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A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN “12 YEARS
SLAVE” FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN
(Sociology of Literature)
THESIS
Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of Requirement for the Graduate S1
Degree of Education English Department
By:
AHMAD ARSKI DE AFRIGH
NIM : 1171101
SEKOLAH TINGGI KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
PERSATUAN GURU REPUBLIK INDONESIA
JOMBANG
2016
ii
APPROVAL SHEET
THESIS
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN “12 YEARS
SLAVE” FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN
(Sociology of Literature)
By:
AHMAD ARISKI DE AFRIGH
NIM : 1171101
Approved on 21th
December 2015
By
Advisor,
KHOIRUL HASYIM, M.Pd.
iii
COMMISSION SHEET
THESIS
A POTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN “12 YEARS
SLAVE” FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN
(Sociology of Literature)
By:
AHMAD ARISKI DE AFRIGH
NIM : 1171101
Board of Examiners
Name Signature
Chairman : Drs. Adib Darmawan, M.A. ……………………
Examiner 1 : M. Saibani Wiyanto, M.Pd. ……………………
Examiner 2 : Dra. Mindaudah, M.Pd. ……………………
Examiner 3 : Khoirul Hasyim, M.Pd. ……………………
Acknowledge by
Head of English Department
Drs. Adib Darmawan, M.A.
iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Firstly, the writer would like to say thanks to ALLAH SWT, The Almighty
who gives all His blessing for finishing this final project, and to the Prophet
Muhammad, the great man who becomes the leader of Moslem and guides the
human to the right way and also to all his families and his friends.
The researcher takes his thesis under the title A Portrayed f Race
Discrimination In “12 Years Slave” Film by Steve Mcqueen (Sociology of
Literature) due to his interest to the content of the film. Besides, it is aimed to
fulfill the requirement for bachelor’s degree.
Moreover, the researcher realizes that he would never the completion of
his thesis without the contribution and encouragement from many people.
Therefore, the researcher wants to express his gratitude to:
1. Dr. Winardi, S.H., M.Hum., the Dean of STKIP PGRI JOMBANG;
2. Drs. Adib Darmawan, M.A., the Head of English Department of STKIP
PGRI JOMBANG;
3. Khoirul Hasyim, M.Pd., the advisor who has always given suggestion for
the researcher’s thesis;
4. All the lecturers of STKIP PGRI JOMBANG who were willing to give their
advices for the completion of this thesis;
5. All friends who have always got together to support each other.
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Finally, the researcher also realizes that this thesis is still far from the
perfection. Therefore, the writer expects any improving critics and suggestions for
this thesis. In addition, the researcher hopes this thesis will be advantageous for
both the writer and the readers.
Jombang,…December 2015
The researcher
vi
MOTTO
Born to Lose, Live to Win
-Motorhead-
vii
DEDICATION
This thesis is dedicated to:
My beloved family, with their love and effort who always pray and support me.
viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
COVER ....................................................................................................... i
APPROVAL SHEET .................................................................................. ii
COMMISSION SHEET.............................................................................. iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENT............................................................................. iv
MOTTO ...................................................................................................... vi
DEDICATION............................................................................................ vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................ viii
LIST OF APPENDICES............................................................................. x
ABSTRACT................................................................................................ xi
CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION .......................................................... 1
A. Background of the Study ......................................... 1
B. Problem of the Study ............................................... 4
C. Objective of the Study ............................................. 4
D. Significance of the Study......................................... 5
E. Scope and Limitation............................................... 5
F. Definition of Key Terms.......................................... 5
G. Research Method ..................................................... 7
1. Research design ................................................. 7
2. Approach............................................................ 8
3. Source of Data and Data.................................... 8
4. Instrument.......................................................... 9
5. Procedure of Collecting Data............................. 11
6. Procedure of Analysis Data ............................... 11
CHAPTER II : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE...................... 13
A. Theoretical Background........................................... 13
1. Film as Literary Work ...................................... 13
2. Sociology Of Literature.................................... 14
a. The Author Sociology ................................ 16
b. The sociology of literary work ................... 17
c. The reader sociology .................................. 17
ix
3. Sociological Theory.......................................... 18
a. Functionalism ............................................. 20
b. Conflict Theory........................................... 22
c. Symbolic Interactionism............................. 23
4. Race Discrimination ......................................... 24
a. Annihilation................................................ 26
b. Expulsion.................................................... 28
c. Segregation ................................................. 29
d. Assimilation................................................ 31
B. Previous Studies ...................................................... 32
C. Theoretical Framework............................................ 35
CHAPTER III : FINDING AND DISCUSSION...................................... 37
A. Findings ................................................................... 37
B. Discussion................................................................ 63
CHAPTER IV : CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION........................... 72
A. Conclusion............................................................... 72
B. Suggestion ............................................................... 73
BIBLIOGRAPHY....................................................................................... 74
APPENDICES ............................................................................................ 76
x
LIST OF APPENDICES
1. APPENDIX 1 : Classification of Data Collected of Race Discriminations
Portrayed in "12 Years Slave" Film................................ 76
2. APPENDIX 2 : Synopsis of “The Blind Side” Film................................ 98
xi
ABSTRACT
Afrigh, Ahmad Ariski De. 2015. A Portrayed of Race Discrimination in “12
Years Slave” Film By Steve Mcqueen (Sociology of Literature) Thesis.
English Department of STKIP PGRI JOMBANG, Advisor: Khoirul
Hasyim, M.Pd.
Key words: Race discrimination, whites, blacks, sociology of literature. 12 years
slave.
Literary work is an expression from social phenomenon that occurs in
society. The social phenomenon is including the discrimination based on the race
in society which was conducted by dominant group toward minority group. As the
one of result from the race discrimination is slavery of black people as the
minority group that conduct by whites as the dominant group who have the
authority in the country. The purpose of this study is to find out the kind of race
discrimination of white people toward blacks as the minority group that shown in
12 Years Slave film. In other side, the researcher also aims to find out the effect
from race discrimination of whites toward blacks.
In this study, the researcher only analyzed the race discrimination that
portrayed in 12 Years Slave film without compared with the real condition in
society. For this study, the approach that used is sociology of literature which
analyzes used sociological theory. By the approach, the researcher analyzes the
social phenomenon that was occurring in society including the race
discrimination.
12 Years Slave, is the film that portrayed the race discrimination of whites
toward blacks. The film was told about Solomon Northup the African-American
freeman who kidnaped and sold as a slave by whites. The race discrimination
experience of blacks in this film are depicted in four form, as follow;
Annihilation, Expulsion, Segregation, and Assimilation, from All of the
discrimination form that conducted by whites is give the effect to blacks, the
effect is blacks did not have the right to life since when the blacks disobedient to
whites they will get the punishment or killed, the blacks separated with their
family, and the facilitation from whites as the dominant group that should give to
black are limit.
From the study, the researcher conclude that from all of kind and the effect
of race discrimination show how the whites as dominant group made the blacks as
the minority group deprive their right in society when the dominant group oppress
by enslave the black and from the study the researcher assumed that the race
discrimination still occurs today with the different treatment
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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background of The Study
Literature is an idea that made as the expression the feeling of human.
Etymologically, the Latin word “litteratura” is derived from “littera” (letter).
Literature can express by spoken or write. Literature comes from some idea,
experience, opinion, emotion of human in their society. We know that literature is
mirrors of society. So, what happens in a society is reflected in literary works in
one form or another. According to Wellek and Warren (1949: 94), literature
represents ‘life’ and ‘life’ is a social reality, even though the natural world and the
inner or subjective world of the individual have also been objects of literary
‘imitations’. Through literature, an author tries to express his or her idea about
what he or she ever experienced in life time or what was happening around them
from natural phenomenon to the life of the people in their community. Therefore,
literature is expressed the idea fiction or non-fiction. Literature is referred to as
the entirety of written expression, with the restriction that not every written
document can be categorized as literature in the more exact sense of the word. It
also states from Klarer (2004: 1) that literature usually include additional
adjectives such as “aesthetic” or “artistic” to distinguish literary works from texts
of everyday use such as telephone books, newspapers, legal documents, and
scholarly writings. It means literature is expression of human which come from
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his idea, feeling, opinion, and emotion which have an aesthetic or artistic point in
meaningful and coherent by spoken or written.
As part of literary work, film also included within such as fiction, poetry,
drama. Film is representing a written work of literature trough role play with
additional graphic motion and sound that make interesting of reader. Klarer (2004:
56) argued that film is predetermined by literary technique conversely, literary
practice developed particular features under the impact of film. He also argued
that film’s idiosyncratic modes of presentation such as camera angle, editing,
montage, slow and fast motion often parallel features of literary texts or can be
explained within a textual framework. So, film it can be define as role play of
literary work that presenting in series of motion pictures that taken by camera with
additional of editing, camera angle, montage and sound which played on a screen.
However, literature is closely linked with society which literature itself is an
expression that born from the daily activities in a society. As already described
previously by to Wellek and Warren (1949: 94) literature represents ‘life’ and
‘life’ is a social reality. Through literature an author can express his idea that ever
experienced or what was happening around them. The study explains about
society it’s called Sociology. Sociology is defined as the systematic study of
society and social interaction. The word of “sociology” is derived from the Latin
word “socius” (companion) and the Greek word “logos” (study of), meaning “the
study of companionship”. The relation of literature and sociology assumes that
literature is reflected from the author experienced about some aspects of social
reality. So, the sociology of literature is the theory that studies about relationship
3
between literature and society. As what states by Desan et al. (1989) in Schram
and Steen (2001:359) that the sociology of literature in particular has focused on
the relation between society and literature, usually employing the metaphor that
literature mirrors society.
According to Tischler (2007: 218) define the concept of race in his book
Introduction to Sociology. Race refers to a category of people who are defined as
similar because of a number of physical characteristics. It means race is the term
how to categorize human based on their physical characteristic such as their
various geographic regions, ethnicities, skin colors, and more. While, Tischler
(2007: 223) also argued the term of Discrimination, it is refers to differential
treatment, usually unequal and injurious, according to individual who are assumed
to belong to a particular category or group. Therefore, Race Discrimination can be
defined as the differential treatment of person or group based on their racial
origins. Here, to analyze race discrimination using Sociology of Literature should
by means of three perspectives in sociology. Tischler (2007: 19) also explain that
in sociology there are three perspectives, those are structural functionalism,
conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. The perspectives would each explain
race discrimination in a different way.
In this study, the reseacher want to examine in detail about film in order to
show the portraying race discrimination that exist in "12 Years Slave" film
directed by Steve McQueen, 2013. The film is told the story of Solomon Northup,
a black people who have talent in this music calls itself a free man. One day he
was kidnapped and sold as a slave purchase. So a good planter named Ford was
4
bought. But it was his intelligence that brought the problem to Tibeats because he
thinks Solomon only black people. Worried something happened to Solomon, he
was resold. This time it was bought by Edwin Epps, a cruel treat slaves. There
Solomon had to fight to fight for justice till 12 years.
Considering those views and the perspective of researcher toward film as
literary work, this thesis aims to analyze the phenomenon which is describe race
discrimination that contained on Hollywood film under the title A Portrayed of
Race Discrimination in "12 Years Slave" Film Directed By Steve McQueen (The
Sociology of Literature Study).
B. Problem of The study
1. What kind of race discrimination portrayed in "12 Years Slave" film?
2. What the effect of race discrimination portrayed in "12 Years Slave" film?
C. Objective of the Study
1. To know kind of race discrimination portrayed in "12 Years Slave" film.
2. To know the effect of race discrimination portrayed in "12 Years Slave"
film.
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D. Significance of Study
The analysis of this study is expected to give significance to the readers
which used theoretically and practically, as follows:
1. Theoretically
The result of this study can be a reference to the reader who will discuss
about Sociology of Literature related the literary work, especially film.
2. Practically
The result of the study also can give information as the references for
the student and the next researchers who also want to study related the theory
Sociology of literature in literary terms.
E. Scope and Limitation
There are some aspects that can be discussed in literary work especially in
"12 Years Slave" film. As the scope of this study, the researcher focuses to
analyze the utterance of race discrimination whites toward blacks based on screen
play and screen capture in 12 Years Slave" film. And as the limitation, the
researcher dividing the race discrimination into four terms that explains in
sociological theory. Those terms are Annihilation, Expulsion, Segregation, and
Assimilation.
F. Definition of Key Terms
1. Sociology of Literature
Sociology of literature is the term to analyze the relationship between
literature and society. The sociology of literature in particular has focused on
the relation between society and literature, usually employing the metaphor
6
that literature mirrors society. The relation of literature and society it assume
that literature are reflected from the author experienced about some aspect of
social reality. (Desan et al. 1989 in Schram and Steen, 2001:359)
2. Race discrimination
As the phenomenon in society the race discrimination is the treatment come
from the dominant group toward minority group based on differential their
race. Here, Race Discrimination is differential treatment a person or group
based on their racial origins. The treatment usually unequal and injurious
accorded to individuals who are assumed to belong to a particular category or
group. (Tischler. 2007: 223)
3. 12 Years Slave
12 years slave film is film who created by Steve McQueen. It is told the story
of Solomon Northup, a black people who have talent in this music calls itself
a free man. One day he was kidnapped and sold as a slave purchase. So a
good planter named Ford was bought. But it was his intelligence that brought
the problem to Tibeats because he thinks Solomon only black people.
Worried something happened to Solomon, he was resold. This time it was
bought by Edwin Epps, a cruel treat slaves. There Solomon had to fight to
fight for justice till 12 years.
7
G. Research Method
Research method is a method designed to explore specific research
questions provided by researcher when conducting the study. It is the general
systematic framework to guide a research project which included the research
design, the approach, and the source of the data, the instrument, and the procedure
of data analysis.
1. Research Design
The research design is procedure that used by researcher to collect and
analyze the data. It is procedure that can make effectively for the research
problem clearly.
In this study, the researcher applies qualitative research design. In brief,
qualitative research in this research is employing the method of collecting,
describing, classifying, and analyzing the data and then drawing conclusion.
By using qualitative method, this research is aimed to describe the race
discrimination in "12 Years Slave" film based on the sociology of literature
study. According to Dornyei (2011: 37) we find qualitative studies focusing
on topics across the whole research spectrum, even including core
quantitative areas such as language testing and several keys applied
linguistics (for example: the study of gender, race, ethnicity, and identity) are
being driven by qualitative research. It is also argued by Creswell (2009:4)
Qualitative Research is a means for exploring and understanding the meaning
individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem. From that
8
explanation, the researchers have the reason to apply descriptive qualitative to
conduct the research.
2. Approach
In this study, the researcher applied Sociology of Literature approach
through sociological theory. As cited by Allan in Nathan et al. book
Introduction to Sociology (2007: 17) that Sociological theory is a way to
explain different aspects of social interactions and to create testable
propositions about society. It means through the sociological theory the
researcher analyzes social interaction, actually, Race Discrimination which
occurred on the film. Moreover, As Mooney (2011: 9) states that in Sociology
there are three major theoretical perspectives: the structural-functionalist
perspective, the conflict perspective, and also the symbolic interactionist
perspective. Each perspective would explain the cause and possible solution
or explain a particular the phenomena.
Based on description, the researcher emphasizes the research through
Sociological Theory to interpret the phenomena of race discrimination that
portrayed in "12 Years Slave" film.
3. Source of Data And Data
The sources of data used in this study were taken from 12 Years Slave
film. In other side, researcher also used the screenplay of film and some
references such as books, website that has relationship with the study of race
discrimination to support the study. While, the data were taken from
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utterances with contain the treatment from whites toward blacks in screenplay
and screen captures from "12 Years Slave" film which contained the race
discrimination with sociological theory as the base.
4. Instrument
In this study, the researcher used observation for collecting, analyzing,
and presenting the data. It supported by Yin (2011: 143) states observation
can be an invaluable way of collecting data because what you see with your
own eyes and perceive with your own senses is not filtered by what others
might have (self-) reported to you or what the author of some document might
have seen. In this sense, your observations are a form of primary data, to be
highly cherished. Here, the researcher also applied document as the
supporting instrument to get the data that appropriate with the phenomenon
would be analyzed. According to Dornyei (2011: 37) states that qualitative
research work with a wide range of data including various types of text (for
example; document, journal, field notes, and diary entries), and images (photo
or video) that data transformed into textual forms. Here, the document is
taken from some references from books and journals related with topic of the
study in order to support his view point.
To support this study, researcher need tool of instrument. In this case,
the researcher use table as the tool of instrument. It is functioned as collected
data classification and tool to answer the research problems. The researcher
presented the table as follow:
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No. Kind of Racism Code Script and Screen Capture Note
1.
2.
…
The researcher displayed the table with the classification of collected
data. The table is contained Kind of Racism, Code Script and Screen Capture,
Note. Here, the Kind of Racism column is contained kind of racial treatment
based on study; Code column is contained the coding of the data; Script and
Screen Capture column displayed the screen capture of film and script each
scene of film that contained of racial treatment; Note column is contained the
explanation of phenomenon that dealing with research study by researcher. In
addition, the data are coding as “12YS/AN/11/25”, it presented as the "12
Years Slave" film which contained Annihilation as kind of racism, page 11 of
script, Scene 25.
Note:
Kind of racism code:
a) AN: Annihilation c) SE: Segregation
b) EX: Expulsion d) AS: Assimilation
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5. Procedures of collecting data
5.1 Watching the film;
The researcher watched the film to know the phenomena that happened
in film it can be correlated with problem of the study and know the
element in the film.
5.2 Reading the screenplay of film;
Researcher reading the screenplay to know every scene in screenplay it
can be appropriate with film.
5.3 Identifying the data related the problem of the study through each scene
in screenplay;
After watched the film and reading the screenplay, the researcher
identifying the film and screenplay which every scene are portrayed the
race discrimination in detail of character and the society in film.
5.4 Selecting the data related the problem of the study through each scene
in screenplay;
The researcher selected scene in screenplay as the suitable data which
has identified in order to gather the appropriate data concerned on this
study.
6. Procedures of analysis data
To completed the study researcher need procedure of analysis data to
answer the research problem. Researcher used theory from Yin (2011: 49)
that argued the procedure form to analysis the data is there four steps, as
follow the form (1) Defining something to investigate, (2) Collecting relevant
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data, (3) Analyzing and interpreting the results, and (4) Drawing conclusions
based on the empirical findings. Dealing with that, researcher used that form
to conduct the research:
6.1 Defining something to investigate;
Researcher defines the research object that can be investigated in this
study as the sources of the data. Researcher gathers the data based on
Screenplay and screen of "12 Years Slave" film that contained race
discrimination to investigate the data.
6.2 Collecting relevant data;
Researcher collecting relevant the data from each scene in screenplay
and scene "12 Years Slave" film that contained the utterance of race
discrimination which appropriate with the study.
6.3 Analyzing and interpreting the results;
The researcher are analyzing and interpreting the results of data that
collect through Sociological theory and some references that
appropriate with phenomenon from the study.
6.4 Drawing conclusions based on the empirical findings;
The researcher made conclusion referring to the analysis conducted in
this study based on the previous procedure.
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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. Theoretical Background
In this chapter the researcher presents review of the related study. The
researcher discusses some important theories used to support this analysis. Those
are film as literary work, sociology of literature, sociological theory, and race
discrimination.
1. Film As Literary Work
Film is including as part of literary work such as fiction, poetry, drama.
Film is representing a written work of literature trough role play with
additional graphic motion and sound that make interesting of reader. Klarer
(2004: 56) argues that Film is predetermine by literary technique conversely,
literary practice develop the particular features under the impact of film. He
also argues that film Film’s idiosyncratic modes of presentation such as
camera angle, editing, montage, slow and fast motion often parallel features
of literary texts or can be explain within a textual framework. So, Film it can
be define as role play of literary work that presenting in series of motion
pictures that taken by camera with additional of editing, camera angle,
montage and sound which played on a screen.
As the literary work, film is deriving the human idea which written
work and role the character that written which presenting in moving picture.
In this case, literature and film is closely related to expressing the idea of
13
14
human in factual or fiction. According to Bennet (2004:142) states that Film
is, nevertheless, inextricably tied in with the study of literature. As the Bennet
statement so many ways to presenting the literary work not only novel, drama
but film can present them. Film is innovative ways to expressing of human
idea that presenting which role model that can reflect the emotional of each
character. As audience, would read films in the same way they read literary
texts. It also would attract the audience’s interest since it contains the
particular moral value, the information or even expanding their imagination.
2. Sociology of Literature
Literature is an expression from our society. Literature and society are
so closely linked that which literature itself is an expression of human feeling,
idea, experienced, emotion, and opinion that born of the daily activities that
take place in a society life . An author of literature is a part of society and he
represents the phenomenon that was happening in around them. According to
Wellek and Warren (1949:94) literature represents ‘life’ and ‘life’ is a social
reality. Through literature an author can express his idea that ever
experienced or what was happening around them. The study that explains
society it’s called Sociology. According to Tischler (2007: 4) Sociology is
defined as the systematic study of society and social interaction. It means
sociology is the study that concern to defining the interaction of human in a
society. As etymology define the term of “sociology” is derived from the
Latin word socius (companion) and the Greek word logos (study of), meaning
“the study of companionship”, it means social interaction and its resultant
15
relationship that exists between companions or groups of human beings. The
studies that explain about relation literature and society it’s a called Sociology
of Literature. It support by Desan et al. (1989) in Schram and Steen
(2001:359) states that the sociology of literature in particular has focused on
the relation between society and literature, usually employing the metaphor
that literature mirrors society. There are many correlations between literature
and social phenomenon, the sociology of literature very useful to understand
the social problem such as in economic, politic issues, religion, class, gender,
race, and ethnicity.
Generally, literature and sociology has a reciprocal, because literature is
reflected from human society phenomenon, the author of letter is a part of
society, and the reader of literature is member of society. The relationship
either one look clearly, sociology is study with the object a human in society,
whereas literature is the result of human expression that reflected from
society. Therefore, the sociology of literature is the studies that analyze work
of literature use sociology paradigm. But, before analyze the problem the
researcher should know the actual relation between literature and society.
According to Wellek and Warren (1949:90) states that the descriptive
relationships between literature and society are classified: 1) the sociology of
the author and institution of literature; it means economic basic of literary
production, social background and status of author including his ideology
which expressed in his work of literature and his activities; 2) The social
purpose of the works of literature themselves, including the problem of the
16
social content, and the implication from the work of literature; 3) There are
the problem of reader and the social impact from literature.
As the Wellek and Warren statements the sociology of literature it can
be divided in to three parts, those are: the author sociology, the sociology of
literary work, and the reader sociology. Those would be explained in the
below:
a. The author sociology
The author of literature is a part of society, as the author of
literature is the many aspects that can influence his literary work. The
background of socio-economic, social status of author, social change that
happens in his society including ideology of author that reflected in his
literary work is the aspect that can influence of the author. From those
aspects that can as the influence of the author for his literary works.
According to Laurenson and Swingwood (1972:18) states that:
“The writer's position in a mass society is extremely important as a
contrast to his earlier social situation and clearly likely to affect his
creative potential in many ways; the links between historical
background and the development of literature constitute a key area in
any literary sociology.”
As the statement, all of the information about the aspect has the
role to disclosure the problem sociology author with his surrounding
society. It means how the author gets a livelihood, whether it is
receiving support from the people directly or has another job for his
livelihood, or where the position of the author in the reader his literary
17
work and what the target of the reader his literary work. In this case,
All of them it can be the source of information what influence and
how sociology situation of the author.
b. The sociology of literary work
Literary work who try to show the phenomena that happen in
society. Thus it can be said that the author's literary work can be used to
pour all the problems of human life in society. In addition, literary works
can be regarded as the translation of human behavior in life. Sociology of
literary works which concerned about literary work itself which is the
subject of the review or what is implied in the literature and what is the
purpose. It support by Wellek and Warren (1949:90) states that sociology
of literary work focused to the social purpose of the works of literature
themselves, including the problem of the social content, and the
implication from the work of literature. It means the content of literary
work is try to reflect to the social phenomenon that happened in society
as appropriate with the purpose of literary work itself and related with the
social problems.
c. The reader sociology
Sociology reader is part of studies sociology of literature that
focuses attention to the connection between literatures to readers. The
reader is the intended audience by the author in creating literary works.
The reader itself is part of society in received the reader in literary work
will give impact to society by the reader of literary work. Moreover, in
18
the reader sociology focus to require the reader to have a higher skill in
literature whose purpose is try to figure out how a literary work actually
received by a particular society at a moment of history that happened. As
statement by Swingwood and Laurenson (1972:21) that one demanding a
high level of skills, attempts to trace the ways in which a work of
literature is actually received by a particular society at a specific
historical moment. In this case, the reader of literary work can receive
and understanding to literary work that they read so they can give the
impact to author, society around them, and literature itself.
3. Sociological theory
As the theory which put the society as the object to analyze, sociology
itself is theory that analyzes social interaction of human in society. According
to Tischler (2007: 4) Sociology is defined as the systematic study of society
and social interaction. It means sociology is the study that concern to defining
the interaction of human in a society. The main goal of sociology itself is
trying to understand social situations that occur in the society and look for
patterns of society that shapes the behavior of the individual in society.
Moreover, Tischler (2007: 4) states that the sociologists attempt to understand
the forces that operate throughout society forces that mold individuals, shape
their behavior, and, thus, determine social events. Sociology will more
explain about human society that seeks to answer the questions such as; how
society is possible, how it works and why it persists. In fact, the structure of
specific society emerges through the rigorous examination of economic,
19
political, cultural, religious, academic, familial and other social institutions.
Sociology is a science that is constantly evolving. A perspective and
understanding that initiate by sociologist at particular age, will receive
criticism and renewal by sociologists in the next era, depending on the social
and political situation of this era by making the first view as a starting point to
get new ideas. Therefore, the different views of sociology is constructing a
different paradigm, depending on social phenomenon that happen, as well as
the methods developed to examine the problems in a diverse society, both in
terms of age and territorial.
Moreover, the sociological theory is a proposed relationship between
two or more concepts. In other words, a theory is explanation for why or how
a phenomenon occurs. It support by Allan in Nathan et al. book Introduction
to Sociology (2013: 17) that Sociological theory is a way to explain different
aspects of social interactions and to create testable propositions about society.
In other side, the sociological theory is divided into two scales, those are:
Macrosociology and Microsociology that scale to explain of the issue of
social problem. According to Gidden (2006: 25) states that Macrosociology is
the analysis of large scale social system; it means analysis such as the
political system or the economic order including the analysis of long term
process of change. And the other hand, micro sociology is the study of
everyday of behavior in situation of face to face interaction the individual
with other. From the explanation, macrosociology and Micro sociology it can
be imagine like a photographer. Macrosociology are like photographers who
20
shoot their photos using a wide angle lens. They would rather fit a lot of
people into each frame than get detailed images of just a few of them. In other
side, the microsociology is like photographers who use a zoom lens. They
focus on only a few people at a time so they can capture a lot of detail about
each person.
In sociology, there are some theories that will help to explain more the
aspects of social problem. These theories have different perspective and
different scale to analyze the social phenomenon that occurs. There are three
major theories in sociological theories that they provide useful explanations.
The theories is; structural functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic
interactionism. According to Mooney (2011: 9) states that Sociology there are
three major theoretical perspectives: the structural-functionalist perspective,
the conflict perspective, and the symbolic interactionist perspective. Each
perspective would explain the cause and possible solution or explain a
particular the phenomena. The explanation all of theory is above:
a. Functionalism
First perspective in sociology called Functionalism. It also called
structural-functional theory. Structural functional is a perspective used in
the analysis of societies and their component features. Structural
functionalism focuses on the mutual integration and interconnection of
societies and it also focuses on what social functions in various elements
of the social system perform with regard to the system as a whole.
According to Moneey et.al (2011: 9) states that the structural-
21
functionalist perspective emphasizes the interconnectedness of society by
focusing on how each part influences and is influenced by other parts. It
means functionalism in sociological perspective is theory that concern
how the each element of society can influences and influenced the social
structure in around of society.in other side, Nathan et al. (2007: 18) states
that Functionalism sees society as a structure with interrelated parts
designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals who make
up that society. Functionalism interprets each part of society in terms of
how it contributes to the stability of the whole society which more than
the sum of its parts including each part of society is functional for the
stability of the whole society.
Generally, the functionalism it can be imagining as government
that provide education to children of the family. Then the family pays
taxes to the state so that the government can still provide education to
children. So, the children can grow up with good education and have
good job so that they can raise and they can support their own families.
In the process, the children become law-abiding, taxpaying citizens, who
in turn support the government. If all goes well, the parts of society
produce order, stability, and productivity. But, when one part of the
system is not working or is dysfunctional, it affects all other parts and
creates social problems, which leads to social change.
22
b. Conflict theory
Another theory with a macro-level view it called conflict theory. In
sociology conflict theory is see the individual or group is competing to
get benefit from social and economic resources. Social order is
maintained by domination, with power in the hands of those with the
greatest political, economic, and social resources so that effect from
domination is inequality and social conflict. According to Tischler (2007:
19) states that Conflict theory proposes that each individual or group
struggles to attain the maximum benefit. This causes society to change
constantly in response to social inequality and social conflict. Conflict
theorist is focus to who get the benefit from society structure and how he
maintains their positions and continues to reap benefit from them.
Generally, conflict theory is influence with Karl Marx work that
called Marxism that emphasizes the class conflict in economic. It
describes by Marx in Nathan et.al book (2013:20) “the history of all
hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Freeman and
slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman,
in a word, oppressor and oppressed”. Marx understood human society in
terms of conflict between social classes, notably the conflict in capitalist
societies between those who owned the means of economic production
(factory or farm owners,) and those who did not (the workers). The
statement also support by Max Weber, Weber state that he agree with
Marx that the economic inequalities come from the capitalist system are
23
source from conflict. But, he disagree he disagreed that the conflict must
lead to revolution and the collapse of capitalism.
c. Symbolic Interactionism
The symbolic interaction perspective, also called symbolic
interactionism, this perspective relies on the symbolic meaning that
people develop and depend to the process of social interaction.
According to Nathan et.al (2013: 21) state that Symbolic Interactionist
perspective is concern to perception of communication through language
and symbols that how the individual sense of their social work. It means
that perspective explains more role of communication by symbol and
language has impact to relationship of individual within their society. In
this case, this perspective are explains social behavior in terms of how
people interact with each other via symbols. In this view, social
structures are best understood in terms of such individual interactions by
addressing the subjective meaning that people determining on object,
event, and behavior.
According to Nathan et.al (2013: 21) states that George Herbert
Mead (1863–1931) is one of founder of Symbolic Interactionism after
that this theory was develop his student Herbert Blumer (1900-1987),
Blumer interpret Mead’s work and popularize the theory and he create
term “symbolic interactionism” which identifying the three basic
premises, those are: 1) Humans act toward things on the basis of the
meanings they ascribe to those things; 2) The meaning of such things is
24
derived from, or arises out of, the social interaction that one has with
others and the society; 3) These meanings are handled in, and modified
through, an interpretative process used by the person in dealing with the
things he/she encounters. As the Blumer (1969) statement that Symbolic
interactionism is interest to explain how individual in the protesting
group interact their message use sign and symbol by one on one
interaction.
4. Race Discrimination
As the society construction, Race defined as a category or group of
people having hereditary traits that set them apart. While race is revolves
around the idea of biological traits. Sociologists and other social scientists
believe that race is a socially constructed concept. According to Tischler
(2007: 218) states that Race is category of people who are define as similar
with physical characteristic. As the Tischler’s statement Race is how to
categorize the humans based on their physical characteristic such their
various geographic regions, ethnicities, skin colors, and more. The concept of
race in the field of sociology and are ones that are studied a great deal. Race
plays a large role in everyday human interactions and sociologists want to
study how, why, and what the outcomes are of these interactions.
Race as the socially constructed category, race is group that is treated as
distinct in society based on particular characteristic. Because a labeled by
powerful group in society from biological characteristic or his culture. In the
treatment the race is often as the reason for deferential and unfair treatment.
25
In this case, the treatment comes from dominant group that apply to minority
group and in sociological use the minority connotes with discrimination. So,
Dominant group is the group that assigns a racial group to subordinate status
in society. It support by Louis Wirth (1945) in Nathan et.al book (2013: 233)
states that the term of dominant group is substituted for the group in the
majority that hold the most power in given society while subordinate group
are those who lack power compared to dominant group. While the term of
minority group is group of people which their physical or cultural
characteristic, are single out from the other in the society that themselves as
object of discrimination and unequal treatment. Therefore, the characteristic
of minority group is not depend from large of their group, sometimes larger
groups can be considered minority groups due to their lack of power. It is the
lack of power that is the predominant characteristic of a minority, or
subordinate group. For example, consider Apartheid in South Africa, in which
a numerical majority (the black inhabitants of the country) were exploited and
oppressed by the white minority.
As unequal treatment, the discrimination is an action of unequal
treatment of group or individual to another membership of group with
differences in certain race group. According to Tishcler (2007: 223) states
that Discrimination is differential treatment, usually unequal and injurious,
accorded to individuals who are assumed to belong to a particular category or
group. As the Tischler’s statement that discrimination is act of individual or
group to other group that have differential characteristic, the act usually
26
unequal or injuries. In addition statement by Nathan et.al (2013: 235) that
discrimination can base on age, religion, health, and other indicator including
discrimination based on race. In this case, Discrimination based on race can
show in many forms, from unfair housing practices to biased hiring systems.
For example; in the late 19th century in history of America, it was not
uncommon for business owners to hang signs that read, “Help Wanted: No
Irish Need Apply.” And of course, southern Jim Crow laws, with their
“Whites only” signs. As the unequal example that occur in America history in
discrimination based on race.
However, discrimination based on race or usually called Race
discrimination. Race discrimination refers to intolerance treatment to person
or groups on the basis of their race that usually refer to unequal or injuries to
a particular race. As the act of intolerant treatment that have some forms.
These form including Annihilation, Expulsion, Segregation, and
Assimilation. As the explanation are above:
a. Annihilation
Firstly, Annihilation and also called genocide. The term of
Genocide (Genos is a Greek word which means race) means a conscious
effort to exterminate a particular group as the target usually the target is
subordinate group that threat to the group who has authority. According
to Tischler (2007: 228) states that Annihilation refers to the deliberate
extermination of a racial or ethnic group, Annihilation also deprives an
27
entire group of people of their right to life in the same way that homicide
deprives one person of the right to life.
According to Horton and Hunt (1984: 67) state that sometimes the
effects are almost the same with human annihilation should occur due to
the application of cruel policy which consequently destroy a group of
people. From the statement the annihilation it can come from policy of
government with purpose to maintain their position. In other side, on
December 11, 1946, the General Assembly of the United Nations passed
by unanimous vote a resolution affirming that genocide was a crime
under international law and that both principals and accomplices alike
would be held accountable and punished. After two years of study and
debate, the draft of the convention on genocide was presented to the
General Assembly and adopted (United Nations, 1948). Article II of the
convention defines genocide as any of the following acts committed with
intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or
religious group; as such: 1) Killing members of the group; 2) Causing
serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; 3) Deliberately
inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its
physical destruction in whole or part; 4) Imposing measures intended to
prevent births within the group; 5) Forcibly transferring children of the
group to another group.
Historically, one of annihilation phenomenon was occurred in last
part of 19th
century which called Holocaust of World War II. It support
28
by Friedman (1995) statement in Ferris and Stein book (2008: 259) are
explain more than 6 million European Jews and several million more
non-Jewish “undesirables” (including Gypsies, Poles, Slavs, political
enemies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Catholic clergy, homosexuals, and people
with disabilities) were moved to concentration camps and executed by
the German Nazis. Since that, annihilation has destroyed more millions
of lives in Eastern Europe, Africa and Southeast Asia. In this case,
usually the troops attackers often robs the food supply of the group that
he attacked, thus making the civilian population to suffer starvation or
mass exile in the absence of adequate facilities to many are infected
diseases and left it till die.
b. Expulsion
Expulsion is the phenomenon when the dominant group may
choose to force a specific subordinate group to leave certain areas of the
country. It support by Tischler (2007: 228) states that expulsion is the
process of forcing a group to leave the territory in which it lives. As the
Tischler’s statement, expulsion is the process when the group of race is
being force to leave his territory by the group who has a power. Similar
with Tischler statement Mooney et.al (2011: 310) also states that
expulsion occurs when a dominant group forces a subordinate group to
leave the country or to live only in designated areas of the country. In
other side, Nathan et.al (2013: 238) also states that expulsion can be
factor in genocide. It means the expulsion can be factor the genocide
29
occur because when subordinate are force to leave not all the subordinate
approve to leave his area.
As the example of expulsion phenomena is “Trails of Tears”. In
Ferris and Stein (2008:259) are explain that Native Americans who had
not perished in battles with U.S. soldiers were forced by the U.S.
government to move onto Indian reservations west of the Mississippi
River. They were often moved far away from the lands where they had
lived for generations, as these were desirable territories that the whites
wished to acquire for themselves. Between 1838 and 1839, the state of
Georgia and the federal government forcibly marched 17,000 Cherokees
westward over 800 miles, along the way, over 4,000 people died of
hunger, exposure, or disease.
c. Segregation
In sociological theory, the practice of separating group of people,
such as on the basis of race, religion, or ethnicity is called Segregation.
Sociologists use the concept of segregation to help explain inequality in
social problem including the discrimination process. According to
Nathan et.al (2013: 238) states that Segregation refers to the physical
separation of two groups, particularly in residence, but also in workplace
and social functions. As the statement of Nathan, et.al that process of
segregation are often limits opportunities and restrict the freedom of
people who do not belong to a dominant group. The statement it also
supports by Tischler (2007:228) that some people think segregation is the
30
negative treatments which form of ostracism that imposed to minority by
dominant group. Most of the case is segregation gives the limit and
restrictions on the communication, contact, and social relation among
group.
In this case, Segregation itself is divided into two forms of de jure
segregation and de facto segregation. According to Nathan et.al
(2013:238) states that it is important to distinguish between de jure
segregation (segregation that is enforced by law) and de facto segregation
(segregation that occurs without laws but because of other factors.
Nathan et.al also explains the segregation was occurred in United States.
De jure segregation is occurred many years after the civil war in United
States. As many former Confederate states passed “Jim Crow” laws that
required segregated facilities for blacks and whites. These laws were
codified in 1896’s landmark Supreme Court case Plessey v. Ferguson,
which states that “separate but equal” facilities were constitutional. For
the next five decades, blacks were subjected to legalized discrimination,
forced to live, work, and go to school in separate but unequal facilities. It
wasn’t until 1954 and the Brown v. Board of Education case that the
Supreme Court declared that “separate educational facilities are
inherently unequal,” thus ending de jure segregation in the United States.
And as for de facto segregation, however, cannot be abolished by any
court mandate. Segregation is still alive and well in the United States,
with different racial or ethnic groups often segregated by neighborhood.
31
d. Assimilation
Assimilation in sociology is the process whereby individuals or
groups of differing ethnic heritage are absorbed into the dominant culture
of a society. The process of assimilating involves taking on the traits of
the dominant culture to such a degree that the assimilating group
becomes socially indistinguishable from other members of the society.
Assimilation is a gradual process by which a person or group belonging
to one culture adopts the practices of another, thereby becoming a
member of that culture. According to Yinger (1981:247) in Marger
(2009: 82) state that assimilation is process of boundary reduction that
can occur when members of two or more societies or of smaller cultural
groups meet. It similar with statement Tischler (2007:225) that
assimilation is the process whereby group with different culture come to
have common culture. In the process of Transferring culture from one
group to another is a highly complex process, often involving the
rejection of ancient ideologies, habits, customs, attitudes, and language.
It also includes the elusive problem of selection. As the Yinger and
Tischler statement about assimilation, it prefer to the minority groups are
expected to adapt the everyday practices of the dominant culture through
language and appearance as well as via more significant socioeconomic
factors such as absorption into the local cultural and employment
community.
32
B. Previous Study
In this section, the researcher presented three previous studies which have
similar discussion concerned in this study.
First, a study by Priska Niawati (2009) with the title “Black People’s
Struggle against Race Discrimination as Seen in Taylor’s Let the Circle Be
Unbroken” . Let The Circle Be Unbroken, is a novel that show the race
discrimination in the United States. In this study, the condition in novel is being
compared with what occur in real society, the purpose of this study is find out the
discrimination experienced by the black in United States and this study is concern
to show the struggle of black people against race discrimination in the United
States society in 1930s as seen in novel. The approach this study is used the socio-
historical approach and for design this study used Descriptive Qualitative design.
His objective for this study is Logan Family as the main character in the novel,
through the Logan’s the reader can see the life of the black people in United
States. The race discrimination that was found is the injustice in law. Logan’s did
not have the right to vote, segregation, and discrimination in economic life.
Second, a study by David Eko Nugroho (2014) with the title “The Racial
Discrimination Reflected in Frances Patton Statham’s Trail Of Tears (1993)”.
Trail of Tears is a novel written by an American author Frances Patton Statham.
The book was published by Fawcett Columbine, New York on February 1993.
Trail of Tears is a historical novel which tells about racial discrimination of the
whites towards American Indian. Racial discrimination is shown in this novel
through the story of Indian Removal Act in 1830s. The writer of this study used
33
qualitative method and for approach the writer used sociological approach. The
purpose of his study is to describe the racial discrimination in “Trail of Tears”
novel based on the sociological perspective. And for the finding of this research
has some case to discuss about; social aspect, economic aspect, political aspect,
science and technology aspect, the last is religious aspect.
The last previous study was derived from Mohammad Yunus Sholeh (2009)
“The Social Problem of the Novel Number the Stars by Lois Lowry”. In this study
uses sociology approach because sociology approach is a tool to understand a
literary work that focus to aspect of society and literature, those are 1) man of
letter sociology, 2) literary work of sociology, 3) reader sociology. From those
aspects the researcher of this study investigates the social problem which follows
some form; the form of crime, the form of young generation problem in the
modern society, he form of war, and the form of violation to the society norm in
the content of the novel Number the Stars. This novel is told of Annemarie
Johansen ten years old who lives with her family in Copenhagen in 1943. She
becomes a part of the events related to the rescue of the Danish Jews, when
thousands of Jews were helped to reach neutral ground in Sweden in order to
avoid being deported to concentration camps. As the result of his research is show
the phenomena in social problem which follow the form; 1) the form of crime is
humiliation, treating people, and physical violence; 2) The form of young
generation in modern society is the effort of girl in named someone, emotional
attitude, complaining habitual, and have new habitual; 3) The form of war is the
war between Nazi and Denmark, conflict between Nazi and Jews exploded bomb;
34
and 4) the form of delinquency is keeping secret to someone else, the group of
Jews, and the group of girls.
Dealing with those previous studies, all of those attempted to analyze the
cases contained in film. Although their studies were presented by distinctive
films, those still have relevance with this study; either in the views of the similar
purposes which concern on analysis of race discrimination and sociological
theory as the approach. There is some differential in previous study from
Niawati’s (2009) that she is used novel as object of analysis and use socio-
historical approach. Furthermore, in Eko’s (2014) study that used novel and
discuss about race discrimination in social aspect, economic aspect, political
aspect, science and technology aspect, the last is religious aspect. The last, Yunus
Sholeh (2009) study that focus to investigates the social problem which follows
some form; the form of crime, the form of young generation problem in the
modern society, he form of war, and the form of violation to the society norm.
Therefore, the researcher took all those as the previous studies of this study in
order to see how the previous researchers investigated race discrimination and
how the rule of the sociological theory applied in literary work.
35
C. Theoretical Framework
Theoretical Framework: (Klarer, 2004: 56; Bennet, 2004:142.; Wellek and
Warren, 1949:90-94; Tischler, 2007: 2-27, 216-245; Schram and
Steen, 2001: 359; Laurenson and Swingwood,1972: 18-21; Horton
and Hunt, 1984: 67;1972: 21; Nathan et.al, 2013: 10-24, 231-251;
Gidden, 2006: 25; Mooney, 2011: 9; Ferris and Stein, 2008: 259;
Marger, 1981:247)
Based on the theoretical framework, the researcher began the study by
define the relationship between literature and society as the references dealing
with the film as literature work that reflected society, since the concern of analysis
in this study took film as the primary source of data. The researcher should also
consider the literary approach that would be used to see from which orientation
Literature Society
Film as literary
work
Sociology of
Literature
Society
Sociological Theory
Racism
Kind of Racism Effect of Racism
Race Discrimination
36
the film fits to be analyzed. In this frame, the researcher decided to applies
sociology of literature approach and sociological theory to analyze the race
discrimination that reflected in film. The researcher defining the kind of racism
and analyze the effect of racism based on race used sociological theory. While, to
answer the research problems, the researcher took some references and published
articles in order to support what he had interpreted dealing with the film depicted.
37
CHAPTER III
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
In this chapter, the researcher provides the analysis of the data collected in
order to answer the problems of this study. The researcher has considered two
problems of the study. Those are specifically about what kind and what the effect
of race discrimination portrayed in "12 Years Slave" film.
A. Findings
Based on the data collected, the researcher was present the findings of this
study into two sections which refer to research problem as follows.
1. Kind of Race Discrimination Portrayed in "12 Years Slave" Film
In this part, the researcher was show the data found which contained
race discrimination portrayed on 12 years slave film as the action of white
people toward black people by used sociological theory. Moreover, 12 Years
a Slave film was tell the story of Solomon Northup. Here, Solomon as a black
people who have talent in play violin and he became a free man in his city.
One day he was kidnapped and sold as a slave purchase. Then, a good planter
named Ford was bought. Somehow, the Solomon’s intelligence brought him
in a problem with Tibeats, Mr. Ford’s staff, since Tibeats thought that
Solomon just a black slave who can not give any suggestion to solve the job
problem. Because of the problem that happened with Tibeats, Solomon was
resold again by Mr. Ford to Edwin Epps, a cruel treat slaves. From those
37
38
incident that happened by Solomon, he had to struggle and fight for justice till
12 years.
Referring to the phenomenon on the film of 12 Years Slave which
depicted the race discrimination, the researcher found fourteen data which
contain the race discrimination; then categorized the data findings into the
four forms of the kind of race discrimination based on the sociological theory,
includes Annihilation, Expulsion, Segregation, and Assimilation.
a) Annihilation
In this form, the researcher showing the data that classified as the
act of annihilation. It is the deliberate extermination of the racial or
ethnic group by homicide some people as minority group in order to
deprives the right to life, those are:
Data 1: 12YS/AN/25/16-18
25 INT. BURCH’S DUNGEON – MORNING
.........
BURCH: Yah a slave. Yah a Georgia slave!
Burch continues to strike, and strike... This time until the paddle SNAPS
IN HALF. Burch then GRABS THE WHIP. Hardly missing a stroke, he
whips Solomon relentlessly, the flails cutting into Solomon's back.
Again, Burch's arm tires before Solomon "breaks."
00:13:40 00:15:03
39
BURCH (CONT'D): Are yah slave?
SOLOMON: ...No...
Burch goes back to whipping and whipping, and whipping...
SOLOMON'S BACK IS NOW TORN OPEN WITH LACERATIONS
AND OOZING WITH BLOOD. Finally Burch can whip no more.
.........
In this scene, Solomon whipped by Bhurch until the body of
Solomon severely injured in the back, since Solomon was forced to
confess that he was a runaway slave from Georgia by Bhurch, but
Solomon persist that he is not a slave but he is a freeman. The Bhurch’s
treatment was shown in script when Bhurch forced the Solomon to
confess that he is slave with said “Are yah slave?”. Here, Solomon only
said “No” and could not do anything because when he wants to fight,
he got whipped harder until he was dying. In this case, the Bhurch’s act
is depicted the annihilation act since Solomon did not have right to life
again when Bhurch force to Solomon confess he is a slave from
Georgia.
Data 2: 12YS/AN/48A/32
48A INT. HOLD – NIGHT
.........
We focus on the Sailor’s face. Slowly, a greasy smile erupts upon it.
Back now to Robert’s face, a look of incomprehension.
00:24:22 00:24:33
40
Robert looks down. We follow his gaze to the knife that has already
been jabbed unseen between Robert’s ribs.
The sailor withdraws the bloody blade.
A wide shot of the two men. Robert collapses to the floor like a sack of
potatoes.
Clemens Ray and Solomon react. Complete horror.
.........
This scene show the case while in the boat on the way to New
Orleans; suddenly Robert as a black slave was stabbed with a knife by a
Sailor till death, since Robert try to protect Eliza when sailor will be
take her. It explains in script when the Sailor killed the Robert, the
Sailor’s utterance that depict annihilation act is shown in script “Robert
looks down. We follow his gaze to the knife that has already been
jabbed unseen between Robert’s ribs. The sailor withdraws the bloody
blade”. Here, the Sailor’s act are depicted the annihilation act when
Robert as black slave was killing by the sailor of white as the dominant
people who have the power since Robert try against the whites.
Data 3: 12YS/AN/84/58
00:48:30 00:49:36
41
84 EXT. WEAVING HOUSE – LATER
.........
TIBEATS: Yah got no cause. Platt is mine, and mine ta do with as I
please. Yah touch my property, I will 'ave yah strung
up as well.
Tibeats mounts up and departs. There is a surreal moment as Chapin's
not sure what to do about Solomon. He chooses to do nothing. Solomon
is left dangling by the neck from the tree as Chapin calls to Sam in the
distance:
CHAPIN: Sam! Get the mule. You must ride to Master Ford. Tell him
to come here at once without a single moment's delay. Tell
him they are trying to murder Platt. Hurry, boy. Bring him
back if you must kill the mule to do so!
.........
In this part, Tibeat and his two friends who tried to kill Solomon
(Platt) by hanging in a tree at the yard of Mr. ford. Here, Tibeat was
revenge for the Solomon’s action when he had been beaten by
Solomon. The annihilation act is depicting from Tibeat’s when said to
Chapin he will kill Solomon (Platt) by hanging in tree it shown in script
the Tibeat’s utterance “Platt is mine, and mine ta do with as I please.
Yah touch my property, I will 'ave yah strung up as well”. Here,
Solomon was saved by Chapin as the foreman of the Mr. Ford
plantation. Chapin was felt that Tibeat had no right to Solomon and ask
to him to leave without kill Solomon. Moreover, Chapin just let
Solomon remain hanging in the tree with little feet touch the ground. As
the Tibeat’s action, Solomon (Platt) faint in death but Chapin and the
other slave tried to help him. In this case, the Tibeat’s act are indicated
42
the annihilation act because Tibeat tried to kill Solomon by hanging in
tree and deprive the Solomon right to life.
Data 4: 12YS/AN/A101/68
A101 EXT. ROAD – DAY
.........
The violence of his advance abruptly stops, there is silence. We see
in a clearance a posse of patrollers, preparing for a lynching of two
young men. Solomon's eyes meet theirs. The two men look back at
Solomon with a look of fear as one of the patrollers checks the noose
around their neck. Suddenly the bloodhounds sswtart barking and the
patrollers turn in the direction of Solomon. Solomon's whole body
shakes with anticipation.
PATROLLER: (aggressively) Boy, where are you going?
SOLOMON : (almost tripping over his words) to the store, Sir, to
Bartholomew's. I was sent there by Mistress Epps. The
patroller reaches out for Solomon's free pass around his
neck, yanking him forward. He looks at it.
PATROLLER: Get there and get there quick.
The patroller kicks Solomon hard, sending him on his way.
.........
Based on those scene and script, Solomon met white patroller
group when he asked by Mrs. Epps to buy nails and some building
purposes in Bartholomeo’s shop. Here, the patroller groups who want to
execute some black slaves by hanging in the tree it explain in script that
01:05:05 01:05:13
43
“We see in a clearance a posse of patrollers, preparing for a lynching
of two young men”. In this case, Solomon was being afraid when he
interrogated by patroller and look two black slave will execute by
whites. The utterance of annihilation act in this scene is shown in screen
capture when the patrollers killed the blacks slave by hanging them in
tree and deprive the right to life of black slave since they execute
without any judicial process.
Data 5: 12YS/AN/156/109
156 EXT. EPPS’S PLANTATION – LATER
.........
Epps's grief is replaced by fury. EPPS GRABS THE PISTOL FROM
TREACH'S HOLSTER and draws down on the slaves.
EPPS : Yah will strike her. Yah will strike her until her flesh is
rent and meat and blood flow equal, or I will kill every
nigger in my sight!
Solomon can't strike a blow, even if it means his life. But from the
ground, from Patsey:
PATSEY : Do it, Platt. Don't stop until I am dead.
01:50:20 01:50:31
01:51:47
44
What else can he do? Solomon begins to whip, to truly whip Patsey.
Her back welts, and then tears... Patsey screams in agony. Solomon
strikes again and again... After a full thirty lashes Solomon looks to
Epps, who is not satisfied.
EPPS : Until I say no more! I ain't said nothing!
.........
This scene show how the Patsey black slaves who punish with
whip by Mr. Epps because lying to him. Firstly, Mr. Epps felt not have
the heart to whip Patsey and asked to Solomon to whip Patsey. Here,
Solomon also did not have the heart to whip Patsey, but he doing that
with half the power since it was the command from Mr. Epps. When
Mr. Epps seen Solomon whipping Patsey with half the power, Mr. Epps
felt angry and threaten to kill all black people that he look if Solomon
did not whip Patsey hardly it shown when Mr. Epps grab the pistol
from Treach's Holster and said to Solomon that “Yah will strike her.
Yah will strike her until her flesh is rent and meat and blood flow equal,
or I will kill every nigger in my sight!”. Suddenly Mr. Epps taken the
belt and whip Patsey by himself vigorously. Mr. Epps whip Patsey until
the back of body was bloody and fallen to the ground. In this case, the
annihilation act are indicated when Mr. Epps said “I will kill every
nigger in my sight” and whipped Patsey until dying.
45
b) Expulsion
In this point, the researcher was show the data in expulsion
form. It focused on the process of forcing a black people to leave the
territory by the white who has the power, as follows.
Data 6: 12YS/EX/23/15
A23 INT. GADSBY HOTEL – NIGHT
.........
HAMILTON :I'm afraid that Brown and I haven't brought you much
luck. But rough waters bring smooth sailing. Eventually
they do.
SOLOMON : ....So...so sorry...
HAMILTON : Shhh. We won't hear it. We won't.
BROWN : Let him sleep.
HAMILTON : Hmm. A good night's sleep. And
Tomorrow...tomorrow you will feel as well and
refreshed as though the earth were new again.
Hamilton lingers a bit too long and a bit too close to Solomon for
Brown's taste. With more than a bit of signification:
BROWN : Hamilton! Nothing more we can do for him.
HAMILTON : Such is the pity.
In this scene shown how Solomon has been unconscious from
drinking too much alcohol which mixed drugs by Hamilton and Brown
as Solomon’s white friends. Finally Solomon was brought in the hotel
00:10:48 00:12:49
46
room with the condition that is not conscious. In hotel room, Hamilton
and Brown had intended to sell Solomon to be made of black slaves. It
shown from script when Homilton said to Solomon when unconscious
conditions that “Hmm. A good night's sleep. And Tomorrow
...tomorrow you will feel as well and refreshed as though the earth were
new again”. Here, the means from the words of Hamilton’s “tomorrow
you will feel as well and refreshed as though the earth were new again”
is the Solomon’s life will change since Hamilton have the plan to sold
Solomon as a blacks slave. In this scene, the expulsion act are shown
when Solomon didn’t know that Hamilton and Brown would be sale
him and force him become slave in plantation.
Data 7: 12YS/EX/32/23
32 EXT. BURCH’S DUNGEON/YARD – DAY
.........
CLEMENS : I would be just as certain they are counting the money
paid for delivering you to this place.
SOLOMON: They were not kidnappers. They were artists. Fellow
performers.
CLEMENS : You know that? You know for certain who they
were?
The fact is, Solomon can't say for certain.
00:17:44 00:18:47
47
CLEMENS :(CONT’D) How I reckon the situation whatever past we
had...well, that's done now. The reality to come is us
being transported southward. New Orleans if I were to
venture. After we arrive, we'll be put to market. Beyond
that... Well, once in a slave state I suppose there's only
one outcome.
.........
Based on those data, Solomon, Clemens, Ray, and John have
same fate as the dupe by white people and they would be sold as black
slaves whereas they are a freeman who has documents to prove that he
is not a slave. Here, Solomon not believes if Hamilton and Brown lie to
him, but Clemens tell if his white friend Hamilton and Brown was the
prevaricator since Clemens was lie by his friend same like Solomon. As
the script that shown when Solomon said that “They were not
kidnappers. They were artists. Fellow performers” but Clemens answer
that “You know that? You know for certain who they were?” then
Solomon just express that “Solomon can't say for certain”. Moreover,
Clemens told to all of black people what will happen after in Burch
Dungeon yard, Washington DC, Clemens know they would brought to
New Orleans and force sold become slave in plantation. In this case, the
expulsion act shown when the blacks would brought to New Orleans
and force sold become slave in plantation.
48
Data 8: 12YS/EX/53/35
53 EXT. NEW ORLEANS/ PORT – LATER
THEOPHILUS FREEMAN - a tall, thin-faced man with light
complexion and a little bent - moves along the deck calling out names
from a list. The slaves STAND as they are called.
FREEMAN :Oren. John. Lethe. Eliza. Randall. Emily. Platt... Platt!
Solomon does not respond. Freeman looks around. He spots Solomon.
FREEMAN :(CONT'D) Captain, who shipped that nigger?
CAPTAIN : Burch.
Freeman steps to Solomon. He gives him a looking over.
FREEMAN : Stand up.
Solomon does as told.
FREEMAN : (CONT'D) You fit the description given. Why
didn't you answer when called?
SOLOMON : My name is not Platt. My name is—
Freeman strikes Solomon hard across the face.
FREEMAN : Your name is Platt, and I will teach you your
name so that you don't forget. (to the Captain)
Shackle my niggers. Get them to my cart.
.........
In this scene, Solomon is forced to change its name to Platt by
white’s Freeman named Theophilus. Solomon initially refused by not
responding to the call of the Freeman being called the black slaves.
00:28:16 00:28:29
49
Solomon who does not respond eventually asked to stand up and be
forced to admit that his name was Platt. Solomon refused and explained
that the name was not Platt finally given a beating by Freeman. It was
shown in script when freeman said that “You fit the description given.
Why didn't you answer when called?” then Solomon answer that “My
name is not Platt. My name is…” when Solomon unfinished the answer
he got strike from the Freeman. Here, when all the black people felt
defenseless with their fate as black slave but different with Solomon felt
he always tries to explain if he is not slave, he is a freeman who has
document and his name not Platt but his real name is Solomon Northup.
In this case, the expulsion act are depicted when Solomon force to
change his name become Platt and sale become slave in plantation.
Data 9: 12YS/EX/59/39
59 INT. FREEMAN’S/ GREAT ROOM – DAY
.........
Eliza is beside herself as it seems she is about to be separated from her
family. She begs of Ford:
ELIZA : Please, sir... Please don't divide my family. Don't take
me unless you take my children as well.
FREEMAN : Eliza, quiet!
00:31:41 00:32:30
50
ELIZA : You will have the most faithful slave in me, sir. The
most faithful slave that has ever lived, but I beg that you
do not separate us.
Through that scene depicted how Eliza black slaves who had
two children was forced to split up with her sons since the agent sold
her to Mr. Ford as slaves on the plantation. It was shown in script when
Eliza said to Freeman that “Please, sir... Please don't divide my family.
Don't take me unless you take my children as well”. Here, Mr. Ford just
only purchased Eliza and Solomon only without Eliza’s sons. It became
the reason why Eliza always cried in Plantation. In this case, the
expulsion act was indicated when Eliza force to separate with his son
and sale become slave to Mr. Ford.
c) Segregation
In this form, the researcher shown the data collected which
focused on the action of white people toward black people by given
differential treatment between white and black since the segregation
itself is the physical separation of two groups and restriction the
freedom of people who do not belong to a dominant group; those data
as follows.
Data 10: 12YS/SE/75/46
00:36:47
51
75 EXT. FORD’S WORK AREA – DAY
.........
Just beyond the WORK AREA Solomon speaks with Ford as Tibeats
listens. Solomon is drawing in the dirt, making rough diagrams for Ford
as he explains himself.
SOLOMON : The creek is plenty deep enough to sail, even with a
boat full of load. The distance from the WORK AREA
to the point on the latter bayou is several miles by water
fewer than land. It occurs to me that the expense of the
transportation would be materially diminished—
TIBEATS : "Materially diminished?"
SOLOMON : If we use the waterway.
TIBEATS : Are you an engineer, or a nigger?
FORD : Let the man say his piece.
TIBEATS : It's a scheme. Plenty of engineers have schemed
similarly. The passes are too tight.
SOLOMON : I reckon them at more than twelve feet at their most
narrow. Wide enough for a tub to traverse. A team of
niggers can clear it out.
TIBEATS : And you know what of transport and terra formin'?
.........
This scene described when Solomon want to give the idea of
transporting the woods for Mr. Ford plantations through the river, but
Tibeats rejected the idea because he felt Solomon only a stupid black
slave. Tibeats also said "Are you an engineer, or a nigger?". Here, from
Tibeat’s utterance it assume that Solomon just a black slaves which is
inappropriate to give an idea to the white man. In this case, the
segregation act was depicted when Solomon didn’t have freedom to
give an idea to transport the wood trough river by Tibeats.
52
Data 11: 12YS/SE/141/94
141. INT. MASTER EPPS'S PLANTATION/GIN HOUSE –
EVENING
.........
As Epps said, it is days of long since. The slaves are back to having
their cotton weighed in the Gin House
EPPS : Wiley...?
TREACH: Two hundred sixty pounds.
EPPS : Bob?
TREACH: Three hundred forty pounds for Bob.
EPPS : Patsey?
TREACH: Five hundred twenty pounds.
EPPS : Tha's a girl. Don't never let me down. Platt?
TREACH: One hundred sixty pounds.
Before Treach is even done announcing the weight, Epps has pulled
Solomon aside to where Uncle Abram already awaits his fate.
EPPS : Armsby?
TREACH: Sixty four pounds.
Epps speaks to Armsby sternly, but nothing of the manner in which
he would address the slaves.
.........
In this scene shown the different treatment given by Mr. Epps
for his slaves in the plantation which in there was a white slave named
Armsby was given distinctive not given lashes punishment even he was
only able to collect sixty four pounds cotton fewer than Solomon (Platt)
was a hundred sixty pounds. As the utterance that shown segregation
00:29:18 00:29:33
53
act is explained in script when Mr. Epps did not punish Armsby “Epps
speaks to Armsby sternly, but nothing of the manner in which he would
address the slaves”. Here, Solomon got the punishment since he
cannot collect the cotton that appropriate amount by Mr. Epps. In this
case, the segregation act was shown when Solomon got the punishment
but Armsby did not give the punishment from Mr. Epps.
Data 12: 12YS/SE/A148/98
A148. EXT. MASTER EPP’S PLANTATION/SLAVE CEMETERY–
LATER
The same faces we have seen on Epps' plantation, but now filled with
rapture, appear. It's as if the voices have created a new form of
awakening and presence. It seems to transcend and translate in a strange
way, joy. A joy which has un-yet been seen on screen. A joy which has
been hidden, but a joy which is undoubtedly there. It's captivating,
infectious.
This should be a moving part of the film, which stirs the audience and,
for a moment, relieves them of the seemingly chastising environment.
The singer continues, "Well some say John was a Baptist, some say
John was a Jew, but I say John was a preacher, because the Bible says
so too, preach on Johnny." And with that, the rest of the congregation
chant "I believe. Oh, I believe."
00:39:07 00:40:27
54
In this scene, as shown in screen capture when the different
treatment given to corpse the Uncle Abraham, as one of black slave,
who died in the Mr. Epps plantation and it was simply buried in the
cemetery were intentionally made only for the black slaves and only
accompanied with a simple funeral ceremony attended by fellow black
slaves. Here, the segregation act was shown when Mr. Epps give
difference for the cemetery between white and black; it also didn’t
facilitate the slave to bury the Uncle Abraham corpse.
Data 13: 12YS/SE/156/107
156. EPP’S PLANTATION – LATER
Patsey takes soap from the pocket of her dress.
PATSEY : (CONT'D) I got this from Mistress Shaw. Mistress
Epps won't even grant me no soap ta clean with. Stink
so much I make myself gag. Five hundred pounds 'a
cotton day in, day out. More than any man here. And
'fo that I will be clean; that all I ax. Dis here what I
went to Shaw's 'fo.
EPPS : You lie...
PATSEY : The Lord knows that's all.
EPPS : You lie!
PATSEY : And you blind wit yer own covetousness. I don't lie,
Massa. If you kill me, I'll stick ta that.
EPPS : I'll learn you to go to Shaw's. Treach, go get some line.
00:47:11 00:47:23
55
Refer to the scene shown the difference treatment given by Mrs.
Epps to a black which is Patsey was not given soap to clean her body
for a few weeks until Patsey escape to Mrs. Shaw to ask soap from her.
It shown in script what Patsey said to Mr. Epps that “I got this from
Mistress Shaw. Mistress Epps won't even grant me no soap ta clean
with. Stink so much I make myself gag” but Mr. Epps did not believe to
Patsey and Said “You lie...”.Here, Mr, Epps was being angry since
Patsey leave the plantation to Mrs. Shaw’s home for ask the soap
without any permission. In this case, the segregation act was depicted
when Mrs. Epps give differential treatment to Patsey that she was not
given soap to clean her body for a few weeks.
d) Assimilation
Assimilation itself is the generalization of two cultures becomes
one culture as dominant group by rejecting their ancient ideologies,
habits, customs, attitudes, and language. Refer to this view, the data
collected in this part was focused on how the culture of black people
influenced by the cultures of white people as the dominant group, the
data as follows.
Data 14: 12YS/AS/B105/71
01:08:21 01:08:26
56
B105 EXT. SHAW’S HOUSE – DAY
SOLOMON : I meant no disrespect to you, Mistress.
MISTRESS SHAW : Ha! You worry for me? Got no cause to worry
for my sensibilities. I ain't felt the end of a lash
in 'mo years than I cain recall. Ain't worked a
field, neither. Where one time I served, now I
got others servin' me. The cost to my current
existence be Massa Shaw broadcasting his
affections, 'n me enjoyin' his pantomime of
fidelity. If that what keep me from the cotton
pickin' niggers, that what it be. A small and
reasonable price to be paid 'fo sure.
Looking toward Patsey, speaking with great empathy:
MISTRESS SHAW : (CONT’D) I knowed what it like to be the
object of Massa's predilections and peculiarities.
And I knowed they can get expressed with
kindness or wit violence. A lusty visit in the
night, or a visitation from the whip. And wit my
experience, if'n I can give comfort, then comfort
I give. And you take comfort, Patsey; the Good
Lord will manage Epps. In His own time the
Good Lord will manage dem all. Yes, Lordy,
there's a day comin' that will burn as an oven. It
comin' as sure as the Lord is just. When His will
be done...the curse on the Pharos is a poor
example of all that wait 'fo the plantation class.
Mistress Shaw turns her head to the side, catching a Slave’s attention.
As she does so, the slave, a YOUNG WOMAN, commences to pour
tea. As if to punctuate her thought, the Mistress takes a sip of her tea.
01:08:31
57
In this scene, Mrs. Shaw was an ex-black slave who married
with his own master, Mr. Shaw. In this case, Mrs. Shaw as black
woman was following the white’s culture, both in the way of wearing a
dress or the manner of white’s lifestyle. It can be seen in the screen
capture when she was drinking tea and always followed by Patsey.
Here, the segregation was indicated when Mrs. Shaw was look different
with other black people; it seen from her attitude and appearance, since
Mrs. Shaw becomes a freeman after she marries with white man, Mr.
Shaw.
2. The Effect of Race Discrimination Portrayed in "12 Years Slave" Film
In this section, the researcher was emphasized the effect of race
discrimination portrayed in 12 Years Slave film which also seen from the kind
of race discrimination, includes Annihilation, Expulsion, Segregation, and
Assimilation. In this case, all the forms of the kind of race discrimination
were concern to the black people as the slave in struggle their right from
white people as the dominant group. In order to depict what the effect of race
discrimination which portrayed in 12 Years Slave film can be seen through
the data finding below, as follows.
a) Annihilation
In the beginning of film it was show the differential treatment of
black people from white. Firstly through Data 1: 12YS/AN/25/16-18
depicted the white treatment that was indicating as the annihilation act. It
can be seen when Solomon whipped by Bhurch until Solomon bodies
58
severely injured in the back. The Bhurch’s act is given the effect to
Solomon from freeman being black slave. Another effect can be seen
when Solomon said “No” but Bhurch still whip Solomon till Solomon’s
back torn open with lacerations and oozing with blood.
Another treatment which depicts the annihilation act was show in
Data 2: 12YS/AN/48A/32, it seen when Robert as a black slave tried to
protect Eliza for white sailor and he was killed by the white sailor. Based
on this action was give the impact to other black slaves which felt afraid
to against the white people. It can be seen through the screen capture
when black slave behind the sailor be scare when he know the sailor kill
Robert. The similar the treatment was seen in Data 3: 12YS/AN/84/58
which in the treatment of white people toward black people was almost
make the people die. It was seen when Tibeat and two friends who are
trying to kill Solomon (Platt) by hanging in a tree in the yard of Mr. Ford
reason to Solomon revenge. By this act was give effect the black slaves to
not dare to rebel and feel afraid to white people it can see when Solomon
hanging in tree nothing black slave want to help him only Chapin and Mr.
Ford as a white people.
In Data 4: 12YS/AN/A101/68 was show when Solomon met white
patrol group that would be execute some black slaves by hanging in tree.
It also indicated as the annihilation act of white to black people. As the
effect of this act was Solomon felt afraid when he see the black people
will die because he didn’t want die like them and this scene make
59
Solomon to think again to escape from plantation it can see when
Solomon buy some paper for make letter to his friend in Bartholomew's
shop.
The last data which depict as annihilation act was in Data 5:
12YS/AN/156/109. The data had shown when Patsey black slaves who
punish with whip by Mr. Epps because she lying to him. Mr. Epps who
felt angry said “I will kill every nigger in my sight!”, and as the effect
from this act was almost same with Data 2 that make the black slave feel
afraid to white people and didn’t rebel to him. In other side, in this data it
also make the black slave feel not have heart to Patsey as the fellow of
black slave.
b) Expulsion
In this space, the researcher present the data which is became the
effect of race discrimination in the form of expulsion act. From Data 6:
12YS/EX/23/15 it shown the scene when Hamilton and Brown in hotel
room had intended to sell it to be made of black slaves. It can be seen
from script; Hamilton said “Hmm. A good night's sleep. And Tomorrow
...tomorrow you will feel as well and refreshed as though the earth were
new again”. Here, the effects from Hamilton act make Solomon force to
leave his home and separated with his family for about 12 years because
Hamilton sold him being a black slave in plantation.
The similar data seen in Data 7: 12YS/EX/32/23 that show when
Clemens was tell to all of black people what would happen after in Burch
60
Dungeon yard, Washington DC, Clemens know they will bring to New
Orleans and force sold become slave in plantation. As the effect from this
act are many black people that being a slave by white people which fraud
and force to sell as a slave. As almost same with previous data that
shown in Data 8: 12YS/EX/53/35 when Solomon refused and explained
that the name was not Platt. Here, he said that “My name is not Platt. My
name is…;’’ from this act Solomon forced to change his name became
Platt. The effects was Solomon force become slave and with the new
name Solomon felt difficult to explain that he was a freeman who have
the legal document.
In Data 9: 12YS/EX/59/39 that show how Eliza black slaves who
had two children were forced to split up with his son as master ford who
want to buy to be used as slaves on the plantation. It can be seen from
script when Eliza said “Please, sir... Please don't divide my family. Don't
take me unless you take my children as well”. As the effect was Eliza
force sold as black slave and force to leave her son to sale on another
slave buyer.
c) Segregation
Here, the researcher shows the data collected which is became the
effect from segregation act. First shown in Data 10: 12YS/SE/75/46 when
Solomon wants to give the idea of transporting the woods in Mr. Ford
plantations through the river but Tibeats rejected the idea because he felt
Solomon only a stupid black slave. It can be seen in script when Tibeats
61
tried to reject Solomon’s idea that Tibeats said “Are you an engineer, or
a nigger?” The effect from this act was black people get the differential
treatment from dominant group because their race and white people give
the limit black people to deliver his aspiration because they as a minority
group that didn’t have right to deliver his idea.
In Data 11: 12YS/SE/141/94 shown when the different treatment
given by Mr. Epps for his slaves. which in the slave group contained one
white slave named Armsby were given distinctive not given lashes
punishment even though he was only able to collect Sixty four pounds
cotton fewer than Solomon (Platt) is One hundred sixty pounds. It can
show the situation from the script when Mr. Epps didn’t punish Armsby
“Epps speaks to Armsby sternly, but nothing of the manner in which he
would address the slaves”. The effect from this act was black people
always get unequal treatment from white because white think their race
better than black people.
As next portrayed was in Data 12: 12YS/SE/A148/98 shown how
the different treatment given to corpse the Uncle Abraham as a black
slave who died in the Mr. Epp plantation and got a simply buried in the
cemetery. Somehow, it was intentionally made only for the black slaves
accompanied with a simple funeral ceremony attended by fellow black
slaves. It can be show in screen capture that only black people in funeral
ceremony of uncle Abrams. As the effect from this act was nothing
62
facilitates that serve from dominant group actually the white people to
black people as the minority.
Similar with the previous data of effect from segregation act, it
was show in Data 13: 12YS/SE/156/107 that how different treatment
given by Mrs. Epps to Patsey, that Patsey was not given soap to take a
bath for a few weeks. In script Patsey explain what she does to Mr. Epps
as a slave in his plantation “Five hundred pounds 'a cotton day in, day
out. More than any man here. And 'fo that I will be clean; that all I ax.
Dis here what I went to Shaw's 'fo”. The effect from this act is the
differential treatment from white that black people by didn’t give
facilitate that they should get from white as the dominant group.
d) Assimilation
The last data became the effect of race discrimination portrayed in
12 Years Slave was in form of the assimilation act. In Data 14:
12YS/AS/B105/71 was show when Mrs. Shaw as black woman was
following the white’s culture after married with his own master, Mr.
Shaw as the white people, both in the way of wearing a dress or the
manner of white’s lifestyle. The effect from this act is the black people as
the minority group should change their habitual when they are live
together with white people as the dominant group.
63
B. Discussion
In this point, the researcher would explain the data finding within his
perceptions and some supporting references that related with race discrimination
portrayal in 12 Years Slave film. As follow the explanation based on the problem
of the research.
1. Kind Of Race Discrimination Portrayed on 12 Years Slave Film
As the data that was found on 12 Years Slave film, the researcher concern
to race discrimination by white people to black people slave that was found
from the film. Here, the researcher that was found 14 data of kind racism that
divide into four forms actually Annihilation, Expulsion, Segregation, and
Assimilation.
a) Annihilation
First, the data that contain on annihilation act was found in scenes of 12
Years Slave film based on screen capture and script. As the discussion,
annihilation act means deliberate extermination of the racial or ethnic group
by homicide some people or particular group as minority group in order to
deprive the right to life. As the analysis, Data 1 was depicted when Bhurch
who whipped Solomon until he was dying and make him did not have right to
life again. Moreover, Data 2 was the portrayal of white people toward black
people that shown when Robert was killing by sailor when try to protect
Eliza. Furthermore, Data 3 was shown Tibeat and two friends who tried to
kill Solomon (Platt) by hanging in a tree at the yard of Mr. Ford. As the next,
64
Data 4 was drawn when the patroller group who want to execute some black
slaves by hanging in the tree. And the last, Data 5 was describe when Mr.
Epps threaten to kill all black people that he look if Solomon did not whip
Patsey hardly then imedietly taken the belt and whip Patsey by himself
vigorously until the back of body was bloody and fallen to the ground.
Considering to all of the data were indicated as race discrimination in
form of annihilation since those data portrayed how white people given
treatment to black people which in white people tried to deprive the right of
black people to life in freedom, even it do by homicide a black when they
disobedient with the rule of white as the dominant group. As what said by
Tischler (2007: 228) that state that Annihilation refers to the deliberate
extermination of a racial or ethnic group, Annihilation also deprives an entire
group of people of their right to life in the same way that homicide deprives
one person of the right to life.
b) Expulsion
Second, the data from 12 Years Slave film that contained of expulsion
act. Here, expulsion act is focused on the process of forcing a black people to
leave the territory by the white who has the power. Refer to the data; the
researcher presented Data 6 was shown Hamilton and Brown had intended to
sell Solomon to be made of black slaves. Similar with Data6, Data 7 was
depicted how Clemens, Ray, and John that have same fate because had been
duped by his friend the white man and being lied to with a way sold as black
65
slaves. Furthermore, Data 8 was depicted Solomon is forced to change its
name to Platt by whites Freeman. Moreover, Data 9 was shown how Eliza
black slaves who had two children were forced to split up with his son as
master ford who want to buy to be used as slaves on the plantation.
Considering, the data that contained race discrimination in expulsion
form since when black people as the minority group force to leave their
territory by white people use a way they kidnaped the black then sale black
people as a slave in plantation. Some of black also separated with their family
when they are force to leave their territory. It similar with Mooney (2011:
310) statement that expulsion is occurs when a dominant group forces a
minority group to leave the territory or to live only in designated areas of the
country. And it also support by Tischler (2007: 228) states that expulsion is
the process of forcing a group to leave the territory in which it lives.
c) Segregation
As the next, the researcher discuss about data that contained race
discrimination in segregation form. Here, segregation is concern to practice of
physical separation and restriction the freedom of white toward black people
as minority group. According to the data, Data 10 was shown when Solomon
didn’t have freedom to give an idea to transport the wood trough river by
Tibeats. Moreover, Data 11 was depicted the different treatment given by Mr.
Epps for his slaves. Actually, Solomon got punishment but Armsby not given
punishment since he is white. Furthermore, Data 12 was portrayal the
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature
A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN  Quot  12 YEARS SLAVE  Quot  FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature

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A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN Quot 12 YEARS SLAVE Quot FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology Of Literature

  • 1. i A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN “12 YEARS SLAVE” FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology of Literature) THESIS Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of Requirement for the Graduate S1 Degree of Education English Department By: AHMAD ARSKI DE AFRIGH NIM : 1171101 SEKOLAH TINGGI KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN PERSATUAN GURU REPUBLIK INDONESIA JOMBANG 2016
  • 2. ii APPROVAL SHEET THESIS A PORTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN “12 YEARS SLAVE” FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology of Literature) By: AHMAD ARISKI DE AFRIGH NIM : 1171101 Approved on 21th December 2015 By Advisor, KHOIRUL HASYIM, M.Pd.
  • 3. iii COMMISSION SHEET THESIS A POTRAYED OF RACE DISCRIMINATION IN “12 YEARS SLAVE” FILM BY STEVE MCQUEEN (Sociology of Literature) By: AHMAD ARISKI DE AFRIGH NIM : 1171101 Board of Examiners Name Signature Chairman : Drs. Adib Darmawan, M.A. …………………… Examiner 1 : M. Saibani Wiyanto, M.Pd. …………………… Examiner 2 : Dra. Mindaudah, M.Pd. …………………… Examiner 3 : Khoirul Hasyim, M.Pd. …………………… Acknowledge by Head of English Department Drs. Adib Darmawan, M.A.
  • 4. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Firstly, the writer would like to say thanks to ALLAH SWT, The Almighty who gives all His blessing for finishing this final project, and to the Prophet Muhammad, the great man who becomes the leader of Moslem and guides the human to the right way and also to all his families and his friends. The researcher takes his thesis under the title A Portrayed f Race Discrimination In “12 Years Slave” Film by Steve Mcqueen (Sociology of Literature) due to his interest to the content of the film. Besides, it is aimed to fulfill the requirement for bachelor’s degree. Moreover, the researcher realizes that he would never the completion of his thesis without the contribution and encouragement from many people. Therefore, the researcher wants to express his gratitude to: 1. Dr. Winardi, S.H., M.Hum., the Dean of STKIP PGRI JOMBANG; 2. Drs. Adib Darmawan, M.A., the Head of English Department of STKIP PGRI JOMBANG; 3. Khoirul Hasyim, M.Pd., the advisor who has always given suggestion for the researcher’s thesis; 4. All the lecturers of STKIP PGRI JOMBANG who were willing to give their advices for the completion of this thesis; 5. All friends who have always got together to support each other.
  • 5. v Finally, the researcher also realizes that this thesis is still far from the perfection. Therefore, the writer expects any improving critics and suggestions for this thesis. In addition, the researcher hopes this thesis will be advantageous for both the writer and the readers. Jombang,…December 2015 The researcher
  • 6. vi MOTTO Born to Lose, Live to Win -Motorhead-
  • 7. vii DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated to: My beloved family, with their love and effort who always pray and support me.
  • 8. viii TABLE OF CONTENTS COVER ....................................................................................................... i APPROVAL SHEET .................................................................................. ii COMMISSION SHEET.............................................................................. iii ACKNOWLEDGMENT............................................................................. iv MOTTO ...................................................................................................... vi DEDICATION............................................................................................ vii TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................ viii LIST OF APPENDICES............................................................................. x ABSTRACT................................................................................................ xi CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION .......................................................... 1 A. Background of the Study ......................................... 1 B. Problem of the Study ............................................... 4 C. Objective of the Study ............................................. 4 D. Significance of the Study......................................... 5 E. Scope and Limitation............................................... 5 F. Definition of Key Terms.......................................... 5 G. Research Method ..................................................... 7 1. Research design ................................................. 7 2. Approach............................................................ 8 3. Source of Data and Data.................................... 8 4. Instrument.......................................................... 9 5. Procedure of Collecting Data............................. 11 6. Procedure of Analysis Data ............................... 11 CHAPTER II : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE...................... 13 A. Theoretical Background........................................... 13 1. Film as Literary Work ...................................... 13 2. Sociology Of Literature.................................... 14 a. The Author Sociology ................................ 16 b. The sociology of literary work ................... 17 c. The reader sociology .................................. 17
  • 9. ix 3. Sociological Theory.......................................... 18 a. Functionalism ............................................. 20 b. Conflict Theory........................................... 22 c. Symbolic Interactionism............................. 23 4. Race Discrimination ......................................... 24 a. Annihilation................................................ 26 b. Expulsion.................................................... 28 c. Segregation ................................................. 29 d. Assimilation................................................ 31 B. Previous Studies ...................................................... 32 C. Theoretical Framework............................................ 35 CHAPTER III : FINDING AND DISCUSSION...................................... 37 A. Findings ................................................................... 37 B. Discussion................................................................ 63 CHAPTER IV : CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION........................... 72 A. Conclusion............................................................... 72 B. Suggestion ............................................................... 73 BIBLIOGRAPHY....................................................................................... 74 APPENDICES ............................................................................................ 76
  • 10. x LIST OF APPENDICES 1. APPENDIX 1 : Classification of Data Collected of Race Discriminations Portrayed in "12 Years Slave" Film................................ 76 2. APPENDIX 2 : Synopsis of “The Blind Side” Film................................ 98
  • 11. xi ABSTRACT Afrigh, Ahmad Ariski De. 2015. A Portrayed of Race Discrimination in “12 Years Slave” Film By Steve Mcqueen (Sociology of Literature) Thesis. English Department of STKIP PGRI JOMBANG, Advisor: Khoirul Hasyim, M.Pd. Key words: Race discrimination, whites, blacks, sociology of literature. 12 years slave. Literary work is an expression from social phenomenon that occurs in society. The social phenomenon is including the discrimination based on the race in society which was conducted by dominant group toward minority group. As the one of result from the race discrimination is slavery of black people as the minority group that conduct by whites as the dominant group who have the authority in the country. The purpose of this study is to find out the kind of race discrimination of white people toward blacks as the minority group that shown in 12 Years Slave film. In other side, the researcher also aims to find out the effect from race discrimination of whites toward blacks. In this study, the researcher only analyzed the race discrimination that portrayed in 12 Years Slave film without compared with the real condition in society. For this study, the approach that used is sociology of literature which analyzes used sociological theory. By the approach, the researcher analyzes the social phenomenon that was occurring in society including the race discrimination. 12 Years Slave, is the film that portrayed the race discrimination of whites toward blacks. The film was told about Solomon Northup the African-American freeman who kidnaped and sold as a slave by whites. The race discrimination experience of blacks in this film are depicted in four form, as follow; Annihilation, Expulsion, Segregation, and Assimilation, from All of the discrimination form that conducted by whites is give the effect to blacks, the effect is blacks did not have the right to life since when the blacks disobedient to whites they will get the punishment or killed, the blacks separated with their family, and the facilitation from whites as the dominant group that should give to black are limit. From the study, the researcher conclude that from all of kind and the effect of race discrimination show how the whites as dominant group made the blacks as the minority group deprive their right in society when the dominant group oppress by enslave the black and from the study the researcher assumed that the race discrimination still occurs today with the different treatment
  • 12. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of The Study Literature is an idea that made as the expression the feeling of human. Etymologically, the Latin word “litteratura” is derived from “littera” (letter). Literature can express by spoken or write. Literature comes from some idea, experience, opinion, emotion of human in their society. We know that literature is mirrors of society. So, what happens in a society is reflected in literary works in one form or another. According to Wellek and Warren (1949: 94), literature represents ‘life’ and ‘life’ is a social reality, even though the natural world and the inner or subjective world of the individual have also been objects of literary ‘imitations’. Through literature, an author tries to express his or her idea about what he or she ever experienced in life time or what was happening around them from natural phenomenon to the life of the people in their community. Therefore, literature is expressed the idea fiction or non-fiction. Literature is referred to as the entirety of written expression, with the restriction that not every written document can be categorized as literature in the more exact sense of the word. It also states from Klarer (2004: 1) that literature usually include additional adjectives such as “aesthetic” or “artistic” to distinguish literary works from texts of everyday use such as telephone books, newspapers, legal documents, and scholarly writings. It means literature is expression of human which come from 1
  • 13. 2 his idea, feeling, opinion, and emotion which have an aesthetic or artistic point in meaningful and coherent by spoken or written. As part of literary work, film also included within such as fiction, poetry, drama. Film is representing a written work of literature trough role play with additional graphic motion and sound that make interesting of reader. Klarer (2004: 56) argued that film is predetermined by literary technique conversely, literary practice developed particular features under the impact of film. He also argued that film’s idiosyncratic modes of presentation such as camera angle, editing, montage, slow and fast motion often parallel features of literary texts or can be explained within a textual framework. So, film it can be define as role play of literary work that presenting in series of motion pictures that taken by camera with additional of editing, camera angle, montage and sound which played on a screen. However, literature is closely linked with society which literature itself is an expression that born from the daily activities in a society. As already described previously by to Wellek and Warren (1949: 94) literature represents ‘life’ and ‘life’ is a social reality. Through literature an author can express his idea that ever experienced or what was happening around them. The study explains about society it’s called Sociology. Sociology is defined as the systematic study of society and social interaction. The word of “sociology” is derived from the Latin word “socius” (companion) and the Greek word “logos” (study of), meaning “the study of companionship”. The relation of literature and sociology assumes that literature is reflected from the author experienced about some aspects of social reality. So, the sociology of literature is the theory that studies about relationship
  • 14. 3 between literature and society. As what states by Desan et al. (1989) in Schram and Steen (2001:359) that the sociology of literature in particular has focused on the relation between society and literature, usually employing the metaphor that literature mirrors society. According to Tischler (2007: 218) define the concept of race in his book Introduction to Sociology. Race refers to a category of people who are defined as similar because of a number of physical characteristics. It means race is the term how to categorize human based on their physical characteristic such as their various geographic regions, ethnicities, skin colors, and more. While, Tischler (2007: 223) also argued the term of Discrimination, it is refers to differential treatment, usually unequal and injurious, according to individual who are assumed to belong to a particular category or group. Therefore, Race Discrimination can be defined as the differential treatment of person or group based on their racial origins. Here, to analyze race discrimination using Sociology of Literature should by means of three perspectives in sociology. Tischler (2007: 19) also explain that in sociology there are three perspectives, those are structural functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. The perspectives would each explain race discrimination in a different way. In this study, the reseacher want to examine in detail about film in order to show the portraying race discrimination that exist in "12 Years Slave" film directed by Steve McQueen, 2013. The film is told the story of Solomon Northup, a black people who have talent in this music calls itself a free man. One day he was kidnapped and sold as a slave purchase. So a good planter named Ford was
  • 15. 4 bought. But it was his intelligence that brought the problem to Tibeats because he thinks Solomon only black people. Worried something happened to Solomon, he was resold. This time it was bought by Edwin Epps, a cruel treat slaves. There Solomon had to fight to fight for justice till 12 years. Considering those views and the perspective of researcher toward film as literary work, this thesis aims to analyze the phenomenon which is describe race discrimination that contained on Hollywood film under the title A Portrayed of Race Discrimination in "12 Years Slave" Film Directed By Steve McQueen (The Sociology of Literature Study). B. Problem of The study 1. What kind of race discrimination portrayed in "12 Years Slave" film? 2. What the effect of race discrimination portrayed in "12 Years Slave" film? C. Objective of the Study 1. To know kind of race discrimination portrayed in "12 Years Slave" film. 2. To know the effect of race discrimination portrayed in "12 Years Slave" film.
  • 16. 5 D. Significance of Study The analysis of this study is expected to give significance to the readers which used theoretically and practically, as follows: 1. Theoretically The result of this study can be a reference to the reader who will discuss about Sociology of Literature related the literary work, especially film. 2. Practically The result of the study also can give information as the references for the student and the next researchers who also want to study related the theory Sociology of literature in literary terms. E. Scope and Limitation There are some aspects that can be discussed in literary work especially in "12 Years Slave" film. As the scope of this study, the researcher focuses to analyze the utterance of race discrimination whites toward blacks based on screen play and screen capture in 12 Years Slave" film. And as the limitation, the researcher dividing the race discrimination into four terms that explains in sociological theory. Those terms are Annihilation, Expulsion, Segregation, and Assimilation. F. Definition of Key Terms 1. Sociology of Literature Sociology of literature is the term to analyze the relationship between literature and society. The sociology of literature in particular has focused on the relation between society and literature, usually employing the metaphor
  • 17. 6 that literature mirrors society. The relation of literature and society it assume that literature are reflected from the author experienced about some aspect of social reality. (Desan et al. 1989 in Schram and Steen, 2001:359) 2. Race discrimination As the phenomenon in society the race discrimination is the treatment come from the dominant group toward minority group based on differential their race. Here, Race Discrimination is differential treatment a person or group based on their racial origins. The treatment usually unequal and injurious accorded to individuals who are assumed to belong to a particular category or group. (Tischler. 2007: 223) 3. 12 Years Slave 12 years slave film is film who created by Steve McQueen. It is told the story of Solomon Northup, a black people who have talent in this music calls itself a free man. One day he was kidnapped and sold as a slave purchase. So a good planter named Ford was bought. But it was his intelligence that brought the problem to Tibeats because he thinks Solomon only black people. Worried something happened to Solomon, he was resold. This time it was bought by Edwin Epps, a cruel treat slaves. There Solomon had to fight to fight for justice till 12 years.
  • 18. 7 G. Research Method Research method is a method designed to explore specific research questions provided by researcher when conducting the study. It is the general systematic framework to guide a research project which included the research design, the approach, and the source of the data, the instrument, and the procedure of data analysis. 1. Research Design The research design is procedure that used by researcher to collect and analyze the data. It is procedure that can make effectively for the research problem clearly. In this study, the researcher applies qualitative research design. In brief, qualitative research in this research is employing the method of collecting, describing, classifying, and analyzing the data and then drawing conclusion. By using qualitative method, this research is aimed to describe the race discrimination in "12 Years Slave" film based on the sociology of literature study. According to Dornyei (2011: 37) we find qualitative studies focusing on topics across the whole research spectrum, even including core quantitative areas such as language testing and several keys applied linguistics (for example: the study of gender, race, ethnicity, and identity) are being driven by qualitative research. It is also argued by Creswell (2009:4) Qualitative Research is a means for exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem. From that
  • 19. 8 explanation, the researchers have the reason to apply descriptive qualitative to conduct the research. 2. Approach In this study, the researcher applied Sociology of Literature approach through sociological theory. As cited by Allan in Nathan et al. book Introduction to Sociology (2007: 17) that Sociological theory is a way to explain different aspects of social interactions and to create testable propositions about society. It means through the sociological theory the researcher analyzes social interaction, actually, Race Discrimination which occurred on the film. Moreover, As Mooney (2011: 9) states that in Sociology there are three major theoretical perspectives: the structural-functionalist perspective, the conflict perspective, and also the symbolic interactionist perspective. Each perspective would explain the cause and possible solution or explain a particular the phenomena. Based on description, the researcher emphasizes the research through Sociological Theory to interpret the phenomena of race discrimination that portrayed in "12 Years Slave" film. 3. Source of Data And Data The sources of data used in this study were taken from 12 Years Slave film. In other side, researcher also used the screenplay of film and some references such as books, website that has relationship with the study of race discrimination to support the study. While, the data were taken from
  • 20. 9 utterances with contain the treatment from whites toward blacks in screenplay and screen captures from "12 Years Slave" film which contained the race discrimination with sociological theory as the base. 4. Instrument In this study, the researcher used observation for collecting, analyzing, and presenting the data. It supported by Yin (2011: 143) states observation can be an invaluable way of collecting data because what you see with your own eyes and perceive with your own senses is not filtered by what others might have (self-) reported to you or what the author of some document might have seen. In this sense, your observations are a form of primary data, to be highly cherished. Here, the researcher also applied document as the supporting instrument to get the data that appropriate with the phenomenon would be analyzed. According to Dornyei (2011: 37) states that qualitative research work with a wide range of data including various types of text (for example; document, journal, field notes, and diary entries), and images (photo or video) that data transformed into textual forms. Here, the document is taken from some references from books and journals related with topic of the study in order to support his view point. To support this study, researcher need tool of instrument. In this case, the researcher use table as the tool of instrument. It is functioned as collected data classification and tool to answer the research problems. The researcher presented the table as follow:
  • 21. 10 No. Kind of Racism Code Script and Screen Capture Note 1. 2. … The researcher displayed the table with the classification of collected data. The table is contained Kind of Racism, Code Script and Screen Capture, Note. Here, the Kind of Racism column is contained kind of racial treatment based on study; Code column is contained the coding of the data; Script and Screen Capture column displayed the screen capture of film and script each scene of film that contained of racial treatment; Note column is contained the explanation of phenomenon that dealing with research study by researcher. In addition, the data are coding as “12YS/AN/11/25”, it presented as the "12 Years Slave" film which contained Annihilation as kind of racism, page 11 of script, Scene 25. Note: Kind of racism code: a) AN: Annihilation c) SE: Segregation b) EX: Expulsion d) AS: Assimilation
  • 22. 11 5. Procedures of collecting data 5.1 Watching the film; The researcher watched the film to know the phenomena that happened in film it can be correlated with problem of the study and know the element in the film. 5.2 Reading the screenplay of film; Researcher reading the screenplay to know every scene in screenplay it can be appropriate with film. 5.3 Identifying the data related the problem of the study through each scene in screenplay; After watched the film and reading the screenplay, the researcher identifying the film and screenplay which every scene are portrayed the race discrimination in detail of character and the society in film. 5.4 Selecting the data related the problem of the study through each scene in screenplay; The researcher selected scene in screenplay as the suitable data which has identified in order to gather the appropriate data concerned on this study. 6. Procedures of analysis data To completed the study researcher need procedure of analysis data to answer the research problem. Researcher used theory from Yin (2011: 49) that argued the procedure form to analysis the data is there four steps, as follow the form (1) Defining something to investigate, (2) Collecting relevant
  • 23. 12 data, (3) Analyzing and interpreting the results, and (4) Drawing conclusions based on the empirical findings. Dealing with that, researcher used that form to conduct the research: 6.1 Defining something to investigate; Researcher defines the research object that can be investigated in this study as the sources of the data. Researcher gathers the data based on Screenplay and screen of "12 Years Slave" film that contained race discrimination to investigate the data. 6.2 Collecting relevant data; Researcher collecting relevant the data from each scene in screenplay and scene "12 Years Slave" film that contained the utterance of race discrimination which appropriate with the study. 6.3 Analyzing and interpreting the results; The researcher are analyzing and interpreting the results of data that collect through Sociological theory and some references that appropriate with phenomenon from the study. 6.4 Drawing conclusions based on the empirical findings; The researcher made conclusion referring to the analysis conducted in this study based on the previous procedure.
  • 24. 13 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Theoretical Background In this chapter the researcher presents review of the related study. The researcher discusses some important theories used to support this analysis. Those are film as literary work, sociology of literature, sociological theory, and race discrimination. 1. Film As Literary Work Film is including as part of literary work such as fiction, poetry, drama. Film is representing a written work of literature trough role play with additional graphic motion and sound that make interesting of reader. Klarer (2004: 56) argues that Film is predetermine by literary technique conversely, literary practice develop the particular features under the impact of film. He also argues that film Film’s idiosyncratic modes of presentation such as camera angle, editing, montage, slow and fast motion often parallel features of literary texts or can be explain within a textual framework. So, Film it can be define as role play of literary work that presenting in series of motion pictures that taken by camera with additional of editing, camera angle, montage and sound which played on a screen. As the literary work, film is deriving the human idea which written work and role the character that written which presenting in moving picture. In this case, literature and film is closely related to expressing the idea of 13
  • 25. 14 human in factual or fiction. According to Bennet (2004:142) states that Film is, nevertheless, inextricably tied in with the study of literature. As the Bennet statement so many ways to presenting the literary work not only novel, drama but film can present them. Film is innovative ways to expressing of human idea that presenting which role model that can reflect the emotional of each character. As audience, would read films in the same way they read literary texts. It also would attract the audience’s interest since it contains the particular moral value, the information or even expanding their imagination. 2. Sociology of Literature Literature is an expression from our society. Literature and society are so closely linked that which literature itself is an expression of human feeling, idea, experienced, emotion, and opinion that born of the daily activities that take place in a society life . An author of literature is a part of society and he represents the phenomenon that was happening in around them. According to Wellek and Warren (1949:94) literature represents ‘life’ and ‘life’ is a social reality. Through literature an author can express his idea that ever experienced or what was happening around them. The study that explains society it’s called Sociology. According to Tischler (2007: 4) Sociology is defined as the systematic study of society and social interaction. It means sociology is the study that concern to defining the interaction of human in a society. As etymology define the term of “sociology” is derived from the Latin word socius (companion) and the Greek word logos (study of), meaning “the study of companionship”, it means social interaction and its resultant
  • 26. 15 relationship that exists between companions or groups of human beings. The studies that explain about relation literature and society it’s a called Sociology of Literature. It support by Desan et al. (1989) in Schram and Steen (2001:359) states that the sociology of literature in particular has focused on the relation between society and literature, usually employing the metaphor that literature mirrors society. There are many correlations between literature and social phenomenon, the sociology of literature very useful to understand the social problem such as in economic, politic issues, religion, class, gender, race, and ethnicity. Generally, literature and sociology has a reciprocal, because literature is reflected from human society phenomenon, the author of letter is a part of society, and the reader of literature is member of society. The relationship either one look clearly, sociology is study with the object a human in society, whereas literature is the result of human expression that reflected from society. Therefore, the sociology of literature is the studies that analyze work of literature use sociology paradigm. But, before analyze the problem the researcher should know the actual relation between literature and society. According to Wellek and Warren (1949:90) states that the descriptive relationships between literature and society are classified: 1) the sociology of the author and institution of literature; it means economic basic of literary production, social background and status of author including his ideology which expressed in his work of literature and his activities; 2) The social purpose of the works of literature themselves, including the problem of the
  • 27. 16 social content, and the implication from the work of literature; 3) There are the problem of reader and the social impact from literature. As the Wellek and Warren statements the sociology of literature it can be divided in to three parts, those are: the author sociology, the sociology of literary work, and the reader sociology. Those would be explained in the below: a. The author sociology The author of literature is a part of society, as the author of literature is the many aspects that can influence his literary work. The background of socio-economic, social status of author, social change that happens in his society including ideology of author that reflected in his literary work is the aspect that can influence of the author. From those aspects that can as the influence of the author for his literary works. According to Laurenson and Swingwood (1972:18) states that: “The writer's position in a mass society is extremely important as a contrast to his earlier social situation and clearly likely to affect his creative potential in many ways; the links between historical background and the development of literature constitute a key area in any literary sociology.” As the statement, all of the information about the aspect has the role to disclosure the problem sociology author with his surrounding society. It means how the author gets a livelihood, whether it is receiving support from the people directly or has another job for his livelihood, or where the position of the author in the reader his literary
  • 28. 17 work and what the target of the reader his literary work. In this case, All of them it can be the source of information what influence and how sociology situation of the author. b. The sociology of literary work Literary work who try to show the phenomena that happen in society. Thus it can be said that the author's literary work can be used to pour all the problems of human life in society. In addition, literary works can be regarded as the translation of human behavior in life. Sociology of literary works which concerned about literary work itself which is the subject of the review or what is implied in the literature and what is the purpose. It support by Wellek and Warren (1949:90) states that sociology of literary work focused to the social purpose of the works of literature themselves, including the problem of the social content, and the implication from the work of literature. It means the content of literary work is try to reflect to the social phenomenon that happened in society as appropriate with the purpose of literary work itself and related with the social problems. c. The reader sociology Sociology reader is part of studies sociology of literature that focuses attention to the connection between literatures to readers. The reader is the intended audience by the author in creating literary works. The reader itself is part of society in received the reader in literary work will give impact to society by the reader of literary work. Moreover, in
  • 29. 18 the reader sociology focus to require the reader to have a higher skill in literature whose purpose is try to figure out how a literary work actually received by a particular society at a moment of history that happened. As statement by Swingwood and Laurenson (1972:21) that one demanding a high level of skills, attempts to trace the ways in which a work of literature is actually received by a particular society at a specific historical moment. In this case, the reader of literary work can receive and understanding to literary work that they read so they can give the impact to author, society around them, and literature itself. 3. Sociological theory As the theory which put the society as the object to analyze, sociology itself is theory that analyzes social interaction of human in society. According to Tischler (2007: 4) Sociology is defined as the systematic study of society and social interaction. It means sociology is the study that concern to defining the interaction of human in a society. The main goal of sociology itself is trying to understand social situations that occur in the society and look for patterns of society that shapes the behavior of the individual in society. Moreover, Tischler (2007: 4) states that the sociologists attempt to understand the forces that operate throughout society forces that mold individuals, shape their behavior, and, thus, determine social events. Sociology will more explain about human society that seeks to answer the questions such as; how society is possible, how it works and why it persists. In fact, the structure of specific society emerges through the rigorous examination of economic,
  • 30. 19 political, cultural, religious, academic, familial and other social institutions. Sociology is a science that is constantly evolving. A perspective and understanding that initiate by sociologist at particular age, will receive criticism and renewal by sociologists in the next era, depending on the social and political situation of this era by making the first view as a starting point to get new ideas. Therefore, the different views of sociology is constructing a different paradigm, depending on social phenomenon that happen, as well as the methods developed to examine the problems in a diverse society, both in terms of age and territorial. Moreover, the sociological theory is a proposed relationship between two or more concepts. In other words, a theory is explanation for why or how a phenomenon occurs. It support by Allan in Nathan et al. book Introduction to Sociology (2013: 17) that Sociological theory is a way to explain different aspects of social interactions and to create testable propositions about society. In other side, the sociological theory is divided into two scales, those are: Macrosociology and Microsociology that scale to explain of the issue of social problem. According to Gidden (2006: 25) states that Macrosociology is the analysis of large scale social system; it means analysis such as the political system or the economic order including the analysis of long term process of change. And the other hand, micro sociology is the study of everyday of behavior in situation of face to face interaction the individual with other. From the explanation, macrosociology and Micro sociology it can be imagine like a photographer. Macrosociology are like photographers who
  • 31. 20 shoot their photos using a wide angle lens. They would rather fit a lot of people into each frame than get detailed images of just a few of them. In other side, the microsociology is like photographers who use a zoom lens. They focus on only a few people at a time so they can capture a lot of detail about each person. In sociology, there are some theories that will help to explain more the aspects of social problem. These theories have different perspective and different scale to analyze the social phenomenon that occurs. There are three major theories in sociological theories that they provide useful explanations. The theories is; structural functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. According to Mooney (2011: 9) states that Sociology there are three major theoretical perspectives: the structural-functionalist perspective, the conflict perspective, and the symbolic interactionist perspective. Each perspective would explain the cause and possible solution or explain a particular the phenomena. The explanation all of theory is above: a. Functionalism First perspective in sociology called Functionalism. It also called structural-functional theory. Structural functional is a perspective used in the analysis of societies and their component features. Structural functionalism focuses on the mutual integration and interconnection of societies and it also focuses on what social functions in various elements of the social system perform with regard to the system as a whole. According to Moneey et.al (2011: 9) states that the structural-
  • 32. 21 functionalist perspective emphasizes the interconnectedness of society by focusing on how each part influences and is influenced by other parts. It means functionalism in sociological perspective is theory that concern how the each element of society can influences and influenced the social structure in around of society.in other side, Nathan et al. (2007: 18) states that Functionalism sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals who make up that society. Functionalism interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole society which more than the sum of its parts including each part of society is functional for the stability of the whole society. Generally, the functionalism it can be imagining as government that provide education to children of the family. Then the family pays taxes to the state so that the government can still provide education to children. So, the children can grow up with good education and have good job so that they can raise and they can support their own families. In the process, the children become law-abiding, taxpaying citizens, who in turn support the government. If all goes well, the parts of society produce order, stability, and productivity. But, when one part of the system is not working or is dysfunctional, it affects all other parts and creates social problems, which leads to social change.
  • 33. 22 b. Conflict theory Another theory with a macro-level view it called conflict theory. In sociology conflict theory is see the individual or group is competing to get benefit from social and economic resources. Social order is maintained by domination, with power in the hands of those with the greatest political, economic, and social resources so that effect from domination is inequality and social conflict. According to Tischler (2007: 19) states that Conflict theory proposes that each individual or group struggles to attain the maximum benefit. This causes society to change constantly in response to social inequality and social conflict. Conflict theorist is focus to who get the benefit from society structure and how he maintains their positions and continues to reap benefit from them. Generally, conflict theory is influence with Karl Marx work that called Marxism that emphasizes the class conflict in economic. It describes by Marx in Nathan et.al book (2013:20) “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed”. Marx understood human society in terms of conflict between social classes, notably the conflict in capitalist societies between those who owned the means of economic production (factory or farm owners,) and those who did not (the workers). The statement also support by Max Weber, Weber state that he agree with Marx that the economic inequalities come from the capitalist system are
  • 34. 23 source from conflict. But, he disagree he disagreed that the conflict must lead to revolution and the collapse of capitalism. c. Symbolic Interactionism The symbolic interaction perspective, also called symbolic interactionism, this perspective relies on the symbolic meaning that people develop and depend to the process of social interaction. According to Nathan et.al (2013: 21) state that Symbolic Interactionist perspective is concern to perception of communication through language and symbols that how the individual sense of their social work. It means that perspective explains more role of communication by symbol and language has impact to relationship of individual within their society. In this case, this perspective are explains social behavior in terms of how people interact with each other via symbols. In this view, social structures are best understood in terms of such individual interactions by addressing the subjective meaning that people determining on object, event, and behavior. According to Nathan et.al (2013: 21) states that George Herbert Mead (1863–1931) is one of founder of Symbolic Interactionism after that this theory was develop his student Herbert Blumer (1900-1987), Blumer interpret Mead’s work and popularize the theory and he create term “symbolic interactionism” which identifying the three basic premises, those are: 1) Humans act toward things on the basis of the meanings they ascribe to those things; 2) The meaning of such things is
  • 35. 24 derived from, or arises out of, the social interaction that one has with others and the society; 3) These meanings are handled in, and modified through, an interpretative process used by the person in dealing with the things he/she encounters. As the Blumer (1969) statement that Symbolic interactionism is interest to explain how individual in the protesting group interact their message use sign and symbol by one on one interaction. 4. Race Discrimination As the society construction, Race defined as a category or group of people having hereditary traits that set them apart. While race is revolves around the idea of biological traits. Sociologists and other social scientists believe that race is a socially constructed concept. According to Tischler (2007: 218) states that Race is category of people who are define as similar with physical characteristic. As the Tischler’s statement Race is how to categorize the humans based on their physical characteristic such their various geographic regions, ethnicities, skin colors, and more. The concept of race in the field of sociology and are ones that are studied a great deal. Race plays a large role in everyday human interactions and sociologists want to study how, why, and what the outcomes are of these interactions. Race as the socially constructed category, race is group that is treated as distinct in society based on particular characteristic. Because a labeled by powerful group in society from biological characteristic or his culture. In the treatment the race is often as the reason for deferential and unfair treatment.
  • 36. 25 In this case, the treatment comes from dominant group that apply to minority group and in sociological use the minority connotes with discrimination. So, Dominant group is the group that assigns a racial group to subordinate status in society. It support by Louis Wirth (1945) in Nathan et.al book (2013: 233) states that the term of dominant group is substituted for the group in the majority that hold the most power in given society while subordinate group are those who lack power compared to dominant group. While the term of minority group is group of people which their physical or cultural characteristic, are single out from the other in the society that themselves as object of discrimination and unequal treatment. Therefore, the characteristic of minority group is not depend from large of their group, sometimes larger groups can be considered minority groups due to their lack of power. It is the lack of power that is the predominant characteristic of a minority, or subordinate group. For example, consider Apartheid in South Africa, in which a numerical majority (the black inhabitants of the country) were exploited and oppressed by the white minority. As unequal treatment, the discrimination is an action of unequal treatment of group or individual to another membership of group with differences in certain race group. According to Tishcler (2007: 223) states that Discrimination is differential treatment, usually unequal and injurious, accorded to individuals who are assumed to belong to a particular category or group. As the Tischler’s statement that discrimination is act of individual or group to other group that have differential characteristic, the act usually
  • 37. 26 unequal or injuries. In addition statement by Nathan et.al (2013: 235) that discrimination can base on age, religion, health, and other indicator including discrimination based on race. In this case, Discrimination based on race can show in many forms, from unfair housing practices to biased hiring systems. For example; in the late 19th century in history of America, it was not uncommon for business owners to hang signs that read, “Help Wanted: No Irish Need Apply.” And of course, southern Jim Crow laws, with their “Whites only” signs. As the unequal example that occur in America history in discrimination based on race. However, discrimination based on race or usually called Race discrimination. Race discrimination refers to intolerance treatment to person or groups on the basis of their race that usually refer to unequal or injuries to a particular race. As the act of intolerant treatment that have some forms. These form including Annihilation, Expulsion, Segregation, and Assimilation. As the explanation are above: a. Annihilation Firstly, Annihilation and also called genocide. The term of Genocide (Genos is a Greek word which means race) means a conscious effort to exterminate a particular group as the target usually the target is subordinate group that threat to the group who has authority. According to Tischler (2007: 228) states that Annihilation refers to the deliberate extermination of a racial or ethnic group, Annihilation also deprives an
  • 38. 27 entire group of people of their right to life in the same way that homicide deprives one person of the right to life. According to Horton and Hunt (1984: 67) state that sometimes the effects are almost the same with human annihilation should occur due to the application of cruel policy which consequently destroy a group of people. From the statement the annihilation it can come from policy of government with purpose to maintain their position. In other side, on December 11, 1946, the General Assembly of the United Nations passed by unanimous vote a resolution affirming that genocide was a crime under international law and that both principals and accomplices alike would be held accountable and punished. After two years of study and debate, the draft of the convention on genocide was presented to the General Assembly and adopted (United Nations, 1948). Article II of the convention defines genocide as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group; as such: 1) Killing members of the group; 2) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; 3) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or part; 4) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; 5) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. Historically, one of annihilation phenomenon was occurred in last part of 19th century which called Holocaust of World War II. It support
  • 39. 28 by Friedman (1995) statement in Ferris and Stein book (2008: 259) are explain more than 6 million European Jews and several million more non-Jewish “undesirables” (including Gypsies, Poles, Slavs, political enemies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Catholic clergy, homosexuals, and people with disabilities) were moved to concentration camps and executed by the German Nazis. Since that, annihilation has destroyed more millions of lives in Eastern Europe, Africa and Southeast Asia. In this case, usually the troops attackers often robs the food supply of the group that he attacked, thus making the civilian population to suffer starvation or mass exile in the absence of adequate facilities to many are infected diseases and left it till die. b. Expulsion Expulsion is the phenomenon when the dominant group may choose to force a specific subordinate group to leave certain areas of the country. It support by Tischler (2007: 228) states that expulsion is the process of forcing a group to leave the territory in which it lives. As the Tischler’s statement, expulsion is the process when the group of race is being force to leave his territory by the group who has a power. Similar with Tischler statement Mooney et.al (2011: 310) also states that expulsion occurs when a dominant group forces a subordinate group to leave the country or to live only in designated areas of the country. In other side, Nathan et.al (2013: 238) also states that expulsion can be factor in genocide. It means the expulsion can be factor the genocide
  • 40. 29 occur because when subordinate are force to leave not all the subordinate approve to leave his area. As the example of expulsion phenomena is “Trails of Tears”. In Ferris and Stein (2008:259) are explain that Native Americans who had not perished in battles with U.S. soldiers were forced by the U.S. government to move onto Indian reservations west of the Mississippi River. They were often moved far away from the lands where they had lived for generations, as these were desirable territories that the whites wished to acquire for themselves. Between 1838 and 1839, the state of Georgia and the federal government forcibly marched 17,000 Cherokees westward over 800 miles, along the way, over 4,000 people died of hunger, exposure, or disease. c. Segregation In sociological theory, the practice of separating group of people, such as on the basis of race, religion, or ethnicity is called Segregation. Sociologists use the concept of segregation to help explain inequality in social problem including the discrimination process. According to Nathan et.al (2013: 238) states that Segregation refers to the physical separation of two groups, particularly in residence, but also in workplace and social functions. As the statement of Nathan, et.al that process of segregation are often limits opportunities and restrict the freedom of people who do not belong to a dominant group. The statement it also supports by Tischler (2007:228) that some people think segregation is the
  • 41. 30 negative treatments which form of ostracism that imposed to minority by dominant group. Most of the case is segregation gives the limit and restrictions on the communication, contact, and social relation among group. In this case, Segregation itself is divided into two forms of de jure segregation and de facto segregation. According to Nathan et.al (2013:238) states that it is important to distinguish between de jure segregation (segregation that is enforced by law) and de facto segregation (segregation that occurs without laws but because of other factors. Nathan et.al also explains the segregation was occurred in United States. De jure segregation is occurred many years after the civil war in United States. As many former Confederate states passed “Jim Crow” laws that required segregated facilities for blacks and whites. These laws were codified in 1896’s landmark Supreme Court case Plessey v. Ferguson, which states that “separate but equal” facilities were constitutional. For the next five decades, blacks were subjected to legalized discrimination, forced to live, work, and go to school in separate but unequal facilities. It wasn’t until 1954 and the Brown v. Board of Education case that the Supreme Court declared that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal,” thus ending de jure segregation in the United States. And as for de facto segregation, however, cannot be abolished by any court mandate. Segregation is still alive and well in the United States, with different racial or ethnic groups often segregated by neighborhood.
  • 42. 31 d. Assimilation Assimilation in sociology is the process whereby individuals or groups of differing ethnic heritage are absorbed into the dominant culture of a society. The process of assimilating involves taking on the traits of the dominant culture to such a degree that the assimilating group becomes socially indistinguishable from other members of the society. Assimilation is a gradual process by which a person or group belonging to one culture adopts the practices of another, thereby becoming a member of that culture. According to Yinger (1981:247) in Marger (2009: 82) state that assimilation is process of boundary reduction that can occur when members of two or more societies or of smaller cultural groups meet. It similar with statement Tischler (2007:225) that assimilation is the process whereby group with different culture come to have common culture. In the process of Transferring culture from one group to another is a highly complex process, often involving the rejection of ancient ideologies, habits, customs, attitudes, and language. It also includes the elusive problem of selection. As the Yinger and Tischler statement about assimilation, it prefer to the minority groups are expected to adapt the everyday practices of the dominant culture through language and appearance as well as via more significant socioeconomic factors such as absorption into the local cultural and employment community.
  • 43. 32 B. Previous Study In this section, the researcher presented three previous studies which have similar discussion concerned in this study. First, a study by Priska Niawati (2009) with the title “Black People’s Struggle against Race Discrimination as Seen in Taylor’s Let the Circle Be Unbroken” . Let The Circle Be Unbroken, is a novel that show the race discrimination in the United States. In this study, the condition in novel is being compared with what occur in real society, the purpose of this study is find out the discrimination experienced by the black in United States and this study is concern to show the struggle of black people against race discrimination in the United States society in 1930s as seen in novel. The approach this study is used the socio- historical approach and for design this study used Descriptive Qualitative design. His objective for this study is Logan Family as the main character in the novel, through the Logan’s the reader can see the life of the black people in United States. The race discrimination that was found is the injustice in law. Logan’s did not have the right to vote, segregation, and discrimination in economic life. Second, a study by David Eko Nugroho (2014) with the title “The Racial Discrimination Reflected in Frances Patton Statham’s Trail Of Tears (1993)”. Trail of Tears is a novel written by an American author Frances Patton Statham. The book was published by Fawcett Columbine, New York on February 1993. Trail of Tears is a historical novel which tells about racial discrimination of the whites towards American Indian. Racial discrimination is shown in this novel through the story of Indian Removal Act in 1830s. The writer of this study used
  • 44. 33 qualitative method and for approach the writer used sociological approach. The purpose of his study is to describe the racial discrimination in “Trail of Tears” novel based on the sociological perspective. And for the finding of this research has some case to discuss about; social aspect, economic aspect, political aspect, science and technology aspect, the last is religious aspect. The last previous study was derived from Mohammad Yunus Sholeh (2009) “The Social Problem of the Novel Number the Stars by Lois Lowry”. In this study uses sociology approach because sociology approach is a tool to understand a literary work that focus to aspect of society and literature, those are 1) man of letter sociology, 2) literary work of sociology, 3) reader sociology. From those aspects the researcher of this study investigates the social problem which follows some form; the form of crime, the form of young generation problem in the modern society, he form of war, and the form of violation to the society norm in the content of the novel Number the Stars. This novel is told of Annemarie Johansen ten years old who lives with her family in Copenhagen in 1943. She becomes a part of the events related to the rescue of the Danish Jews, when thousands of Jews were helped to reach neutral ground in Sweden in order to avoid being deported to concentration camps. As the result of his research is show the phenomena in social problem which follow the form; 1) the form of crime is humiliation, treating people, and physical violence; 2) The form of young generation in modern society is the effort of girl in named someone, emotional attitude, complaining habitual, and have new habitual; 3) The form of war is the war between Nazi and Denmark, conflict between Nazi and Jews exploded bomb;
  • 45. 34 and 4) the form of delinquency is keeping secret to someone else, the group of Jews, and the group of girls. Dealing with those previous studies, all of those attempted to analyze the cases contained in film. Although their studies were presented by distinctive films, those still have relevance with this study; either in the views of the similar purposes which concern on analysis of race discrimination and sociological theory as the approach. There is some differential in previous study from Niawati’s (2009) that she is used novel as object of analysis and use socio- historical approach. Furthermore, in Eko’s (2014) study that used novel and discuss about race discrimination in social aspect, economic aspect, political aspect, science and technology aspect, the last is religious aspect. The last, Yunus Sholeh (2009) study that focus to investigates the social problem which follows some form; the form of crime, the form of young generation problem in the modern society, he form of war, and the form of violation to the society norm. Therefore, the researcher took all those as the previous studies of this study in order to see how the previous researchers investigated race discrimination and how the rule of the sociological theory applied in literary work.
  • 46. 35 C. Theoretical Framework Theoretical Framework: (Klarer, 2004: 56; Bennet, 2004:142.; Wellek and Warren, 1949:90-94; Tischler, 2007: 2-27, 216-245; Schram and Steen, 2001: 359; Laurenson and Swingwood,1972: 18-21; Horton and Hunt, 1984: 67;1972: 21; Nathan et.al, 2013: 10-24, 231-251; Gidden, 2006: 25; Mooney, 2011: 9; Ferris and Stein, 2008: 259; Marger, 1981:247) Based on the theoretical framework, the researcher began the study by define the relationship between literature and society as the references dealing with the film as literature work that reflected society, since the concern of analysis in this study took film as the primary source of data. The researcher should also consider the literary approach that would be used to see from which orientation Literature Society Film as literary work Sociology of Literature Society Sociological Theory Racism Kind of Racism Effect of Racism Race Discrimination
  • 47. 36 the film fits to be analyzed. In this frame, the researcher decided to applies sociology of literature approach and sociological theory to analyze the race discrimination that reflected in film. The researcher defining the kind of racism and analyze the effect of racism based on race used sociological theory. While, to answer the research problems, the researcher took some references and published articles in order to support what he had interpreted dealing with the film depicted.
  • 48. 37 CHAPTER III FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION In this chapter, the researcher provides the analysis of the data collected in order to answer the problems of this study. The researcher has considered two problems of the study. Those are specifically about what kind and what the effect of race discrimination portrayed in "12 Years Slave" film. A. Findings Based on the data collected, the researcher was present the findings of this study into two sections which refer to research problem as follows. 1. Kind of Race Discrimination Portrayed in "12 Years Slave" Film In this part, the researcher was show the data found which contained race discrimination portrayed on 12 years slave film as the action of white people toward black people by used sociological theory. Moreover, 12 Years a Slave film was tell the story of Solomon Northup. Here, Solomon as a black people who have talent in play violin and he became a free man in his city. One day he was kidnapped and sold as a slave purchase. Then, a good planter named Ford was bought. Somehow, the Solomon’s intelligence brought him in a problem with Tibeats, Mr. Ford’s staff, since Tibeats thought that Solomon just a black slave who can not give any suggestion to solve the job problem. Because of the problem that happened with Tibeats, Solomon was resold again by Mr. Ford to Edwin Epps, a cruel treat slaves. From those 37
  • 49. 38 incident that happened by Solomon, he had to struggle and fight for justice till 12 years. Referring to the phenomenon on the film of 12 Years Slave which depicted the race discrimination, the researcher found fourteen data which contain the race discrimination; then categorized the data findings into the four forms of the kind of race discrimination based on the sociological theory, includes Annihilation, Expulsion, Segregation, and Assimilation. a) Annihilation In this form, the researcher showing the data that classified as the act of annihilation. It is the deliberate extermination of the racial or ethnic group by homicide some people as minority group in order to deprives the right to life, those are: Data 1: 12YS/AN/25/16-18 25 INT. BURCH’S DUNGEON – MORNING ......... BURCH: Yah a slave. Yah a Georgia slave! Burch continues to strike, and strike... This time until the paddle SNAPS IN HALF. Burch then GRABS THE WHIP. Hardly missing a stroke, he whips Solomon relentlessly, the flails cutting into Solomon's back. Again, Burch's arm tires before Solomon "breaks." 00:13:40 00:15:03
  • 50. 39 BURCH (CONT'D): Are yah slave? SOLOMON: ...No... Burch goes back to whipping and whipping, and whipping... SOLOMON'S BACK IS NOW TORN OPEN WITH LACERATIONS AND OOZING WITH BLOOD. Finally Burch can whip no more. ......... In this scene, Solomon whipped by Bhurch until the body of Solomon severely injured in the back, since Solomon was forced to confess that he was a runaway slave from Georgia by Bhurch, but Solomon persist that he is not a slave but he is a freeman. The Bhurch’s treatment was shown in script when Bhurch forced the Solomon to confess that he is slave with said “Are yah slave?”. Here, Solomon only said “No” and could not do anything because when he wants to fight, he got whipped harder until he was dying. In this case, the Bhurch’s act is depicted the annihilation act since Solomon did not have right to life again when Bhurch force to Solomon confess he is a slave from Georgia. Data 2: 12YS/AN/48A/32 48A INT. HOLD – NIGHT ......... We focus on the Sailor’s face. Slowly, a greasy smile erupts upon it. Back now to Robert’s face, a look of incomprehension. 00:24:22 00:24:33
  • 51. 40 Robert looks down. We follow his gaze to the knife that has already been jabbed unseen between Robert’s ribs. The sailor withdraws the bloody blade. A wide shot of the two men. Robert collapses to the floor like a sack of potatoes. Clemens Ray and Solomon react. Complete horror. ......... This scene show the case while in the boat on the way to New Orleans; suddenly Robert as a black slave was stabbed with a knife by a Sailor till death, since Robert try to protect Eliza when sailor will be take her. It explains in script when the Sailor killed the Robert, the Sailor’s utterance that depict annihilation act is shown in script “Robert looks down. We follow his gaze to the knife that has already been jabbed unseen between Robert’s ribs. The sailor withdraws the bloody blade”. Here, the Sailor’s act are depicted the annihilation act when Robert as black slave was killing by the sailor of white as the dominant people who have the power since Robert try against the whites. Data 3: 12YS/AN/84/58 00:48:30 00:49:36
  • 52. 41 84 EXT. WEAVING HOUSE – LATER ......... TIBEATS: Yah got no cause. Platt is mine, and mine ta do with as I please. Yah touch my property, I will 'ave yah strung up as well. Tibeats mounts up and departs. There is a surreal moment as Chapin's not sure what to do about Solomon. He chooses to do nothing. Solomon is left dangling by the neck from the tree as Chapin calls to Sam in the distance: CHAPIN: Sam! Get the mule. You must ride to Master Ford. Tell him to come here at once without a single moment's delay. Tell him they are trying to murder Platt. Hurry, boy. Bring him back if you must kill the mule to do so! ......... In this part, Tibeat and his two friends who tried to kill Solomon (Platt) by hanging in a tree at the yard of Mr. ford. Here, Tibeat was revenge for the Solomon’s action when he had been beaten by Solomon. The annihilation act is depicting from Tibeat’s when said to Chapin he will kill Solomon (Platt) by hanging in tree it shown in script the Tibeat’s utterance “Platt is mine, and mine ta do with as I please. Yah touch my property, I will 'ave yah strung up as well”. Here, Solomon was saved by Chapin as the foreman of the Mr. Ford plantation. Chapin was felt that Tibeat had no right to Solomon and ask to him to leave without kill Solomon. Moreover, Chapin just let Solomon remain hanging in the tree with little feet touch the ground. As the Tibeat’s action, Solomon (Platt) faint in death but Chapin and the other slave tried to help him. In this case, the Tibeat’s act are indicated
  • 53. 42 the annihilation act because Tibeat tried to kill Solomon by hanging in tree and deprive the Solomon right to life. Data 4: 12YS/AN/A101/68 A101 EXT. ROAD – DAY ......... The violence of his advance abruptly stops, there is silence. We see in a clearance a posse of patrollers, preparing for a lynching of two young men. Solomon's eyes meet theirs. The two men look back at Solomon with a look of fear as one of the patrollers checks the noose around their neck. Suddenly the bloodhounds sswtart barking and the patrollers turn in the direction of Solomon. Solomon's whole body shakes with anticipation. PATROLLER: (aggressively) Boy, where are you going? SOLOMON : (almost tripping over his words) to the store, Sir, to Bartholomew's. I was sent there by Mistress Epps. The patroller reaches out for Solomon's free pass around his neck, yanking him forward. He looks at it. PATROLLER: Get there and get there quick. The patroller kicks Solomon hard, sending him on his way. ......... Based on those scene and script, Solomon met white patroller group when he asked by Mrs. Epps to buy nails and some building purposes in Bartholomeo’s shop. Here, the patroller groups who want to execute some black slaves by hanging in the tree it explain in script that 01:05:05 01:05:13
  • 54. 43 “We see in a clearance a posse of patrollers, preparing for a lynching of two young men”. In this case, Solomon was being afraid when he interrogated by patroller and look two black slave will execute by whites. The utterance of annihilation act in this scene is shown in screen capture when the patrollers killed the blacks slave by hanging them in tree and deprive the right to life of black slave since they execute without any judicial process. Data 5: 12YS/AN/156/109 156 EXT. EPPS’S PLANTATION – LATER ......... Epps's grief is replaced by fury. EPPS GRABS THE PISTOL FROM TREACH'S HOLSTER and draws down on the slaves. EPPS : Yah will strike her. Yah will strike her until her flesh is rent and meat and blood flow equal, or I will kill every nigger in my sight! Solomon can't strike a blow, even if it means his life. But from the ground, from Patsey: PATSEY : Do it, Platt. Don't stop until I am dead. 01:50:20 01:50:31 01:51:47
  • 55. 44 What else can he do? Solomon begins to whip, to truly whip Patsey. Her back welts, and then tears... Patsey screams in agony. Solomon strikes again and again... After a full thirty lashes Solomon looks to Epps, who is not satisfied. EPPS : Until I say no more! I ain't said nothing! ......... This scene show how the Patsey black slaves who punish with whip by Mr. Epps because lying to him. Firstly, Mr. Epps felt not have the heart to whip Patsey and asked to Solomon to whip Patsey. Here, Solomon also did not have the heart to whip Patsey, but he doing that with half the power since it was the command from Mr. Epps. When Mr. Epps seen Solomon whipping Patsey with half the power, Mr. Epps felt angry and threaten to kill all black people that he look if Solomon did not whip Patsey hardly it shown when Mr. Epps grab the pistol from Treach's Holster and said to Solomon that “Yah will strike her. Yah will strike her until her flesh is rent and meat and blood flow equal, or I will kill every nigger in my sight!”. Suddenly Mr. Epps taken the belt and whip Patsey by himself vigorously. Mr. Epps whip Patsey until the back of body was bloody and fallen to the ground. In this case, the annihilation act are indicated when Mr. Epps said “I will kill every nigger in my sight” and whipped Patsey until dying.
  • 56. 45 b) Expulsion In this point, the researcher was show the data in expulsion form. It focused on the process of forcing a black people to leave the territory by the white who has the power, as follows. Data 6: 12YS/EX/23/15 A23 INT. GADSBY HOTEL – NIGHT ......... HAMILTON :I'm afraid that Brown and I haven't brought you much luck. But rough waters bring smooth sailing. Eventually they do. SOLOMON : ....So...so sorry... HAMILTON : Shhh. We won't hear it. We won't. BROWN : Let him sleep. HAMILTON : Hmm. A good night's sleep. And Tomorrow...tomorrow you will feel as well and refreshed as though the earth were new again. Hamilton lingers a bit too long and a bit too close to Solomon for Brown's taste. With more than a bit of signification: BROWN : Hamilton! Nothing more we can do for him. HAMILTON : Such is the pity. In this scene shown how Solomon has been unconscious from drinking too much alcohol which mixed drugs by Hamilton and Brown as Solomon’s white friends. Finally Solomon was brought in the hotel 00:10:48 00:12:49
  • 57. 46 room with the condition that is not conscious. In hotel room, Hamilton and Brown had intended to sell Solomon to be made of black slaves. It shown from script when Homilton said to Solomon when unconscious conditions that “Hmm. A good night's sleep. And Tomorrow ...tomorrow you will feel as well and refreshed as though the earth were new again”. Here, the means from the words of Hamilton’s “tomorrow you will feel as well and refreshed as though the earth were new again” is the Solomon’s life will change since Hamilton have the plan to sold Solomon as a blacks slave. In this scene, the expulsion act are shown when Solomon didn’t know that Hamilton and Brown would be sale him and force him become slave in plantation. Data 7: 12YS/EX/32/23 32 EXT. BURCH’S DUNGEON/YARD – DAY ......... CLEMENS : I would be just as certain they are counting the money paid for delivering you to this place. SOLOMON: They were not kidnappers. They were artists. Fellow performers. CLEMENS : You know that? You know for certain who they were? The fact is, Solomon can't say for certain. 00:17:44 00:18:47
  • 58. 47 CLEMENS :(CONT’D) How I reckon the situation whatever past we had...well, that's done now. The reality to come is us being transported southward. New Orleans if I were to venture. After we arrive, we'll be put to market. Beyond that... Well, once in a slave state I suppose there's only one outcome. ......... Based on those data, Solomon, Clemens, Ray, and John have same fate as the dupe by white people and they would be sold as black slaves whereas they are a freeman who has documents to prove that he is not a slave. Here, Solomon not believes if Hamilton and Brown lie to him, but Clemens tell if his white friend Hamilton and Brown was the prevaricator since Clemens was lie by his friend same like Solomon. As the script that shown when Solomon said that “They were not kidnappers. They were artists. Fellow performers” but Clemens answer that “You know that? You know for certain who they were?” then Solomon just express that “Solomon can't say for certain”. Moreover, Clemens told to all of black people what will happen after in Burch Dungeon yard, Washington DC, Clemens know they would brought to New Orleans and force sold become slave in plantation. In this case, the expulsion act shown when the blacks would brought to New Orleans and force sold become slave in plantation.
  • 59. 48 Data 8: 12YS/EX/53/35 53 EXT. NEW ORLEANS/ PORT – LATER THEOPHILUS FREEMAN - a tall, thin-faced man with light complexion and a little bent - moves along the deck calling out names from a list. The slaves STAND as they are called. FREEMAN :Oren. John. Lethe. Eliza. Randall. Emily. Platt... Platt! Solomon does not respond. Freeman looks around. He spots Solomon. FREEMAN :(CONT'D) Captain, who shipped that nigger? CAPTAIN : Burch. Freeman steps to Solomon. He gives him a looking over. FREEMAN : Stand up. Solomon does as told. FREEMAN : (CONT'D) You fit the description given. Why didn't you answer when called? SOLOMON : My name is not Platt. My name is— Freeman strikes Solomon hard across the face. FREEMAN : Your name is Platt, and I will teach you your name so that you don't forget. (to the Captain) Shackle my niggers. Get them to my cart. ......... In this scene, Solomon is forced to change its name to Platt by white’s Freeman named Theophilus. Solomon initially refused by not responding to the call of the Freeman being called the black slaves. 00:28:16 00:28:29
  • 60. 49 Solomon who does not respond eventually asked to stand up and be forced to admit that his name was Platt. Solomon refused and explained that the name was not Platt finally given a beating by Freeman. It was shown in script when freeman said that “You fit the description given. Why didn't you answer when called?” then Solomon answer that “My name is not Platt. My name is…” when Solomon unfinished the answer he got strike from the Freeman. Here, when all the black people felt defenseless with their fate as black slave but different with Solomon felt he always tries to explain if he is not slave, he is a freeman who has document and his name not Platt but his real name is Solomon Northup. In this case, the expulsion act are depicted when Solomon force to change his name become Platt and sale become slave in plantation. Data 9: 12YS/EX/59/39 59 INT. FREEMAN’S/ GREAT ROOM – DAY ......... Eliza is beside herself as it seems she is about to be separated from her family. She begs of Ford: ELIZA : Please, sir... Please don't divide my family. Don't take me unless you take my children as well. FREEMAN : Eliza, quiet! 00:31:41 00:32:30
  • 61. 50 ELIZA : You will have the most faithful slave in me, sir. The most faithful slave that has ever lived, but I beg that you do not separate us. Through that scene depicted how Eliza black slaves who had two children was forced to split up with her sons since the agent sold her to Mr. Ford as slaves on the plantation. It was shown in script when Eliza said to Freeman that “Please, sir... Please don't divide my family. Don't take me unless you take my children as well”. Here, Mr. Ford just only purchased Eliza and Solomon only without Eliza’s sons. It became the reason why Eliza always cried in Plantation. In this case, the expulsion act was indicated when Eliza force to separate with his son and sale become slave to Mr. Ford. c) Segregation In this form, the researcher shown the data collected which focused on the action of white people toward black people by given differential treatment between white and black since the segregation itself is the physical separation of two groups and restriction the freedom of people who do not belong to a dominant group; those data as follows. Data 10: 12YS/SE/75/46 00:36:47
  • 62. 51 75 EXT. FORD’S WORK AREA – DAY ......... Just beyond the WORK AREA Solomon speaks with Ford as Tibeats listens. Solomon is drawing in the dirt, making rough diagrams for Ford as he explains himself. SOLOMON : The creek is plenty deep enough to sail, even with a boat full of load. The distance from the WORK AREA to the point on the latter bayou is several miles by water fewer than land. It occurs to me that the expense of the transportation would be materially diminished— TIBEATS : "Materially diminished?" SOLOMON : If we use the waterway. TIBEATS : Are you an engineer, or a nigger? FORD : Let the man say his piece. TIBEATS : It's a scheme. Plenty of engineers have schemed similarly. The passes are too tight. SOLOMON : I reckon them at more than twelve feet at their most narrow. Wide enough for a tub to traverse. A team of niggers can clear it out. TIBEATS : And you know what of transport and terra formin'? ......... This scene described when Solomon want to give the idea of transporting the woods for Mr. Ford plantations through the river, but Tibeats rejected the idea because he felt Solomon only a stupid black slave. Tibeats also said "Are you an engineer, or a nigger?". Here, from Tibeat’s utterance it assume that Solomon just a black slaves which is inappropriate to give an idea to the white man. In this case, the segregation act was depicted when Solomon didn’t have freedom to give an idea to transport the wood trough river by Tibeats.
  • 63. 52 Data 11: 12YS/SE/141/94 141. INT. MASTER EPPS'S PLANTATION/GIN HOUSE – EVENING ......... As Epps said, it is days of long since. The slaves are back to having their cotton weighed in the Gin House EPPS : Wiley...? TREACH: Two hundred sixty pounds. EPPS : Bob? TREACH: Three hundred forty pounds for Bob. EPPS : Patsey? TREACH: Five hundred twenty pounds. EPPS : Tha's a girl. Don't never let me down. Platt? TREACH: One hundred sixty pounds. Before Treach is even done announcing the weight, Epps has pulled Solomon aside to where Uncle Abram already awaits his fate. EPPS : Armsby? TREACH: Sixty four pounds. Epps speaks to Armsby sternly, but nothing of the manner in which he would address the slaves. ......... In this scene shown the different treatment given by Mr. Epps for his slaves in the plantation which in there was a white slave named Armsby was given distinctive not given lashes punishment even he was only able to collect sixty four pounds cotton fewer than Solomon (Platt) was a hundred sixty pounds. As the utterance that shown segregation 00:29:18 00:29:33
  • 64. 53 act is explained in script when Mr. Epps did not punish Armsby “Epps speaks to Armsby sternly, but nothing of the manner in which he would address the slaves”. Here, Solomon got the punishment since he cannot collect the cotton that appropriate amount by Mr. Epps. In this case, the segregation act was shown when Solomon got the punishment but Armsby did not give the punishment from Mr. Epps. Data 12: 12YS/SE/A148/98 A148. EXT. MASTER EPP’S PLANTATION/SLAVE CEMETERY– LATER The same faces we have seen on Epps' plantation, but now filled with rapture, appear. It's as if the voices have created a new form of awakening and presence. It seems to transcend and translate in a strange way, joy. A joy which has un-yet been seen on screen. A joy which has been hidden, but a joy which is undoubtedly there. It's captivating, infectious. This should be a moving part of the film, which stirs the audience and, for a moment, relieves them of the seemingly chastising environment. The singer continues, "Well some say John was a Baptist, some say John was a Jew, but I say John was a preacher, because the Bible says so too, preach on Johnny." And with that, the rest of the congregation chant "I believe. Oh, I believe." 00:39:07 00:40:27
  • 65. 54 In this scene, as shown in screen capture when the different treatment given to corpse the Uncle Abraham, as one of black slave, who died in the Mr. Epps plantation and it was simply buried in the cemetery were intentionally made only for the black slaves and only accompanied with a simple funeral ceremony attended by fellow black slaves. Here, the segregation act was shown when Mr. Epps give difference for the cemetery between white and black; it also didn’t facilitate the slave to bury the Uncle Abraham corpse. Data 13: 12YS/SE/156/107 156. EPP’S PLANTATION – LATER Patsey takes soap from the pocket of her dress. PATSEY : (CONT'D) I got this from Mistress Shaw. Mistress Epps won't even grant me no soap ta clean with. Stink so much I make myself gag. Five hundred pounds 'a cotton day in, day out. More than any man here. And 'fo that I will be clean; that all I ax. Dis here what I went to Shaw's 'fo. EPPS : You lie... PATSEY : The Lord knows that's all. EPPS : You lie! PATSEY : And you blind wit yer own covetousness. I don't lie, Massa. If you kill me, I'll stick ta that. EPPS : I'll learn you to go to Shaw's. Treach, go get some line. 00:47:11 00:47:23
  • 66. 55 Refer to the scene shown the difference treatment given by Mrs. Epps to a black which is Patsey was not given soap to clean her body for a few weeks until Patsey escape to Mrs. Shaw to ask soap from her. It shown in script what Patsey said to Mr. Epps that “I got this from Mistress Shaw. Mistress Epps won't even grant me no soap ta clean with. Stink so much I make myself gag” but Mr. Epps did not believe to Patsey and Said “You lie...”.Here, Mr, Epps was being angry since Patsey leave the plantation to Mrs. Shaw’s home for ask the soap without any permission. In this case, the segregation act was depicted when Mrs. Epps give differential treatment to Patsey that she was not given soap to clean her body for a few weeks. d) Assimilation Assimilation itself is the generalization of two cultures becomes one culture as dominant group by rejecting their ancient ideologies, habits, customs, attitudes, and language. Refer to this view, the data collected in this part was focused on how the culture of black people influenced by the cultures of white people as the dominant group, the data as follows. Data 14: 12YS/AS/B105/71 01:08:21 01:08:26
  • 67. 56 B105 EXT. SHAW’S HOUSE – DAY SOLOMON : I meant no disrespect to you, Mistress. MISTRESS SHAW : Ha! You worry for me? Got no cause to worry for my sensibilities. I ain't felt the end of a lash in 'mo years than I cain recall. Ain't worked a field, neither. Where one time I served, now I got others servin' me. The cost to my current existence be Massa Shaw broadcasting his affections, 'n me enjoyin' his pantomime of fidelity. If that what keep me from the cotton pickin' niggers, that what it be. A small and reasonable price to be paid 'fo sure. Looking toward Patsey, speaking with great empathy: MISTRESS SHAW : (CONT’D) I knowed what it like to be the object of Massa's predilections and peculiarities. And I knowed they can get expressed with kindness or wit violence. A lusty visit in the night, or a visitation from the whip. And wit my experience, if'n I can give comfort, then comfort I give. And you take comfort, Patsey; the Good Lord will manage Epps. In His own time the Good Lord will manage dem all. Yes, Lordy, there's a day comin' that will burn as an oven. It comin' as sure as the Lord is just. When His will be done...the curse on the Pharos is a poor example of all that wait 'fo the plantation class. Mistress Shaw turns her head to the side, catching a Slave’s attention. As she does so, the slave, a YOUNG WOMAN, commences to pour tea. As if to punctuate her thought, the Mistress takes a sip of her tea. 01:08:31
  • 68. 57 In this scene, Mrs. Shaw was an ex-black slave who married with his own master, Mr. Shaw. In this case, Mrs. Shaw as black woman was following the white’s culture, both in the way of wearing a dress or the manner of white’s lifestyle. It can be seen in the screen capture when she was drinking tea and always followed by Patsey. Here, the segregation was indicated when Mrs. Shaw was look different with other black people; it seen from her attitude and appearance, since Mrs. Shaw becomes a freeman after she marries with white man, Mr. Shaw. 2. The Effect of Race Discrimination Portrayed in "12 Years Slave" Film In this section, the researcher was emphasized the effect of race discrimination portrayed in 12 Years Slave film which also seen from the kind of race discrimination, includes Annihilation, Expulsion, Segregation, and Assimilation. In this case, all the forms of the kind of race discrimination were concern to the black people as the slave in struggle their right from white people as the dominant group. In order to depict what the effect of race discrimination which portrayed in 12 Years Slave film can be seen through the data finding below, as follows. a) Annihilation In the beginning of film it was show the differential treatment of black people from white. Firstly through Data 1: 12YS/AN/25/16-18 depicted the white treatment that was indicating as the annihilation act. It can be seen when Solomon whipped by Bhurch until Solomon bodies
  • 69. 58 severely injured in the back. The Bhurch’s act is given the effect to Solomon from freeman being black slave. Another effect can be seen when Solomon said “No” but Bhurch still whip Solomon till Solomon’s back torn open with lacerations and oozing with blood. Another treatment which depicts the annihilation act was show in Data 2: 12YS/AN/48A/32, it seen when Robert as a black slave tried to protect Eliza for white sailor and he was killed by the white sailor. Based on this action was give the impact to other black slaves which felt afraid to against the white people. It can be seen through the screen capture when black slave behind the sailor be scare when he know the sailor kill Robert. The similar the treatment was seen in Data 3: 12YS/AN/84/58 which in the treatment of white people toward black people was almost make the people die. It was seen when Tibeat and two friends who are trying to kill Solomon (Platt) by hanging in a tree in the yard of Mr. Ford reason to Solomon revenge. By this act was give effect the black slaves to not dare to rebel and feel afraid to white people it can see when Solomon hanging in tree nothing black slave want to help him only Chapin and Mr. Ford as a white people. In Data 4: 12YS/AN/A101/68 was show when Solomon met white patrol group that would be execute some black slaves by hanging in tree. It also indicated as the annihilation act of white to black people. As the effect of this act was Solomon felt afraid when he see the black people will die because he didn’t want die like them and this scene make
  • 70. 59 Solomon to think again to escape from plantation it can see when Solomon buy some paper for make letter to his friend in Bartholomew's shop. The last data which depict as annihilation act was in Data 5: 12YS/AN/156/109. The data had shown when Patsey black slaves who punish with whip by Mr. Epps because she lying to him. Mr. Epps who felt angry said “I will kill every nigger in my sight!”, and as the effect from this act was almost same with Data 2 that make the black slave feel afraid to white people and didn’t rebel to him. In other side, in this data it also make the black slave feel not have heart to Patsey as the fellow of black slave. b) Expulsion In this space, the researcher present the data which is became the effect of race discrimination in the form of expulsion act. From Data 6: 12YS/EX/23/15 it shown the scene when Hamilton and Brown in hotel room had intended to sell it to be made of black slaves. It can be seen from script; Hamilton said “Hmm. A good night's sleep. And Tomorrow ...tomorrow you will feel as well and refreshed as though the earth were new again”. Here, the effects from Hamilton act make Solomon force to leave his home and separated with his family for about 12 years because Hamilton sold him being a black slave in plantation. The similar data seen in Data 7: 12YS/EX/32/23 that show when Clemens was tell to all of black people what would happen after in Burch
  • 71. 60 Dungeon yard, Washington DC, Clemens know they will bring to New Orleans and force sold become slave in plantation. As the effect from this act are many black people that being a slave by white people which fraud and force to sell as a slave. As almost same with previous data that shown in Data 8: 12YS/EX/53/35 when Solomon refused and explained that the name was not Platt. Here, he said that “My name is not Platt. My name is…;’’ from this act Solomon forced to change his name became Platt. The effects was Solomon force become slave and with the new name Solomon felt difficult to explain that he was a freeman who have the legal document. In Data 9: 12YS/EX/59/39 that show how Eliza black slaves who had two children were forced to split up with his son as master ford who want to buy to be used as slaves on the plantation. It can be seen from script when Eliza said “Please, sir... Please don't divide my family. Don't take me unless you take my children as well”. As the effect was Eliza force sold as black slave and force to leave her son to sale on another slave buyer. c) Segregation Here, the researcher shows the data collected which is became the effect from segregation act. First shown in Data 10: 12YS/SE/75/46 when Solomon wants to give the idea of transporting the woods in Mr. Ford plantations through the river but Tibeats rejected the idea because he felt Solomon only a stupid black slave. It can be seen in script when Tibeats
  • 72. 61 tried to reject Solomon’s idea that Tibeats said “Are you an engineer, or a nigger?” The effect from this act was black people get the differential treatment from dominant group because their race and white people give the limit black people to deliver his aspiration because they as a minority group that didn’t have right to deliver his idea. In Data 11: 12YS/SE/141/94 shown when the different treatment given by Mr. Epps for his slaves. which in the slave group contained one white slave named Armsby were given distinctive not given lashes punishment even though he was only able to collect Sixty four pounds cotton fewer than Solomon (Platt) is One hundred sixty pounds. It can show the situation from the script when Mr. Epps didn’t punish Armsby “Epps speaks to Armsby sternly, but nothing of the manner in which he would address the slaves”. The effect from this act was black people always get unequal treatment from white because white think their race better than black people. As next portrayed was in Data 12: 12YS/SE/A148/98 shown how the different treatment given to corpse the Uncle Abraham as a black slave who died in the Mr. Epp plantation and got a simply buried in the cemetery. Somehow, it was intentionally made only for the black slaves accompanied with a simple funeral ceremony attended by fellow black slaves. It can be show in screen capture that only black people in funeral ceremony of uncle Abrams. As the effect from this act was nothing
  • 73. 62 facilitates that serve from dominant group actually the white people to black people as the minority. Similar with the previous data of effect from segregation act, it was show in Data 13: 12YS/SE/156/107 that how different treatment given by Mrs. Epps to Patsey, that Patsey was not given soap to take a bath for a few weeks. In script Patsey explain what she does to Mr. Epps as a slave in his plantation “Five hundred pounds 'a cotton day in, day out. More than any man here. And 'fo that I will be clean; that all I ax. Dis here what I went to Shaw's 'fo”. The effect from this act is the differential treatment from white that black people by didn’t give facilitate that they should get from white as the dominant group. d) Assimilation The last data became the effect of race discrimination portrayed in 12 Years Slave was in form of the assimilation act. In Data 14: 12YS/AS/B105/71 was show when Mrs. Shaw as black woman was following the white’s culture after married with his own master, Mr. Shaw as the white people, both in the way of wearing a dress or the manner of white’s lifestyle. The effect from this act is the black people as the minority group should change their habitual when they are live together with white people as the dominant group.
  • 74. 63 B. Discussion In this point, the researcher would explain the data finding within his perceptions and some supporting references that related with race discrimination portrayal in 12 Years Slave film. As follow the explanation based on the problem of the research. 1. Kind Of Race Discrimination Portrayed on 12 Years Slave Film As the data that was found on 12 Years Slave film, the researcher concern to race discrimination by white people to black people slave that was found from the film. Here, the researcher that was found 14 data of kind racism that divide into four forms actually Annihilation, Expulsion, Segregation, and Assimilation. a) Annihilation First, the data that contain on annihilation act was found in scenes of 12 Years Slave film based on screen capture and script. As the discussion, annihilation act means deliberate extermination of the racial or ethnic group by homicide some people or particular group as minority group in order to deprive the right to life. As the analysis, Data 1 was depicted when Bhurch who whipped Solomon until he was dying and make him did not have right to life again. Moreover, Data 2 was the portrayal of white people toward black people that shown when Robert was killing by sailor when try to protect Eliza. Furthermore, Data 3 was shown Tibeat and two friends who tried to kill Solomon (Platt) by hanging in a tree at the yard of Mr. Ford. As the next,
  • 75. 64 Data 4 was drawn when the patroller group who want to execute some black slaves by hanging in the tree. And the last, Data 5 was describe when Mr. Epps threaten to kill all black people that he look if Solomon did not whip Patsey hardly then imedietly taken the belt and whip Patsey by himself vigorously until the back of body was bloody and fallen to the ground. Considering to all of the data were indicated as race discrimination in form of annihilation since those data portrayed how white people given treatment to black people which in white people tried to deprive the right of black people to life in freedom, even it do by homicide a black when they disobedient with the rule of white as the dominant group. As what said by Tischler (2007: 228) that state that Annihilation refers to the deliberate extermination of a racial or ethnic group, Annihilation also deprives an entire group of people of their right to life in the same way that homicide deprives one person of the right to life. b) Expulsion Second, the data from 12 Years Slave film that contained of expulsion act. Here, expulsion act is focused on the process of forcing a black people to leave the territory by the white who has the power. Refer to the data; the researcher presented Data 6 was shown Hamilton and Brown had intended to sell Solomon to be made of black slaves. Similar with Data6, Data 7 was depicted how Clemens, Ray, and John that have same fate because had been duped by his friend the white man and being lied to with a way sold as black
  • 76. 65 slaves. Furthermore, Data 8 was depicted Solomon is forced to change its name to Platt by whites Freeman. Moreover, Data 9 was shown how Eliza black slaves who had two children were forced to split up with his son as master ford who want to buy to be used as slaves on the plantation. Considering, the data that contained race discrimination in expulsion form since when black people as the minority group force to leave their territory by white people use a way they kidnaped the black then sale black people as a slave in plantation. Some of black also separated with their family when they are force to leave their territory. It similar with Mooney (2011: 310) statement that expulsion is occurs when a dominant group forces a minority group to leave the territory or to live only in designated areas of the country. And it also support by Tischler (2007: 228) states that expulsion is the process of forcing a group to leave the territory in which it lives. c) Segregation As the next, the researcher discuss about data that contained race discrimination in segregation form. Here, segregation is concern to practice of physical separation and restriction the freedom of white toward black people as minority group. According to the data, Data 10 was shown when Solomon didn’t have freedom to give an idea to transport the wood trough river by Tibeats. Moreover, Data 11 was depicted the different treatment given by Mr. Epps for his slaves. Actually, Solomon got punishment but Armsby not given punishment since he is white. Furthermore, Data 12 was portrayal the