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Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 1
RUDOLPH KWANUE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
GIBU COLLEGE OF THEOLOGY
LIBERIA-USA MOBILE CAMPU
GIBU COLLEGE: DEPARTMENT OF MINISTRY
SUBJECT: PHILOSOPHY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION (DMN. 710)
Lecturer: Prof. Paul Allieu Kamara, G.C.E.O LEVELS, DHRCJ, B.A, MBAs, DCLD, PHD LDA AND LOD
Lecturer Contact: 0023276802295 0023288066913, 23231400091
WhatsApp: 2327680229/ 23288066913/23231400091 Email: prof.rku24@gmail.com
Motto: Education is our Passion
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 2
PHILOSOPHY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION
We define Christian education as an educational process in which God works through His
committed teachers, biblical methods, and truthful curriculum materials to build disciples with
the biblical world view, character, and skills necessary to fulfill God's calling and live to His
glory.
The RKUC-GIBU philosophy of Christian education is expressed in the entirety of the RKUC-GIBU
Teacher's Manual, Christ-Centered
Teacher's Manual for Early Childhood, and RKUC-GIBU Standard Procedures. We define
Christian education as an educational process in which God works through His committed
teachers, biblical methods, and truthful curriculum materials to build disciples with the biblical
world view, character, and skills necessary to fulfill God's calling and live to His glory. We
recognize that Christian schools have distinctive, which not only separate them from secular
schools (those which leave the God of Scripture out), but also distinguish them from each
other. The purpose of this summary is to concisely highlight the why, who, what, when, and
where of the RKUC-GIBU concept of Christian education so that interested persons can be
alerted to the RBCS distinctive. Extensive biblical support for these distinctive is provided in the
documents referenced above.
First: Why Christian education? The education of children is an inherently religious activity. God
commands that children be brought up in the discipline and instruction of Jehovah that they
may order their lives under the authority of Jesus Christ. Jesus instructed His disciples that,
because all authority had been given to Him both in heaven and on earth, they were, in turn, to
disciple all the nations..., teaching them to obey that entire He commanded them. God
mandates that children be disciples for Christ. They must be trained in the biblical world view
which honors Jehovah, the sovereign Creator of the universe. It recognizes that man was
created in the image of God, but fell into sin, thus requiring the substitutionary atonement of
Jesus Christ to save him from an eternal lake of fire. It recognizes God's purpose for man and
the universe, the absolute nature of God's physical and moral laws, and God's authority as the
only legitimate basis for man's authority. Such a world view is antithetical to that taught in
secular schools which base education on secular humanistic, rather than biblical,
Presuppositions. The religion of the humanists denies the relevance (or even the existence) of
God, believing that the material universe is self-existing and not created. Man is presumed to
be an evolutionary being shaped by matter, energy, and chance, having no need of salvation,
no eternal soul, and no divine purpose. Man is trained to trust in man for the perfecting of
human life, and to emphasize self-preservation, creative self-realization, and happiness as his
chief goals. Morality and authority are to be relativistically defined by man. God commands His
people not to teach their children the way of the heathen. Christian education is mandatory,
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 3
not optional, for Christian children. With this foundation, the remaining highlights can be more
briefly stated.
Who is responsible for providing children with a Christian education? Scripture commands
parents to teach their children to love God with all their heart, soul, mind, and strength, from
the time they get up in the morning till the time they go to bed at night. Properly educating
children is as important as properly feeding them physical food. Just as parents need the help of
others in obtaining the food for the table, so they may need the help of professional Christian
educators to help them carry out their child-rearing responsibilities.
Who is Christian education for? Most certainly, it is the only education suitable for Christian
children. It is also suitable to the as yet unsaved, provided they are submissive to it, for all
children will profit from education in the truth. RKUC-GIBU recognizes an evangelistic
responsibility which is subordinated to its function of helping Christian families carry out their
educational responsibilities. Since only God knows the heart, we confess the human inability to
errorless identify God's elect and the consequent necessity to use performance criteria for
admission to the student body. All students will be confronted with the authority of Jesus Christ
and His Word - a call to the unconverted and a light to the Christian's path. Christian education
is for children of all intellectual abilities, including those who have special educational needs.
(Continued on reverse side)
The “what” of Christian education is biblical truth applied to every area of life. Children must be
educated for Christian maturity. Parents and teachers must by word and deed, demonstrate the
Christ-like life to children who must then learn to live by every word which has proceeded out
of the mouth of God. The content of Christian education must include truth regarding the
nature of God, man, and the creation. Academic excellence (in keeping with each child's God-
given potential) and high standards of Christian character are harmonious goals for children
being equipped with the knowledge, character, and skills needed to be competent servants of
Christ. Christ deserves our best in every area of life. The emphasis of Christian education is
God's truth; humanistic materials are only to be used to teach truth by contrast. The lifestyle
taught is that of pleasing Christ from the heart, not simple conformance with man-made laws.
Students must learn the biblical relationship between morality and spirituality.
When is Christian education necessary? From the perspective of parental responsibility, the
biblical nurturing of the child begins in the womb and continues as long as the child remains
under parental authority. From the personal perspective, a Christian must continue to grow in
the grace and knowledge of Jesus Christ as an aspect of the normal Christian life. For the child,
he must be helped to grow as rapidly as his God-given gifts allow. There is no excuse for
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 4
training young children to live by humanistic and hedonistic principles. The development of
basic academic skills should begin as soon as the child can accept appropriate training. The
foundation of all subjects is reading; the foundation of the Christian walk is being able to read,
comprehend, and obey the Holy Scriptures. Therefore, for the child's academic and spiritual
growth, as each child shows readiness, we must begin to equip him with this vital skill. (Reading
skills measured between second and fourth grade level can normally be expected of five-year-
old children who begin a phonics reading program at ages three or four.)
Finally, where should Christian education take place? Christian education must begin in the
home, even while the child is in the womb. Children, especially in the most formative years,
need to be positively schooled in a biblical world view which insulates them from the ungodly
influences of the world. That instruction may appropriately continue as long as parents can best
provide for the educational needs of their children. If parents decide it is time to place their
child into the social environment of the Christian school, they must choose that alternative best
suited to their family goals. RKUC-GIBU stands ready to support the educational needs of
families whether the children are being schooled at home or on the campus.
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 5
WHAT IS THE CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION?
When elementary, middle and high schools, as well as colleges and universities, are guided by a
Christian philosophy of education, there is more to daily assignments than Bible study and
more to the environment than dress codes and disciplinary policies. The Christian philosophy of
education encompasses all areas of the educational life of students, including core subject
curriculum, character building and practical living, both now and in the future.
THE CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION IN K-12 CLASSROOMS
Children who attend Christian schools have the same variety of personalities, talents, interests
and abilities as children who attend public schools. The difference between a Christian school
and a public school lies in the foundation of the curriculum and the way in which the social and
emotional needs of the students are met. The mission statements and vision of Christian
schools include many of the same academic standards and life-skill training as public schools.
However, every element of the school day promotes Christ-centered learning and living.
Curriculum – The academic curriculum chosen by Christian schools is similar in rigor and
complexity to that in public schools. The presentation of materials, however, is integrated with
the truths of the Bible, which reaches across all content areas. Northpoint Christian School in
Southaven, Mississippi, states, “We believe in a structured curriculum that has been filtered
through the Word of God.” All topics, from science and geography to language arts and
relationship building, are explored based on a thorough understanding of Biblical teachings.
Character building – Most public schools incorporate a system of character building and
disciplinary action plans based on pre-determined pillars of character, a building motto or
slogan, or classroom rules that integrate behavior expectations and academic goals.
Christian schools may use a boxed curriculum as well, but the difference is the basis for the
desired behavior. In a Christian school, children’s behavior is based on Biblical principles, set
forth in both the New and Old Testaments. Core values and daily expectations can be defined
by passages of scripture, which are familiar to both teachers and students. For example, at
North point the core values are listed, each with a corresponding verse of scripture:
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 6
CHRIST-CENTERED – COLOSSIANS 1:18
He is also head of the body, the church; and He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so
that He Himself will come to have first place in everything. (New American Standard Bible
(NASB)
Fear of the Lord – Proverbs 9:10
The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom,
And the knowledge of the Holy One understands. (NASB)
Integrity – Psalm 15:1-2
O Lord, who may abide in your tent?
Who may dwell on your holy hill?
He who walks with integrity, and works righteousness, And speaks truth in his heart. (NASB)
Loving and Caring Attitude – John 13:34-35
A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, even as I have loved you, that
you also love one another. By this all men will know that you are My disciples, if you have love
for one another. (NASB)
Respect for Authority – Hebrews 13:17
Obey your leaders and submit to them, for they keep watch over your souls as those who will
give an account. Let them do this with joy and not with grief, for this would be unprofitable for
you. (NASB)
Pursuit of Excellence – Colossians 3:23
Whatever you do, do your work heartily, as for the Lord rather than for men. (NASB)
Practical living – A hallmark of the philosophy of a Christian education involves guiding children
as they make decisions and choices both inside and outside of school. Christian educator
Charles Walker states, “The Christian values taught in the Christian home and reinforced in the
Christian school enable your child to deal with a troubled world without succumbing to its
troubles, another reason you send your child to a Christian school.”
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 7
One of the biggest differences between public and Christian schools is how teachers interact
with students. When children are facing difficult decisions, have a secret to reveal or personal
problem, they often look to trusted teachers and social workers. The positions of most public
school systems, however, limit even the most caring Christian teachers when it comes to
offering faith-based counsel. According to Ellensburg Christian School in Ellensburg,
Washington,
The difference in a Christian learning community is that teachers and parents can openly pray
with students and talk about our very real God. Together, we apply Biblical thinking in response
to our thoughts or actions, and with God’s help, renew the mind of the child. By doing so,
Christian schools have a better chance of helping parents raise young people who have been
trained for godly living and thinking. When students do face these issues on their own, they’ll
be better equipped to handle them.
Philosophy of Education at a Christian College or University
Christian colleges, like Christian K-12 schools, teach far more than Biblical truths and the history
of the church. Universities like Mississippi College in Clinton, Mississippi, offer undergraduate
and graduate degrees in business, the sciences, computer science, education and the arts, to
name a few. The coursework in these programs is presented with a Christian-based vision and
goals. Core values such as integrity, respect, excellence and stewardship dictate expectations,
and students are encouraged to engage in community service. Professors and faculty members
require the diligent pursuit of knowledge and truth.
These schools provide the same quality education as other public and private secular schools,
but they present every aspect of the college experiences with a Christian worldview, including
academics, student life, spiritual growth and physical well-being.
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 8
The Value of a Christian School Education
Many Christian schools have a much lower student-to-teacher ratio, giving students more
individualized attention.
In addition, families may choose to enroll children in a Christian school because it fosters similar
spiritual beliefs and values as the family. When children hear the same moral and truth
statements from their teachers as they do from their parents, it is less confusing and helps
them retain important core beliefs.
The Christian philosophy of education encompasses every aspect of a student’s experience,
from kindergarten through postgraduate degree programs. Learning and understanding
through the lens of the Bible at a Christian school gives students of all ages the opportunity to
stay true to their spiritual values while receiving a high-quality education in preparation for the
future.
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 9
INTRODUCTION
Evangelical Christians have a record of uneasiness with theological education. Sometimes this
uneasiness had been expressed in an outright hostility towards theological schools but more
frequently, it has taken the form of a caution, even slight nervousness in sponsoring seminary
education. Today’s colleges are failing in two principle ways:
(i) What they are teaching, (ii) how they are teaching it. Debates over the mission of
theological colleges continue to swirl. To inform the future of graduate theological
training there is need to study its past.
The purpose of this essay is to study the historical background of Christian education,
theological and secular concepts of education, discover current trend, then give a biblical
prescription.
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 10
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The shifts in Christian education, which began in the fifth century, lasted until the beginning of
the sixteenth century. Factors that contributed to the languishing of Christian education in the
sixteenth century era: the clergy began to dominate more and more, while the responsibility
and influence of individual laity diminished. The union of states and church tended to eliminate
high moral stands, since it erased any important differences between believers and unbelievers.
The “institutional” church continued to exist and even to “Christianize” the barbaric tribes, but
Christian education suffered enormously. It was during this period in Europe that men like
Charles the great Frank Law, and later, Alfred of England attempted educational reforms. Due
to a religious diversion from Biblical theology, a sort of popular theology developed that
combined
CHRISTIAN DOCTRINES AND SUPERSTITION
In the 11th Century, scholasticism, developed. The basic scholastic thought in the use of reason
to determine the truth of the scriptures, and ultimately to give a rational content of faith, it
formal beginnings are identified with St. Anselm, who tried to prove the existence of God by
purely rational means. Abelard stressed the rational approach in considering the topical
question of the 12th century, the question of universals. The early church fathers notably;
Augustine, incorporated Plato’s doctrines and Neo-platonic thought into Christian theology. The
13th century was marked out with the works of Aristotle. Thomas Aquinas is regarded as the
greatest achievement of the scholastic age and the ultimate triumph of the effort to
“Christianize Aristotle.” Too much emphasis in reason brought a shipwreck in Christian
education.
The Renaissance, beginning in the latter part of 13th century developed the concept of natural
science which brought on the decline of scholastic metaphysics; although it approach continued
to be followed in politics and laws yet in 1879 when Pope Leo XIII proclaimed the system of
Aquinas to be the official catholic philosophy. Renaissance laid the foundation for humanistic
tradition in education. It exalted the individual, and recovered the ancient languages and the
classical literature of Greece and Rome. It was a secular movement in the main stressing the
delights of living, the ideal of liberty and among those who found Christian morality too binding
a freedom from moral restrains. In early 19th century faith in scripture as an authoritative
sense, revelation of God was discredited according to Louise Berkhof, human insight became
the standard of religious “thought”. Men ceased to recognize the knowledge of God as
something that was given in scriptures.
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 11
Reason is not infallible and it must be used in line with scriptures. This drifting gave birth to
what is known today as “postmodernism.” The ideal that there is no absolute truth is
dependent on the individual. This is a clear shift from the Bible. John Dewey (1859 - 1952).
Secular educational theory and practice began to launch out the independent of theology, a
trend best seen in John Dewey who reduced philosophy to education theory and dismissed all
theology as an obstructive influence in education.
The trends in the first quarter of the 20th century that greatly affected the Christian education
movement are liberal and Neo-orthodox theologian.
Their negative influences can be noted in seminaries, public colleges, sadly enough in the
church.
LIBERAL/NEO ORTHODOX EDUCATION:
Neo-orthodox emphasizes more on methods than preaching or teaching the word.
Their method has to do with social gospel of feeding or clothing the poor, these methods can
never bring salvation to the souls of men. Many churches borrow these ideal because they are
“marketable” or attract crowds but have no knowledge of the saving grace of God. The major
challenge in Christian education is one’s theological foundation. As a matter of fact, one’s
theological belief has a bearing on the person’s concept of education, especially Christian
education. The liberal position is what has exposed people to biblical criticism, and the social
gospel, leading some general positions, namely, God was seen as an impersonal or social
concept. The Bible was looked upon as a source book of religious inspiration, containing legend,
myth. Christ was seen as a great man, a wonderful moral teacher, but not deity. His death was
not seen as sacrificial or substitutionary. This is share humanism.
According to Eleanor et al; many of leaders of the religious educational movement accepted the
liberal position in part or totally. This affected both philosophy and procedure of religious
education. Eleanor et al further explained in their book, how methods were borrowed from the
progressive education movement, associated with John Dewey, with its interest in child
centeredness and the “social project”.
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 12
Liberalism is what had led to the decline of the Sunday school education movement.
Today, churches are substituting Christian education program, (Sunday school) with
entertainment.11 It is liberalism that has led the Christian educationalist into secularism, where
humanism became the content of curriculum. Simply put, liberation theology is an attempt to
interpret scriptures through the plight of the poor largely with humanistic doctrines.
Neo-orthodoxy fundamentally differs from “orthodoxy” with its approach to the doctrine of the
“word”. The writer holds that the Bible is the revealed word of God; that it was given by
inspiration of God (2 Timothy 3:16-17; 2 Peter 1:20, 21). Neo-orthodox denies this approach of
inerrancy of inspiration. In orthodox circles, the Bible is regarded as the complete, closed and
sufficient revelation of God. Neo-orthodoxy believes that the Bible is a medium of revelation.
(While orthodox believes it is revelation) revelation is therefore dependent on experience;
making truth a mystical and not a concrete fact. Truth is therefore defined as that which is
relevant to people’s experience, compared to the orthodox approach, which states that truth is
concretely stated in the word of God. Truth therefore becomes relevant and not a concrete fact
by which Christianity can be measured.
Neo-orthodoxy further teaches that scripture is not the only form of revelation, but that
revelation can be directly obtained from God; according to them, God is speaking (revealing) at
the present. This error had swept into most of what is called “prophetic ministry.” If the church
or Bible schools etc. come to a point where they believe that truth is relevant to the
interpretation of each individuals or ministers and that God is still declaring new revelation
then it is sure to lose the truth.
EVANGELICAL/REFORMED EDUCATION
The evangelicals are known by their steadfastness to the infallibility of the Holy Scriptures; an
evangelical is one with the unwavering believe that canonical scriptures are the words of God.
Albert et al, in their book explained that an Evangelical is one who believes that God acts and
has acted in history, Evangelicals affirms the Lordship of Christ and the centrality of His
salvation work.
The evangelical stand against human methods that are contrary to the Bible. Their emphases
are on Bible theology no just methods, which are borrowed from philosophy and psychology.
This method can never make a man of God. Only the word of God can build up people for God.
An evangelical is one who believes in the necessity of personal experience of grace.
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 13
The hallmark of evangelical education can be grouped into four namely:
(i) Conversions: - believing that new birth is necessary for salvation.
(ii) The second is Biblicism: - stressing that the Bible is the infallible word of God.
(iii) Thirdly, Activism:- teaches that believers must share their faith or what they have learnt
with others.
(iv) The fought which I reformation, stresses, that the Bible alone is the source of authority
not only in Christian education but also in all-doctrinal matters. The reformation set
forth three basic principles that have far reaching consequences in Christian education.
The first was the replacement of papal authority with scriptures, the second was the
doctrine of the priesthood of all believers” which stressed the individual responsibility
to God and one another. And the third, education for all. The reformers further
emphasize three distinct theological tenets that can guide their views of education:
(v) The covenant of creation, the fall, and the covenant of redemption. The reformers also
emphasize the providence of God in education.
THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION
The apostles had only the word of God, Holy Spirit and prayer as resources for Christian
education. They engaged in teaching and in prayers not just methods of considering salvation is
of the Lord. Biblical theology is the bedrock of Christian education. The Bible is the standard for
the approach taken in education and the content of Christian education. Theological education
does not narrow on God’s word only but it puts other fields of discipline into consideration as
revealed from the Scriptures. In other words, whatever people will study about God shall be
that which He revealed about Himself in the Scriptures. (Deuteronomy 28:28).18 Theological
education is not setting out to search for God but setting out to search for that which God had
revealed in His word. Theological education may thus be conceived as a program that is
designed to transform and train those called by God for ministry. Theological education is not
designed to disengage theologians from the society but to contribute spiritually to the society.
The goal of theological education is to lead men to Biblical concept of God as a creator, Lord,
and redeemer. The aim of theological education is to reveal the Biblical concept of man as
created in the image and likeness of God, but sinned and is in need of salvation. Theological
education should lead persons to the Biblical concept of salvation which can only be obtained
by grace.
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 14
TRUE CHRISTIAN EDUCATION:
Christian education is a Christ centered or God centered education carried out in homes,
churches, or schools. Christian education, as Sara little asserts, “Is a servant and not a master of
revelation.” Biblical revelation determines the educational tasks and guides the educational
process since the Bible functions as the primary source and the only inerrant criterion for the
truth, all presumed facts and opinions must be tested by the word of God. An understanding of
the nature of Biblical revelation has tremendous implication for Christian education.20
According to John Wade et al, in his book: “Introduction to Christian Education”, Biblical
revelation sets standards and provides basis for all Christian education, including both the
contents that are taught and the method by which they are taught. All educational factors must
be in keeping with the reality of the Bible. Since Christian education has to do with what we
teach and how we teach it. This essay will like to quote the Bible essential to learning sited from
Kent Hodge’s book: An Exegetical understanding of scriptures, exposure to the teaching
ministry, personal study, application to daily life, mentoring and the Holy Spirit.
The biggest challenge to Christian education is secularism. The recent trend is you must own a
circular degree before you can be qualified to be a pastor, namely by reading psychology to
become a Christian counselor. Only the word of God can prepare a minister. Christian
education that is supposed to be a channel of transmitting divine truth that was once handed
down experienced a drastic shift with the advent of science on the idea of discovering new
truths. Science is progressive. The scientist approach human problems from a wrong
presuppositional basis.
Jaarma’s concept of Christian education is of vital importance according to him; education must
now be redemptive. It must cultivate the individual in all his resource in keeping with the awful
reality of sin and all its tragic consequences and the saving grace of God in Christ Jesus. Jaarsma
saw no need to limit the narrow redemptive trust of education to home and church. Jaarsma
explained thus, “to lead (covenant youth) to a decision for Christ is the goal of Christian
education… in the school as well as in the home and the church. He said to underestimate the
magnitude of this great task (redemption) by excluding it from the school as a major objective is
to undermine the very foundation of Christian education.26 Van Der Kooy noted that “the
purpose of Christian education is the whole of man’s life. education is concerned with more
than mere knowledge; the heart, too has its rights… the heart above all must be won for God
and His service; the ultimate purpose in all education must be true worship (piety). Charles
Haddon Spurgeon Charles Haddon Spurgeon was a preacher of great importance who was
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 15
mightily used of God both in theological and ministerial terms. One of his most significant
works was the pastor’s college he set up for the purpose of training ministers. As regard to the
entrance of students into theological college, Spurgeon was convinced that no man should be
accepted for training unless actually called by God to preach.
That is to say ministerial education is more of calling and election. Curriculum of theological
training, Spurgeon asserted the place of prime importance should be given to “Biblical
Theology”. Contrary to the modern day trend on education of allowing students decide for
themselves that which is right or wrong, Spurgeon differed from so many of his contemporaries
(and or) with regard to manners in which students should be trained.
Instruction, he maintained, should be given in definite, dogmatic form. Tutors should not teach
their students in broad liberal manner which presents number of “viewpoints” and leaves the
ultimate choice to the student; rather they should forcibly and unmistakably declare the mind
of God…28 Though he stood practically alone in this conviction,
Spurgeon was ready to declare it in no uncertain terms: “that men seek no collegiate degrees or
classical honours though many of them could readily attain them; but to preach efficiently, to
get at the heart of the masses, to evangelize the poor. This is the aim of pastor’s college.”
Spurgeon further explained, “let the world educate their men for its own purposes, and let the
church instruct men for its special service.” The basis of his Christian education was to help men
set forth the truth of God, expound the scriptures, win sinners, and edify the saints. E.W.
Kenyon:
E.W. Kenyon was an evangelist and a teacher who established a bible school in 1900. His Bible
school grew out of a desire to see many who are called into the ministry trained to bring in the
harvest of lost souls at home and broad into God’s kingdom
28. C.H. Spurgeon, An All Round Ministry, Banner of Trust, 2000, see introduction.
29. C.H. Spurgeon, op cit.., introduction.
Nothing explains Kenyon’s Basis like in the following statements; “Bethel is not a place for those
who put worldly knowledge…, before daily living the word of God.” Great enthusiasm and joy
comes at the new birth, Kenyon wrote, “but unless that is cared for and fed by the mind being
renewed through feeding on the word and practicing it, that joy will die out. To Kenyon,
education is for a living not mere feeding the brain.
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TRADITIONAL MODEL
This model shows how educational theories can be described as addressing one of the major
domain of human nature and how their domain interface. The domains are physical, mental,
social – emotional, and spiritual.
31 The physical domain theorists primarily address the aspect of one’s physical existence, aging,
growth, development, and result behaviour. The social-emotional domain theorists primarily
address the interaction with self and others. Its major focus is on id, ego and super ego. The
integrative domain theorists address a combination of aspects from the four domains that
reflect the human existence. Example of this theory is Maslow theory hierarchy of needs which
includes:
Cognitive, psychological, and spiritual. The author, in his view, states that a careful look at the
fundamental theories that form the basis for secular education is nothing but a sort of
philosophy and psychology which should bit is used in training ministers of God.
A.N. Triton speaks on the problems of human philosophy: philosophical “lust” for intellectual
tidiness and do not always realize that it is not a theological virtue.” 33 The major weakness of
these theories is not only humanism but their neglect of spiritual theory, which has to do with
divine truths rooted in the word of God.
TRADITIONAL PARADIGM
Traditional paradigm developed its concept of innate knowledge, this was propagated by Plato
saying; “Knowledge originate from the inside of a man’s mind.” Those who are swept with this
idea live their students with the concept that you need no one to teach you. All you need is
“think” and know. In contradiction to this theory, Aristotle who argued that knowledge is
acquired from outside. Although both theories present some iota of truth, Norman Dejong
emphasizes that “such a perspective is a shallow kind of endeavour with no room allowed for
discernment between truth and falsehood, no room for character development and spiritual
nourishment. People who propagate that knowledge are acquired only from outside to hinder
their student from being committed in searching to know the truth. This will limit their God
given gifts. Norman says, “The truth lies somewhere in between the two views.”
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CURRENT TREND
Brad Macdonald comments on the ailing state of… universities, “today’s universities educate
tomorrow’s leaders. By looking at the present state of … higher education, we can glimpse the
nation’s fortune.” 36 College campuses have become the virulent breeding ground for
destructive thoughts. The corridors of today’s universities are thick with an atmosphere of
immorality, moral ambiguity and rabid secularism. Unless radical changes occur soon, this facet
of modern education will thrust greater troubles upon mankind; Today’s Colleges are failing in
two primary ways
(1) What they are teaching
(2) And how they are teaching it.
Across America, liberal professors outnumber conservatives five to one (liberal professors 72%
while conservatives 15%). A collection of some of the strange classes you can take at America’s
most prestigious colleges and Universities: Philosophy and Star Trek Georgetown University.
How to be gay: male homosexuality and Initiation University of Michigan. Witchcraft and
Politics Bucknell University. Taking Marx seriously: Amherst College. Black Marxism U.C – Santa
Barbara. Interpreting the Queer past UC – Berkeley. The media and Aggression against Women
UCLA. Practicing
Feminism: A Study of Political Activism: William College. Feminist Biblical
Interpretation: Harvard. Backgrounds of Homoerotic Literature: Rutgers.
Relativism
This has to do with the concept that nothing can be understood in isolation. Everything exist in
some kind of context, which necessitated seeing things in relationship to something else in
other to understand them. 40 To a Relativist, everything is relative, nothing is absolute.
According to Norman Dejong, “For the relativists to insist absolutely that there are no absolutes
is for them to put an absolute, thus, contradicting their own claim.” Russ Wise in his write up,
Education and New Age Humanism explained the idea of relativism: the basis for developing
morals is what the child himself wants to think and/or what the peer group decides is right,
strong conviction of right and wrongs are looked upon as evidence of poor social adjustment
and need for the teachers’ therapy.
The bottom line is this; the major consensus determines what is right or wrong at any point in
our culture. There are no absolutes.
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 18
It is this concept that had given birth to what is known today as moral relativism. Moral
relativism is the belief that defining right and wrong is an individual and personal choice.
Denying the presence pf absolute law, this ideology teaches that every decision is a matter of
personal feeling.44 Modern day education is driven by culture. Nduka (1964) sees education as
culture. He says, “Education is our way of life and the process of transmitting, advancing and
consolidating culture.”45 The further purpose for educationalist is to “instill traditional values in
young people” this is a clearer shift from Biblical theology which is meant to be the foundation
for education. Christian education had missed the ultimate goal of education as they had
borrowed principles of education from sources such as reason (and) experience; secular
principles. These secular educational principles are built on unscriptural philosophical bases
such as pragmatism, empiricism, and naturalism. The early missionary who brought schools to
Africa, Nigeria in particular saw education (schools) as a tool for evangelism (soul winning)
training for godliness and the betterment of the society. 48 Today, the reverse is the case.
The society determines what education should be. 49 No wonder there is an alarming cry by
experts that educational standards have fallen. The schools are only producing half-baked
graduates.
BIBLICAL PRESCRIPTIONS:
There is need for educational reforms so as to check out for all the secularism, humanism,
which had crept into the modern day Christian education. There is needed to go back to the
Bible as the only source of authority in Christian education. It is good for churches to influence
secular education in the world. Christians should be involved with colleges and universities and
influence the content of curriculum and impact society.
Christians should be careful not to baptize secular teachings and use them in Bible institutes to
training pastors. 51 for the betterment of education, there is need to have an important linkage
between church and schools. Penile academy is closely linked with penile church and many
church attenders had also attended the academy. Many of the children and young people are
currently attending. The re-enforcement of teaching between church and schools enable yet a
firm belief system to develop. 52 Church of God Mission International had added fellowship in
their school curriculum as a means of teaching God’s word, and training her student for
godliness.
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 19
Post Modernism, the idea that each person’s view is as good as others, “education” by
discussion and democracy is preferred in the class. The teacher serves as a guide to the
“student” discovering himself, rather than an instructor in a body of knowledge. 54 However,
the author concurred with the methods of C.H. Spurgeon who “… differed from so many of his
contemporaries (and ours) with regards to the manner in which students should be trained.
Instruction, he maintained should be given in definite, dogmatic form. Tutors should not teach
their students in that broad, liberal manner, which presents a number of view-points and leaves
the ultimate choice to the student; rather they should forcibly and unmistakably declare the
mind of God and show a determined predilection for the Biblical theology.
51. Kent Hodge, Pentecostal theology, printed for All Nations for Christ Bible Institute
International by Gift. Prints
55. C.H. Spurgeon, An All Round Ministry, the Banner of Truth Trust, 2000, Introduction.
There is need for proper knowledge of the truth. As Wayne Grudem states:
I am convinced that there is an urgent need in the church doctrine, or systematic theology. Not
only pastors and teachers need to understand theology in greater depth – the whole church
does as well one day by God’s grace we may have churches full of Christians who can discuss,
apply and live the doctrine teachings of the Bible as richly as they can discuss the details of their
jobs or hobbies … Once that happens, I think that many Christians will find that understanding
(and living) the doctrines of scripture is one of greatest joy.
Contrary to humanism, the author recommends a Christ centered education. Because Christian
education is transmission of content which is a major priority in a philosophy of Christian
education, the content must be scripture-oriented and central theme of scripture and his
redemptive work. A Christ centered education focusing on a Biblical Christ and His finished
work, for redemption help prevent theological syncretism with natural sources of epistemology
and maintain objectivity in educational content.
CALLING AND ELECTION
The most common New Testament reference to election is God’s eternal election of certain
persons to salvation Jesus Christ. The subject is dealt with comprehensively in Eph. 1:3-11 and
Rom. 8:28 – 11:36. John Calvin, who became a major defender of the reformed doctrine, saw
the whole doctrine of election summarized in Eph. 1. All the reformed confessions include
divine election… Election is part of God’s eternal decree and it has a soteriological role: “that
some in time are given faith by God and that others are not given faith proceeds from His
eternal decree”.
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 20
Election in then define as “the unchangeable purpose of God whereby, before the foundation
of the world, out of the whole human race, which had fallen by its own fault out of its original
integrity into sin and ruin. He has, according to the freest good pleasure of His will, out of mere
grace, chosen in Christ to salvation a certain number of specific men, neither better nor more
worthy than others, but with them involved in a common misery.” This election is not
depending on man’s knowledge but God’s knowledge. Is not depending on man’s strength but
God’s own strength. God calls and elects according to His purpose and to His own Glory.
CONCLUSION
Having reviewed most of the theological and secular teaching theories, this essay has
attempted to reemphasize that to teach the Christian faith by a method that rests upon a
psychology that is mechanistic and humanistic is to defeat the very purpose of Christian
education. Christian education is not so much a matter of technique but a matter of calling and
electing. Neither the church nor school calls but God Himself calls whomsoever He chooses to
call. The Christian educator should be careful not to borrow secular methods into the Christian
education considering all methods and techniques that are borrowed into Christian education
which derive their origin from behavioral sciences, anthropology, sociology and psychology. The
writer is of the view that a careful scrutiny must be given to all behavioral sciences.
The weakness of these secular theories is that they operate from naturalistic and humanistic
assumptions, which undermine the word of God and human responsibility.
Contrary to the liberal and neo-orthodox approaches, emphasis should be more in the word of
God. Christian education is a servant not a master of Revelation (Bible). Revelation should
determine the educational task and guide the process; since the Bible functions as the primary
source and the only inerrant criteria for truth, all presumed facts and opinions must be tested
by the Bible. Christian curriculum must derive its foundational hand book for Christian and
theological education from the Bible. Simply because of result the Christian educators should
be careful not to “baptize” secular teachings and use them in Bible institute to train pastors.
The Theologian, A publication of the Association of Christian Theologians, (ACT) Magazine, vol.
1 NO. 3,p.8.
Christian educators should leave the results to God. Only God knows how to save this world.
Borrowing methods from circular world into Christian education can help churches make crowd
or gather crowd that have no knowledge of salvation. The author believes that emphasis should
be made in preaching and teaching because salvation is of the Lord. He further challenged the
idea of bringing psychology for pastoral training or Christian counseling for only the word of
God can prepare a soul for God. However, he recommends the following biblical methods for
pastoral training or Christian education:
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 21
As exegetical understanding of the scripture, exposure to the teaching ministry, personal study,
application to daily life, mentoring, and the Holy Spirit. Therefore, emphasis should be given to
the word of God, not mere methods. The early preached and taught the gospel of Christ
through the power of the Holy Spirit. The result was, “and the Lord added to the church daily
those that where being saved.” (Acts 2:47)
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 22
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.D. Nzemike & Erhagbe, Nigeria, Nigerian Peoples and Culture (Second Edition),
Mindex Publishing, Department of History, University of Benin City, Nigeria, 2002.
A.N. Triton, Whose World? Inter-varsity Press, 1972.
C.H. Spurgeon, An All Round Ministry, the Banner of Truth Trust 2000.
D.G. hard and r. Albert Mohler, J.R., Education in Evangelical Tradition, Baker Books, 1996.
E.W. Kenyon, The True Story, Evangel Publication, Nigeria, 1982.
Eleanor Daniel, John W. Wade and Charles Gresham, Introduction to Christian Education,
Standard Publishers, 1970.
James S. Coleman, Nigeria Background to Nationalism, Broburge Wistrom Benin City, 1986.
Kent Hodge, Pentecostal Theology, Printed for All Nation for Christ Bible Institute, International
by Crifts Associates, Benin City, Nigeria.
Kent Hodge, The Philosophy of Christian Education, Printed for All Nation for Christ Bible
Institute International by Crifts Associates, Benin City, Nigeria 2005.
Lecture Notes.
Louis Berkhof, Systematic Theology, the Banner of Truth, Trust, 2000. Michael S.B.Reid,
Strategic Level Spiritual Warfare: A modern Mythology? Xylon Press, 2002.
Norman Dejong, Teaching for a Change, A Transformational Approach to Education, P.& R.
Publishing, 2001.
Paul Cho, More than Numbers, Maranatha Foundation, 1984.
R.K. Campbell, Our Wonderful Bible, Believers Bookshelf, inc, Sunbury, Pennsylvania, 1982
Vital Christianity, Warmer Press, An Assemblies of God Publication, Indiana, 46011, vol.
100,1980.
Waygne Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, Leicester
Intervarsity press, 1994.
Magazines
Nigerian Television Authority (N.T.A).
Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 23
The Theologian (Acts), A Publication of Association of Christian Theologian 2005.
The Philadelphia Magazine, 2005.
Website
Education Theory Handbook
http://www.theshop.net/aboatman/edtheory.htm
What is Liberal/Neo-orthodoxy?
http://www.gotquestions.org/necoorthodoxy.html
Professor peter De Boer, Shifts in curriculum theory for Christian Education, Calvin
College
http://www.calvin.edu/academic/news/publications/mono...
Russ Wise, Education and New Age Humanism
http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/navageed.html. October, 3, 2005.
From the Concise Columbia Encyclopaedia, Copyright 1991, Columbia University press.
http://www.ilt.columbia-edu/publications/projects/digitexts/notes/ilt 4/11/2005.
Elect, election: http://mb-sodt.com/beliefwe/txn/ect.htm 12/12/2005,

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  • 1. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 1 RUDOLPH KWANUE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE GIBU COLLEGE OF THEOLOGY LIBERIA-USA MOBILE CAMPU GIBU COLLEGE: DEPARTMENT OF MINISTRY SUBJECT: PHILOSOPHY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION (DMN. 710) Lecturer: Prof. Paul Allieu Kamara, G.C.E.O LEVELS, DHRCJ, B.A, MBAs, DCLD, PHD LDA AND LOD Lecturer Contact: 0023276802295 0023288066913, 23231400091 WhatsApp: 2327680229/ 23288066913/23231400091 Email: prof.rku24@gmail.com Motto: Education is our Passion
  • 2. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 2 PHILOSOPHY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION We define Christian education as an educational process in which God works through His committed teachers, biblical methods, and truthful curriculum materials to build disciples with the biblical world view, character, and skills necessary to fulfill God's calling and live to His glory. The RKUC-GIBU philosophy of Christian education is expressed in the entirety of the RKUC-GIBU Teacher's Manual, Christ-Centered Teacher's Manual for Early Childhood, and RKUC-GIBU Standard Procedures. We define Christian education as an educational process in which God works through His committed teachers, biblical methods, and truthful curriculum materials to build disciples with the biblical world view, character, and skills necessary to fulfill God's calling and live to His glory. We recognize that Christian schools have distinctive, which not only separate them from secular schools (those which leave the God of Scripture out), but also distinguish them from each other. The purpose of this summary is to concisely highlight the why, who, what, when, and where of the RKUC-GIBU concept of Christian education so that interested persons can be alerted to the RBCS distinctive. Extensive biblical support for these distinctive is provided in the documents referenced above. First: Why Christian education? The education of children is an inherently religious activity. God commands that children be brought up in the discipline and instruction of Jehovah that they may order their lives under the authority of Jesus Christ. Jesus instructed His disciples that, because all authority had been given to Him both in heaven and on earth, they were, in turn, to disciple all the nations..., teaching them to obey that entire He commanded them. God mandates that children be disciples for Christ. They must be trained in the biblical world view which honors Jehovah, the sovereign Creator of the universe. It recognizes that man was created in the image of God, but fell into sin, thus requiring the substitutionary atonement of Jesus Christ to save him from an eternal lake of fire. It recognizes God's purpose for man and the universe, the absolute nature of God's physical and moral laws, and God's authority as the only legitimate basis for man's authority. Such a world view is antithetical to that taught in secular schools which base education on secular humanistic, rather than biblical, Presuppositions. The religion of the humanists denies the relevance (or even the existence) of God, believing that the material universe is self-existing and not created. Man is presumed to be an evolutionary being shaped by matter, energy, and chance, having no need of salvation, no eternal soul, and no divine purpose. Man is trained to trust in man for the perfecting of human life, and to emphasize self-preservation, creative self-realization, and happiness as his chief goals. Morality and authority are to be relativistically defined by man. God commands His people not to teach their children the way of the heathen. Christian education is mandatory,
  • 3. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 3 not optional, for Christian children. With this foundation, the remaining highlights can be more briefly stated. Who is responsible for providing children with a Christian education? Scripture commands parents to teach their children to love God with all their heart, soul, mind, and strength, from the time they get up in the morning till the time they go to bed at night. Properly educating children is as important as properly feeding them physical food. Just as parents need the help of others in obtaining the food for the table, so they may need the help of professional Christian educators to help them carry out their child-rearing responsibilities. Who is Christian education for? Most certainly, it is the only education suitable for Christian children. It is also suitable to the as yet unsaved, provided they are submissive to it, for all children will profit from education in the truth. RKUC-GIBU recognizes an evangelistic responsibility which is subordinated to its function of helping Christian families carry out their educational responsibilities. Since only God knows the heart, we confess the human inability to errorless identify God's elect and the consequent necessity to use performance criteria for admission to the student body. All students will be confronted with the authority of Jesus Christ and His Word - a call to the unconverted and a light to the Christian's path. Christian education is for children of all intellectual abilities, including those who have special educational needs. (Continued on reverse side) The “what” of Christian education is biblical truth applied to every area of life. Children must be educated for Christian maturity. Parents and teachers must by word and deed, demonstrate the Christ-like life to children who must then learn to live by every word which has proceeded out of the mouth of God. The content of Christian education must include truth regarding the nature of God, man, and the creation. Academic excellence (in keeping with each child's God- given potential) and high standards of Christian character are harmonious goals for children being equipped with the knowledge, character, and skills needed to be competent servants of Christ. Christ deserves our best in every area of life. The emphasis of Christian education is God's truth; humanistic materials are only to be used to teach truth by contrast. The lifestyle taught is that of pleasing Christ from the heart, not simple conformance with man-made laws. Students must learn the biblical relationship between morality and spirituality. When is Christian education necessary? From the perspective of parental responsibility, the biblical nurturing of the child begins in the womb and continues as long as the child remains under parental authority. From the personal perspective, a Christian must continue to grow in the grace and knowledge of Jesus Christ as an aspect of the normal Christian life. For the child, he must be helped to grow as rapidly as his God-given gifts allow. There is no excuse for
  • 4. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 4 training young children to live by humanistic and hedonistic principles. The development of basic academic skills should begin as soon as the child can accept appropriate training. The foundation of all subjects is reading; the foundation of the Christian walk is being able to read, comprehend, and obey the Holy Scriptures. Therefore, for the child's academic and spiritual growth, as each child shows readiness, we must begin to equip him with this vital skill. (Reading skills measured between second and fourth grade level can normally be expected of five-year- old children who begin a phonics reading program at ages three or four.) Finally, where should Christian education take place? Christian education must begin in the home, even while the child is in the womb. Children, especially in the most formative years, need to be positively schooled in a biblical world view which insulates them from the ungodly influences of the world. That instruction may appropriately continue as long as parents can best provide for the educational needs of their children. If parents decide it is time to place their child into the social environment of the Christian school, they must choose that alternative best suited to their family goals. RKUC-GIBU stands ready to support the educational needs of families whether the children are being schooled at home or on the campus.
  • 5. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 5 WHAT IS THE CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION? When elementary, middle and high schools, as well as colleges and universities, are guided by a Christian philosophy of education, there is more to daily assignments than Bible study and more to the environment than dress codes and disciplinary policies. The Christian philosophy of education encompasses all areas of the educational life of students, including core subject curriculum, character building and practical living, both now and in the future. THE CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION IN K-12 CLASSROOMS Children who attend Christian schools have the same variety of personalities, talents, interests and abilities as children who attend public schools. The difference between a Christian school and a public school lies in the foundation of the curriculum and the way in which the social and emotional needs of the students are met. The mission statements and vision of Christian schools include many of the same academic standards and life-skill training as public schools. However, every element of the school day promotes Christ-centered learning and living. Curriculum – The academic curriculum chosen by Christian schools is similar in rigor and complexity to that in public schools. The presentation of materials, however, is integrated with the truths of the Bible, which reaches across all content areas. Northpoint Christian School in Southaven, Mississippi, states, “We believe in a structured curriculum that has been filtered through the Word of God.” All topics, from science and geography to language arts and relationship building, are explored based on a thorough understanding of Biblical teachings. Character building – Most public schools incorporate a system of character building and disciplinary action plans based on pre-determined pillars of character, a building motto or slogan, or classroom rules that integrate behavior expectations and academic goals. Christian schools may use a boxed curriculum as well, but the difference is the basis for the desired behavior. In a Christian school, children’s behavior is based on Biblical principles, set forth in both the New and Old Testaments. Core values and daily expectations can be defined by passages of scripture, which are familiar to both teachers and students. For example, at North point the core values are listed, each with a corresponding verse of scripture:
  • 6. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 6 CHRIST-CENTERED – COLOSSIANS 1:18 He is also head of the body, the church; and He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that He Himself will come to have first place in everything. (New American Standard Bible (NASB) Fear of the Lord – Proverbs 9:10 The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, And the knowledge of the Holy One understands. (NASB) Integrity – Psalm 15:1-2 O Lord, who may abide in your tent? Who may dwell on your holy hill? He who walks with integrity, and works righteousness, And speaks truth in his heart. (NASB) Loving and Caring Attitude – John 13:34-35 A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, even as I have loved you, that you also love one another. By this all men will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another. (NASB) Respect for Authority – Hebrews 13:17 Obey your leaders and submit to them, for they keep watch over your souls as those who will give an account. Let them do this with joy and not with grief, for this would be unprofitable for you. (NASB) Pursuit of Excellence – Colossians 3:23 Whatever you do, do your work heartily, as for the Lord rather than for men. (NASB) Practical living – A hallmark of the philosophy of a Christian education involves guiding children as they make decisions and choices both inside and outside of school. Christian educator Charles Walker states, “The Christian values taught in the Christian home and reinforced in the Christian school enable your child to deal with a troubled world without succumbing to its troubles, another reason you send your child to a Christian school.”
  • 7. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 7 One of the biggest differences between public and Christian schools is how teachers interact with students. When children are facing difficult decisions, have a secret to reveal or personal problem, they often look to trusted teachers and social workers. The positions of most public school systems, however, limit even the most caring Christian teachers when it comes to offering faith-based counsel. According to Ellensburg Christian School in Ellensburg, Washington, The difference in a Christian learning community is that teachers and parents can openly pray with students and talk about our very real God. Together, we apply Biblical thinking in response to our thoughts or actions, and with God’s help, renew the mind of the child. By doing so, Christian schools have a better chance of helping parents raise young people who have been trained for godly living and thinking. When students do face these issues on their own, they’ll be better equipped to handle them. Philosophy of Education at a Christian College or University Christian colleges, like Christian K-12 schools, teach far more than Biblical truths and the history of the church. Universities like Mississippi College in Clinton, Mississippi, offer undergraduate and graduate degrees in business, the sciences, computer science, education and the arts, to name a few. The coursework in these programs is presented with a Christian-based vision and goals. Core values such as integrity, respect, excellence and stewardship dictate expectations, and students are encouraged to engage in community service. Professors and faculty members require the diligent pursuit of knowledge and truth. These schools provide the same quality education as other public and private secular schools, but they present every aspect of the college experiences with a Christian worldview, including academics, student life, spiritual growth and physical well-being.
  • 8. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 8 The Value of a Christian School Education Many Christian schools have a much lower student-to-teacher ratio, giving students more individualized attention. In addition, families may choose to enroll children in a Christian school because it fosters similar spiritual beliefs and values as the family. When children hear the same moral and truth statements from their teachers as they do from their parents, it is less confusing and helps them retain important core beliefs. The Christian philosophy of education encompasses every aspect of a student’s experience, from kindergarten through postgraduate degree programs. Learning and understanding through the lens of the Bible at a Christian school gives students of all ages the opportunity to stay true to their spiritual values while receiving a high-quality education in preparation for the future.
  • 9. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 9 INTRODUCTION Evangelical Christians have a record of uneasiness with theological education. Sometimes this uneasiness had been expressed in an outright hostility towards theological schools but more frequently, it has taken the form of a caution, even slight nervousness in sponsoring seminary education. Today’s colleges are failing in two principle ways: (i) What they are teaching, (ii) how they are teaching it. Debates over the mission of theological colleges continue to swirl. To inform the future of graduate theological training there is need to study its past. The purpose of this essay is to study the historical background of Christian education, theological and secular concepts of education, discover current trend, then give a biblical prescription.
  • 10. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 10 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The shifts in Christian education, which began in the fifth century, lasted until the beginning of the sixteenth century. Factors that contributed to the languishing of Christian education in the sixteenth century era: the clergy began to dominate more and more, while the responsibility and influence of individual laity diminished. The union of states and church tended to eliminate high moral stands, since it erased any important differences between believers and unbelievers. The “institutional” church continued to exist and even to “Christianize” the barbaric tribes, but Christian education suffered enormously. It was during this period in Europe that men like Charles the great Frank Law, and later, Alfred of England attempted educational reforms. Due to a religious diversion from Biblical theology, a sort of popular theology developed that combined CHRISTIAN DOCTRINES AND SUPERSTITION In the 11th Century, scholasticism, developed. The basic scholastic thought in the use of reason to determine the truth of the scriptures, and ultimately to give a rational content of faith, it formal beginnings are identified with St. Anselm, who tried to prove the existence of God by purely rational means. Abelard stressed the rational approach in considering the topical question of the 12th century, the question of universals. The early church fathers notably; Augustine, incorporated Plato’s doctrines and Neo-platonic thought into Christian theology. The 13th century was marked out with the works of Aristotle. Thomas Aquinas is regarded as the greatest achievement of the scholastic age and the ultimate triumph of the effort to “Christianize Aristotle.” Too much emphasis in reason brought a shipwreck in Christian education. The Renaissance, beginning in the latter part of 13th century developed the concept of natural science which brought on the decline of scholastic metaphysics; although it approach continued to be followed in politics and laws yet in 1879 when Pope Leo XIII proclaimed the system of Aquinas to be the official catholic philosophy. Renaissance laid the foundation for humanistic tradition in education. It exalted the individual, and recovered the ancient languages and the classical literature of Greece and Rome. It was a secular movement in the main stressing the delights of living, the ideal of liberty and among those who found Christian morality too binding a freedom from moral restrains. In early 19th century faith in scripture as an authoritative sense, revelation of God was discredited according to Louise Berkhof, human insight became the standard of religious “thought”. Men ceased to recognize the knowledge of God as something that was given in scriptures.
  • 11. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 11 Reason is not infallible and it must be used in line with scriptures. This drifting gave birth to what is known today as “postmodernism.” The ideal that there is no absolute truth is dependent on the individual. This is a clear shift from the Bible. John Dewey (1859 - 1952). Secular educational theory and practice began to launch out the independent of theology, a trend best seen in John Dewey who reduced philosophy to education theory and dismissed all theology as an obstructive influence in education. The trends in the first quarter of the 20th century that greatly affected the Christian education movement are liberal and Neo-orthodox theologian. Their negative influences can be noted in seminaries, public colleges, sadly enough in the church. LIBERAL/NEO ORTHODOX EDUCATION: Neo-orthodox emphasizes more on methods than preaching or teaching the word. Their method has to do with social gospel of feeding or clothing the poor, these methods can never bring salvation to the souls of men. Many churches borrow these ideal because they are “marketable” or attract crowds but have no knowledge of the saving grace of God. The major challenge in Christian education is one’s theological foundation. As a matter of fact, one’s theological belief has a bearing on the person’s concept of education, especially Christian education. The liberal position is what has exposed people to biblical criticism, and the social gospel, leading some general positions, namely, God was seen as an impersonal or social concept. The Bible was looked upon as a source book of religious inspiration, containing legend, myth. Christ was seen as a great man, a wonderful moral teacher, but not deity. His death was not seen as sacrificial or substitutionary. This is share humanism. According to Eleanor et al; many of leaders of the religious educational movement accepted the liberal position in part or totally. This affected both philosophy and procedure of religious education. Eleanor et al further explained in their book, how methods were borrowed from the progressive education movement, associated with John Dewey, with its interest in child centeredness and the “social project”.
  • 12. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 12 Liberalism is what had led to the decline of the Sunday school education movement. Today, churches are substituting Christian education program, (Sunday school) with entertainment.11 It is liberalism that has led the Christian educationalist into secularism, where humanism became the content of curriculum. Simply put, liberation theology is an attempt to interpret scriptures through the plight of the poor largely with humanistic doctrines. Neo-orthodoxy fundamentally differs from “orthodoxy” with its approach to the doctrine of the “word”. The writer holds that the Bible is the revealed word of God; that it was given by inspiration of God (2 Timothy 3:16-17; 2 Peter 1:20, 21). Neo-orthodox denies this approach of inerrancy of inspiration. In orthodox circles, the Bible is regarded as the complete, closed and sufficient revelation of God. Neo-orthodoxy believes that the Bible is a medium of revelation. (While orthodox believes it is revelation) revelation is therefore dependent on experience; making truth a mystical and not a concrete fact. Truth is therefore defined as that which is relevant to people’s experience, compared to the orthodox approach, which states that truth is concretely stated in the word of God. Truth therefore becomes relevant and not a concrete fact by which Christianity can be measured. Neo-orthodoxy further teaches that scripture is not the only form of revelation, but that revelation can be directly obtained from God; according to them, God is speaking (revealing) at the present. This error had swept into most of what is called “prophetic ministry.” If the church or Bible schools etc. come to a point where they believe that truth is relevant to the interpretation of each individuals or ministers and that God is still declaring new revelation then it is sure to lose the truth. EVANGELICAL/REFORMED EDUCATION The evangelicals are known by their steadfastness to the infallibility of the Holy Scriptures; an evangelical is one with the unwavering believe that canonical scriptures are the words of God. Albert et al, in their book explained that an Evangelical is one who believes that God acts and has acted in history, Evangelicals affirms the Lordship of Christ and the centrality of His salvation work. The evangelical stand against human methods that are contrary to the Bible. Their emphases are on Bible theology no just methods, which are borrowed from philosophy and psychology. This method can never make a man of God. Only the word of God can build up people for God. An evangelical is one who believes in the necessity of personal experience of grace.
  • 13. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 13 The hallmark of evangelical education can be grouped into four namely: (i) Conversions: - believing that new birth is necessary for salvation. (ii) The second is Biblicism: - stressing that the Bible is the infallible word of God. (iii) Thirdly, Activism:- teaches that believers must share their faith or what they have learnt with others. (iv) The fought which I reformation, stresses, that the Bible alone is the source of authority not only in Christian education but also in all-doctrinal matters. The reformation set forth three basic principles that have far reaching consequences in Christian education. The first was the replacement of papal authority with scriptures, the second was the doctrine of the priesthood of all believers” which stressed the individual responsibility to God and one another. And the third, education for all. The reformers further emphasize three distinct theological tenets that can guide their views of education: (v) The covenant of creation, the fall, and the covenant of redemption. The reformers also emphasize the providence of God in education. THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION The apostles had only the word of God, Holy Spirit and prayer as resources for Christian education. They engaged in teaching and in prayers not just methods of considering salvation is of the Lord. Biblical theology is the bedrock of Christian education. The Bible is the standard for the approach taken in education and the content of Christian education. Theological education does not narrow on God’s word only but it puts other fields of discipline into consideration as revealed from the Scriptures. In other words, whatever people will study about God shall be that which He revealed about Himself in the Scriptures. (Deuteronomy 28:28).18 Theological education is not setting out to search for God but setting out to search for that which God had revealed in His word. Theological education may thus be conceived as a program that is designed to transform and train those called by God for ministry. Theological education is not designed to disengage theologians from the society but to contribute spiritually to the society. The goal of theological education is to lead men to Biblical concept of God as a creator, Lord, and redeemer. The aim of theological education is to reveal the Biblical concept of man as created in the image and likeness of God, but sinned and is in need of salvation. Theological education should lead persons to the Biblical concept of salvation which can only be obtained by grace.
  • 14. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 14 TRUE CHRISTIAN EDUCATION: Christian education is a Christ centered or God centered education carried out in homes, churches, or schools. Christian education, as Sara little asserts, “Is a servant and not a master of revelation.” Biblical revelation determines the educational tasks and guides the educational process since the Bible functions as the primary source and the only inerrant criterion for the truth, all presumed facts and opinions must be tested by the word of God. An understanding of the nature of Biblical revelation has tremendous implication for Christian education.20 According to John Wade et al, in his book: “Introduction to Christian Education”, Biblical revelation sets standards and provides basis for all Christian education, including both the contents that are taught and the method by which they are taught. All educational factors must be in keeping with the reality of the Bible. Since Christian education has to do with what we teach and how we teach it. This essay will like to quote the Bible essential to learning sited from Kent Hodge’s book: An Exegetical understanding of scriptures, exposure to the teaching ministry, personal study, application to daily life, mentoring and the Holy Spirit. The biggest challenge to Christian education is secularism. The recent trend is you must own a circular degree before you can be qualified to be a pastor, namely by reading psychology to become a Christian counselor. Only the word of God can prepare a minister. Christian education that is supposed to be a channel of transmitting divine truth that was once handed down experienced a drastic shift with the advent of science on the idea of discovering new truths. Science is progressive. The scientist approach human problems from a wrong presuppositional basis. Jaarma’s concept of Christian education is of vital importance according to him; education must now be redemptive. It must cultivate the individual in all his resource in keeping with the awful reality of sin and all its tragic consequences and the saving grace of God in Christ Jesus. Jaarsma saw no need to limit the narrow redemptive trust of education to home and church. Jaarsma explained thus, “to lead (covenant youth) to a decision for Christ is the goal of Christian education… in the school as well as in the home and the church. He said to underestimate the magnitude of this great task (redemption) by excluding it from the school as a major objective is to undermine the very foundation of Christian education.26 Van Der Kooy noted that “the purpose of Christian education is the whole of man’s life. education is concerned with more than mere knowledge; the heart, too has its rights… the heart above all must be won for God and His service; the ultimate purpose in all education must be true worship (piety). Charles Haddon Spurgeon Charles Haddon Spurgeon was a preacher of great importance who was
  • 15. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 15 mightily used of God both in theological and ministerial terms. One of his most significant works was the pastor’s college he set up for the purpose of training ministers. As regard to the entrance of students into theological college, Spurgeon was convinced that no man should be accepted for training unless actually called by God to preach. That is to say ministerial education is more of calling and election. Curriculum of theological training, Spurgeon asserted the place of prime importance should be given to “Biblical Theology”. Contrary to the modern day trend on education of allowing students decide for themselves that which is right or wrong, Spurgeon differed from so many of his contemporaries (and or) with regard to manners in which students should be trained. Instruction, he maintained, should be given in definite, dogmatic form. Tutors should not teach their students in broad liberal manner which presents number of “viewpoints” and leaves the ultimate choice to the student; rather they should forcibly and unmistakably declare the mind of God…28 Though he stood practically alone in this conviction, Spurgeon was ready to declare it in no uncertain terms: “that men seek no collegiate degrees or classical honours though many of them could readily attain them; but to preach efficiently, to get at the heart of the masses, to evangelize the poor. This is the aim of pastor’s college.” Spurgeon further explained, “let the world educate their men for its own purposes, and let the church instruct men for its special service.” The basis of his Christian education was to help men set forth the truth of God, expound the scriptures, win sinners, and edify the saints. E.W. Kenyon: E.W. Kenyon was an evangelist and a teacher who established a bible school in 1900. His Bible school grew out of a desire to see many who are called into the ministry trained to bring in the harvest of lost souls at home and broad into God’s kingdom 28. C.H. Spurgeon, An All Round Ministry, Banner of Trust, 2000, see introduction. 29. C.H. Spurgeon, op cit.., introduction. Nothing explains Kenyon’s Basis like in the following statements; “Bethel is not a place for those who put worldly knowledge…, before daily living the word of God.” Great enthusiasm and joy comes at the new birth, Kenyon wrote, “but unless that is cared for and fed by the mind being renewed through feeding on the word and practicing it, that joy will die out. To Kenyon, education is for a living not mere feeding the brain.
  • 16. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 16 TRADITIONAL MODEL This model shows how educational theories can be described as addressing one of the major domain of human nature and how their domain interface. The domains are physical, mental, social – emotional, and spiritual. 31 The physical domain theorists primarily address the aspect of one’s physical existence, aging, growth, development, and result behaviour. The social-emotional domain theorists primarily address the interaction with self and others. Its major focus is on id, ego and super ego. The integrative domain theorists address a combination of aspects from the four domains that reflect the human existence. Example of this theory is Maslow theory hierarchy of needs which includes: Cognitive, psychological, and spiritual. The author, in his view, states that a careful look at the fundamental theories that form the basis for secular education is nothing but a sort of philosophy and psychology which should bit is used in training ministers of God. A.N. Triton speaks on the problems of human philosophy: philosophical “lust” for intellectual tidiness and do not always realize that it is not a theological virtue.” 33 The major weakness of these theories is not only humanism but their neglect of spiritual theory, which has to do with divine truths rooted in the word of God. TRADITIONAL PARADIGM Traditional paradigm developed its concept of innate knowledge, this was propagated by Plato saying; “Knowledge originate from the inside of a man’s mind.” Those who are swept with this idea live their students with the concept that you need no one to teach you. All you need is “think” and know. In contradiction to this theory, Aristotle who argued that knowledge is acquired from outside. Although both theories present some iota of truth, Norman Dejong emphasizes that “such a perspective is a shallow kind of endeavour with no room allowed for discernment between truth and falsehood, no room for character development and spiritual nourishment. People who propagate that knowledge are acquired only from outside to hinder their student from being committed in searching to know the truth. This will limit their God given gifts. Norman says, “The truth lies somewhere in between the two views.”
  • 17. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 17 CURRENT TREND Brad Macdonald comments on the ailing state of… universities, “today’s universities educate tomorrow’s leaders. By looking at the present state of … higher education, we can glimpse the nation’s fortune.” 36 College campuses have become the virulent breeding ground for destructive thoughts. The corridors of today’s universities are thick with an atmosphere of immorality, moral ambiguity and rabid secularism. Unless radical changes occur soon, this facet of modern education will thrust greater troubles upon mankind; Today’s Colleges are failing in two primary ways (1) What they are teaching (2) And how they are teaching it. Across America, liberal professors outnumber conservatives five to one (liberal professors 72% while conservatives 15%). A collection of some of the strange classes you can take at America’s most prestigious colleges and Universities: Philosophy and Star Trek Georgetown University. How to be gay: male homosexuality and Initiation University of Michigan. Witchcraft and Politics Bucknell University. Taking Marx seriously: Amherst College. Black Marxism U.C – Santa Barbara. Interpreting the Queer past UC – Berkeley. The media and Aggression against Women UCLA. Practicing Feminism: A Study of Political Activism: William College. Feminist Biblical Interpretation: Harvard. Backgrounds of Homoerotic Literature: Rutgers. Relativism This has to do with the concept that nothing can be understood in isolation. Everything exist in some kind of context, which necessitated seeing things in relationship to something else in other to understand them. 40 To a Relativist, everything is relative, nothing is absolute. According to Norman Dejong, “For the relativists to insist absolutely that there are no absolutes is for them to put an absolute, thus, contradicting their own claim.” Russ Wise in his write up, Education and New Age Humanism explained the idea of relativism: the basis for developing morals is what the child himself wants to think and/or what the peer group decides is right, strong conviction of right and wrongs are looked upon as evidence of poor social adjustment and need for the teachers’ therapy. The bottom line is this; the major consensus determines what is right or wrong at any point in our culture. There are no absolutes.
  • 18. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 18 It is this concept that had given birth to what is known today as moral relativism. Moral relativism is the belief that defining right and wrong is an individual and personal choice. Denying the presence pf absolute law, this ideology teaches that every decision is a matter of personal feeling.44 Modern day education is driven by culture. Nduka (1964) sees education as culture. He says, “Education is our way of life and the process of transmitting, advancing and consolidating culture.”45 The further purpose for educationalist is to “instill traditional values in young people” this is a clearer shift from Biblical theology which is meant to be the foundation for education. Christian education had missed the ultimate goal of education as they had borrowed principles of education from sources such as reason (and) experience; secular principles. These secular educational principles are built on unscriptural philosophical bases such as pragmatism, empiricism, and naturalism. The early missionary who brought schools to Africa, Nigeria in particular saw education (schools) as a tool for evangelism (soul winning) training for godliness and the betterment of the society. 48 Today, the reverse is the case. The society determines what education should be. 49 No wonder there is an alarming cry by experts that educational standards have fallen. The schools are only producing half-baked graduates. BIBLICAL PRESCRIPTIONS: There is need for educational reforms so as to check out for all the secularism, humanism, which had crept into the modern day Christian education. There is needed to go back to the Bible as the only source of authority in Christian education. It is good for churches to influence secular education in the world. Christians should be involved with colleges and universities and influence the content of curriculum and impact society. Christians should be careful not to baptize secular teachings and use them in Bible institutes to training pastors. 51 for the betterment of education, there is need to have an important linkage between church and schools. Penile academy is closely linked with penile church and many church attenders had also attended the academy. Many of the children and young people are currently attending. The re-enforcement of teaching between church and schools enable yet a firm belief system to develop. 52 Church of God Mission International had added fellowship in their school curriculum as a means of teaching God’s word, and training her student for godliness.
  • 19. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 19 Post Modernism, the idea that each person’s view is as good as others, “education” by discussion and democracy is preferred in the class. The teacher serves as a guide to the “student” discovering himself, rather than an instructor in a body of knowledge. 54 However, the author concurred with the methods of C.H. Spurgeon who “… differed from so many of his contemporaries (and ours) with regards to the manner in which students should be trained. Instruction, he maintained should be given in definite, dogmatic form. Tutors should not teach their students in that broad, liberal manner, which presents a number of view-points and leaves the ultimate choice to the student; rather they should forcibly and unmistakably declare the mind of God and show a determined predilection for the Biblical theology. 51. Kent Hodge, Pentecostal theology, printed for All Nations for Christ Bible Institute International by Gift. Prints 55. C.H. Spurgeon, An All Round Ministry, the Banner of Truth Trust, 2000, Introduction. There is need for proper knowledge of the truth. As Wayne Grudem states: I am convinced that there is an urgent need in the church doctrine, or systematic theology. Not only pastors and teachers need to understand theology in greater depth – the whole church does as well one day by God’s grace we may have churches full of Christians who can discuss, apply and live the doctrine teachings of the Bible as richly as they can discuss the details of their jobs or hobbies … Once that happens, I think that many Christians will find that understanding (and living) the doctrines of scripture is one of greatest joy. Contrary to humanism, the author recommends a Christ centered education. Because Christian education is transmission of content which is a major priority in a philosophy of Christian education, the content must be scripture-oriented and central theme of scripture and his redemptive work. A Christ centered education focusing on a Biblical Christ and His finished work, for redemption help prevent theological syncretism with natural sources of epistemology and maintain objectivity in educational content. CALLING AND ELECTION The most common New Testament reference to election is God’s eternal election of certain persons to salvation Jesus Christ. The subject is dealt with comprehensively in Eph. 1:3-11 and Rom. 8:28 – 11:36. John Calvin, who became a major defender of the reformed doctrine, saw the whole doctrine of election summarized in Eph. 1. All the reformed confessions include divine election… Election is part of God’s eternal decree and it has a soteriological role: “that some in time are given faith by God and that others are not given faith proceeds from His eternal decree”.
  • 20. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 20 Election in then define as “the unchangeable purpose of God whereby, before the foundation of the world, out of the whole human race, which had fallen by its own fault out of its original integrity into sin and ruin. He has, according to the freest good pleasure of His will, out of mere grace, chosen in Christ to salvation a certain number of specific men, neither better nor more worthy than others, but with them involved in a common misery.” This election is not depending on man’s knowledge but God’s knowledge. Is not depending on man’s strength but God’s own strength. God calls and elects according to His purpose and to His own Glory. CONCLUSION Having reviewed most of the theological and secular teaching theories, this essay has attempted to reemphasize that to teach the Christian faith by a method that rests upon a psychology that is mechanistic and humanistic is to defeat the very purpose of Christian education. Christian education is not so much a matter of technique but a matter of calling and electing. Neither the church nor school calls but God Himself calls whomsoever He chooses to call. The Christian educator should be careful not to borrow secular methods into the Christian education considering all methods and techniques that are borrowed into Christian education which derive their origin from behavioral sciences, anthropology, sociology and psychology. The writer is of the view that a careful scrutiny must be given to all behavioral sciences. The weakness of these secular theories is that they operate from naturalistic and humanistic assumptions, which undermine the word of God and human responsibility. Contrary to the liberal and neo-orthodox approaches, emphasis should be more in the word of God. Christian education is a servant not a master of Revelation (Bible). Revelation should determine the educational task and guide the process; since the Bible functions as the primary source and the only inerrant criteria for truth, all presumed facts and opinions must be tested by the Bible. Christian curriculum must derive its foundational hand book for Christian and theological education from the Bible. Simply because of result the Christian educators should be careful not to “baptize” secular teachings and use them in Bible institute to train pastors. The Theologian, A publication of the Association of Christian Theologians, (ACT) Magazine, vol. 1 NO. 3,p.8. Christian educators should leave the results to God. Only God knows how to save this world. Borrowing methods from circular world into Christian education can help churches make crowd or gather crowd that have no knowledge of salvation. The author believes that emphasis should be made in preaching and teaching because salvation is of the Lord. He further challenged the idea of bringing psychology for pastoral training or Christian counseling for only the word of God can prepare a soul for God. However, he recommends the following biblical methods for pastoral training or Christian education:
  • 21. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 21 As exegetical understanding of the scripture, exposure to the teaching ministry, personal study, application to daily life, mentoring, and the Holy Spirit. Therefore, emphasis should be given to the word of God, not mere methods. The early preached and taught the gospel of Christ through the power of the Holy Spirit. The result was, “and the Lord added to the church daily those that where being saved.” (Acts 2:47)
  • 22. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 22 BIBLIOGRAPHY A.D. Nzemike & Erhagbe, Nigeria, Nigerian Peoples and Culture (Second Edition), Mindex Publishing, Department of History, University of Benin City, Nigeria, 2002. A.N. Triton, Whose World? Inter-varsity Press, 1972. C.H. Spurgeon, An All Round Ministry, the Banner of Truth Trust 2000. D.G. hard and r. Albert Mohler, J.R., Education in Evangelical Tradition, Baker Books, 1996. E.W. Kenyon, The True Story, Evangel Publication, Nigeria, 1982. Eleanor Daniel, John W. Wade and Charles Gresham, Introduction to Christian Education, Standard Publishers, 1970. James S. Coleman, Nigeria Background to Nationalism, Broburge Wistrom Benin City, 1986. Kent Hodge, Pentecostal Theology, Printed for All Nation for Christ Bible Institute, International by Crifts Associates, Benin City, Nigeria. Kent Hodge, The Philosophy of Christian Education, Printed for All Nation for Christ Bible Institute International by Crifts Associates, Benin City, Nigeria 2005. Lecture Notes. Louis Berkhof, Systematic Theology, the Banner of Truth, Trust, 2000. Michael S.B.Reid, Strategic Level Spiritual Warfare: A modern Mythology? Xylon Press, 2002. Norman Dejong, Teaching for a Change, A Transformational Approach to Education, P.& R. Publishing, 2001. Paul Cho, More than Numbers, Maranatha Foundation, 1984. R.K. Campbell, Our Wonderful Bible, Believers Bookshelf, inc, Sunbury, Pennsylvania, 1982 Vital Christianity, Warmer Press, An Assemblies of God Publication, Indiana, 46011, vol. 100,1980. Waygne Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, Leicester Intervarsity press, 1994. Magazines Nigerian Television Authority (N.T.A).
  • 23. Lecture Note: GIBU DMN 710 Ph. CED- SEMESTER TWO Page 23 The Theologian (Acts), A Publication of Association of Christian Theologian 2005. The Philadelphia Magazine, 2005. Website Education Theory Handbook http://www.theshop.net/aboatman/edtheory.htm What is Liberal/Neo-orthodoxy? http://www.gotquestions.org/necoorthodoxy.html Professor peter De Boer, Shifts in curriculum theory for Christian Education, Calvin College http://www.calvin.edu/academic/news/publications/mono... Russ Wise, Education and New Age Humanism http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/navageed.html. October, 3, 2005. From the Concise Columbia Encyclopaedia, Copyright 1991, Columbia University press. http://www.ilt.columbia-edu/publications/projects/digitexts/notes/ilt 4/11/2005. Elect, election: http://mb-sodt.com/beliefwe/txn/ect.htm 12/12/2005,