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A  QUICK  
INTRODUCTION  TO  
VISUAL  EFFECTS  
Will  Zhou  	
willzhou@live.com	
h2ps://cn.linkedin.com/in/willzhou	
电影视觉效果制作技术介绍
V0.1
目录  CONTENTS  
Œ  Film Making Overview 电影制作流程
  What is VFX ( Visual Effects ) 什么是视觉效果
Ž  Visual Effects Workflow 视觉效果制作工作流程
  Glossary 名词解释
  VFX Production Management 视觉效果制片管理
Some  pictures  used  in  the  slides  are  downloaded  from  the  internet.	
If  you  think  they’re  not  used  properly,  please  let  me  know.  I  will  remove  them.	
Thanks.
中期
Physical  
Production
后期	
Post-­‐‑
Production前期	
Pre-­‐‑
Production
Shooting	
拍摄	
Storyboard	
分镜设计	
Scripting	
剧本创作	
Casting	
挑选演员	
Pre-­‐‑visualization	
动态预演	
…	
Onset  Data  
Management	
现场数据管理	
Special  Make-­‐‑up	
特效化妆	
Costume	
服装	
Digital  Intermediate	
数字中间片	
Visual  Effects	
视觉效果制作	
Sound	
声音制作	
Trailer  Making	
预告⽚片制作	
2D/3D  Conversion	
2D转3D	
…	
Film  Making  Workflow  
电影制作流程  
Props	
道具	
Editing	
剪辑	
…
Visual Effects (VFX) is a term referring to any method that
makes it possible to create a scene or effect that could not
otherwise be produced with regular photographic techniques.
视觉效果制作:但凡在电影制作过程中,通过非普通摄影技术手段,
而制作出来的场景或效果的统称,即是指视觉效果。
What  is  Visual  Effects  
什么是视觉效果  
Q:  Do  you  know,  why  some  times  it  uses  green-­‐‑screen,  and  some  times  
it’s  just  blue-­‐‑screen?	
问题:你知道拍摄电影时,为什么有时用绿幕,有时用蓝幕吗?
Avengers The  Lord  of  the  Rings	
The  hobbits
Life  of  Pi
Screen  Usage  for  Dummies  
幕布使用傻瓜指南  
A:    In  fact,  for  Asian,  blue  screen  technique  is  applied,  while  green  
screen  technique  is  used  for  Occidental.	
答:事实上,对于亚洲人一般采用蓝幕,而对于欧美人一般采用绿幕布。
Blue  Screen
Green  Screen
Visual Effects most commonly refers to 3D computer graphics/CGI produced for films,
games, and advertising, however miniature and real-world model building are good
examples of Visual Effects techniques that require no digital assistance.
这里所说的视觉效果制作,主要是指通过使用三维计算机图形图像技术来创作电影、游戏和广告
中的视觉内容。虽然缩微置景、实物建模等技术,都是很好的视觉效果制作方法,但并非本次话
题所指内容。
Special Effects is sometimes same as Visual Effects, although technically it also includes
sound recording, editing and mixing techniques in addition to visual ones. And It
includes Physical Effects, like explosion too.
『特殊效果』有时是『视觉效果』的同义词。但前者往往还包含了声音效果的制作,后者单纯指
视觉影像。
Visual  Effects  Vs.  Special  Effects  
  视觉效果与特殊效果  
Physical  Effects:  Explosion	
物理特效:爆炸
CGI	
计算机生成图像
Sound  Effects:  Foley  Sound	
音效制作:  拟音效果
Visual  Effects  Workflow/Pipeline  
视觉效果制作工作流程  
3D  Modeling	
三维建模
Rigging	
动画绑定
Animation	
动画
Shading	
着色处理
Lighting  &  Rendering	
三维灯光与渲染
Dynamic  Effects:  Smoke,  Fluid,  Fire,  
Dust,  Smash,  Fog,  Rain,  blood…  	
动态特效:烟、流体、火、尘土、破
碎、雾、雨、血液…
Compositing	
合成
Character  Effects:  Hair,  Fur,  Cloth,  
Deformation…	
角色特效:毛发、布料、变形…
Color  Grading	
调光调色
Texturing	
材质贴图
Ma^e-­‐‑painting	
数字绘景
Match  Mover	
运动匹配
Layout	
三维布局
•  3D Modeling 三维建模
With the look of the character finalized, the project is passed into
the hands of 3D modelers.  The job of a modeler is to take a two-
dimensional piece of concept art and translate it into a 3D
model that can be given to animators later on down the road.
当角色的造型设计完毕之后,工作内容便转移到了三维建模师手里。三
维建模师将二维的概念设定图,通过计算机软件,将其转换为三维的数
字模型,以便于动画师进行下一步工作。
•  Shading & Texturing 着色与材质贴图
Materials, textures, and colors are added to the 3D model. Every
component of the model receives a different shader-material to
give it a right look.
材料、材质、颜色,将会被添加到三维模型上面。 模型的每一个组件都
会被赋予不同的着色和材质,以赋予其合理的外观。
Glossary  
部分名词解释  
Glossary  
部分名词解释  
•  Rigging 动画绑定
A character rig is essentially a digital skeleton bound to the 3D mesh. Like a real
skeleton, a rig is made up of joints and bones, each of which act as a “handle” that
animators can use to bend the character into a desired pose.
本质上来说,角色绑定的意思是,将计算机中的数字骨架绑定到三维物体上去,就好像真实的骨
架那样,也是由关节和骨骼组成的,每一个骨架,都会有一个Handle。动画师可以利用Handle
来调节数字角色,以得到想要的姿势。
•  Layout 布局
Layout means placement of objects within a scene. It includes six elements, which are
Space Relationship, Camera Movement, Camera Timing, Action Breakdown,
Dialogues and Description.
布局,即是将各个数字物体放置在三维场景里。它包含了六个很重要的元素,空间关系,镜头运
动,镜头时间,分解动作,台词,以及文字说明。
•  Lighting 灯光照明
In order for 3D scenes to come to life, digital lights must be placed in the scene to illuminate
models, same as lighting rigs on a shooting set would illuminate actors and actresses.
为了让三维场景显得更加逼真,数字灯光将会放置其中,以照明其中的三维模型,就像电影拍摄
现场,用灯光照亮男女主角以取得更好的视觉效果一样。
•  Rendering 渲染
The final production phase for a 3D scene is known as rendering, which essentially
refers to the translation of a 3D scene to a finalized two-dimensional image.  Rendering
is quite technical,all the computations that cannot be done by your computer in real-
time must be performed.
三维场景工作流程中的最后一步,即是渲染。渲染的基本意思是将三维的场景转换成二维的图像。
渲染是一种非常技术化的工作,所有的计算都是非实时的,都是需要经过执行才能完成。
Glossary  
部分名词解释  
•  Match Mover 运动匹配
Match Mover, means working out the camera paths and parameters of a sequence of
footage, then by using the camera data, objects can be merged into the scene properly.
运动匹配,是指将拍摄素材中的运动摄像机的路径和有关参数,精确的计算出来,以便于将物体完美正
好到制作场景中去,常见软件有3D Equalizer, PFtrack,Boujou等
•  Matte Painting 数字绘景
A matte painting is a painted representation of a landscape, set, or distant location that
allows filmmakers to create the illusion of an environment that is non-existent in real life or
would otherwise be too expensive or impossible to build or visit. 数字绘景,是一种有关风景、场
景、远景绘画的表现手法,它允许电影制作者创造梦幻般的场景,该场景可能是不存在于真实世界,亦
或是因为拍摄过于昂贵,甚至根本无法拍摄。
•  Compositing 合成
Compositing is the combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images,
often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene. 合成,是一种将
各种视觉化的元素合并在一起的工作。这些元素通常来自于不同的地方,但应都属于同一个画面或场景。
Glossary  
部分名词解释  
Common  Industry  Software  and  Tools  
常见行业软件或工具  
File Sharing Server
文件服务器
Crowd Simulation
群集模拟
Motion Capture
动作捕捉
Render Queue Management	
渲染队列管理
Texture Painting
材质绘制
Compositing
合成
Renderer
渲染器
3D Modeling
三维建模
Key-frame Animation
关键帧动画
Effects & Simulation
特效模拟
Visual  Effects  Production  Management  
视觉效果制片管理  
Crew  Planning	
人员计划
VFX  Production  
Management	
视觉效果制片管理
Project  Timeline	
项目时间安排
Shot  Tracking	
镜头管理	
Versioning  &  Publishing	
版本与发布管理	
Review	
审片	
High  Speed  File  Transfer	
⾼高速⽂文件传输	
Contract  &  Invoice  Management	
合同与发票管理	
Customer  Relation  Management	
客户关系管理系统
Knowledge  Management	
知识管理	
Asset  Management	
数字资产管理	
Billing  System	
报价系统
Crew  Planning  
人员计划  
Schedule people to projects so you always know who’s booked, who’s free, and
who’s on vacation.
通过⼈人员计划,你可以了解到哪些制作人员正忙于项目,哪些制作人员是空闲的,
哪些则是正在处于休假当中。
Schedule important phases and milestones across the project to help you see
what's happening across the studio.
规划重要的阶段和里程碑节点,使得制片人员更清楚地了解,公司目前有哪些项目在进行,
以及未来的情况如何。
Project  Timeline  
项目时间安排  
Shot  Tracking  
镜头管理  
Shot Tracking System, is the most important management system for a Visual Effects
company. By the system, an artist can get his tasks there, also including priorities, time
durations, shot status, and feedbacks created by Visual Effects Supervisor.
镜头管理系统,应该是每一个视觉效果制作公司的最核心系统。通过系统,制作人员可以了解到
分配给自己的有哪些镜头,分别是什么优先级和时间周期,而且还可以看到镜头的状态,以及视
效总监的反馈。
Versioning  &  Publishing  
版本与发布管理  
Even for just one same shot, there might be dozens of version created by artists. How to
manage them? Some times people just want to find back an old version copy. Version
Management is very important. Publishing means that artists publish their finished shots
into the management system. So, Visual Effects Supervisor can view these shots.
一个镜头,往往会有几十个版本产生。如何管理这些版本?有时候人们只是需要一个早期一点的
版本,因此版本管理非常重要。这里发布的意思,即是制作人员在完成他们的镜头之后,发布到
管理系统中,以便于视效总监观看。
Review  
审阅镜头  
Visual Effects Supervisor is the one who can finally approves all of the VFX shots.
She/he usually reviews the shots which are published by artists daily, and makes a
decision if it’s approved or not. If it’s not approved, it will be retaken to the artist.
视效总监是最终决定镜头是否通过的人。他通常每天会检查镜头,审阅镜头。他对检查过的
镜头,会打上通过或者未通过的标签。如果没有通过,制作人员肯定是需要回去重做的。
视觉效果工作室
Visual Effects Crew
导演制⽚片⼯工作室
Production Studios
影视后期公司
Post Production Houses
文件传输File Transfer
剪辑 Editing
数字中间片 DI
视觉效果制作
Visual Effects
Aspera
FileCatalyst
…
High  Speed  File  Transfer  
    高速文件传输  
Thanks!
Some  pictures  used  in  the  slides  are  downloaded  from  the  internet.	
If  you  think  they’re  not  used  properly,  please  let  me  know.  I  will  remove  them.	
Thanks.	
Will  Zhou,  March,  2015.

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A quick introduction to visual effects 电影视觉效果制作技术介绍

  • 1. A  QUICK   INTRODUCTION  TO   VISUAL  EFFECTS   Will  Zhou   willzhou@live.com h2ps://cn.linkedin.com/in/willzhou 电影视觉效果制作技术介绍 V0.1
  • 2. 目录  CONTENTS   Œ  Film Making Overview 电影制作流程   What is VFX ( Visual Effects ) 什么是视觉效果 Ž  Visual Effects Workflow 视觉效果制作工作流程   Glossary 名词解释   VFX Production Management 视觉效果制片管理 Some  pictures  used  in  the  slides  are  downloaded  from  the  internet. If  you  think  they’re  not  used  properly,  please  let  me  know.  I  will  remove  them. Thanks.
  • 3. 中期 Physical   Production 后期 Post-­‐‑ Production前期 Pre-­‐‑ Production Shooting 拍摄 Storyboard 分镜设计 Scripting 剧本创作 Casting 挑选演员 Pre-­‐‑visualization 动态预演 … Onset  Data   Management 现场数据管理 Special  Make-­‐‑up 特效化妆 Costume 服装 Digital  Intermediate 数字中间片 Visual  Effects 视觉效果制作 Sound 声音制作 Trailer  Making 预告⽚片制作 2D/3D  Conversion 2D转3D … Film  Making  Workflow   电影制作流程   Props 道具 Editing 剪辑 …
  • 4. Visual Effects (VFX) is a term referring to any method that makes it possible to create a scene or effect that could not otherwise be produced with regular photographic techniques. 视觉效果制作:但凡在电影制作过程中,通过非普通摄影技术手段, 而制作出来的场景或效果的统称,即是指视觉效果。 What  is  Visual  Effects   什么是视觉效果   Q:  Do  you  know,  why  some  times  it  uses  green-­‐‑screen,  and  some  times   it’s  just  blue-­‐‑screen? 问题:你知道拍摄电影时,为什么有时用绿幕,有时用蓝幕吗? Avengers The  Lord  of  the  Rings The  hobbits Life  of  Pi
  • 5. Screen  Usage  for  Dummies   幕布使用傻瓜指南   A:    In  fact,  for  Asian,  blue  screen  technique  is  applied,  while  green   screen  technique  is  used  for  Occidental. 答:事实上,对于亚洲人一般采用蓝幕,而对于欧美人一般采用绿幕布。 Blue  Screen Green  Screen
  • 6. Visual Effects most commonly refers to 3D computer graphics/CGI produced for films, games, and advertising, however miniature and real-world model building are good examples of Visual Effects techniques that require no digital assistance. 这里所说的视觉效果制作,主要是指通过使用三维计算机图形图像技术来创作电影、游戏和广告 中的视觉内容。虽然缩微置景、实物建模等技术,都是很好的视觉效果制作方法,但并非本次话 题所指内容。 Special Effects is sometimes same as Visual Effects, although technically it also includes sound recording, editing and mixing techniques in addition to visual ones. And It includes Physical Effects, like explosion too. 『特殊效果』有时是『视觉效果』的同义词。但前者往往还包含了声音效果的制作,后者单纯指 视觉影像。 Visual  Effects  Vs.  Special  Effects    视觉效果与特殊效果   Physical  Effects:  Explosion 物理特效:爆炸 CGI 计算机生成图像 Sound  Effects:  Foley  Sound 音效制作:  拟音效果
  • 7. Visual  Effects  Workflow/Pipeline   视觉效果制作工作流程   3D  Modeling 三维建模 Rigging 动画绑定 Animation 动画 Shading 着色处理 Lighting  &  Rendering 三维灯光与渲染 Dynamic  Effects:  Smoke,  Fluid,  Fire,   Dust,  Smash,  Fog,  Rain,  blood…   动态特效:烟、流体、火、尘土、破 碎、雾、雨、血液… Compositing 合成 Character  Effects:  Hair,  Fur,  Cloth,   Deformation… 角色特效:毛发、布料、变形… Color  Grading 调光调色 Texturing 材质贴图 Ma^e-­‐‑painting 数字绘景 Match  Mover 运动匹配 Layout 三维布局
  • 8. •  3D Modeling 三维建模 With the look of the character finalized, the project is passed into the hands of 3D modelers.  The job of a modeler is to take a two- dimensional piece of concept art and translate it into a 3D model that can be given to animators later on down the road. 当角色的造型设计完毕之后,工作内容便转移到了三维建模师手里。三 维建模师将二维的概念设定图,通过计算机软件,将其转换为三维的数 字模型,以便于动画师进行下一步工作。 •  Shading & Texturing 着色与材质贴图 Materials, textures, and colors are added to the 3D model. Every component of the model receives a different shader-material to give it a right look. 材料、材质、颜色,将会被添加到三维模型上面。 模型的每一个组件都 会被赋予不同的着色和材质,以赋予其合理的外观。 Glossary   部分名词解释  
  • 9. Glossary   部分名词解释   •  Rigging 动画绑定 A character rig is essentially a digital skeleton bound to the 3D mesh. Like a real skeleton, a rig is made up of joints and bones, each of which act as a “handle” that animators can use to bend the character into a desired pose. 本质上来说,角色绑定的意思是,将计算机中的数字骨架绑定到三维物体上去,就好像真实的骨 架那样,也是由关节和骨骼组成的,每一个骨架,都会有一个Handle。动画师可以利用Handle 来调节数字角色,以得到想要的姿势。 •  Layout 布局 Layout means placement of objects within a scene. It includes six elements, which are Space Relationship, Camera Movement, Camera Timing, Action Breakdown, Dialogues and Description. 布局,即是将各个数字物体放置在三维场景里。它包含了六个很重要的元素,空间关系,镜头运 动,镜头时间,分解动作,台词,以及文字说明。
  • 10. •  Lighting 灯光照明 In order for 3D scenes to come to life, digital lights must be placed in the scene to illuminate models, same as lighting rigs on a shooting set would illuminate actors and actresses. 为了让三维场景显得更加逼真,数字灯光将会放置其中,以照明其中的三维模型,就像电影拍摄 现场,用灯光照亮男女主角以取得更好的视觉效果一样。 •  Rendering 渲染 The final production phase for a 3D scene is known as rendering, which essentially refers to the translation of a 3D scene to a finalized two-dimensional image.  Rendering is quite technical,all the computations that cannot be done by your computer in real- time must be performed. 三维场景工作流程中的最后一步,即是渲染。渲染的基本意思是将三维的场景转换成二维的图像。 渲染是一种非常技术化的工作,所有的计算都是非实时的,都是需要经过执行才能完成。 Glossary   部分名词解释  
  • 11. •  Match Mover 运动匹配 Match Mover, means working out the camera paths and parameters of a sequence of footage, then by using the camera data, objects can be merged into the scene properly. 运动匹配,是指将拍摄素材中的运动摄像机的路径和有关参数,精确的计算出来,以便于将物体完美正 好到制作场景中去,常见软件有3D Equalizer, PFtrack,Boujou等 •  Matte Painting 数字绘景 A matte painting is a painted representation of a landscape, set, or distant location that allows filmmakers to create the illusion of an environment that is non-existent in real life or would otherwise be too expensive or impossible to build or visit. 数字绘景,是一种有关风景、场 景、远景绘画的表现手法,它允许电影制作者创造梦幻般的场景,该场景可能是不存在于真实世界,亦 或是因为拍摄过于昂贵,甚至根本无法拍摄。 •  Compositing 合成 Compositing is the combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images, often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene. 合成,是一种将 各种视觉化的元素合并在一起的工作。这些元素通常来自于不同的地方,但应都属于同一个画面或场景。 Glossary   部分名词解释  
  • 12. Common  Industry  Software  and  Tools   常见行业软件或工具   File Sharing Server 文件服务器 Crowd Simulation 群集模拟 Motion Capture 动作捕捉 Render Queue Management 渲染队列管理 Texture Painting 材质绘制 Compositing 合成 Renderer 渲染器 3D Modeling 三维建模 Key-frame Animation 关键帧动画 Effects & Simulation 特效模拟
  • 13. Visual  Effects  Production  Management   视觉效果制片管理   Crew  Planning 人员计划 VFX  Production   Management 视觉效果制片管理 Project  Timeline 项目时间安排 Shot  Tracking 镜头管理 Versioning  &  Publishing 版本与发布管理 Review 审片 High  Speed  File  Transfer ⾼高速⽂文件传输 Contract  &  Invoice  Management 合同与发票管理 Customer  Relation  Management 客户关系管理系统 Knowledge  Management 知识管理 Asset  Management 数字资产管理 Billing  System 报价系统
  • 14. Crew  Planning   人员计划   Schedule people to projects so you always know who’s booked, who’s free, and who’s on vacation. 通过⼈人员计划,你可以了解到哪些制作人员正忙于项目,哪些制作人员是空闲的, 哪些则是正在处于休假当中。
  • 15. Schedule important phases and milestones across the project to help you see what's happening across the studio. 规划重要的阶段和里程碑节点,使得制片人员更清楚地了解,公司目前有哪些项目在进行, 以及未来的情况如何。 Project  Timeline   项目时间安排  
  • 16. Shot  Tracking   镜头管理   Shot Tracking System, is the most important management system for a Visual Effects company. By the system, an artist can get his tasks there, also including priorities, time durations, shot status, and feedbacks created by Visual Effects Supervisor. 镜头管理系统,应该是每一个视觉效果制作公司的最核心系统。通过系统,制作人员可以了解到 分配给自己的有哪些镜头,分别是什么优先级和时间周期,而且还可以看到镜头的状态,以及视 效总监的反馈。
  • 17. Versioning  &  Publishing   版本与发布管理   Even for just one same shot, there might be dozens of version created by artists. How to manage them? Some times people just want to find back an old version copy. Version Management is very important. Publishing means that artists publish their finished shots into the management system. So, Visual Effects Supervisor can view these shots. 一个镜头,往往会有几十个版本产生。如何管理这些版本?有时候人们只是需要一个早期一点的 版本,因此版本管理非常重要。这里发布的意思,即是制作人员在完成他们的镜头之后,发布到 管理系统中,以便于视效总监观看。
  • 18. Review   审阅镜头   Visual Effects Supervisor is the one who can finally approves all of the VFX shots. She/he usually reviews the shots which are published by artists daily, and makes a decision if it’s approved or not. If it’s not approved, it will be retaken to the artist. 视效总监是最终决定镜头是否通过的人。他通常每天会检查镜头,审阅镜头。他对检查过的 镜头,会打上通过或者未通过的标签。如果没有通过,制作人员肯定是需要回去重做的。
  • 19. 视觉效果工作室 Visual Effects Crew 导演制⽚片⼯工作室 Production Studios 影视后期公司 Post Production Houses 文件传输File Transfer 剪辑 Editing 数字中间片 DI 视觉效果制作 Visual Effects Aspera FileCatalyst … High  Speed  File  Transfer      高速文件传输  
  • 20. Thanks! Some  pictures  used  in  the  slides  are  downloaded  from  the  internet. If  you  think  they’re  not  used  properly,  please  let  me  know.  I  will  remove  them. Thanks. Will  Zhou,  March,  2015.