Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.
Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.
Gokuldas Hospital
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptxRecent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
 
10 Benefits an EPCR Software should Bring to EMS Organizations
10 Benefits an EPCR Software should Bring to EMS Organizations   10 Benefits an EPCR Software should Bring to EMS Organizations
10 Benefits an EPCR Software should Bring to EMS Organizations
 
Acute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdf
Acute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdfAcute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdf
Acute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdf
 
Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024
Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024
Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024
 
LOW BIRTH WEIGHT. PRETERM BABIES OR SMALL FOR DATES BABIES
LOW BIRTH WEIGHT. PRETERM BABIES OR SMALL FOR DATES BABIESLOW BIRTH WEIGHT. PRETERM BABIES OR SMALL FOR DATES BABIES
LOW BIRTH WEIGHT. PRETERM BABIES OR SMALL FOR DATES BABIES
 
Pharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and Antagonist
Pharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and AntagonistPharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and Antagonist
Pharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and Antagonist
 
Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)
Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)
Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)
 
Breast cancer: Post menopausal endocrine therapy
Breast cancer: Post menopausal endocrine therapyBreast cancer: Post menopausal endocrine therapy
Breast cancer: Post menopausal endocrine therapy
 
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public HealthAgeing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
 
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdfOsteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
 
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdfpharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
 
What are the different types of Dental implants.
What are the different types of Dental implants.What are the different types of Dental implants.
What are the different types of Dental implants.
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdf
 
Cervical Disc Arthroplasty ORSI 2024.pptx
Cervical Disc Arthroplasty ORSI 2024.pptxCervical Disc Arthroplasty ORSI 2024.pptx
Cervical Disc Arthroplasty ORSI 2024.pptx
 
CLEAR ALIGNER THERAPY IN ORTHODONTICS .pptx
CLEAR ALIGNER THERAPY IN ORTHODONTICS .pptxCLEAR ALIGNER THERAPY IN ORTHODONTICS .pptx
CLEAR ALIGNER THERAPY IN ORTHODONTICS .pptx
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
 
The Nervous and Chemical Regulation of Respiration
The Nervous and Chemical Regulation of RespirationThe Nervous and Chemical Regulation of Respiration
The Nervous and Chemical Regulation of Respiration
 
Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.
Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.
Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.
 

AAM-4: Metabolism of Glycine & Alanine

  • 1. Catabolism Of Carbon Skeleton Of Amino Acids By N. Santhosh Kumar Asst. Professor Department of Biochemistry SIMS&RH, Tumkur
  • 2. • After the removal of α-amino group as ammonia the carbon skeletons of amino acids forms amphibolic intermediates. • Which are either converted into glucose (glucogenic) or to fats and ketone bodes (ketogenic)
  • 4. Simple and Neutral amino acid Nutritionally non essential Glucogenic amino acid Optically inactive but metabolically very active amino acid Glycine
  • 5. ANABOLISM/ BIOSYNTHESIS OH methyl transferase SERINE GLYCINE+H2O THFA Methylene THFA
  • 6. Metabolic Fate Of Glycine Heme Glycine with Succinyl CoA Glutathione γ- glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine Purine ring It provides C4,C5, N7 of purine ring Bile acids - Glycine conjugated with cholic acid & chenodeoxycholic acid to form glycocholic acid and glycochenodeoxy cholic acid - Conjugation lowers the pK of the bile salts, making them better detergents Creatine - Requires Glycine + Arginine + Methionine - Present in muscle as high energy compound creatine-Phosphate
  • 7. Metabolic Fate Of Glycine Detoxification function Benzoic acid conjugating with glycine to hippuric acid Collagen formation Glycine occurs at every 3rd position of a chain of the triple helix Glucogenic a.a Involved in synthesis of glucose Formation of Glyoxylate –Glycine oxidatively deaminated by glycine oxidase to form glyoxylate. Further decarboxylated to formate & CO2 Converted to malate – TCA cycle Oxidized to oxalate and excreted Formation of serine
  • 9. OH methyl transferase: Glycine +N-methylene-THF Serine + THFA Serine Undergoes Non Oxidative Deamination By Hydratase & PLP to Pyruvate + NH3 Glycine is Glucogenic in nature? (in gluconeogenesis)
  • 10. Glycine cleavage system/ glycine synthase • oxidative cleavage glycine into CO2, NH3, Methylene(-CH2) group, which is accepted by THF. • Catalyzed by Glycine cleavage system (glycine synthase). • Further ammonia converted to urea. • Glycine cleavage system is a multienzyme complex
  • 11. Multienzyme complex • Catalyzed by Glycine cleavage system – Glycine decarboxylase with PLP, – Amino methyl transferase with Lipoamide, – Methylne-THF synthesis enzyme and – Lipoamide dehydrogenase with NAD, all attached to H- protein. • Defect of these system, leads to abnormal accumulation of glycine – Non ketotic Hyperglycinemia,
  • 12.
  • 13. Glycine Glyoxylic acid H2O H2O2 Glycine oxidase Oxalate (Excreted) Malate TCA cycle Formate N10 Formyl-THF oxidized DC Oxidatively deaminated
  • 14. Glyoxalate + (O) Oxalate Oxalate + Ca Calcium Oxalate Oxalate also formed on Deamination of Glycine Glycine + Pyruvate Glyoxalate + Alanine Transamination
  • 16. Primary Hyperoxaluria • It is an inborn error- high urinary excretion of oxalate.  ↑sed transamination of glycine forms more glyoxalate  failure to catabolized glyoxylate  more glyoxalate gets oxidized to Oxalates ↓ ↑sed Oxalates –urolithiasis (stones in UT) Normal urine Oxalates is 50mg/day (leads to 600mg/day)
  • 17. • More oxalates with calcium, deposits as crystals to results in stones in urinary tract, kidneys etc., • Urolithiasis (stones in urinary tract) • Nephrolithiasis (stones in kidneys) • Recurrent urinary tract infections in infant • Death in early life from renal failure/hypertension
  • 18. Treatment: • Increases oxalate excretion by increased water intake, washed & minimized • Oxalate free diet (restricting tea, cocoa, beetroot, spinach, sesame seeds and leafy vegetables).
  • 19. Non ketotic Hyper-glycinemia • Defect in glycine cleavage system enzyme / Glycine synthase. • Defective synthesis and accumulation of glycine in blood, urine and CSF. • Severe mental retardation • Inhibits neurotransmitters leading to neurological defects • Death in very early childhood.
  • 20. GLYCINURIA – Inborn error characterized by excretion of glycine through urine – Blood conc. is normal – Due to defect in renal tubular reabsorption of glycine – Characterized by increased tendency for the formation of oxalate renal stones
  • 22. Pyruvate + L-Glutamate L- Alanine + α- Ketoglutarate ALT / SGPT PLP Non essential amino acid Glucogenic amino acid
  • 23. • Alanine is important NH3 transporter from muscle to liver by glucose – alanine cycle (in fasting & starvation). • Glutamate can transfer its α- amino group to pyruvate by the action of ALT to form alanine. • Alanine has an imp role in maintaining the fasting blood glucose level by way of gluconeogenesis
  • 24. THANK YOU HAVE A NICE DAY