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© IJCIRAS
May 2018 | Vol. 1 Issue. 1
IJCIRAS1004 WWW.IJCIRAS.COM 14
A SURVEY ON DEEP LEARNING METHOD USED FOR
CHARACTER RECOGNITION
Aditi M Joshi1
, Ashish D Patel2
1
Information Technology Department, Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad
2 Professor, Computer Engineering Department, Gujarat Technology University, Ahmedabad
Abstract
The field of Artificial Intelligence is very
fashionable today, especially neural networks
that work well in various areas such as speech
recognition and natural language processing. This
Research Article briefly describes how deep
learning models work and what different
techniques are used in text recognition. It also
describes the great progress that has been made
in the field of medicine, the analysis of forensic
documents, the recognition of license plates,
banking, health and the legal industry. The
recognition of handwritten characters is one of
the research areas in the field of artificial
intelligence. The individual character recognition
has a higher recognition accuracy than the
complete word recognition. The new method for
categorizing Freeman strings is presented using
four connectivity events and eight connectivity
events with a deep learning approach.
Keyword: deep learning, image classification;
Number recognition, Shape Based Recognition,
(chain-code Biased) Hub, Hidden Markov
Models(HMM), Pattern recognition, Freeman
chain code, Image processing, convolutional
neural networks, Deep convolutional neural
networks, Power Quality.
1.INTRODUCTION
Deep learning has become the most popular
approach to develop Artificial Intelligence (AI)
machines that perceive and understand the world.
Here is an overview of deep learning methods for
image classification and number recognition in
images. Deep Learning uses neural networks that
transmit data across multiple processing layers to
interpret the properties and relationships of the data.
Advanced learning algorithms are largely self-
centered in data analysis as they go into production.
Researchers have experienced many ups and downs
while early work on artificial neural networks has
always been of particular interest to researchers.
Neural network-based methods have been
successfully applied t`o classification, clustering,
recognition, approximation, forecasting and
problems in medicine, biology, commerce, robotics,
and so forth. The latest advances in this area have
been made through the invention of advanced
learning methods. Hardware and software for parallel
computing. For processing numerical data, the
human brain is so sophisticated that we recognize
objects in a few seconds, without much difficulty.
Computer vision is more ambitious. It tries to mimic
the human visual system and is often associated with
scene understanding. Most image processing
algorithms produce results that can serve as the first
input for machine vision algorithms. Image
processing is a logical extension of signal processing.
When an unknown animal is encountered, we try to
recognize it by comparing its features (called
patterns) with known stored patterns that we already
have. This process of comparing an unknown object
with stored patterns to recognize the unknown
object is called classification. Thus, classification is the
process of applying a label or pattern class to
unknown instance. In the absence of any prior
knowledge of the object or stored pattern, we use a
trial and error process to recognize the object. This
trial and error process of grouping of objects is called
clustering.
Most organizations consult handwritten documents
such as forms, checks, etc. The manuscript
documents are converted and stored in digital
formats for easy retrieval. Without a handwritten
character recognition software, the source would
require the employment of dedicated employees to
convert the handwritten document into a digital
format by manually entering the text. Today it is very
important to store the information available in paper
© IJCIRAS
May 2018 | Vol. 1 Issue. 1
IJCIRAS1004 WWW.IJCIRAS.COM 15
documents on a computer storage disk and then
reuse this information by doing a search. One way to
store information from paper documents in the
computer system is to scan the document. But the
scanned image cannot be changed by the user. The
character recognition technique is used to identify
handwritten characters. For example, Guess the name
of the prescribed drug and does not give the exact
name because the doctors write.
The recognition of handwritten characters
can be classified as recognition of online spelling and
offline writing. The recognition of online spelling
involves the automatic conversion of text as written
on a special digitizer or PDA, in which a sensor
captures pen movements and pen / pen switching.
This type of data is known as digital ink or digital
representation of handwriting. Offline The character
of the manuscript implies, from the image, the
automatic conversion of text into literal codes that
can be used in computer applications and other word
processing applications.
Figure 1 Types of Handwritten Character Recognition
Handwritten character recognition system includes all
processing segment like pre-processing,
separation(Segmentation), feature mining(Extraction),
training and testing and post processing.
Figure 2 Steps for Recognition
Freeman Chain Code (FCC) introduced by Freeman,
1961, The development and improvement of the
chain code illustration system has been broadly
castoff as a research topic [9]. Freeman codes or
chain code are used to represent the boundary of
the image. There are two types of chain codes
corresponding to 4-neighbourhoods and 8-
neighbourhoods. The boundary can be traced and
allotted numbers based on the directions. Freeman
chain code is the best proven method for number
recognition.
Figure 3 Image chain code
a) 4- Directional code b) 8 – Directional code
The elementary principle of chain codes is to
disjointedly encode each linked component in the
image where chains characterize the edge of the
objects.
Neural networks also identify models with
extreme changeability (such as handwritten
characters Reorganization) and robustness to simple
distortions and geometric transformations.
Generating rules in neural networks is not a direct
process. The inputs of the neural networks must be
digital. Other types of data must first be converted
into a number.
Figure 4 Architecture of Convolutional Neural Networks
Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are a
different(Special) type of multilayered neural
networks designed to distinguish visual patterns
reliably from pixel images with nominal
© IJCIRAS
May 2018 | Vol. 1 Issue. 1
IJCIRAS1004 WWW.IJCIRAS.COM 16
preprocessing. Convolutional Neural Networks
(CNN) also used for speech recognition. Deep
Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) have shown
superior results to traditional shallow networks in
many recognition tasks [4]. Deep Neural Networks
do not require any feature to be explicitly defined,
they work on the raw pixel data generating the best
features and using them to classify the inputs into
different classes. Neural network are powerful to
handle noisy data and enhance the performance
continuedly. They have low error frequency and high
precision value.
LeNet-5 was designed by Lecun et al and is
the latest convolutional network designed for
handwritten and machine-printed character
recognition. Lenet – 5 has 7 layers (2 Convolutional
layers, 2 Subsampling layers, 2 hidden layers and 1
output layer) and not work on large images. It is one
of the first shallow Convolutional neural network
specifically designed to classify handwritten digit. It
is trained and tested on the MNIST data set to
classify the input into one of the ten classes
representing 0-9 digits.
2. STRUCTURE OF CHARACTER RECOGNITION
SYSTEM
The character recognition system is the process of
recognizing the character of the image of the printed
document or the image of the manuscript document.
The main problem in recognizing handwritten
characters is the variety of writing styles, which varies
from one author to another. The schematic diagram
of the character recognition system is shown in FIG 5.
Classification is the supervised learning method. In
the training phase, the classifier algorithm is fed by a
large amount of known data. This record is called
training data or labeled data.
Figure 5 Block diagram of Character Recognition System [7].
The training data should generally large and
representative in nature. Collected datasets are
divided in to two parts Training data and testing
data. For train the system training data are used and
this trained classification further used to distinguish
test data. Generally, the performance of the classifier
depends on factors such as the nature of data and
the nature of learning.
2.1 Preprocessing
This step involves a basic processing of the image
before it is used for recognition by the system. It has
to be processed in such a way that it is suitable for
the system to understand. The steps involved are:
Noise removal
There are several reasons due to which noise gets
added in the images. Noise reduction is the method
to eliminate noise from the scanned image with an
appropriate filter. Smoothing is used to reduce noise
and remove small details from the image by
removing large objects. It could be from the
mechanism that is used to acquire the image, the film
grain or the electronic transmission of the image. The
noise can be removed by linear filtering, median
filtering or adaptive filtering.
Binarization
Binarization is process of converting from a gray
scale image to a binary image using the global
thresholding technique such as Otsu’s method of
counting threshold. Otsu’s method serves optimum
threshold value. Binarization is a process where each
bit of picture in the image is got changed into one
bit and given to a value of 0 or 1 depending upon
© IJCIRAS
May 2018 | Vol. 1 Issue. 1
IJCIRAS1004 WWW.IJCIRAS.COM 17
the middle, half way between value of all the bit of
picture.
Figure 6 Steps for preprocessing [8].
Edge Detection
Edges play a very significant role in many image
processing purposes. They give an overview of the
object. In the physical plane, the comparability of the
edges in the depth thresholds, the position of the
surface, the properties of the materials and the
differences in brightness change. An edge is a set of
grouped pixels that lie on the boundary between two
regions that differ in gray scale. The pixels on an
edge are called edge points. When the edge is
detected, unnecessary details are removed and only
important structural information is retained.
Normally, an edge is extracted by calculating the
derivative of the image function.
Dilation and filling
The basic effect of using the expansion operator in a
binary image is to progressively increase the limit of
areas of pixels in the foreground. As a result, areas of
foreground pixels increase in size as the holes in
those areas become smaller.
Processed image for feature extraction
This step extracts the properties of the characters
that are critical to the classification in the detection
phase. This step is important because its efficient
operation improves the detection rate and reduces
misclassification.
2.2 Segmentation
Image segmentation has developed as an imperative
phase in image application area. Segmentation
breaks the words or sentences in to pieces such that
a clear boundary is set between the characters.
Segmentation is the process of dividing an
image into multiple regions and mining a significant
region known as a region of interest.Region of
interest (ROI) may vary with applications. For
example, if the goal of doctor is to analyze the tumor
in a computer tomography (CT) image, then the
tumor in the image is the ROI. Similarity, if the image
application aims to recognize the iris in eye image,
then the iris in the eye image is the required ROI.
Segmentation includes line segmentation, word
segmentation, and character segmentation. If line
segmentation is the separation of a line from the
paragraph, word segmentation is a separation of the
word from the line, and character segmentation is
the separation of characters and words. Image
segmentation algorithms are created using the
principle of discontinuity or the principle of similarity.
The central idea of the discontinuity principle extracts
the areas that contrast in properties such as color,
intensity or any other image statistic.
Figure 7 Segmentation free and segmentation based method [7].
2.3. Feature Extraction
Image pre-processing and feature extraction
techniques are mandatory for any applications that is
based on image. Feature Extraction is a process of
extraction and generation of features to assist the
task of object classification. This phase is critical
because the quality of the features influences the
classification task. The extended set of features is
stored as a vector called as the feature vector. The
© IJCIRAS
May 2018 | Vol. 1 Issue. 1
IJCIRAS1004 WWW.IJCIRAS.COM 18
classifier takes the feature vector as input and
performs the classification.
2.4. Classification
The classification phase is the decision-making part
of a recognition system and uses the features
extracted in the previous step. The feature vector is
indicated by X, where X = (f1, f2, ..., fd), where f
indicates the properties and d denotes the number n.
feature extracted from the character Due to the
comparison of characteristics, vector feature are
classified and recognized efficiently in the
corresponding class.
2.5.Post – processing
At this point, the accuracy of character recognition is
further increased by linking the dictionary to the
system to perform a syntactic analysis, a sort of
semantic analysis of the main concepts that is used
to verify the recognized character. This step is not
required in the character recognition system.
3. Related Work
The recognition of the characters of the image
depends on the compassion of the selected entities
and the type of classifier used to identify the
image.Following are the papers which perform
character recognition with different algorithms and
they also used different deep learning approaches
for better accuracy and recognition. Freeman chain
coding is used to create contour of the object in the
image, which is than proceeds further for finding
modified set of Fragments. For the purpose of
scoring functions Modified Needleman – Wunsch
algorithm is used [1].
Rounding number calculations with Hub
formats. This is well-suited for Digital circuit
equations. This paper has suggested the use of
solving complex numerical issues for binary and
numeric values processing [2].
Power quality waveforms are used while the
image characters are wavy in format. In this papers
possible PQ waveform deviation are found from
internet. For this, previously recorded data and
correct identification of current data is performed
using signals. Google engine search engine tool
perform its process with this format [3].
They introduce a new public image dataset
for Devanagari script: Devanagari Handwritten
Character Dataset (DHCD). In Devanagari script, the
base form of consonant characters can be combined
with vowels to form additional characters which is
not explored in this research. Deep neural network
was trained on the DHCD as a multi-class
classification problem. Devanagari characters are
least explored for image processing. Handwritten
and printed both have different way to recognize
them. Deep learning with CNN and multilayer
perception network is used in this paper for
accurate recognition of character [4].
Hidden markov model in machine learning is
used to recognize the series of states from a series
of observations. For example: We don't get to
observe the actual order of states. Rather, we can
only examine some outcome generated by each
state. There can be Viterbi or Baysen model to find
the maximum likelihood state assignment. Pattern
of Devanagari is explored with hmm and Ann in this
case to find out results of character recognition from
an online isolated character set of devanagari [5].
Hidden markov display in machine learning
is utilized to perceive the successions of states from
a progression of perceptions. For instance: We don't
get the chance to watch the genuine order of states.
or maybe, we can just analyze some result created
by each state. There can be Viterbi or Baysen model
to locate the most extreme probability state
assignment. Example of Devanagari is investigated
with HMM and ANN for this situation to discover
consequences of character recognition from an
online isolated character set of devanagari [5].
To process the images and characters from
cheques, this paper has used k-space auto encoders.
and the hidden layers of auto encoders are found
with CNN for single digit analyzer. They have done
modification to perform soft-tuning of the weights
of each stacked layer separately from other hidden
layers. Further it can be improved to find modified
process to improve the feature extraction process
and representation efficiency [6].
© IJCIRAS
May 2018 | Vol. 1 Issue. 1
IJCIRAS1004 WWW.IJCIRAS.COM 19
They are going to take the MNIST dataset
for training and recognition. The primary aim of this
dataset is to classify the handwritten digits 0-9. They
have a total of 70,000 images for training and
testing. Each digit is represented as a 28 by 28 grey
scale pixel intensity for better results. The digits are
passed into input layers of LeNet and then into the
hidden layers which contain two sets of
convolutional, activation and pooling layers. Then
finally it is mapped onto the fully connected layer
and given a softmax classifier to classify the digits.
They are going to implement this network using
keras deep learning inbuilt python library [12].
The chain code discriptor string code
descriptor was calculated and tested with a
completely different classifier such as k-Neighbor
Neighbor (k-NN), Support Vector Machine (SVM),
and Naive Thomas Bayes. Principal Component
Analysis (PCA) was used in the description of the
string code [14].
4. COMPARISION
A Convolutional network has a benefit over other
Artificial Neural networks in extracting and utilizing
the features data, enhancing the knowledge of 2D
shapes with higher degree of accuracy and unvarying
to translation, scaling and other distortions [12].
Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is
best algorithm for feature extraction and K- nearest
neighbor (KNN) is best for classification of images
[13].
A Deep Neural Network (DNN) is an ANN
with multiple layers hidden between the input and
output planes. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are
mathematical constructs originally developed for
biological neurons. Each "neuron" is a relatively
simple element, for example, by adding its inputs and
applying a threshold to the result to determine the
output of that "neuron". Several decades of research
have focused on finding out how to build network
architectures using these mathematical constructs
and how to automatically define the weighting in
each of the connections between neurons to perform
a variety of tasks. For example, RNAs can do things
like recognizing handwritten numbers. A "biological
neuron network" would mean any group of
connected biological nerve cells. Your brain is a
biological neural network, so multiple neurons in a
shell grow together to form synaptic connections.
The term "biological neural network" is not very
accurate; It does not define a specific biological
structure. In the same way, an ANN may mean any of
a large number of mathematical constructs similar to
"neurons" connected in various ways to perform any
one of a large number of tasks.
The convolutional neural network (CNN or
ConvNet) is a type of deep progress network that has
been successfully applied to visual image analysis.
CNN uses a multilayer perceptron variation that has
been designed to require a minimum of
pretreatment. They are also called spatially invariant
or invariant neural networks (SIANN) based on their
jointly weighted architectural and invariant
properties. The Lenet model does not work on large
images, while Alexnet works on large images. Cnn is
used for the object
Recognition and Recursive Neural Network
(RNN) is used for speech recognition. In Recursive
Neural Network Signal travelling in both directions
by introducing loops in the network.
The performance and potential of SVM was
found higher than k-NN and Naive Thomas Bayes
with recognition rate 93%. Chain code provides
higher performance with SVM classifier [14].
5. CONCLUSION
Deep Convolutional Neural Network have shown
superior results to traditional shallow networks in
many recognition tasks. Using Deep CNN Increases
test accuracy by nearly 1 percent. HMM classes for
character recognition owing to the distinct advantage
of adjustment of pen – thickness and interpolation.
Standardization of the sequences of stroke order is a
way to reduce the overhead of look-up table used for
recognition of character in HMM class. For single
digit recognition, Convolutional neural nets present
impressive results. Conventional Neural network
gives impressive performance, that performance is
somewhat mysterious. Generating modified set of
fragments is a lengthy process. Using polygonal
shape, vectors are created which does not a give
assurance of generation of exact image. Contours are
the shape descriptor in object recognition problem.
Power quality event gives the clarity that multiple
images can use PQ event and generate waveforms
for multiple images at same time.
References
© IJCIRAS
May 2018 | Vol. 1 Issue. 1
IJCIRAS1004 WWW.IJCIRAS.COM 20
[1] Ema Rachmawati, Masayu Leylia khodra, Iping
Supriana,School of Electrical Engineering and
Informatics Institut Teknologi Bandung,“Shape
based recognition using Freeman chain code and
Modified Needleman - Wunsch ” 978-1-5090-
4139-8/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE.
[2] Hormigo, J. and Villalba, J. (2016). “New Formats
for Computing with Real-Numbers under Round-
to-Nearest.” IEEE Transactions on Computers,
65(7), pp.2158-2168.
[3] Leandro Rodrigues Manso Silva, Paulo Fernando
Ribeiro, Federal University of Juiz de Fora Juiz de
Fora – MG, Brazil ,“Power Quality Waveform
Recognition Using Google Image Search Engine
(iPQ-Google)” 978-1-5090-3792-6/16/$31.00
©2016 IEEE.
[4] Shailesh Acharya , Ashok Kumar Pant , Prashnna
Kumar Gyawali, Institute Of Engineering
Tribhuvan University Kathmandu, Nepal,“Deep
Learning Based Large Scale Handwritten
Devanagari Character Recognition” 978-1-4673-
6744-8/15/$31.00 ©2015 IEEE
[5] Ashish Tripathi, Sankha Subhra Paul, Vinay
Kumar Pandey, CSED, MNNIT, Allahabad, India
“Standardization of stroke order for online
Isolated Devanagari Character Recognition for
iPhone”
[6] Raid Saabni School of Computer Science Tel-Aviv
Yaffo Academic College, Tel-Aviv, Israel Triangle
Research & Development Center.“Recognizing
handwritten Single Digits and Digit Strings Using
Deep Architecture of Neural Networks” 978-1-
4673-9187-0 ©2016 IEEE
[7] Monica Patel, Shital P. Thakkar,“Handwritten
Character Recognition in English: A Survey“
International Journal of Advanced Research in
Computer and Communication Engineering Vol.
4, Issue 2, February 2015
[8] Hirali S. Amrutiya, Payal P. Moghariya and Vatsal
H. Shah “handwritten character recognition“
International Journal of Advance Engineering
and Research Development (IJAERD) Special
Issue, Volume 1,Issue 4, April 2014, e-ISSN: 2348
– 4470.
[9] Ibrahim, Ratnawati & Abu Hassan, Mohd Fadzil
& Zainudin, Nurnashriq & Syahidi Aisha, Mohd.
(2011). “Number Recognition System Using
Chain Code Technique” December 2011.
[10] Dhannoon, Ban N. & H. Al, Huda. (2013).
“Handwritten Hindi Numerals Recognition.”
International Journal of Innovation and Applied
Studies.
[11] Pulipati Annapurna, Sriraman Kothuri, and
Srikanth Lukka, “Digit Recognition Using
Freeman Chain Code” International Journal of
Application or Innovation in Engineering &
Management (IJAIEM), Volume 2, Issue 8,
August 2013.
[12] T Siva Ajay,“Handwritten Digit Recognition
Using Convolutional Neural Networks”
International Research Journal of Engineering
and Technology (IRJET) Volume: 04 Issue: 07,
July -2017.
[13] Apoorva Chaudhary and Mr.Roshan lal chhoker
,“Handwritten Hindi Numeric Character
Recognition and comparison of algorithms” 978-
1-5090-3519-9/17/$31.00©2017 IEEE
[14] Fating, Kshama & Ghotkar, Archana.
(2014).”Performance Analysis of Chain Code
Descriptor for Hand Shape Classification.”
International Journal of Computer Graphics &
Animation. 4. 9-19. 10.5121/ijcga.2014.4202.

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A SURVEY ON DEEP LEARNING METHOD USED FOR CHARACTER RECOGNITION

  • 1. © IJCIRAS May 2018 | Vol. 1 Issue. 1 IJCIRAS1004 WWW.IJCIRAS.COM 14 A SURVEY ON DEEP LEARNING METHOD USED FOR CHARACTER RECOGNITION Aditi M Joshi1 , Ashish D Patel2 1 Information Technology Department, Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad 2 Professor, Computer Engineering Department, Gujarat Technology University, Ahmedabad Abstract The field of Artificial Intelligence is very fashionable today, especially neural networks that work well in various areas such as speech recognition and natural language processing. This Research Article briefly describes how deep learning models work and what different techniques are used in text recognition. It also describes the great progress that has been made in the field of medicine, the analysis of forensic documents, the recognition of license plates, banking, health and the legal industry. The recognition of handwritten characters is one of the research areas in the field of artificial intelligence. The individual character recognition has a higher recognition accuracy than the complete word recognition. The new method for categorizing Freeman strings is presented using four connectivity events and eight connectivity events with a deep learning approach. Keyword: deep learning, image classification; Number recognition, Shape Based Recognition, (chain-code Biased) Hub, Hidden Markov Models(HMM), Pattern recognition, Freeman chain code, Image processing, convolutional neural networks, Deep convolutional neural networks, Power Quality. 1.INTRODUCTION Deep learning has become the most popular approach to develop Artificial Intelligence (AI) machines that perceive and understand the world. Here is an overview of deep learning methods for image classification and number recognition in images. Deep Learning uses neural networks that transmit data across multiple processing layers to interpret the properties and relationships of the data. Advanced learning algorithms are largely self- centered in data analysis as they go into production. Researchers have experienced many ups and downs while early work on artificial neural networks has always been of particular interest to researchers. Neural network-based methods have been successfully applied t`o classification, clustering, recognition, approximation, forecasting and problems in medicine, biology, commerce, robotics, and so forth. The latest advances in this area have been made through the invention of advanced learning methods. Hardware and software for parallel computing. For processing numerical data, the human brain is so sophisticated that we recognize objects in a few seconds, without much difficulty. Computer vision is more ambitious. It tries to mimic the human visual system and is often associated with scene understanding. Most image processing algorithms produce results that can serve as the first input for machine vision algorithms. Image processing is a logical extension of signal processing. When an unknown animal is encountered, we try to recognize it by comparing its features (called patterns) with known stored patterns that we already have. This process of comparing an unknown object with stored patterns to recognize the unknown object is called classification. Thus, classification is the process of applying a label or pattern class to unknown instance. In the absence of any prior knowledge of the object or stored pattern, we use a trial and error process to recognize the object. This trial and error process of grouping of objects is called clustering. Most organizations consult handwritten documents such as forms, checks, etc. The manuscript documents are converted and stored in digital formats for easy retrieval. Without a handwritten character recognition software, the source would require the employment of dedicated employees to convert the handwritten document into a digital format by manually entering the text. Today it is very important to store the information available in paper
  • 2. © IJCIRAS May 2018 | Vol. 1 Issue. 1 IJCIRAS1004 WWW.IJCIRAS.COM 15 documents on a computer storage disk and then reuse this information by doing a search. One way to store information from paper documents in the computer system is to scan the document. But the scanned image cannot be changed by the user. The character recognition technique is used to identify handwritten characters. For example, Guess the name of the prescribed drug and does not give the exact name because the doctors write. The recognition of handwritten characters can be classified as recognition of online spelling and offline writing. The recognition of online spelling involves the automatic conversion of text as written on a special digitizer or PDA, in which a sensor captures pen movements and pen / pen switching. This type of data is known as digital ink or digital representation of handwriting. Offline The character of the manuscript implies, from the image, the automatic conversion of text into literal codes that can be used in computer applications and other word processing applications. Figure 1 Types of Handwritten Character Recognition Handwritten character recognition system includes all processing segment like pre-processing, separation(Segmentation), feature mining(Extraction), training and testing and post processing. Figure 2 Steps for Recognition Freeman Chain Code (FCC) introduced by Freeman, 1961, The development and improvement of the chain code illustration system has been broadly castoff as a research topic [9]. Freeman codes or chain code are used to represent the boundary of the image. There are two types of chain codes corresponding to 4-neighbourhoods and 8- neighbourhoods. The boundary can be traced and allotted numbers based on the directions. Freeman chain code is the best proven method for number recognition. Figure 3 Image chain code a) 4- Directional code b) 8 – Directional code The elementary principle of chain codes is to disjointedly encode each linked component in the image where chains characterize the edge of the objects. Neural networks also identify models with extreme changeability (such as handwritten characters Reorganization) and robustness to simple distortions and geometric transformations. Generating rules in neural networks is not a direct process. The inputs of the neural networks must be digital. Other types of data must first be converted into a number. Figure 4 Architecture of Convolutional Neural Networks Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are a different(Special) type of multilayered neural networks designed to distinguish visual patterns reliably from pixel images with nominal
  • 3. © IJCIRAS May 2018 | Vol. 1 Issue. 1 IJCIRAS1004 WWW.IJCIRAS.COM 16 preprocessing. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) also used for speech recognition. Deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) have shown superior results to traditional shallow networks in many recognition tasks [4]. Deep Neural Networks do not require any feature to be explicitly defined, they work on the raw pixel data generating the best features and using them to classify the inputs into different classes. Neural network are powerful to handle noisy data and enhance the performance continuedly. They have low error frequency and high precision value. LeNet-5 was designed by Lecun et al and is the latest convolutional network designed for handwritten and machine-printed character recognition. Lenet – 5 has 7 layers (2 Convolutional layers, 2 Subsampling layers, 2 hidden layers and 1 output layer) and not work on large images. It is one of the first shallow Convolutional neural network specifically designed to classify handwritten digit. It is trained and tested on the MNIST data set to classify the input into one of the ten classes representing 0-9 digits. 2. STRUCTURE OF CHARACTER RECOGNITION SYSTEM The character recognition system is the process of recognizing the character of the image of the printed document or the image of the manuscript document. The main problem in recognizing handwritten characters is the variety of writing styles, which varies from one author to another. The schematic diagram of the character recognition system is shown in FIG 5. Classification is the supervised learning method. In the training phase, the classifier algorithm is fed by a large amount of known data. This record is called training data or labeled data. Figure 5 Block diagram of Character Recognition System [7]. The training data should generally large and representative in nature. Collected datasets are divided in to two parts Training data and testing data. For train the system training data are used and this trained classification further used to distinguish test data. Generally, the performance of the classifier depends on factors such as the nature of data and the nature of learning. 2.1 Preprocessing This step involves a basic processing of the image before it is used for recognition by the system. It has to be processed in such a way that it is suitable for the system to understand. The steps involved are: Noise removal There are several reasons due to which noise gets added in the images. Noise reduction is the method to eliminate noise from the scanned image with an appropriate filter. Smoothing is used to reduce noise and remove small details from the image by removing large objects. It could be from the mechanism that is used to acquire the image, the film grain or the electronic transmission of the image. The noise can be removed by linear filtering, median filtering or adaptive filtering. Binarization Binarization is process of converting from a gray scale image to a binary image using the global thresholding technique such as Otsu’s method of counting threshold. Otsu’s method serves optimum threshold value. Binarization is a process where each bit of picture in the image is got changed into one bit and given to a value of 0 or 1 depending upon
  • 4. © IJCIRAS May 2018 | Vol. 1 Issue. 1 IJCIRAS1004 WWW.IJCIRAS.COM 17 the middle, half way between value of all the bit of picture. Figure 6 Steps for preprocessing [8]. Edge Detection Edges play a very significant role in many image processing purposes. They give an overview of the object. In the physical plane, the comparability of the edges in the depth thresholds, the position of the surface, the properties of the materials and the differences in brightness change. An edge is a set of grouped pixels that lie on the boundary between two regions that differ in gray scale. The pixels on an edge are called edge points. When the edge is detected, unnecessary details are removed and only important structural information is retained. Normally, an edge is extracted by calculating the derivative of the image function. Dilation and filling The basic effect of using the expansion operator in a binary image is to progressively increase the limit of areas of pixels in the foreground. As a result, areas of foreground pixels increase in size as the holes in those areas become smaller. Processed image for feature extraction This step extracts the properties of the characters that are critical to the classification in the detection phase. This step is important because its efficient operation improves the detection rate and reduces misclassification. 2.2 Segmentation Image segmentation has developed as an imperative phase in image application area. Segmentation breaks the words or sentences in to pieces such that a clear boundary is set between the characters. Segmentation is the process of dividing an image into multiple regions and mining a significant region known as a region of interest.Region of interest (ROI) may vary with applications. For example, if the goal of doctor is to analyze the tumor in a computer tomography (CT) image, then the tumor in the image is the ROI. Similarity, if the image application aims to recognize the iris in eye image, then the iris in the eye image is the required ROI. Segmentation includes line segmentation, word segmentation, and character segmentation. If line segmentation is the separation of a line from the paragraph, word segmentation is a separation of the word from the line, and character segmentation is the separation of characters and words. Image segmentation algorithms are created using the principle of discontinuity or the principle of similarity. The central idea of the discontinuity principle extracts the areas that contrast in properties such as color, intensity or any other image statistic. Figure 7 Segmentation free and segmentation based method [7]. 2.3. Feature Extraction Image pre-processing and feature extraction techniques are mandatory for any applications that is based on image. Feature Extraction is a process of extraction and generation of features to assist the task of object classification. This phase is critical because the quality of the features influences the classification task. The extended set of features is stored as a vector called as the feature vector. The
  • 5. © IJCIRAS May 2018 | Vol. 1 Issue. 1 IJCIRAS1004 WWW.IJCIRAS.COM 18 classifier takes the feature vector as input and performs the classification. 2.4. Classification The classification phase is the decision-making part of a recognition system and uses the features extracted in the previous step. The feature vector is indicated by X, where X = (f1, f2, ..., fd), where f indicates the properties and d denotes the number n. feature extracted from the character Due to the comparison of characteristics, vector feature are classified and recognized efficiently in the corresponding class. 2.5.Post – processing At this point, the accuracy of character recognition is further increased by linking the dictionary to the system to perform a syntactic analysis, a sort of semantic analysis of the main concepts that is used to verify the recognized character. This step is not required in the character recognition system. 3. Related Work The recognition of the characters of the image depends on the compassion of the selected entities and the type of classifier used to identify the image.Following are the papers which perform character recognition with different algorithms and they also used different deep learning approaches for better accuracy and recognition. Freeman chain coding is used to create contour of the object in the image, which is than proceeds further for finding modified set of Fragments. For the purpose of scoring functions Modified Needleman – Wunsch algorithm is used [1]. Rounding number calculations with Hub formats. This is well-suited for Digital circuit equations. This paper has suggested the use of solving complex numerical issues for binary and numeric values processing [2]. Power quality waveforms are used while the image characters are wavy in format. In this papers possible PQ waveform deviation are found from internet. For this, previously recorded data and correct identification of current data is performed using signals. Google engine search engine tool perform its process with this format [3]. They introduce a new public image dataset for Devanagari script: Devanagari Handwritten Character Dataset (DHCD). In Devanagari script, the base form of consonant characters can be combined with vowels to form additional characters which is not explored in this research. Deep neural network was trained on the DHCD as a multi-class classification problem. Devanagari characters are least explored for image processing. Handwritten and printed both have different way to recognize them. Deep learning with CNN and multilayer perception network is used in this paper for accurate recognition of character [4]. Hidden markov model in machine learning is used to recognize the series of states from a series of observations. For example: We don't get to observe the actual order of states. Rather, we can only examine some outcome generated by each state. There can be Viterbi or Baysen model to find the maximum likelihood state assignment. Pattern of Devanagari is explored with hmm and Ann in this case to find out results of character recognition from an online isolated character set of devanagari [5]. Hidden markov display in machine learning is utilized to perceive the successions of states from a progression of perceptions. For instance: We don't get the chance to watch the genuine order of states. or maybe, we can just analyze some result created by each state. There can be Viterbi or Baysen model to locate the most extreme probability state assignment. Example of Devanagari is investigated with HMM and ANN for this situation to discover consequences of character recognition from an online isolated character set of devanagari [5]. To process the images and characters from cheques, this paper has used k-space auto encoders. and the hidden layers of auto encoders are found with CNN for single digit analyzer. They have done modification to perform soft-tuning of the weights of each stacked layer separately from other hidden layers. Further it can be improved to find modified process to improve the feature extraction process and representation efficiency [6].
  • 6. © IJCIRAS May 2018 | Vol. 1 Issue. 1 IJCIRAS1004 WWW.IJCIRAS.COM 19 They are going to take the MNIST dataset for training and recognition. The primary aim of this dataset is to classify the handwritten digits 0-9. They have a total of 70,000 images for training and testing. Each digit is represented as a 28 by 28 grey scale pixel intensity for better results. The digits are passed into input layers of LeNet and then into the hidden layers which contain two sets of convolutional, activation and pooling layers. Then finally it is mapped onto the fully connected layer and given a softmax classifier to classify the digits. They are going to implement this network using keras deep learning inbuilt python library [12]. The chain code discriptor string code descriptor was calculated and tested with a completely different classifier such as k-Neighbor Neighbor (k-NN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Naive Thomas Bayes. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used in the description of the string code [14]. 4. COMPARISION A Convolutional network has a benefit over other Artificial Neural networks in extracting and utilizing the features data, enhancing the knowledge of 2D shapes with higher degree of accuracy and unvarying to translation, scaling and other distortions [12]. Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is best algorithm for feature extraction and K- nearest neighbor (KNN) is best for classification of images [13]. A Deep Neural Network (DNN) is an ANN with multiple layers hidden between the input and output planes. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are mathematical constructs originally developed for biological neurons. Each "neuron" is a relatively simple element, for example, by adding its inputs and applying a threshold to the result to determine the output of that "neuron". Several decades of research have focused on finding out how to build network architectures using these mathematical constructs and how to automatically define the weighting in each of the connections between neurons to perform a variety of tasks. For example, RNAs can do things like recognizing handwritten numbers. A "biological neuron network" would mean any group of connected biological nerve cells. Your brain is a biological neural network, so multiple neurons in a shell grow together to form synaptic connections. The term "biological neural network" is not very accurate; It does not define a specific biological structure. In the same way, an ANN may mean any of a large number of mathematical constructs similar to "neurons" connected in various ways to perform any one of a large number of tasks. The convolutional neural network (CNN or ConvNet) is a type of deep progress network that has been successfully applied to visual image analysis. CNN uses a multilayer perceptron variation that has been designed to require a minimum of pretreatment. They are also called spatially invariant or invariant neural networks (SIANN) based on their jointly weighted architectural and invariant properties. The Lenet model does not work on large images, while Alexnet works on large images. Cnn is used for the object Recognition and Recursive Neural Network (RNN) is used for speech recognition. In Recursive Neural Network Signal travelling in both directions by introducing loops in the network. The performance and potential of SVM was found higher than k-NN and Naive Thomas Bayes with recognition rate 93%. Chain code provides higher performance with SVM classifier [14]. 5. CONCLUSION Deep Convolutional Neural Network have shown superior results to traditional shallow networks in many recognition tasks. Using Deep CNN Increases test accuracy by nearly 1 percent. HMM classes for character recognition owing to the distinct advantage of adjustment of pen – thickness and interpolation. Standardization of the sequences of stroke order is a way to reduce the overhead of look-up table used for recognition of character in HMM class. For single digit recognition, Convolutional neural nets present impressive results. Conventional Neural network gives impressive performance, that performance is somewhat mysterious. Generating modified set of fragments is a lengthy process. Using polygonal shape, vectors are created which does not a give assurance of generation of exact image. Contours are the shape descriptor in object recognition problem. Power quality event gives the clarity that multiple images can use PQ event and generate waveforms for multiple images at same time. References
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