SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 11
Download to read offline
Information and Knowledge Management                                                                                  www.iiste.org
ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online)
Vol 2, No.5, 2012



  Use-of-Dashboard: A Vital Moderator of Sales Force Competence
            Management and Marketing Performance Relationship
             Asiegbu, Ikechukwu F., Ph.D,1*, Amah, Edwinah, Ph.D1,2, Odili, Monday E., B.Sc., MBA1,2,3


 1.        Senior Lecturer, Department of Marketing, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Port Harcourt,
                                                          Port Harcourt, Nigeria
                 2.        Department of Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
                      3.     Post Graduate Studies, University of Port Harcourt , Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
                                 *     E-mail of the corresponding author: ikasie@yahoo.com
Abstract
Prior research has not been clear on the role the use-of-dashboard plays in moderating the relationship between competence
management and a firm’s corporate performance, notwithstanding that such a moderating effect is conceptually quite plausible. This
study, empirically examined the role of use-of-dashboard as a moderator in the sales force competence management – marketing
performance relationship. By using Pearson partial correlation test, the study found evidence that supports the moderating effect of
use-of-dashboard on the strength of the relationship between sales force competence management and marketing performance. The
paper therefore, recommends that firms wishing to fully harness the positive influence of sales force competence management on
marketing performance should consider the use-of-dashboard as a veritable contextual option.
Key Words:          Marketing Performance, Moderator, Sales force Competence Management, Use-of-Dashboard,


1. Introduction
The most important asset of any organization is the knowledge and competences of the employees. Effective and
strategic management of the human resources is crucial to successful business management. It is essential to have
qualified employees in the right place at the right time to cope with the needs of the business to quickly respond to the
dynamics of the business environment. Therefore, management must pay adequate attention to skill levels and training
needs of the employees to ensure that the appropriate skills are available for the organization to achieve its objectives.
An organization needs to keep track of its activities with a view to ascertaining the extent its strategies are meeting its
objectives. Firms use various forms of information systems (IS) to monitor, report, and analyze their activities, and to
detect when these activities deviate from the set objectives and then institute necessary corrections. Information
systems for monitoring organizational activities may be utilized to support sales force management processes. Locally
and globally (Baladi, 1999; Niederman, 1995; Hustad et al, 2002) information systems, can be used strategically to
ensure that the competence development of the employees is adjusted to the strategic and critical competence goals of
the organization. The use of information systems, which supports the competence management process, to increase
knowledge and competences among the employees is a process for stimulating knowledge transfer mechanisms
between knowledge workers (Hustad et al, 2002). But strategic management holds that firms are fundamentally
heterogeneous in their possession of resources and capabilities (Peteraf, 1993).

A good number of previous competence management research has been directed on its performance implications
(Dixon et al, 2005; Avlonitis and Panagopolous, 2006, Defloor et al, 2006; Zeb-Obipi, 2007; Asiegbu, 2009).
Although it has been established that competence management is, in general, positively related to several corporate
performance measures (Defloor et al, 2006; Zeb-Obipi, 2007; Asiegbu, 2009), the question whether the competence
management - corporate performance relationship is monotonic across different levels of adoption and
use-of-dashboard in monitoring, analyzing, and reporting firm’s activities, has not be fully investigated. A closer look
at the literature suggests the equivocal nature of its corporate performance impact. Since evidence of the positive
business performance has accumulated but with some equivocality, it is important to investigate more closely the
potential moderator of the sales force competence management – marketing performance relationship. Thus, the focus
of this study is specifically to determine the extent to which the use-of-dashboard in monitoring, analyzing, and

                                                                30
Information and Knowledge Management                                                                        www.iiste.org
ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online)
Vol 2, No.5, 2012

reporting internal activities of the organization moderates the influence of sales force competence management on
marketing performance. Our research question is: Does the influence of sales force competence management on
marketing performance depend on a firm’s capability in the use of Information Technology (IT)-based systems? This
paper views the use-of-dashboard as strategically appropriate in this regard.

No doubt a number of scholars have written on dashboard (Few, 2006, Wind, 2005; Pauwel, et al, 2009; DeBusk et al,
2011; Yigitbasioglu and Velcu, 2012, Paine, 2004; O’Sullivan and Abela 2007). However, none of these was
specifically on the use-of-dashboard as a moderator in the nexus between sales force competence management and
marketing performance. As a result of dearth of knowledge in the design, use, and importance of performance
dashboard, many authors have called for more research in the area (Rogers, 2003; Srivastava and Reibstein, 2005;
O’Sullivan and Abela, 2007; Pauwels et al 2009), hence our interest in this study.

2. Theoretical Foundation and Hypothesis

2.1. Sales Force Competence Management

Sales force competence management is the process of analyzing, developing, and evaluating the knowledge, skills, and
behavior of an organization’s sales force members for superior performance in sales job (Asiegbu, 2009). The primary
purpose of competence management is to define and continuously maintain competences, according to the objective of
the company (Berio and Harzalla, 2005). The three main prevalent objectives for competence interventions in order to
importance include: enhancement of performance expectation, provision of an Integrated Human Resource Process,
and alignment of behaviors with core values of the firms.

2.2 Marketing Performance

Marketing performance is a measure of the contributions of an organization’s marketing functions to its corporate
goals (Jackson, et al, 1995). This views marketing performance measures as the means of a respondent’s rating for his
or her firm’s sales growth, sales volume, and profitability performance relative to its past years’ and competitors’ as
used in previous studies (Kohli and Jaworski 1994, O’Sullivan and Abela, 2007; Asiegbu, 2009).

2.3. Sales Force Competence Management – Marketing Performance Relationship

The resource-based theory clearly emphasizes that specialized resources and capabilities which are durable, scarce, not
easily traded, and difficult to imitate may enable a firm to earn economic rents (Amit and Schoemaker, 1993). The
outcomes of effective marketing depend mainly on whether firms have competitive advantages that are unique,
exclusive and difficult to imitate. It has been that people provide organizations with an important source of sustainable
competitive advantages (Pfeffer, 1994, Wright et al, 1994). Human capital not physical capital, may be the ultimate
determinant of firm performance (Adler, 1998). This, perhaps, has led to the call for adequate management of human
competence at work as a veritable means of achieving unique and exclusive competitive advantage (deGens, 1999),
superior productivity performance (Zeb-Obipi, 2007). Competence is the driving force behind the success of any
business, especially in knowledge based firms (Walter, 2003). In this regard sales force is critical in
business-to-business marketing because it creates and sustains competitive advantage (Avlonitis and Panagopolous,
2006). With the notion that sales force performance positively correlates with marketing performance, organizations
view sales force ineffectiveness and incompetence with grave seriousness and concern (Mallin and Mayo, 2006). Sales
force competence management is viewed as the foundation of managing and developing sales people (Avilar, 2005).
Some studies found that performance is linked to competence management (Avlonitis and Panagopolous, 2006; Dixon
et al, 2005; Zhu and Nakata, 2007). Nursing competence management correlates with the performance of nurses in
patient care (Defloor et al, 2006)

It has also been established that worker competence management positively affects the organization’s productivity
performance (Zeb-Obipi, 2007). Specifically, sales force competence management is found to positively influence


                                                          31
Information and Knowledge Management                                                                       www.iiste.org
ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online)
Vol 2, No.5, 2012

marketing performance of the industrial and domestic product firms in Nigeria (Asiegbu, 2009). It has been established
that competence management activities – sales force competence analysis, sales force competence development, and
sales force competence evaluation significantly affect marketing performance measures – sales growth, sales volume,
and profitability (Asiegbu, 2009). However, the question of whether the positive influence of sales force competence
management on marketing performance is dependent on the firm’s capability in monitoring, analyzing, and reporting
its activities has not be fully investigated, especially with the use-of-dashboard. Hence, the focus of this study is to
investigate the use-of-dashboard as a moderator.

2. 3. Use-of-dashboard as a Moderator in Sales Force Competence Management and Marketing
      Performance Relationship.

A dashboard provide a visual display of the most important information needed to achieve one or more objectives;
consolidated and arranged on a single screen so that the information can be monitored at a glance (Few, 2006). It is a
full-fledged business information system designed to help organizations optimize marketing performance and achieve
strategic objectives.

Two important elements of dashboard are that they provide automated or (Close to) real time reporting (Lyer, et al,
2006; Wind, 2005), and that they enable users to “drill down” to programme level details (Miller and Cioffi, 2004).
Dashboards can provide a way to visually monitor one’s metrics and provide him/her with a feedback system to track
progress or failure, and connect to business outcomes. Dashboards provide insight into performance, foster
decision-making and align strategy with implementation (Patterson, 2007).

Marketing dashboards connect data points in a way that enables users to see how any one marketing action affects the
entire enterprise. For example, during a promotion campaign, dashboard shows the outcomes for the enterprise, which
include sales volume, customer satisfaction, and brand awareness, all of which help to determine the nature, frequency,
and timing of future promotions and marketing efforts. A marketing performance dashboard communicates strategic
objectives and enables businesses measure, monitor, and manage the key activities and process needed to achieve their
goals.

There are three major types or applications of dashboards: operational, tactical, and strategic. Each type of
performance dashboard emphasizes three layers of information and applications to different degrees. These are the top
layer, middle layer, and bottom layer. The top layer graphically displays excepted conditions, the middle layer lets
users explore or “slice and dice” data from multiple dimensions; and the bottom layer lets users examine individual
transactions and operational reports. Operational dashboards carry out core operational processes. They are used
primarily by contact employees and their supervisors who have direct interactions with customers or manage the
creation and/or delivery of the products. Operational dashboards primarily deliver detailed information that is only
lightly summarized. An operational dashboard, thus, emphasizes monitoring more than analysis and management.
Tactical dashboards track departmental processes and projects that are of interest to a section of the organization or
sub-unit. Managers and business analysts use tactical dashboards to compare actual performance of their section to
expected performance or last period’s results. Tactical dashboards which are usually updated daily or weekly, tend to
emphasize analysis more than monitoring or management. Strategic dashboards which monitor the execution of
strategic objectives, are usually updated weekly or monthly, providing executives a powerful tool to communicate
strategy, gain visibility into operations, and identify the key drivers of performance and business value. Strategic
dashboards, thus, emphasize management more than monitoring and analysis.

Dashboards are viewed as a means by which information can be summarized and readily communicated to senior
decision-makers (Paine 2004; Wind 2005; Srivastava and Reibstein, 2005) and general workforce (Chiang, 2011). It is
argued that this distilling of data increases the perceived value and managerial use of information (Peyrot et al 2002),
which in turn creates a closer link between marketing activities and firm’s goals (McGovern et al, 2004; Miller and
Cioffi, 2004). A good dashboard maps out the relationships between business outcomes and marketing performance



                                                          32
Information and Knowledge Management                                                                            www.iiste.org
ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online)
Vol 2, No.5, 2012

(Patterson, 2007). The organization can use their metrics as a key tool to help drive their performance management
strategy (Lyndsay, 2012).

Therefore, this paper views the use-of-dashboard to have the tendency to make the salesperson tilt to more
result-oriented behavior in sales job. It is possible that the behavior of a salesperson is likely to be positively influenced
if there is a dashboard that monitors and reports the outcomes of his or her performance in sales job. Being fully aware
of the timely reporting of the outcomes of his or her selling activities, a salesperson, who has developed the required
competence through its management, would want to utilize them in a way that results in greater productivity, which in
turn, impacts positively on marketing performance. This view is reflected in our conceptual model in Figure 2.1


                                                    Moderator:
                                                 Use-of-Dashboard



 Sales force                                                        Sales Force                       Marketing
                               Professional Sales
Competence                                                          Productivity                     Performance
                                       Force
Management



Figure 2.1: Moderator of Sales Force Competence Management – Marketing Performance Relationship.

According to Gillis and Beauchemin (2000), an expert salesperson consistently demonstrates among others things,
interest in learning how his or her actions contribute to overall company goals. Dashboard as an automated internal
activity control system can be used in an organization to achieve this interest. With these, we are inclined to believe
that the use-of-dashboard can indirectly affect marketing performance. This leads us to the hypothesis in this study.

HA:      The use-of-dashboard positively affects the influence of sales force competence management on marketing
         performance.

3. Research Methodology
Our database was registered members of the Port Harcourt branch of Manufacturer’s Association of Nigeria (MAN). A
total of 40 registered and operating members this Association was found in the register at the time of data collection.
Thus, we had a total of 144 copies of questionnaire distributed to 36 participating firms, which constitute sample size
randomly selected from the sampling frame of 40 firms. The copies of questionnaire and cover letters were
hand-delivered to the 144 marketing executives of the 36 companies. These copies of questionnaire were retrieved
after a period of six weeks and 135 copies were found usable, representing 93.75% response rate.

3.1. Data Collection
The moderator: use-of-dashboard was measured with the firms’ capabilities in using information technology (IT) to
monitor, analyze, and report their business activities. Capability in the use-of-dashboard is captured using three
measurement items – capability in using informational technology (IT) to monitor internal company activities,
capability in using IT to report company marketing performance resulting from marketing efforts, and capability in
using IT to analyze individual company activities to determine sources of variations from the objectives. Sales force
competence management is dimensioned as: sales force competence analysis with three tasks, sales force competence
development with four tasks, and sales force competence evaluation with five tasks as used in Asiegbu (2009).
Marketing performance is measured with sales growth, sales volume, and profitability (O’Sullivan and Abela, 2007;
Kohli and Jaworski, 1994). Marketing performance responses were captured on a five-point Likert scale anchored by
“much lower” and much higher”, which is in line with the scale used in similar studies conducted by O’Sullivan and
Abela (2007), Deshpande et al (1993), Deshpande and Farley (1998).

                                                             33
Information and Knowledge Management                                                                       www.iiste.org
ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online)
Vol 2, No.5, 2012




3.2 Validity and Reliability
The questionnaire used as the data collection instrument was pretested for comprehension, relevance, and
completeness, using a pilot survey that involved ten marketing executives from the industrial and domestic products
firms in Port Harcourt, and some marketing scholars. Participants in the pilot phase were asked to evaluate the content,
clarity, and format of the preliminary questionnaire and make their inputs. Based on their inputs, the original
questionnaire was adjusted accordingly.

The validity of the measures was already confirmed in previous studies relating to marketing performance (Kohli and
Jaworski, 1994; O’Sullivan and Abela, 2007; Rogers, 2003; Srivastan and Reibstein, 2005; Miller and Cioffi, 2004;
Wang et al, 2005) and competence management activities (Baladi, 1999; Lindgren and Hendfrisson, 2002; Hiermanna
and Hofferer, 2005; Zeb-Obipi, 2007; Asiegbu 2009). However, we still needed to reconfirm the applicability of the
measures in the industrial and domestic products firms in Port Harcourt, hence the pilot study.

To measure the reliability of the concepts under investigation, we applied the Cronbach’s Alpha. Table 3.1 indicates
how the items for each factor were internally related. These values are well above the rule of the thumb cut-off mark of
0.70 (Nunnally, 1978; Hatcher, 1994). We are, therefore, permitted to regard the measurement items in the instrument
as being internally related to the factors they are expected to measure.


Table 3.1: Reliability Coefficients of Variable Measures
 S/No Dimensions/Measures of the study Variables                Number       Number of       Cronbach’s
                                                                of Items       Cases           Alpha
   1.     Sales force Competence Analysis                           4           135            0.858
   2.     Sales force Competence Development                        5           135            0.908
   3.     Sales force Competence Evaluation                         6           135            0.906
   4.     Sales force Competence Management                         4           135            0.949
   5.     Sales Growth                                              7           135            0.914
   6.     Sales Volume                                              6           135            0.919
   7.     Profitability                                             7           135            0.921
   8.     Marketing Performance                                     3           135            0.964
   9.     Use-of-dashboard Capability                               4           135            0.901

Source: SPSS Output
Pearson Correlation test was used to obtain zero-order partial correlation coefficients in our inferential statistical
analysis.

4. Analyses and Finding
4.1 Correlation Test
Table 4.1 shows that use-of-dashboard measurement items correlated highly with marketing performance.
Table 4.1. Correlation of the Use Marketing Dashboard Measurement Items and Marketing Performance
 S/N                      Use of Dashboard                     Pearson P-Value Mean            Std.
                                                                   R                           Dev
 M1 Monitoring Company Activities                              0.765       0.000     3.07     1.097
 M2 Automated Reporting of Marketing Performance
        Resulting from Company Activities                      0.765       0.000     2.85     1.062
 M3 Analyzing Individual Company Activities                    0.706       0.000     2.98     1.175
 M4 Use of dashboard General Question                          0.764       0.000     3.39     1.139
Source: SPSS Output On Research Data Collected, September, 2011


                                                          34
Information and Knowledge Management                                                                          www.iiste.org
ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online)
Vol 2, No.5, 2012



The elements that constitute use-of-dashboard were correlated against the three constructs that were developed to
measure marketing performance – sales growth, sales volume and profitability (Table 4.2). The use-of-dashboard
general question correlated highly with sales growth showing a Pearson’s r of 0.758 and p-value of 0.000, followed by
profitability (0.731) and then sales volume (0.727). Specifically monitoring company activities and automated
reporting of marketing performance resulting from company activities correlated most highly with sales growth, (0.759
and 0.750 respectively), followed by profitability (0.731 and 0.746 respectively). Analyzing individual company
activities correlated most highly with profitability, (0.762), followed by sales volume (0.691) and then sales growth
(0.683). In summary, all the elements of use-of-dashboard correlated with all the marketing performance measures.


Table 4.2     Strong Positive Correlation of the Use of Marketing Dashboard Measurement Items and
              Marketing Performance
 S/N               Use of Dashboard                Statistics    Sales    Sales Profitability
                                                                            Growth      Volume
 M1      Monitoring company activities                 Pearson r 2-tailed   0.759**     0.727**     0.731**
                                                                            0.000       0.000       0.000
 M2      Automated reporting of marketing              Pearson r 2-tailed   0.750**     0.723**     0.746**
         performance resulting from company                                 0.000       0.000       0.000
         activities
 M3      Analyzing individual company activities       Pearson r Sig        0.683**     0.691**     0.762**
                                                                            0.000       0.000       0.000
 M4      Use of dashboard general question             Pearson r Sig        0.758**     0.727**     0.731**
                                                                            0.000       0.000       0.000
Source: SPSS Output On Research Data Collected, September, 2011

4.2 Hypothesis Testing
Bryman and Crammer (2001) and Zeb-Obipi (2007) suggest that moderated relationships are better examined by
compute Pearson’s r for each category of the test variables and then comparing the rs. First, we computed the Pearson’s
r for each pair of variables: sales force competence management, use-of-dashboard, and marketing performance. This
is referred to as Zero-order partial correlation in which the three variables – sales force competence management,
use-of-dashboard, and marketing performance are correlated, which in this study gave r = 0.604. Second, controlling
for the moderating variable, which is use-of-dashboard, first-order Pearson r was then computed between only the sales
force competence management and marketing performance, which in this study gave r = 0884. Third, the Pearson’s r
of the sales force competence management and marketing performance in the two sets of computations are compared
to determine the magnitude of difference between the uncontrolled and controlled correlation coefficients, which in
this study gave 0.884 – 0.604 = 0.220. Accepting or rejecting our hypothesis in this regard was based on the magnitude
of this difference in the Pearson’s rs.

According to the SPSS mode of explanation (Bryman and Crammer, 2001; Zeb-Obipi, 2007), if the difference in the
Pearson’s rs of the zero-order and first-order correlation computations is significant, (equal to or greater than 0.1) then
the hypothesized relationship between sales force competence management and marketing performance is affected by
the contextual factor. But if the difference in Pearson’s rs is not significant (less than 0.1), it indicates that the
hypothesized relationship between sales force competence management and marketing performance is not affected by
the presence of the earlier speculated moderating factor: the use-of-dashboard. That is, accept the null hypothesis if the
Pearson rs difference is not significant (less than 0.1), otherwise accept HA.




                                                           35
Information and Knowledge Management                                                                          www.iiste.org
 ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online)
 Vol 2, No.5, 2012

 Table 4.3:     Partial Correlation of Sales Force Competence Management and Marketing Performance,
                     controlling for Use of Dashboard

                                                           Correlations

                                                                                                             INTERNAL
                                                                                                              USE-OF-
                                                                          SALES FORCE      MARKETING          ACTIVITY
                                                                                                             DASHBOA
Control                                                                   COMPETENCE       PERFORMA         MONITORING
Variables         Variables                       Statistics              MANAGEMENT          NCE               RD
                                                                                                            CAPABILITY
-none-a           SALES FORCE                     Correlation                    1.000           .884               .832
                  COMPETENCE                      Significance (2-tailed)             .          .000               .000
                  MANAGEMENT                      df                                 0            133                133
                  MARKETING                       Correlation                     .884          1.000               .853
                  PERFORMANCE                     Significance (2-tailed)         .000               .              .000
                                                  df                               133              0                133
                  INTERNAL ACTIVITY
                  USE-OF-                         Correlation                     .832           .853              1.000
                  MONITORING                      Significance (2-tailed)         .000           .000                   .
                  DASHBOARD
                  CAPABILITY                      df
                                                                                   133               133                       0

INTERNAL
  USE-OF-  SALES FORCE                            Correlation                    1.000              .604
ACTIVITY   COMPETENCE                             Significance (2-tailed)             .             .000
 DASHBOA
MONITORING MANAGEMENT                             df
    RD                                                                               0               132
CAPABILITY
           MARKETING                              Correlation                     .604             1.000
           PERFORMANCE                            Significance (2-tailed)         .000                  .
                                                  df                               132                 0
  a. Cells contain zero-order (Pearson) correlations.

 Source: Research Data, September, 2011, SPSS Outputs on stepwise Regression Analysis

 In our study, the SPSS output on Pearson’s correlation computations are shown in Table 4.3. The zero-order
 coefficient between sales force competence management and marketing performance is 0.884, while the first-order
 Pearson’s r is 0.604. This shows a difference of 0.220 (i.e., 0.884 – 0.604 = 0.220), which we consider very significant
 because it is greater than 0.1 benchmark. (Bryman and Crammer, 2001; Zeb-Obipi, 2007). We therefore, reject our
 null hypothesis and accept the alternative that the use-of-dashboard, positively and significantly affects the influence of
 sales force competence management on marketing performance. Use-of-dashboard magnifies the influence of sales
 force competence management on marketing performance.

 5. Discussion of Findings
 The research concern seeks to determine the extent to which the moderator – use-of-dashboard, affects the relationship
 between sales force competence management and marketing performance. Our quantitative analyses reveal a
 significant positive moderating effect of use-of-dashboard on sales force competence management and marketing
 performance relationship. This does not confirm the hypothesis drawn from O’Sullivan and Abela’s (2007) work that
 reports a non-definitive moderating effect of the “dashboard” on the relationship between marketing performance
 measurement ability and firm performance. According to them the reason for non-definitive finding could be because
 the study was one of the first studies to explore the impact of performance dashboards in marketing given that their
 adoption and functionality continue to evolve. However, our finding is supported by the work of Srivastava and
 Reibstein (2005) who found dashboard to significantly and positively affect the influence of marketing activities on
 corporate financial performance. Also, Wind (2005) found dashboard to affect the influence of marketing activities on


                                                                 36
Information and Knowledge Management                                                                       www.iiste.org
ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online)
Vol 2, No.5, 2012

business growth. Furthermore, Miller and Cioffi (2004) found marketing dashboard to significantly affect
measurement of marketing effectiveness and value relationship.

Pauwels, et al (2009) posit that dashboards can be used to achieve four objectives: monitoring, consistency, planning,
and communication. However, many organizations lack focus. They may devise strategies but not communicate them
well to employees, who often work at cross-purposes without clear guidance from above. For firm’s to become both
efficient and effective, they need to implement a performance management system into objectives, metrics, initiatives,
and tasks customized to each group and individual in the organization. The system can then provide businesses with the
information they need to measure, monitor, and manage the key activities and processes they need to achieve their
goals. A performance dashboard consists of such applications that monitor, analyze and manage performance. A
marketing dashboard is a process of succinctly and simply reporting on the progress marketing activities are making
towards achievement of business objectives (Patterson, 2007). It maps out the relationships between business
outcomes and marketing performance. Dashboards are used to share information, measure key performance indicators
(KPIs), and effectively manage performance of employees, such as sales force (Lyndsay, 2012).

6. Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations
There is an extensive range of literature on competence management systems as well as on corporate performance, but
none yet is specifically on relationship between sales force competence management and marketing performance. This
research was inspired by the desire to fill this void. The industrial and domestic products firms in Nigeria being the
bedrock of the nation’s economic growth make use of the services of sales force to market their products, and as such
were selected to investigate how to achieve superior marketing performance through sales force competence
management.

The use-of-dashboard moderates the influence of sales force competence management on marketing performance of
the industrial or domestic products firms in Nigeria. This implies that the greater their capability in monitoring,
reporting, and analyzing their marketing activities, the greater is the influence of use-of-dashboard on their sales
growth, sales volume, and profitability. And the capability of these firms to monitor, report, and analyze their
marketing activities using dashboard, largely depends on their financial strength.

The industrial and domestic products firms in Nigeria are constantly confronted with the challenge of achieving better
marketing performance. The Nigerian business environment offers opportunities for better and optimal marketing
performance, which only firms with sound sales force competence management systems can take advantage of. A
firm’s capability in the use-of-dashboard is found rewarding in this regard. A firm could use dashboard to substantially
boost the influence of sales force competence management on marketing performance.

We recommend that the industrial and domestic product firm’s in Nigeria should use dashboard which monitors,
reports, and analyzes firms’ activities, to optimize the positive effect of sales force competence management on
marketing performance. We suggest that further research, involving the use of dashboard as moderator, can be carried
out in other business areas, such as food and beverage, pharmaceutical, and service industries.




References

1.   Adler, P.S. (1998), “Managing the Flexible Automation”. California Management Review, 30 (3):34-56.
2.   Asiegbu, I.F. (2009), “Sales force Competence Management and Marketing Performance of Industrial and
     Domestic Products Firms in Nigeria,” a Ph.D Dissertation Presented to the Port Graduate School, Rivers State
     University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt.
3.   Avilar (2005), “Know Grow Go Solutions: Competency Management Solutions”, Avilar Technologies Inc,
     www.arvilar.com Accessed on 12/02/08.



                                                          37
Information and Knowledge Management                                                                       www.iiste.org
ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online)
Vol 2, No.5, 2012

4.    Avlonitis, G.J. and Panagopolous, N.G. (2006), “Role Stress, Attitudes, and Job Outcomes in Business-to-
       Business selling: Does the Type of Selling Situation Matter? Journal of Personnel Selling & Sales Management,
      26, (1), (Winter), 67-77.
5.    Baladi, P. (1999), “Knowledge Networking and Competence Management: Ericsson Business Consulting
      Business”, Strategy Review, 10, 20-28.
6.    Berio, G. and Harzallah, M. (2005), “Knowledge Management for Competence Management”, Journal of
      Universal Management, 3, (1), 21-28.
7.    Bryman, A. and Gramer, D. (2001) Quantitative Data Analysis with SPSS Release 10 for Windows, A Guide for
      Social Scientists, East Success: Routledge.
8.    Debusk, G.K. Brown, R.M., Killough, L.N. (2003), Components and Relative Weights in Utilization of
      Dashboard Measurement Systems like the Balanced Scorecard”. The British Accounting Review, 35(3).
9.    Defloor, A., Hecke, S.V., Verhaeghe, S., Gobert, M., Darras, E. and Grypdonck, M. (2006), “The Clinical Nursing
      competences and Their Complexity in Belgian General Hospitals”, Nursing and Healthcare Management and
      Policy, 669 – 678.
10.   deGeus, A. (1999), The Living Company: Growth, Learning and Longevity in Business, London: Nicholas Brealey
      Publishing.
11.   Deshpande, R., Farley, J. U. (1998), “Measuring Market Orientation: Generalization and Synthesis”, Journal of
      Market Focused Management, 2, (3), 213-32.
12.   Deshpande, R., Farley, J. U. and Webster, F. E. (1993), Corporate Culture, Customer Orientation, and
      Innovativeness, Journal of Marketing, 57 (January), 23-37.
13.   Dixon, A. L. and Schertzer, S.M.B. (2005), “Bouncing Back: How Salesperson Optimism and Self-Efficacy
      Influence Attributions and Behaviour Following Failure”, Journal of Selling and Sales Management, 25 (4), 261 –
      369.
14.   Few, S. (2006), Intelligent Enterprise, sfew@perceptualedge. Com (12/2/2008.
15.   Gillis, M. and Beauchemin, K. (2000), “Sales Training: The Ideal Rep”, Pharmaceutical Executive, December,
      1-5.
16.   Hatcher, L. (1994), A Step-by-Step Approach to Using the SAS System for Factor Analysis and Structural
      Equation Modeling, NC: SAS Institute Inc. Cary.
17.   Hustad, E. (2002) Qualitative Research Methods Institute of Informatics, University of Oslo, Int-Qual Autumn.
18.   Jackson, S. E.; Schuler, R. S. and Rivero, J. C. (1989), “Organizational Characteristics as Predictors of Personal
      Practices”. Personnel Psychology, 42, 727-786.
19.   Kohli, A. K. and Jaworski, R. J. (1994), “The Influence of Coworker Feedback on Salespeople”, Journal of
      Marketing, 58, (October), 82-94.
20.   Lyer, B.; Lee, C. and Venkatraman, N. (2006), “Managing in a Small World Ecosystem: Lessons from the
      Software Sector”, California Management Review, 48 (Spring), 27-47.
21.   Lyndsay, W. (2012), “Moving Towards better KPIs”, Dashboard Insight (June), 1-4, (Accessed on 30 June 2012).
22.   Mallin, M. L. and Mayo, M. (2006), “Why Did I lose? A Conservation of Resources View of Salesperson Failure
      Attributions”, Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 28, (4) (Fall), 345-357.
23.   McGovern, G.J., Court, D., Quelch, J.A. and Crawford, B. (2004), “Bringing Customers into the Boardroom”,
      Harvard Business Review, 82, (November), 70-80.
24.   Miller, A. and Cioffi, J. (2004), “Measuring Marketing Effectiveness and Value: The Unisys Marketing
      Dashboard”, Journal of Advertising Research, 44 (September – October), 237-243.
25.   Muntean, M. Bologa, A. Bologa, R., Florea, A. (2011), “The Use of Multi-Dimensional Methods to increase the
      Efficiency of Management Support Systems” International Journal of Mathematical Methods and Methods in
      Applied Sciences, 5(8), 1334-1344.
26.   Niederman; F. (1995), “Global Information Systems and Human Resources Management: A Research Agenda”,
      Journal of Global Information Management. 7, 33-39.
27.   Nunnally, J. (1978), Psychometric Theory, New York: McGraw-Hill.
28.   O’Sullivan, D. and Abela, D.V. (2007), “Marketing Performance Measurement Ability and Firm Performance”,
      Journal of Marketing, 71, (April), 79-93.
29.   Paine, K.D. (2004), “Using Dashboard Metrics to Track Communication”, Strategic Communication
      Management, 8, (August – September), 30-34.

                                                           38
Information and Knowledge Management                                                                 www.iiste.org
ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online)
Vol 2, No.5, 2012

30. Patterson, L. (2007), “Case Study: Taking on the Metrics Challenge”, Journal of Targeting, Measurement and
    Analysis for Marketing, 15, (4), 270-276.
31. Pauwels, K, Ambler, T., Bruce, H.C., Lapointe, P., Reibstein, D. Skiera, B., Wierenga, B, Wiesel, T. (2009),
    “Dashboards as a Service: Why, What, How, and What Research Is Needed?” Journal of Service Research, 12 (2),
    175-189.
32. Peteraf, M. S. (1993), “The Cornerstones of Competitive Advantage: A Resource-Based View”, Strategic
    Management Journal, 14, (3), 179- 192.
33. Peyrot, M., Child, N., Doren, D.V. and Allen, K. (2002), “An Empirically-Based Model of Competitor
    Intelligence     Use”, Journal of Business Research, 55 (September), 747-758.
34. Pfeffer, J. (1994), Competitive Advantage Through People, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
35. Rogers, B (2003), “What Gets Measured Gets Better”, Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for
    Marketing, 12 (January), 20-26.
36. Srivastava, R.K. and Reibstein, D.J. (2005), “Metrics for Linking Marketing to Financial Performance,” Report
    (5), 200, Marketing Science Institute.
37. Walter, R. (2003), “Competence Management Strategies: A Future Concept in Competence Management for
    Knowledge-Based Organizations”, Master of Science Thesis, Gothenburg University, (Spring), 1-62.
38. Wang, M.S. Tien, S. and Tai, Y. (2004), “An Assessment of the Relationship between Origins of Corporate
    Competences and Business Performance. Example of Taiwan’s Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises”, Taiwan:
    Chung-Hwa, University.
39. Wind, Y (2005), “Marketing as an Engine of Business Growth: A Cross-Functional Perspective”, Journal of
    Business Research, 58 (July), 863–873.
40. Yigitbasioglu, O.M., Velcu, O. (2012), “A Review of Dashboards in Performance Management: Implications for
    Design and Research”, International Journal of Accounting Information System, 13 (1), 41-59.
41. Zeb-Obipi, I. (2007), “Worker Competence Management and Corporate Productivity Performance”, A Ph. D
    Dissertation at Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt.
42. Zhu, Z. and Nakata, C. (2007), “Reexamining the Link Between Customer Orientation and Business Performance:
    The Role of Information Systems”, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 15 (3) 187-203.




                                                       39
This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,
Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open Access
Publishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute is
Accelerating Global Knowledge Sharing.

More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage:
http://www.iiste.org


The IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals and
collaborating with academic institutions around the world. Prospective authors of
IISTE journals can find the submission instruction on the following page:
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/

The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualified
submissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to the
readers all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than
those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of the
journals is also available upon request of readers and authors.

IISTE Knowledge Sharing Partners

EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP Open
Archives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Elektronische
Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe Digtial
Library , NewJour, Google Scholar

More Related Content

What's hot

Examining the Influence of Uncertainty on Marketing Mix
Examining the Influence of Uncertainty on  Marketing MixExamining the Influence of Uncertainty on  Marketing Mix
Examining the Influence of Uncertainty on Marketing MixSachin Mathews
 
Strategic management- basics
Strategic management- basicsStrategic management- basics
Strategic management- basicsSarabjeet Singh
 
Organizational Management and the role of HRM from different perspectives
Organizational Management and the role of HRM from different perspectivesOrganizational Management and the role of HRM from different perspectives
Organizational Management and the role of HRM from different perspectivesAkashSharma618775
 
Strategic management full notes
Strategic management full notesStrategic management full notes
Strategic management full notesKiruthika Ruthi
 
Heitger Consulting_Artikel_Unbalanced Transformation
Heitger Consulting_Artikel_Unbalanced TransformationHeitger Consulting_Artikel_Unbalanced Transformation
Heitger Consulting_Artikel_Unbalanced TransformationBarbara Heitger
 
Benchmarking Culture
Benchmarking CultureBenchmarking Culture
Benchmarking CultureMarketCulture
 
Strategy formulation and implementation in zimbabwe food manufacturing industry
Strategy formulation and implementation in zimbabwe food manufacturing industryStrategy formulation and implementation in zimbabwe food manufacturing industry
Strategy formulation and implementation in zimbabwe food manufacturing industryEmmanuel Katsvamutima
 
Strategic management presentation (group 3) (final)
Strategic management presentation (group  3) (final)Strategic management presentation (group  3) (final)
Strategic management presentation (group 3) (final)CherryBerry2
 
M M Bagali, PhD, Research paper, MBA Faculty, HRM, HR, HRD, PhD in HR and Man...
M M Bagali, PhD, Research paper, MBA Faculty, HRM, HR, HRD, PhD in HR and Man...M M Bagali, PhD, Research paper, MBA Faculty, HRM, HR, HRD, PhD in HR and Man...
M M Bagali, PhD, Research paper, MBA Faculty, HRM, HR, HRD, PhD in HR and Man...dr m m bagali, phd in hr
 
Impact of ISO9001 Certification on the Beverage Company's Performance: A case...
Impact of ISO9001 Certification on the Beverage Company's Performance: A case...Impact of ISO9001 Certification on the Beverage Company's Performance: A case...
Impact of ISO9001 Certification on the Beverage Company's Performance: A case...AkashSharma618775
 
The impact of the digital era on the implementation of lean six sigma
The impact of the digital era on the implementation of lean six sigmaThe impact of the digital era on the implementation of lean six sigma
The impact of the digital era on the implementation of lean six sigmaUduakLuke
 
Solutions for Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage in Small Businesses
Solutions for Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage in Small BusinessesSolutions for Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage in Small Businesses
Solutions for Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage in Small Businessesijtsrd
 
Firm Characteristics and Financial Performance Evidence from Quoted Manufactu...
Firm Characteristics and Financial Performance Evidence from Quoted Manufactu...Firm Characteristics and Financial Performance Evidence from Quoted Manufactu...
Firm Characteristics and Financial Performance Evidence from Quoted Manufactu...ijtsrd
 
Role and aspects of strategic management
Role and aspects of strategic managementRole and aspects of strategic management
Role and aspects of strategic managementSimran Kaur
 
Concepts of Strategic Management
Concepts of Strategic ManagementConcepts of Strategic Management
Concepts of Strategic Managementsaberkhosravi
 

What's hot (18)

Examining the Influence of Uncertainty on Marketing Mix
Examining the Influence of Uncertainty on  Marketing MixExamining the Influence of Uncertainty on  Marketing Mix
Examining the Influence of Uncertainty on Marketing Mix
 
Strategic management- basics
Strategic management- basicsStrategic management- basics
Strategic management- basics
 
Organizational Management and the role of HRM from different perspectives
Organizational Management and the role of HRM from different perspectivesOrganizational Management and the role of HRM from different perspectives
Organizational Management and the role of HRM from different perspectives
 
Strategic management full notes
Strategic management full notesStrategic management full notes
Strategic management full notes
 
Heitger Consulting_Artikel_Unbalanced Transformation
Heitger Consulting_Artikel_Unbalanced TransformationHeitger Consulting_Artikel_Unbalanced Transformation
Heitger Consulting_Artikel_Unbalanced Transformation
 
Benchmarking Culture
Benchmarking CultureBenchmarking Culture
Benchmarking Culture
 
Strategy formulation and implementation in zimbabwe food manufacturing industry
Strategy formulation and implementation in zimbabwe food manufacturing industryStrategy formulation and implementation in zimbabwe food manufacturing industry
Strategy formulation and implementation in zimbabwe food manufacturing industry
 
Strategic management presentation (group 3) (final)
Strategic management presentation (group  3) (final)Strategic management presentation (group  3) (final)
Strategic management presentation (group 3) (final)
 
M M Bagali, PhD, Research paper, MBA Faculty, HRM, HR, HRD, PhD in HR and Man...
M M Bagali, PhD, Research paper, MBA Faculty, HRM, HR, HRD, PhD in HR and Man...M M Bagali, PhD, Research paper, MBA Faculty, HRM, HR, HRD, PhD in HR and Man...
M M Bagali, PhD, Research paper, MBA Faculty, HRM, HR, HRD, PhD in HR and Man...
 
Strategic Analysis
Strategic AnalysisStrategic Analysis
Strategic Analysis
 
Impact of ISO9001 Certification on the Beverage Company's Performance: A case...
Impact of ISO9001 Certification on the Beverage Company's Performance: A case...Impact of ISO9001 Certification on the Beverage Company's Performance: A case...
Impact of ISO9001 Certification on the Beverage Company's Performance: A case...
 
The impact of the digital era on the implementation of lean six sigma
The impact of the digital era on the implementation of lean six sigmaThe impact of the digital era on the implementation of lean six sigma
The impact of the digital era on the implementation of lean six sigma
 
walmart
walmartwalmart
walmart
 
Solutions for Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage in Small Businesses
Solutions for Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage in Small BusinessesSolutions for Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage in Small Businesses
Solutions for Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage in Small Businesses
 
Firm Characteristics and Financial Performance Evidence from Quoted Manufactu...
Firm Characteristics and Financial Performance Evidence from Quoted Manufactu...Firm Characteristics and Financial Performance Evidence from Quoted Manufactu...
Firm Characteristics and Financial Performance Evidence from Quoted Manufactu...
 
Strategic Management
Strategic Management Strategic Management
Strategic Management
 
Role and aspects of strategic management
Role and aspects of strategic managementRole and aspects of strategic management
Role and aspects of strategic management
 
Concepts of Strategic Management
Concepts of Strategic ManagementConcepts of Strategic Management
Concepts of Strategic Management
 

Viewers also liked

Data Visualizations in Digital Products (ProductCamp Boston 2016)
Data Visualizations in Digital Products (ProductCamp Boston 2016)Data Visualizations in Digital Products (ProductCamp Boston 2016)
Data Visualizations in Digital Products (ProductCamp Boston 2016)ProductCamp Boston
 
Can a combination of constrained-based and kinetic modeling bridge time scale...
Can a combination of constrained-based and kinetic modeling bridge time scale...Can a combination of constrained-based and kinetic modeling bridge time scale...
Can a combination of constrained-based and kinetic modeling bridge time scale...Natal van Riel
 
The Dirty Dozen Roadmap Roadblocks (Bruce McCarthy) ProductCamp Boston 2014
The Dirty Dozen Roadmap Roadblocks (Bruce McCarthy) ProductCamp Boston 2014The Dirty Dozen Roadmap Roadblocks (Bruce McCarthy) ProductCamp Boston 2014
The Dirty Dozen Roadmap Roadblocks (Bruce McCarthy) ProductCamp Boston 2014ProductCamp Boston
 
Hammers, Anvils, and Hot Iron - Forging Partnerships (Ananda Chakravarty) pro...
Hammers, Anvils, and Hot Iron - Forging Partnerships (Ananda Chakravarty) pro...Hammers, Anvils, and Hot Iron - Forging Partnerships (Ananda Chakravarty) pro...
Hammers, Anvils, and Hot Iron - Forging Partnerships (Ananda Chakravarty) pro...ProductCamp Boston
 
How HubSpot Launches Products (and Measures Success) (ProductCamp Boston 2016)
How HubSpot Launches Products (and Measures Success) (ProductCamp Boston 2016)How HubSpot Launches Products (and Measures Success) (ProductCamp Boston 2016)
How HubSpot Launches Products (and Measures Success) (ProductCamp Boston 2016)ProductCamp Boston
 
Intro and Sponsor Slide Deck - ProductCamp Boston 2013
Intro and Sponsor Slide Deck - ProductCamp Boston 2013Intro and Sponsor Slide Deck - ProductCamp Boston 2013
Intro and Sponsor Slide Deck - ProductCamp Boston 2013ProductCamp Boston
 
ProductCamp Boston - Rolling Promotions Slides (sideways, floor 1)
ProductCamp Boston - Rolling Promotions Slides (sideways, floor 1)ProductCamp Boston - Rolling Promotions Slides (sideways, floor 1)
ProductCamp Boston - Rolling Promotions Slides (sideways, floor 1)ProductCamp Boston
 
Modelling progressive metabolic diseases with parameter transition trajectories
Modelling progressive metabolic diseases with parameter transition trajectoriesModelling progressive metabolic diseases with parameter transition trajectories
Modelling progressive metabolic diseases with parameter transition trajectoriesNatal van Riel
 
Human Inference - Product Update What Do I Know About My Customers
Human Inference - Product Update   What Do I Know About My CustomersHuman Inference - Product Update   What Do I Know About My Customers
Human Inference - Product Update What Do I Know About My CustomersDataValueTalk
 
Know your product: Are MOOCs the pedagogical messiah or just a very naughyy boy?
Know your product: Are MOOCs the pedagogical messiah or just a very naughyy boy?Know your product: Are MOOCs the pedagogical messiah or just a very naughyy boy?
Know your product: Are MOOCs the pedagogical messiah or just a very naughyy boy?Peter Bryant
 
Qsp basel nvan riel 4sharing
Qsp basel nvan riel 4sharingQsp basel nvan riel 4sharing
Qsp basel nvan riel 4sharingNatal van Riel
 
Why a Powerful Personal Story Can Transform Your Career - PMIWDC Tysons Lunch...
Why a Powerful Personal Story Can Transform Your Career - PMIWDC Tysons Lunch...Why a Powerful Personal Story Can Transform Your Career - PMIWDC Tysons Lunch...
Why a Powerful Personal Story Can Transform Your Career - PMIWDC Tysons Lunch...Hector Del Castillo, CPM, CPMM
 
ProductCamp Boston - Opening Presentation 2015
ProductCamp Boston - Opening Presentation 2015ProductCamp Boston - Opening Presentation 2015
ProductCamp Boston - Opening Presentation 2015ProductCamp Boston
 
Start Doing Powerful Marketing Analytics with Spreadsheets (Richard Petti) Pr...
Start Doing Powerful Marketing Analytics with Spreadsheets (Richard Petti) Pr...Start Doing Powerful Marketing Analytics with Spreadsheets (Richard Petti) Pr...
Start Doing Powerful Marketing Analytics with Spreadsheets (Richard Petti) Pr...ProductCamp Boston
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Actividad 1.3
Actividad 1.3Actividad 1.3
Actividad 1.3
 
Actividad 2.5
Actividad 2.5 Actividad 2.5
Actividad 2.5
 
La didáctica
La didácticaLa didáctica
La didáctica
 
Data Visualizations in Digital Products (ProductCamp Boston 2016)
Data Visualizations in Digital Products (ProductCamp Boston 2016)Data Visualizations in Digital Products (ProductCamp Boston 2016)
Data Visualizations in Digital Products (ProductCamp Boston 2016)
 
Can a combination of constrained-based and kinetic modeling bridge time scale...
Can a combination of constrained-based and kinetic modeling bridge time scale...Can a combination of constrained-based and kinetic modeling bridge time scale...
Can a combination of constrained-based and kinetic modeling bridge time scale...
 
The Dirty Dozen Roadmap Roadblocks (Bruce McCarthy) ProductCamp Boston 2014
The Dirty Dozen Roadmap Roadblocks (Bruce McCarthy) ProductCamp Boston 2014The Dirty Dozen Roadmap Roadblocks (Bruce McCarthy) ProductCamp Boston 2014
The Dirty Dozen Roadmap Roadblocks (Bruce McCarthy) ProductCamp Boston 2014
 
Hammers, Anvils, and Hot Iron - Forging Partnerships (Ananda Chakravarty) pro...
Hammers, Anvils, and Hot Iron - Forging Partnerships (Ananda Chakravarty) pro...Hammers, Anvils, and Hot Iron - Forging Partnerships (Ananda Chakravarty) pro...
Hammers, Anvils, and Hot Iron - Forging Partnerships (Ananda Chakravarty) pro...
 
How HubSpot Launches Products (and Measures Success) (ProductCamp Boston 2016)
How HubSpot Launches Products (and Measures Success) (ProductCamp Boston 2016)How HubSpot Launches Products (and Measures Success) (ProductCamp Boston 2016)
How HubSpot Launches Products (and Measures Success) (ProductCamp Boston 2016)
 
Intro and Sponsor Slide Deck - ProductCamp Boston 2013
Intro and Sponsor Slide Deck - ProductCamp Boston 2013Intro and Sponsor Slide Deck - ProductCamp Boston 2013
Intro and Sponsor Slide Deck - ProductCamp Boston 2013
 
Actividad 3.5
Actividad 3.5Actividad 3.5
Actividad 3.5
 
ProductCamp Boston - Rolling Promotions Slides (sideways, floor 1)
ProductCamp Boston - Rolling Promotions Slides (sideways, floor 1)ProductCamp Boston - Rolling Promotions Slides (sideways, floor 1)
ProductCamp Boston - Rolling Promotions Slides (sideways, floor 1)
 
Actividad 4.4
Actividad 4.4Actividad 4.4
Actividad 4.4
 
Modelling progressive metabolic diseases with parameter transition trajectories
Modelling progressive metabolic diseases with parameter transition trajectoriesModelling progressive metabolic diseases with parameter transition trajectories
Modelling progressive metabolic diseases with parameter transition trajectories
 
Human Inference - Product Update What Do I Know About My Customers
Human Inference - Product Update   What Do I Know About My CustomersHuman Inference - Product Update   What Do I Know About My Customers
Human Inference - Product Update What Do I Know About My Customers
 
Know your product: Are MOOCs the pedagogical messiah or just a very naughyy boy?
Know your product: Are MOOCs the pedagogical messiah or just a very naughyy boy?Know your product: Are MOOCs the pedagogical messiah or just a very naughyy boy?
Know your product: Are MOOCs the pedagogical messiah or just a very naughyy boy?
 
Qsp basel nvan riel 4sharing
Qsp basel nvan riel 4sharingQsp basel nvan riel 4sharing
Qsp basel nvan riel 4sharing
 
Actividad 1.2
Actividad 1.2Actividad 1.2
Actividad 1.2
 
Why a Powerful Personal Story Can Transform Your Career - PMIWDC Tysons Lunch...
Why a Powerful Personal Story Can Transform Your Career - PMIWDC Tysons Lunch...Why a Powerful Personal Story Can Transform Your Career - PMIWDC Tysons Lunch...
Why a Powerful Personal Story Can Transform Your Career - PMIWDC Tysons Lunch...
 
ProductCamp Boston - Opening Presentation 2015
ProductCamp Boston - Opening Presentation 2015ProductCamp Boston - Opening Presentation 2015
ProductCamp Boston - Opening Presentation 2015
 
Start Doing Powerful Marketing Analytics with Spreadsheets (Richard Petti) Pr...
Start Doing Powerful Marketing Analytics with Spreadsheets (Richard Petti) Pr...Start Doing Powerful Marketing Analytics with Spreadsheets (Richard Petti) Pr...
Start Doing Powerful Marketing Analytics with Spreadsheets (Richard Petti) Pr...
 

Similar to Use-of-Dashboard Moderate Sales Force Competence and Marketing Performance

RANJITH KUMAR PERFORMANCE MAIN.docx
RANJITH KUMAR PERFORMANCE MAIN.docxRANJITH KUMAR PERFORMANCE MAIN.docx
RANJITH KUMAR PERFORMANCE MAIN.docxRarokiyapraveenRaj
 
Empowerment an essential ingredient in modern salesforce management
Empowerment an essential ingredient in modern salesforce managementEmpowerment an essential ingredient in modern salesforce management
Empowerment an essential ingredient in modern salesforce managementAlexander Decker
 
5. Change Management Strategies For Successful Erp Implementation
5. Change Management Strategies For Successful Erp Implementation5. Change Management Strategies For Successful Erp Implementation
5. Change Management Strategies For Successful Erp ImplementationDonovan Mulder
 
The Impact of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) on Talent Development
The Impact of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) on Talent DevelopmentThe Impact of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) on Talent Development
The Impact of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) on Talent Developmentpaperpublications3
 
Using Knowledge Management to Enhance Organizational Performance and Effectiv...
Using Knowledge Management to Enhance Organizational Performance and Effectiv...Using Knowledge Management to Enhance Organizational Performance and Effectiv...
Using Knowledge Management to Enhance Organizational Performance and Effectiv...IJAEMSJORNAL
 
Employee-Productivity-and-Service-Quality-Enhancement-Using-ERP-With-Knowledg...
Employee-Productivity-and-Service-Quality-Enhancement-Using-ERP-With-Knowledg...Employee-Productivity-and-Service-Quality-Enhancement-Using-ERP-With-Knowledg...
Employee-Productivity-and-Service-Quality-Enhancement-Using-ERP-With-Knowledg...animesh agrawal
 
The Effects of Personality Traits and Motivations on performance of Salespeop...
The Effects of Personality Traits and Motivations on performance of Salespeop...The Effects of Personality Traits and Motivations on performance of Salespeop...
The Effects of Personality Traits and Motivations on performance of Salespeop...ijtsrd
 
Your Grid for Week 6 assignmentNutchanart PonimChange Plan GridTo.docx
Your Grid for Week 6 assignmentNutchanart  PonimChange Plan GridTo.docxYour Grid for Week 6 assignmentNutchanart  PonimChange Plan GridTo.docx
Your Grid for Week 6 assignmentNutchanart PonimChange Plan GridTo.docxdanielfoster65629
 
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN ENGINEERING ORGANIZATION
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN ENGINEERING ORGANIZATIONKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN ENGINEERING ORGANIZATION
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN ENGINEERING ORGANIZATIONIAEME Publication
 
Sales force competence management
Sales force competence managementSales force competence management
Sales force competence managementAlexander Decker
 
E323852
E323852E323852
E323852aijbm
 
Modeling the Influence of Relationship Marketing, Green Marketing and Innovat...
Modeling the Influence of Relationship Marketing, Green Marketing and Innovat...Modeling the Influence of Relationship Marketing, Green Marketing and Innovat...
Modeling the Influence of Relationship Marketing, Green Marketing and Innovat...Dr. Eugine Tafadzwa Maziriri
 
Aligning sales and operations management an agenda for inquir.docx
Aligning sales and operations management an agenda for inquir.docxAligning sales and operations management an agenda for inquir.docx
Aligning sales and operations management an agenda for inquir.docxsimonlbentley59018
 
Influence of Knowledge Management Processes on Organizational Performance in ...
Influence of Knowledge Management Processes on Organizational Performance in ...Influence of Knowledge Management Processes on Organizational Performance in ...
Influence of Knowledge Management Processes on Organizational Performance in ...inventionjournals
 
Knowledge management and employee performance in the brewery industry a theor...
Knowledge management and employee performance in the brewery industry a theor...Knowledge management and employee performance in the brewery industry a theor...
Knowledge management and employee performance in the brewery industry a theor...IAEME Publication
 
Topic 5 - The Internal Audit.pptx
Topic 5 - The Internal Audit.pptxTopic 5 - The Internal Audit.pptx
Topic 5 - The Internal Audit.pptxHazelCueto2
 
Corporate reputation on performance of banking industries in nigeria
Corporate reputation on performance of banking industries in nigeriaCorporate reputation on performance of banking industries in nigeria
Corporate reputation on performance of banking industries in nigeriaAlexander Decker
 
Model Relationship between Organizational Structure, Strategy Evaluation, Ji...
	Model Relationship between Organizational Structure, Strategy Evaluation, Ji...	Model Relationship between Organizational Structure, Strategy Evaluation, Ji...
Model Relationship between Organizational Structure, Strategy Evaluation, Ji...inventionjournals
 

Similar to Use-of-Dashboard Moderate Sales Force Competence and Marketing Performance (20)

RANJITH KUMAR PERFORMANCE MAIN.docx
RANJITH KUMAR PERFORMANCE MAIN.docxRANJITH KUMAR PERFORMANCE MAIN.docx
RANJITH KUMAR PERFORMANCE MAIN.docx
 
Empowerment an essential ingredient in modern salesforce management
Empowerment an essential ingredient in modern salesforce managementEmpowerment an essential ingredient in modern salesforce management
Empowerment an essential ingredient in modern salesforce management
 
5. Change Management Strategies For Successful Erp Implementation
5. Change Management Strategies For Successful Erp Implementation5. Change Management Strategies For Successful Erp Implementation
5. Change Management Strategies For Successful Erp Implementation
 
The Impact of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) on Talent Development
The Impact of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) on Talent DevelopmentThe Impact of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) on Talent Development
The Impact of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) on Talent Development
 
Literature Review on Performance Management System
Literature Review on Performance Management SystemLiterature Review on Performance Management System
Literature Review on Performance Management System
 
Using Knowledge Management to Enhance Organizational Performance and Effectiv...
Using Knowledge Management to Enhance Organizational Performance and Effectiv...Using Knowledge Management to Enhance Organizational Performance and Effectiv...
Using Knowledge Management to Enhance Organizational Performance and Effectiv...
 
Employee-Productivity-and-Service-Quality-Enhancement-Using-ERP-With-Knowledg...
Employee-Productivity-and-Service-Quality-Enhancement-Using-ERP-With-Knowledg...Employee-Productivity-and-Service-Quality-Enhancement-Using-ERP-With-Knowledg...
Employee-Productivity-and-Service-Quality-Enhancement-Using-ERP-With-Knowledg...
 
Jom 06 02_013
Jom 06 02_013Jom 06 02_013
Jom 06 02_013
 
The Effects of Personality Traits and Motivations on performance of Salespeop...
The Effects of Personality Traits and Motivations on performance of Salespeop...The Effects of Personality Traits and Motivations on performance of Salespeop...
The Effects of Personality Traits and Motivations on performance of Salespeop...
 
Your Grid for Week 6 assignmentNutchanart PonimChange Plan GridTo.docx
Your Grid for Week 6 assignmentNutchanart  PonimChange Plan GridTo.docxYour Grid for Week 6 assignmentNutchanart  PonimChange Plan GridTo.docx
Your Grid for Week 6 assignmentNutchanart PonimChange Plan GridTo.docx
 
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN ENGINEERING ORGANIZATION
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN ENGINEERING ORGANIZATIONKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN ENGINEERING ORGANIZATION
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN ENGINEERING ORGANIZATION
 
Sales force competence management
Sales force competence managementSales force competence management
Sales force competence management
 
E323852
E323852E323852
E323852
 
Modeling the Influence of Relationship Marketing, Green Marketing and Innovat...
Modeling the Influence of Relationship Marketing, Green Marketing and Innovat...Modeling the Influence of Relationship Marketing, Green Marketing and Innovat...
Modeling the Influence of Relationship Marketing, Green Marketing and Innovat...
 
Aligning sales and operations management an agenda for inquir.docx
Aligning sales and operations management an agenda for inquir.docxAligning sales and operations management an agenda for inquir.docx
Aligning sales and operations management an agenda for inquir.docx
 
Influence of Knowledge Management Processes on Organizational Performance in ...
Influence of Knowledge Management Processes on Organizational Performance in ...Influence of Knowledge Management Processes on Organizational Performance in ...
Influence of Knowledge Management Processes on Organizational Performance in ...
 
Knowledge management and employee performance in the brewery industry a theor...
Knowledge management and employee performance in the brewery industry a theor...Knowledge management and employee performance in the brewery industry a theor...
Knowledge management and employee performance in the brewery industry a theor...
 
Topic 5 - The Internal Audit.pptx
Topic 5 - The Internal Audit.pptxTopic 5 - The Internal Audit.pptx
Topic 5 - The Internal Audit.pptx
 
Corporate reputation on performance of banking industries in nigeria
Corporate reputation on performance of banking industries in nigeriaCorporate reputation on performance of banking industries in nigeria
Corporate reputation on performance of banking industries in nigeria
 
Model Relationship between Organizational Structure, Strategy Evaluation, Ji...
	Model Relationship between Organizational Structure, Strategy Evaluation, Ji...	Model Relationship between Organizational Structure, Strategy Evaluation, Ji...
Model Relationship between Organizational Structure, Strategy Evaluation, Ji...
 

More from Alexander Decker

Abnormalities of hormones and inflammatory cytokines in women affected with p...
Abnormalities of hormones and inflammatory cytokines in women affected with p...Abnormalities of hormones and inflammatory cytokines in women affected with p...
Abnormalities of hormones and inflammatory cytokines in women affected with p...Alexander Decker
 
A validation of the adverse childhood experiences scale in
A validation of the adverse childhood experiences scale inA validation of the adverse childhood experiences scale in
A validation of the adverse childhood experiences scale inAlexander Decker
 
A usability evaluation framework for b2 c e commerce websites
A usability evaluation framework for b2 c e commerce websitesA usability evaluation framework for b2 c e commerce websites
A usability evaluation framework for b2 c e commerce websitesAlexander Decker
 
A universal model for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banks
A universal model for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banksA universal model for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banks
A universal model for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banksAlexander Decker
 
A unique common fixed point theorems in generalized d
A unique common fixed point theorems in generalized dA unique common fixed point theorems in generalized d
A unique common fixed point theorems in generalized dAlexander Decker
 
A trends of salmonella and antibiotic resistance
A trends of salmonella and antibiotic resistanceA trends of salmonella and antibiotic resistance
A trends of salmonella and antibiotic resistanceAlexander Decker
 
A transformational generative approach towards understanding al-istifham
A transformational  generative approach towards understanding al-istifhamA transformational  generative approach towards understanding al-istifham
A transformational generative approach towards understanding al-istifhamAlexander Decker
 
A time series analysis of the determinants of savings in namibia
A time series analysis of the determinants of savings in namibiaA time series analysis of the determinants of savings in namibia
A time series analysis of the determinants of savings in namibiaAlexander Decker
 
A therapy for physical and mental fitness of school children
A therapy for physical and mental fitness of school childrenA therapy for physical and mental fitness of school children
A therapy for physical and mental fitness of school childrenAlexander Decker
 
A theory of efficiency for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banks
A theory of efficiency for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banksA theory of efficiency for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banks
A theory of efficiency for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banksAlexander Decker
 
A systematic evaluation of link budget for
A systematic evaluation of link budget forA systematic evaluation of link budget for
A systematic evaluation of link budget forAlexander Decker
 
A synthetic review of contraceptive supplies in punjab
A synthetic review of contraceptive supplies in punjabA synthetic review of contraceptive supplies in punjab
A synthetic review of contraceptive supplies in punjabAlexander Decker
 
A synthesis of taylor’s and fayol’s management approaches for managing market...
A synthesis of taylor’s and fayol’s management approaches for managing market...A synthesis of taylor’s and fayol’s management approaches for managing market...
A synthesis of taylor’s and fayol’s management approaches for managing market...Alexander Decker
 
A survey paper on sequence pattern mining with incremental
A survey paper on sequence pattern mining with incrementalA survey paper on sequence pattern mining with incremental
A survey paper on sequence pattern mining with incrementalAlexander Decker
 
A survey on live virtual machine migrations and its techniques
A survey on live virtual machine migrations and its techniquesA survey on live virtual machine migrations and its techniques
A survey on live virtual machine migrations and its techniquesAlexander Decker
 
A survey on data mining and analysis in hadoop and mongo db
A survey on data mining and analysis in hadoop and mongo dbA survey on data mining and analysis in hadoop and mongo db
A survey on data mining and analysis in hadoop and mongo dbAlexander Decker
 
A survey on challenges to the media cloud
A survey on challenges to the media cloudA survey on challenges to the media cloud
A survey on challenges to the media cloudAlexander Decker
 
A survey of provenance leveraged
A survey of provenance leveragedA survey of provenance leveraged
A survey of provenance leveragedAlexander Decker
 
A survey of private equity investments in kenya
A survey of private equity investments in kenyaA survey of private equity investments in kenya
A survey of private equity investments in kenyaAlexander Decker
 
A study to measures the financial health of
A study to measures the financial health ofA study to measures the financial health of
A study to measures the financial health ofAlexander Decker
 

More from Alexander Decker (20)

Abnormalities of hormones and inflammatory cytokines in women affected with p...
Abnormalities of hormones and inflammatory cytokines in women affected with p...Abnormalities of hormones and inflammatory cytokines in women affected with p...
Abnormalities of hormones and inflammatory cytokines in women affected with p...
 
A validation of the adverse childhood experiences scale in
A validation of the adverse childhood experiences scale inA validation of the adverse childhood experiences scale in
A validation of the adverse childhood experiences scale in
 
A usability evaluation framework for b2 c e commerce websites
A usability evaluation framework for b2 c e commerce websitesA usability evaluation framework for b2 c e commerce websites
A usability evaluation framework for b2 c e commerce websites
 
A universal model for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banks
A universal model for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banksA universal model for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banks
A universal model for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banks
 
A unique common fixed point theorems in generalized d
A unique common fixed point theorems in generalized dA unique common fixed point theorems in generalized d
A unique common fixed point theorems in generalized d
 
A trends of salmonella and antibiotic resistance
A trends of salmonella and antibiotic resistanceA trends of salmonella and antibiotic resistance
A trends of salmonella and antibiotic resistance
 
A transformational generative approach towards understanding al-istifham
A transformational  generative approach towards understanding al-istifhamA transformational  generative approach towards understanding al-istifham
A transformational generative approach towards understanding al-istifham
 
A time series analysis of the determinants of savings in namibia
A time series analysis of the determinants of savings in namibiaA time series analysis of the determinants of savings in namibia
A time series analysis of the determinants of savings in namibia
 
A therapy for physical and mental fitness of school children
A therapy for physical and mental fitness of school childrenA therapy for physical and mental fitness of school children
A therapy for physical and mental fitness of school children
 
A theory of efficiency for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banks
A theory of efficiency for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banksA theory of efficiency for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banks
A theory of efficiency for managing the marketing executives in nigerian banks
 
A systematic evaluation of link budget for
A systematic evaluation of link budget forA systematic evaluation of link budget for
A systematic evaluation of link budget for
 
A synthetic review of contraceptive supplies in punjab
A synthetic review of contraceptive supplies in punjabA synthetic review of contraceptive supplies in punjab
A synthetic review of contraceptive supplies in punjab
 
A synthesis of taylor’s and fayol’s management approaches for managing market...
A synthesis of taylor’s and fayol’s management approaches for managing market...A synthesis of taylor’s and fayol’s management approaches for managing market...
A synthesis of taylor’s and fayol’s management approaches for managing market...
 
A survey paper on sequence pattern mining with incremental
A survey paper on sequence pattern mining with incrementalA survey paper on sequence pattern mining with incremental
A survey paper on sequence pattern mining with incremental
 
A survey on live virtual machine migrations and its techniques
A survey on live virtual machine migrations and its techniquesA survey on live virtual machine migrations and its techniques
A survey on live virtual machine migrations and its techniques
 
A survey on data mining and analysis in hadoop and mongo db
A survey on data mining and analysis in hadoop and mongo dbA survey on data mining and analysis in hadoop and mongo db
A survey on data mining and analysis in hadoop and mongo db
 
A survey on challenges to the media cloud
A survey on challenges to the media cloudA survey on challenges to the media cloud
A survey on challenges to the media cloud
 
A survey of provenance leveraged
A survey of provenance leveragedA survey of provenance leveraged
A survey of provenance leveraged
 
A survey of private equity investments in kenya
A survey of private equity investments in kenyaA survey of private equity investments in kenya
A survey of private equity investments in kenya
 
A study to measures the financial health of
A study to measures the financial health ofA study to measures the financial health of
A study to measures the financial health of
 

Recently uploaded

Innovation Conference 5th March 2024.pdf
Innovation Conference 5th March 2024.pdfInnovation Conference 5th March 2024.pdf
Innovation Conference 5th March 2024.pdfrichard876048
 
Annual General Meeting Presentation Slides
Annual General Meeting Presentation SlidesAnnual General Meeting Presentation Slides
Annual General Meeting Presentation SlidesKeppelCorporation
 
Memorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQM
Memorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQMMemorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQM
Memorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQMVoces Mineras
 
Market Sizes Sample Report - 2024 Edition
Market Sizes Sample Report - 2024 EditionMarket Sizes Sample Report - 2024 Edition
Market Sizes Sample Report - 2024 EditionMintel Group
 
Church Building Grants To Assist With New Construction, Additions, And Restor...
Church Building Grants To Assist With New Construction, Additions, And Restor...Church Building Grants To Assist With New Construction, Additions, And Restor...
Church Building Grants To Assist With New Construction, Additions, And Restor...Americas Got Grants
 
Cyber Security Training in Office Environment
Cyber Security Training in Office EnvironmentCyber Security Training in Office Environment
Cyber Security Training in Office Environmentelijahj01012
 
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCR8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCRashishs7044
 
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCR8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCRashishs7044
 
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?Olivia Kresic
 
Independent Call Girls Andheri Nightlaila 9967584737
Independent Call Girls Andheri Nightlaila 9967584737Independent Call Girls Andheri Nightlaila 9967584737
Independent Call Girls Andheri Nightlaila 9967584737Riya Pathan
 
The-Ethical-issues-ghhhhhhhhjof-Byjus.pptx
The-Ethical-issues-ghhhhhhhhjof-Byjus.pptxThe-Ethical-issues-ghhhhhhhhjof-Byjus.pptx
The-Ethical-issues-ghhhhhhhhjof-Byjus.pptxmbikashkanyari
 
Call Girls Contact Number Andheri 9920874524
Call Girls Contact Number Andheri 9920874524Call Girls Contact Number Andheri 9920874524
Call Girls Contact Number Andheri 9920874524najka9823
 
Fordham -How effective decision-making is within the IT department - Analysis...
Fordham -How effective decision-making is within the IT department - Analysis...Fordham -How effective decision-making is within the IT department - Analysis...
Fordham -How effective decision-making is within the IT department - Analysis...Peter Ward
 
Financial-Statement-Analysis-of-Coca-cola-Company.pptx
Financial-Statement-Analysis-of-Coca-cola-Company.pptxFinancial-Statement-Analysis-of-Coca-cola-Company.pptx
Financial-Statement-Analysis-of-Coca-cola-Company.pptxsaniyaimamuddin
 
FULL ENJOY Call girls in Paharganj Delhi | 8377087607
FULL ENJOY Call girls in Paharganj Delhi | 8377087607FULL ENJOY Call girls in Paharganj Delhi | 8377087607
FULL ENJOY Call girls in Paharganj Delhi | 8377087607dollysharma2066
 
Darshan Hiranandani [News About Next CEO].pdf
Darshan Hiranandani [News About Next CEO].pdfDarshan Hiranandani [News About Next CEO].pdf
Darshan Hiranandani [News About Next CEO].pdfShashank Mehta
 
International Business Environments and Operations 16th Global Edition test b...
International Business Environments and Operations 16th Global Edition test b...International Business Environments and Operations 16th Global Edition test b...
International Business Environments and Operations 16th Global Edition test b...ssuserf63bd7
 
NewBase 19 April 2024 Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdf
NewBase  19 April  2024  Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdfNewBase  19 April  2024  Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdf
NewBase 19 April 2024 Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdfKhaled Al Awadi
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Innovation Conference 5th March 2024.pdf
Innovation Conference 5th March 2024.pdfInnovation Conference 5th March 2024.pdf
Innovation Conference 5th March 2024.pdf
 
Annual General Meeting Presentation Slides
Annual General Meeting Presentation SlidesAnnual General Meeting Presentation Slides
Annual General Meeting Presentation Slides
 
No-1 Call Girls In Goa 93193 VIP 73153 Escort service In North Goa Panaji, Ca...
No-1 Call Girls In Goa 93193 VIP 73153 Escort service In North Goa Panaji, Ca...No-1 Call Girls In Goa 93193 VIP 73153 Escort service In North Goa Panaji, Ca...
No-1 Call Girls In Goa 93193 VIP 73153 Escort service In North Goa Panaji, Ca...
 
Memorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQM
Memorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQMMemorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQM
Memorándum de Entendimiento (MoU) entre Codelco y SQM
 
Market Sizes Sample Report - 2024 Edition
Market Sizes Sample Report - 2024 EditionMarket Sizes Sample Report - 2024 Edition
Market Sizes Sample Report - 2024 Edition
 
Church Building Grants To Assist With New Construction, Additions, And Restor...
Church Building Grants To Assist With New Construction, Additions, And Restor...Church Building Grants To Assist With New Construction, Additions, And Restor...
Church Building Grants To Assist With New Construction, Additions, And Restor...
 
Cyber Security Training in Office Environment
Cyber Security Training in Office EnvironmentCyber Security Training in Office Environment
Cyber Security Training in Office Environment
 
Corporate Profile 47Billion Information Technology
Corporate Profile 47Billion Information TechnologyCorporate Profile 47Billion Information Technology
Corporate Profile 47Billion Information Technology
 
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCR8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in New Ashok Nagar Delhi NCR
 
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCR8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCR
8447779800, Low rate Call girls in Shivaji Enclave Delhi NCR
 
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
 
Independent Call Girls Andheri Nightlaila 9967584737
Independent Call Girls Andheri Nightlaila 9967584737Independent Call Girls Andheri Nightlaila 9967584737
Independent Call Girls Andheri Nightlaila 9967584737
 
The-Ethical-issues-ghhhhhhhhjof-Byjus.pptx
The-Ethical-issues-ghhhhhhhhjof-Byjus.pptxThe-Ethical-issues-ghhhhhhhhjof-Byjus.pptx
The-Ethical-issues-ghhhhhhhhjof-Byjus.pptx
 
Call Girls Contact Number Andheri 9920874524
Call Girls Contact Number Andheri 9920874524Call Girls Contact Number Andheri 9920874524
Call Girls Contact Number Andheri 9920874524
 
Fordham -How effective decision-making is within the IT department - Analysis...
Fordham -How effective decision-making is within the IT department - Analysis...Fordham -How effective decision-making is within the IT department - Analysis...
Fordham -How effective decision-making is within the IT department - Analysis...
 
Financial-Statement-Analysis-of-Coca-cola-Company.pptx
Financial-Statement-Analysis-of-Coca-cola-Company.pptxFinancial-Statement-Analysis-of-Coca-cola-Company.pptx
Financial-Statement-Analysis-of-Coca-cola-Company.pptx
 
FULL ENJOY Call girls in Paharganj Delhi | 8377087607
FULL ENJOY Call girls in Paharganj Delhi | 8377087607FULL ENJOY Call girls in Paharganj Delhi | 8377087607
FULL ENJOY Call girls in Paharganj Delhi | 8377087607
 
Darshan Hiranandani [News About Next CEO].pdf
Darshan Hiranandani [News About Next CEO].pdfDarshan Hiranandani [News About Next CEO].pdf
Darshan Hiranandani [News About Next CEO].pdf
 
International Business Environments and Operations 16th Global Edition test b...
International Business Environments and Operations 16th Global Edition test b...International Business Environments and Operations 16th Global Edition test b...
International Business Environments and Operations 16th Global Edition test b...
 
NewBase 19 April 2024 Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdf
NewBase  19 April  2024  Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdfNewBase  19 April  2024  Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdf
NewBase 19 April 2024 Energy News issue - 1717 by Khaled Al Awadi.pdf
 

Use-of-Dashboard Moderate Sales Force Competence and Marketing Performance

  • 1. Information and Knowledge Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online) Vol 2, No.5, 2012 Use-of-Dashboard: A Vital Moderator of Sales Force Competence Management and Marketing Performance Relationship Asiegbu, Ikechukwu F., Ph.D,1*, Amah, Edwinah, Ph.D1,2, Odili, Monday E., B.Sc., MBA1,2,3 1. Senior Lecturer, Department of Marketing, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 2. Department of Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 3. Post Graduate Studies, University of Port Harcourt , Port Harcourt, Nigeria. * E-mail of the corresponding author: ikasie@yahoo.com Abstract Prior research has not been clear on the role the use-of-dashboard plays in moderating the relationship between competence management and a firm’s corporate performance, notwithstanding that such a moderating effect is conceptually quite plausible. This study, empirically examined the role of use-of-dashboard as a moderator in the sales force competence management – marketing performance relationship. By using Pearson partial correlation test, the study found evidence that supports the moderating effect of use-of-dashboard on the strength of the relationship between sales force competence management and marketing performance. The paper therefore, recommends that firms wishing to fully harness the positive influence of sales force competence management on marketing performance should consider the use-of-dashboard as a veritable contextual option. Key Words: Marketing Performance, Moderator, Sales force Competence Management, Use-of-Dashboard, 1. Introduction The most important asset of any organization is the knowledge and competences of the employees. Effective and strategic management of the human resources is crucial to successful business management. It is essential to have qualified employees in the right place at the right time to cope with the needs of the business to quickly respond to the dynamics of the business environment. Therefore, management must pay adequate attention to skill levels and training needs of the employees to ensure that the appropriate skills are available for the organization to achieve its objectives. An organization needs to keep track of its activities with a view to ascertaining the extent its strategies are meeting its objectives. Firms use various forms of information systems (IS) to monitor, report, and analyze their activities, and to detect when these activities deviate from the set objectives and then institute necessary corrections. Information systems for monitoring organizational activities may be utilized to support sales force management processes. Locally and globally (Baladi, 1999; Niederman, 1995; Hustad et al, 2002) information systems, can be used strategically to ensure that the competence development of the employees is adjusted to the strategic and critical competence goals of the organization. The use of information systems, which supports the competence management process, to increase knowledge and competences among the employees is a process for stimulating knowledge transfer mechanisms between knowledge workers (Hustad et al, 2002). But strategic management holds that firms are fundamentally heterogeneous in their possession of resources and capabilities (Peteraf, 1993). A good number of previous competence management research has been directed on its performance implications (Dixon et al, 2005; Avlonitis and Panagopolous, 2006, Defloor et al, 2006; Zeb-Obipi, 2007; Asiegbu, 2009). Although it has been established that competence management is, in general, positively related to several corporate performance measures (Defloor et al, 2006; Zeb-Obipi, 2007; Asiegbu, 2009), the question whether the competence management - corporate performance relationship is monotonic across different levels of adoption and use-of-dashboard in monitoring, analyzing, and reporting firm’s activities, has not be fully investigated. A closer look at the literature suggests the equivocal nature of its corporate performance impact. Since evidence of the positive business performance has accumulated but with some equivocality, it is important to investigate more closely the potential moderator of the sales force competence management – marketing performance relationship. Thus, the focus of this study is specifically to determine the extent to which the use-of-dashboard in monitoring, analyzing, and 30
  • 2. Information and Knowledge Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online) Vol 2, No.5, 2012 reporting internal activities of the organization moderates the influence of sales force competence management on marketing performance. Our research question is: Does the influence of sales force competence management on marketing performance depend on a firm’s capability in the use of Information Technology (IT)-based systems? This paper views the use-of-dashboard as strategically appropriate in this regard. No doubt a number of scholars have written on dashboard (Few, 2006, Wind, 2005; Pauwel, et al, 2009; DeBusk et al, 2011; Yigitbasioglu and Velcu, 2012, Paine, 2004; O’Sullivan and Abela 2007). However, none of these was specifically on the use-of-dashboard as a moderator in the nexus between sales force competence management and marketing performance. As a result of dearth of knowledge in the design, use, and importance of performance dashboard, many authors have called for more research in the area (Rogers, 2003; Srivastava and Reibstein, 2005; O’Sullivan and Abela, 2007; Pauwels et al 2009), hence our interest in this study. 2. Theoretical Foundation and Hypothesis 2.1. Sales Force Competence Management Sales force competence management is the process of analyzing, developing, and evaluating the knowledge, skills, and behavior of an organization’s sales force members for superior performance in sales job (Asiegbu, 2009). The primary purpose of competence management is to define and continuously maintain competences, according to the objective of the company (Berio and Harzalla, 2005). The three main prevalent objectives for competence interventions in order to importance include: enhancement of performance expectation, provision of an Integrated Human Resource Process, and alignment of behaviors with core values of the firms. 2.2 Marketing Performance Marketing performance is a measure of the contributions of an organization’s marketing functions to its corporate goals (Jackson, et al, 1995). This views marketing performance measures as the means of a respondent’s rating for his or her firm’s sales growth, sales volume, and profitability performance relative to its past years’ and competitors’ as used in previous studies (Kohli and Jaworski 1994, O’Sullivan and Abela, 2007; Asiegbu, 2009). 2.3. Sales Force Competence Management – Marketing Performance Relationship The resource-based theory clearly emphasizes that specialized resources and capabilities which are durable, scarce, not easily traded, and difficult to imitate may enable a firm to earn economic rents (Amit and Schoemaker, 1993). The outcomes of effective marketing depend mainly on whether firms have competitive advantages that are unique, exclusive and difficult to imitate. It has been that people provide organizations with an important source of sustainable competitive advantages (Pfeffer, 1994, Wright et al, 1994). Human capital not physical capital, may be the ultimate determinant of firm performance (Adler, 1998). This, perhaps, has led to the call for adequate management of human competence at work as a veritable means of achieving unique and exclusive competitive advantage (deGens, 1999), superior productivity performance (Zeb-Obipi, 2007). Competence is the driving force behind the success of any business, especially in knowledge based firms (Walter, 2003). In this regard sales force is critical in business-to-business marketing because it creates and sustains competitive advantage (Avlonitis and Panagopolous, 2006). With the notion that sales force performance positively correlates with marketing performance, organizations view sales force ineffectiveness and incompetence with grave seriousness and concern (Mallin and Mayo, 2006). Sales force competence management is viewed as the foundation of managing and developing sales people (Avilar, 2005). Some studies found that performance is linked to competence management (Avlonitis and Panagopolous, 2006; Dixon et al, 2005; Zhu and Nakata, 2007). Nursing competence management correlates with the performance of nurses in patient care (Defloor et al, 2006) It has also been established that worker competence management positively affects the organization’s productivity performance (Zeb-Obipi, 2007). Specifically, sales force competence management is found to positively influence 31
  • 3. Information and Knowledge Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online) Vol 2, No.5, 2012 marketing performance of the industrial and domestic product firms in Nigeria (Asiegbu, 2009). It has been established that competence management activities – sales force competence analysis, sales force competence development, and sales force competence evaluation significantly affect marketing performance measures – sales growth, sales volume, and profitability (Asiegbu, 2009). However, the question of whether the positive influence of sales force competence management on marketing performance is dependent on the firm’s capability in monitoring, analyzing, and reporting its activities has not be fully investigated, especially with the use-of-dashboard. Hence, the focus of this study is to investigate the use-of-dashboard as a moderator. 2. 3. Use-of-dashboard as a Moderator in Sales Force Competence Management and Marketing Performance Relationship. A dashboard provide a visual display of the most important information needed to achieve one or more objectives; consolidated and arranged on a single screen so that the information can be monitored at a glance (Few, 2006). It is a full-fledged business information system designed to help organizations optimize marketing performance and achieve strategic objectives. Two important elements of dashboard are that they provide automated or (Close to) real time reporting (Lyer, et al, 2006; Wind, 2005), and that they enable users to “drill down” to programme level details (Miller and Cioffi, 2004). Dashboards can provide a way to visually monitor one’s metrics and provide him/her with a feedback system to track progress or failure, and connect to business outcomes. Dashboards provide insight into performance, foster decision-making and align strategy with implementation (Patterson, 2007). Marketing dashboards connect data points in a way that enables users to see how any one marketing action affects the entire enterprise. For example, during a promotion campaign, dashboard shows the outcomes for the enterprise, which include sales volume, customer satisfaction, and brand awareness, all of which help to determine the nature, frequency, and timing of future promotions and marketing efforts. A marketing performance dashboard communicates strategic objectives and enables businesses measure, monitor, and manage the key activities and process needed to achieve their goals. There are three major types or applications of dashboards: operational, tactical, and strategic. Each type of performance dashboard emphasizes three layers of information and applications to different degrees. These are the top layer, middle layer, and bottom layer. The top layer graphically displays excepted conditions, the middle layer lets users explore or “slice and dice” data from multiple dimensions; and the bottom layer lets users examine individual transactions and operational reports. Operational dashboards carry out core operational processes. They are used primarily by contact employees and their supervisors who have direct interactions with customers or manage the creation and/or delivery of the products. Operational dashboards primarily deliver detailed information that is only lightly summarized. An operational dashboard, thus, emphasizes monitoring more than analysis and management. Tactical dashboards track departmental processes and projects that are of interest to a section of the organization or sub-unit. Managers and business analysts use tactical dashboards to compare actual performance of their section to expected performance or last period’s results. Tactical dashboards which are usually updated daily or weekly, tend to emphasize analysis more than monitoring or management. Strategic dashboards which monitor the execution of strategic objectives, are usually updated weekly or monthly, providing executives a powerful tool to communicate strategy, gain visibility into operations, and identify the key drivers of performance and business value. Strategic dashboards, thus, emphasize management more than monitoring and analysis. Dashboards are viewed as a means by which information can be summarized and readily communicated to senior decision-makers (Paine 2004; Wind 2005; Srivastava and Reibstein, 2005) and general workforce (Chiang, 2011). It is argued that this distilling of data increases the perceived value and managerial use of information (Peyrot et al 2002), which in turn creates a closer link between marketing activities and firm’s goals (McGovern et al, 2004; Miller and Cioffi, 2004). A good dashboard maps out the relationships between business outcomes and marketing performance 32
  • 4. Information and Knowledge Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online) Vol 2, No.5, 2012 (Patterson, 2007). The organization can use their metrics as a key tool to help drive their performance management strategy (Lyndsay, 2012). Therefore, this paper views the use-of-dashboard to have the tendency to make the salesperson tilt to more result-oriented behavior in sales job. It is possible that the behavior of a salesperson is likely to be positively influenced if there is a dashboard that monitors and reports the outcomes of his or her performance in sales job. Being fully aware of the timely reporting of the outcomes of his or her selling activities, a salesperson, who has developed the required competence through its management, would want to utilize them in a way that results in greater productivity, which in turn, impacts positively on marketing performance. This view is reflected in our conceptual model in Figure 2.1 Moderator: Use-of-Dashboard Sales force Sales Force Marketing Professional Sales Competence Productivity Performance Force Management Figure 2.1: Moderator of Sales Force Competence Management – Marketing Performance Relationship. According to Gillis and Beauchemin (2000), an expert salesperson consistently demonstrates among others things, interest in learning how his or her actions contribute to overall company goals. Dashboard as an automated internal activity control system can be used in an organization to achieve this interest. With these, we are inclined to believe that the use-of-dashboard can indirectly affect marketing performance. This leads us to the hypothesis in this study. HA: The use-of-dashboard positively affects the influence of sales force competence management on marketing performance. 3. Research Methodology Our database was registered members of the Port Harcourt branch of Manufacturer’s Association of Nigeria (MAN). A total of 40 registered and operating members this Association was found in the register at the time of data collection. Thus, we had a total of 144 copies of questionnaire distributed to 36 participating firms, which constitute sample size randomly selected from the sampling frame of 40 firms. The copies of questionnaire and cover letters were hand-delivered to the 144 marketing executives of the 36 companies. These copies of questionnaire were retrieved after a period of six weeks and 135 copies were found usable, representing 93.75% response rate. 3.1. Data Collection The moderator: use-of-dashboard was measured with the firms’ capabilities in using information technology (IT) to monitor, analyze, and report their business activities. Capability in the use-of-dashboard is captured using three measurement items – capability in using informational technology (IT) to monitor internal company activities, capability in using IT to report company marketing performance resulting from marketing efforts, and capability in using IT to analyze individual company activities to determine sources of variations from the objectives. Sales force competence management is dimensioned as: sales force competence analysis with three tasks, sales force competence development with four tasks, and sales force competence evaluation with five tasks as used in Asiegbu (2009). Marketing performance is measured with sales growth, sales volume, and profitability (O’Sullivan and Abela, 2007; Kohli and Jaworski, 1994). Marketing performance responses were captured on a five-point Likert scale anchored by “much lower” and much higher”, which is in line with the scale used in similar studies conducted by O’Sullivan and Abela (2007), Deshpande et al (1993), Deshpande and Farley (1998). 33
  • 5. Information and Knowledge Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online) Vol 2, No.5, 2012 3.2 Validity and Reliability The questionnaire used as the data collection instrument was pretested for comprehension, relevance, and completeness, using a pilot survey that involved ten marketing executives from the industrial and domestic products firms in Port Harcourt, and some marketing scholars. Participants in the pilot phase were asked to evaluate the content, clarity, and format of the preliminary questionnaire and make their inputs. Based on their inputs, the original questionnaire was adjusted accordingly. The validity of the measures was already confirmed in previous studies relating to marketing performance (Kohli and Jaworski, 1994; O’Sullivan and Abela, 2007; Rogers, 2003; Srivastan and Reibstein, 2005; Miller and Cioffi, 2004; Wang et al, 2005) and competence management activities (Baladi, 1999; Lindgren and Hendfrisson, 2002; Hiermanna and Hofferer, 2005; Zeb-Obipi, 2007; Asiegbu 2009). However, we still needed to reconfirm the applicability of the measures in the industrial and domestic products firms in Port Harcourt, hence the pilot study. To measure the reliability of the concepts under investigation, we applied the Cronbach’s Alpha. Table 3.1 indicates how the items for each factor were internally related. These values are well above the rule of the thumb cut-off mark of 0.70 (Nunnally, 1978; Hatcher, 1994). We are, therefore, permitted to regard the measurement items in the instrument as being internally related to the factors they are expected to measure. Table 3.1: Reliability Coefficients of Variable Measures S/No Dimensions/Measures of the study Variables Number Number of Cronbach’s of Items Cases Alpha 1. Sales force Competence Analysis 4 135 0.858 2. Sales force Competence Development 5 135 0.908 3. Sales force Competence Evaluation 6 135 0.906 4. Sales force Competence Management 4 135 0.949 5. Sales Growth 7 135 0.914 6. Sales Volume 6 135 0.919 7. Profitability 7 135 0.921 8. Marketing Performance 3 135 0.964 9. Use-of-dashboard Capability 4 135 0.901 Source: SPSS Output Pearson Correlation test was used to obtain zero-order partial correlation coefficients in our inferential statistical analysis. 4. Analyses and Finding 4.1 Correlation Test Table 4.1 shows that use-of-dashboard measurement items correlated highly with marketing performance. Table 4.1. Correlation of the Use Marketing Dashboard Measurement Items and Marketing Performance S/N Use of Dashboard Pearson P-Value Mean Std. R Dev M1 Monitoring Company Activities 0.765 0.000 3.07 1.097 M2 Automated Reporting of Marketing Performance Resulting from Company Activities 0.765 0.000 2.85 1.062 M3 Analyzing Individual Company Activities 0.706 0.000 2.98 1.175 M4 Use of dashboard General Question 0.764 0.000 3.39 1.139 Source: SPSS Output On Research Data Collected, September, 2011 34
  • 6. Information and Knowledge Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online) Vol 2, No.5, 2012 The elements that constitute use-of-dashboard were correlated against the three constructs that were developed to measure marketing performance – sales growth, sales volume and profitability (Table 4.2). The use-of-dashboard general question correlated highly with sales growth showing a Pearson’s r of 0.758 and p-value of 0.000, followed by profitability (0.731) and then sales volume (0.727). Specifically monitoring company activities and automated reporting of marketing performance resulting from company activities correlated most highly with sales growth, (0.759 and 0.750 respectively), followed by profitability (0.731 and 0.746 respectively). Analyzing individual company activities correlated most highly with profitability, (0.762), followed by sales volume (0.691) and then sales growth (0.683). In summary, all the elements of use-of-dashboard correlated with all the marketing performance measures. Table 4.2 Strong Positive Correlation of the Use of Marketing Dashboard Measurement Items and Marketing Performance S/N Use of Dashboard Statistics Sales Sales Profitability Growth Volume M1 Monitoring company activities Pearson r 2-tailed 0.759** 0.727** 0.731** 0.000 0.000 0.000 M2 Automated reporting of marketing Pearson r 2-tailed 0.750** 0.723** 0.746** performance resulting from company 0.000 0.000 0.000 activities M3 Analyzing individual company activities Pearson r Sig 0.683** 0.691** 0.762** 0.000 0.000 0.000 M4 Use of dashboard general question Pearson r Sig 0.758** 0.727** 0.731** 0.000 0.000 0.000 Source: SPSS Output On Research Data Collected, September, 2011 4.2 Hypothesis Testing Bryman and Crammer (2001) and Zeb-Obipi (2007) suggest that moderated relationships are better examined by compute Pearson’s r for each category of the test variables and then comparing the rs. First, we computed the Pearson’s r for each pair of variables: sales force competence management, use-of-dashboard, and marketing performance. This is referred to as Zero-order partial correlation in which the three variables – sales force competence management, use-of-dashboard, and marketing performance are correlated, which in this study gave r = 0.604. Second, controlling for the moderating variable, which is use-of-dashboard, first-order Pearson r was then computed between only the sales force competence management and marketing performance, which in this study gave r = 0884. Third, the Pearson’s r of the sales force competence management and marketing performance in the two sets of computations are compared to determine the magnitude of difference between the uncontrolled and controlled correlation coefficients, which in this study gave 0.884 – 0.604 = 0.220. Accepting or rejecting our hypothesis in this regard was based on the magnitude of this difference in the Pearson’s rs. According to the SPSS mode of explanation (Bryman and Crammer, 2001; Zeb-Obipi, 2007), if the difference in the Pearson’s rs of the zero-order and first-order correlation computations is significant, (equal to or greater than 0.1) then the hypothesized relationship between sales force competence management and marketing performance is affected by the contextual factor. But if the difference in Pearson’s rs is not significant (less than 0.1), it indicates that the hypothesized relationship between sales force competence management and marketing performance is not affected by the presence of the earlier speculated moderating factor: the use-of-dashboard. That is, accept the null hypothesis if the Pearson rs difference is not significant (less than 0.1), otherwise accept HA. 35
  • 7. Information and Knowledge Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online) Vol 2, No.5, 2012 Table 4.3: Partial Correlation of Sales Force Competence Management and Marketing Performance, controlling for Use of Dashboard Correlations INTERNAL USE-OF- SALES FORCE MARKETING ACTIVITY DASHBOA Control COMPETENCE PERFORMA MONITORING Variables Variables Statistics MANAGEMENT NCE RD CAPABILITY -none-a SALES FORCE Correlation 1.000 .884 .832 COMPETENCE Significance (2-tailed) . .000 .000 MANAGEMENT df 0 133 133 MARKETING Correlation .884 1.000 .853 PERFORMANCE Significance (2-tailed) .000 . .000 df 133 0 133 INTERNAL ACTIVITY USE-OF- Correlation .832 .853 1.000 MONITORING Significance (2-tailed) .000 .000 . DASHBOARD CAPABILITY df 133 133 0 INTERNAL USE-OF- SALES FORCE Correlation 1.000 .604 ACTIVITY COMPETENCE Significance (2-tailed) . .000 DASHBOA MONITORING MANAGEMENT df RD 0 132 CAPABILITY MARKETING Correlation .604 1.000 PERFORMANCE Significance (2-tailed) .000 . df 132 0 a. Cells contain zero-order (Pearson) correlations. Source: Research Data, September, 2011, SPSS Outputs on stepwise Regression Analysis In our study, the SPSS output on Pearson’s correlation computations are shown in Table 4.3. The zero-order coefficient between sales force competence management and marketing performance is 0.884, while the first-order Pearson’s r is 0.604. This shows a difference of 0.220 (i.e., 0.884 – 0.604 = 0.220), which we consider very significant because it is greater than 0.1 benchmark. (Bryman and Crammer, 2001; Zeb-Obipi, 2007). We therefore, reject our null hypothesis and accept the alternative that the use-of-dashboard, positively and significantly affects the influence of sales force competence management on marketing performance. Use-of-dashboard magnifies the influence of sales force competence management on marketing performance. 5. Discussion of Findings The research concern seeks to determine the extent to which the moderator – use-of-dashboard, affects the relationship between sales force competence management and marketing performance. Our quantitative analyses reveal a significant positive moderating effect of use-of-dashboard on sales force competence management and marketing performance relationship. This does not confirm the hypothesis drawn from O’Sullivan and Abela’s (2007) work that reports a non-definitive moderating effect of the “dashboard” on the relationship between marketing performance measurement ability and firm performance. According to them the reason for non-definitive finding could be because the study was one of the first studies to explore the impact of performance dashboards in marketing given that their adoption and functionality continue to evolve. However, our finding is supported by the work of Srivastava and Reibstein (2005) who found dashboard to significantly and positively affect the influence of marketing activities on corporate financial performance. Also, Wind (2005) found dashboard to affect the influence of marketing activities on 36
  • 8. Information and Knowledge Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online) Vol 2, No.5, 2012 business growth. Furthermore, Miller and Cioffi (2004) found marketing dashboard to significantly affect measurement of marketing effectiveness and value relationship. Pauwels, et al (2009) posit that dashboards can be used to achieve four objectives: monitoring, consistency, planning, and communication. However, many organizations lack focus. They may devise strategies but not communicate them well to employees, who often work at cross-purposes without clear guidance from above. For firm’s to become both efficient and effective, they need to implement a performance management system into objectives, metrics, initiatives, and tasks customized to each group and individual in the organization. The system can then provide businesses with the information they need to measure, monitor, and manage the key activities and processes they need to achieve their goals. A performance dashboard consists of such applications that monitor, analyze and manage performance. A marketing dashboard is a process of succinctly and simply reporting on the progress marketing activities are making towards achievement of business objectives (Patterson, 2007). It maps out the relationships between business outcomes and marketing performance. Dashboards are used to share information, measure key performance indicators (KPIs), and effectively manage performance of employees, such as sales force (Lyndsay, 2012). 6. Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations There is an extensive range of literature on competence management systems as well as on corporate performance, but none yet is specifically on relationship between sales force competence management and marketing performance. This research was inspired by the desire to fill this void. The industrial and domestic products firms in Nigeria being the bedrock of the nation’s economic growth make use of the services of sales force to market their products, and as such were selected to investigate how to achieve superior marketing performance through sales force competence management. The use-of-dashboard moderates the influence of sales force competence management on marketing performance of the industrial or domestic products firms in Nigeria. This implies that the greater their capability in monitoring, reporting, and analyzing their marketing activities, the greater is the influence of use-of-dashboard on their sales growth, sales volume, and profitability. And the capability of these firms to monitor, report, and analyze their marketing activities using dashboard, largely depends on their financial strength. The industrial and domestic products firms in Nigeria are constantly confronted with the challenge of achieving better marketing performance. The Nigerian business environment offers opportunities for better and optimal marketing performance, which only firms with sound sales force competence management systems can take advantage of. A firm’s capability in the use-of-dashboard is found rewarding in this regard. A firm could use dashboard to substantially boost the influence of sales force competence management on marketing performance. We recommend that the industrial and domestic product firm’s in Nigeria should use dashboard which monitors, reports, and analyzes firms’ activities, to optimize the positive effect of sales force competence management on marketing performance. We suggest that further research, involving the use of dashboard as moderator, can be carried out in other business areas, such as food and beverage, pharmaceutical, and service industries. References 1. Adler, P.S. (1998), “Managing the Flexible Automation”. California Management Review, 30 (3):34-56. 2. Asiegbu, I.F. (2009), “Sales force Competence Management and Marketing Performance of Industrial and Domestic Products Firms in Nigeria,” a Ph.D Dissertation Presented to the Port Graduate School, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. 3. Avilar (2005), “Know Grow Go Solutions: Competency Management Solutions”, Avilar Technologies Inc, www.arvilar.com Accessed on 12/02/08. 37
  • 9. Information and Knowledge Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online) Vol 2, No.5, 2012 4. Avlonitis, G.J. and Panagopolous, N.G. (2006), “Role Stress, Attitudes, and Job Outcomes in Business-to- Business selling: Does the Type of Selling Situation Matter? Journal of Personnel Selling & Sales Management, 26, (1), (Winter), 67-77. 5. Baladi, P. (1999), “Knowledge Networking and Competence Management: Ericsson Business Consulting Business”, Strategy Review, 10, 20-28. 6. Berio, G. and Harzallah, M. (2005), “Knowledge Management for Competence Management”, Journal of Universal Management, 3, (1), 21-28. 7. Bryman, A. and Gramer, D. (2001) Quantitative Data Analysis with SPSS Release 10 for Windows, A Guide for Social Scientists, East Success: Routledge. 8. Debusk, G.K. Brown, R.M., Killough, L.N. (2003), Components and Relative Weights in Utilization of Dashboard Measurement Systems like the Balanced Scorecard”. The British Accounting Review, 35(3). 9. Defloor, A., Hecke, S.V., Verhaeghe, S., Gobert, M., Darras, E. and Grypdonck, M. (2006), “The Clinical Nursing competences and Their Complexity in Belgian General Hospitals”, Nursing and Healthcare Management and Policy, 669 – 678. 10. deGeus, A. (1999), The Living Company: Growth, Learning and Longevity in Business, London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. 11. Deshpande, R., Farley, J. U. (1998), “Measuring Market Orientation: Generalization and Synthesis”, Journal of Market Focused Management, 2, (3), 213-32. 12. Deshpande, R., Farley, J. U. and Webster, F. E. (1993), Corporate Culture, Customer Orientation, and Innovativeness, Journal of Marketing, 57 (January), 23-37. 13. Dixon, A. L. and Schertzer, S.M.B. (2005), “Bouncing Back: How Salesperson Optimism and Self-Efficacy Influence Attributions and Behaviour Following Failure”, Journal of Selling and Sales Management, 25 (4), 261 – 369. 14. Few, S. (2006), Intelligent Enterprise, sfew@perceptualedge. Com (12/2/2008. 15. Gillis, M. and Beauchemin, K. (2000), “Sales Training: The Ideal Rep”, Pharmaceutical Executive, December, 1-5. 16. Hatcher, L. (1994), A Step-by-Step Approach to Using the SAS System for Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling, NC: SAS Institute Inc. Cary. 17. Hustad, E. (2002) Qualitative Research Methods Institute of Informatics, University of Oslo, Int-Qual Autumn. 18. Jackson, S. E.; Schuler, R. S. and Rivero, J. C. (1989), “Organizational Characteristics as Predictors of Personal Practices”. Personnel Psychology, 42, 727-786. 19. Kohli, A. K. and Jaworski, R. J. (1994), “The Influence of Coworker Feedback on Salespeople”, Journal of Marketing, 58, (October), 82-94. 20. Lyer, B.; Lee, C. and Venkatraman, N. (2006), “Managing in a Small World Ecosystem: Lessons from the Software Sector”, California Management Review, 48 (Spring), 27-47. 21. Lyndsay, W. (2012), “Moving Towards better KPIs”, Dashboard Insight (June), 1-4, (Accessed on 30 June 2012). 22. Mallin, M. L. and Mayo, M. (2006), “Why Did I lose? A Conservation of Resources View of Salesperson Failure Attributions”, Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 28, (4) (Fall), 345-357. 23. McGovern, G.J., Court, D., Quelch, J.A. and Crawford, B. (2004), “Bringing Customers into the Boardroom”, Harvard Business Review, 82, (November), 70-80. 24. Miller, A. and Cioffi, J. (2004), “Measuring Marketing Effectiveness and Value: The Unisys Marketing Dashboard”, Journal of Advertising Research, 44 (September – October), 237-243. 25. Muntean, M. Bologa, A. Bologa, R., Florea, A. (2011), “The Use of Multi-Dimensional Methods to increase the Efficiency of Management Support Systems” International Journal of Mathematical Methods and Methods in Applied Sciences, 5(8), 1334-1344. 26. Niederman; F. (1995), “Global Information Systems and Human Resources Management: A Research Agenda”, Journal of Global Information Management. 7, 33-39. 27. Nunnally, J. (1978), Psychometric Theory, New York: McGraw-Hill. 28. O’Sullivan, D. and Abela, D.V. (2007), “Marketing Performance Measurement Ability and Firm Performance”, Journal of Marketing, 71, (April), 79-93. 29. Paine, K.D. (2004), “Using Dashboard Metrics to Track Communication”, Strategic Communication Management, 8, (August – September), 30-34. 38
  • 10. Information and Knowledge Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online) Vol 2, No.5, 2012 30. Patterson, L. (2007), “Case Study: Taking on the Metrics Challenge”, Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 15, (4), 270-276. 31. Pauwels, K, Ambler, T., Bruce, H.C., Lapointe, P., Reibstein, D. Skiera, B., Wierenga, B, Wiesel, T. (2009), “Dashboards as a Service: Why, What, How, and What Research Is Needed?” Journal of Service Research, 12 (2), 175-189. 32. Peteraf, M. S. (1993), “The Cornerstones of Competitive Advantage: A Resource-Based View”, Strategic Management Journal, 14, (3), 179- 192. 33. Peyrot, M., Child, N., Doren, D.V. and Allen, K. (2002), “An Empirically-Based Model of Competitor Intelligence Use”, Journal of Business Research, 55 (September), 747-758. 34. Pfeffer, J. (1994), Competitive Advantage Through People, Boston: Harvard Business School Press. 35. Rogers, B (2003), “What Gets Measured Gets Better”, Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 12 (January), 20-26. 36. Srivastava, R.K. and Reibstein, D.J. (2005), “Metrics for Linking Marketing to Financial Performance,” Report (5), 200, Marketing Science Institute. 37. Walter, R. (2003), “Competence Management Strategies: A Future Concept in Competence Management for Knowledge-Based Organizations”, Master of Science Thesis, Gothenburg University, (Spring), 1-62. 38. Wang, M.S. Tien, S. and Tai, Y. (2004), “An Assessment of the Relationship between Origins of Corporate Competences and Business Performance. Example of Taiwan’s Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises”, Taiwan: Chung-Hwa, University. 39. Wind, Y (2005), “Marketing as an Engine of Business Growth: A Cross-Functional Perspective”, Journal of Business Research, 58 (July), 863–873. 40. Yigitbasioglu, O.M., Velcu, O. (2012), “A Review of Dashboards in Performance Management: Implications for Design and Research”, International Journal of Accounting Information System, 13 (1), 41-59. 41. Zeb-Obipi, I. (2007), “Worker Competence Management and Corporate Productivity Performance”, A Ph. D Dissertation at Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. 42. Zhu, Z. and Nakata, C. (2007), “Reexamining the Link Between Customer Orientation and Business Performance: The Role of Information Systems”, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 15 (3) 187-203. 39
  • 11. This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open Access Publishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute is Accelerating Global Knowledge Sharing. More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage: http://www.iiste.org The IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals and collaborating with academic institutions around the world. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submission instruction on the following page: http://www.iiste.org/Journals/ The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualified submissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to the readers all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of the journals is also available upon request of readers and authors. IISTE Knowledge Sharing Partners EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP Open Archives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe Digtial Library , NewJour, Google Scholar