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A Mobile Indoor Navigation System Interface
     Adapted to Vision-Based Localization
Andreas Möller1, Matthias Kranz2, Robert Huitl1, Stefan Diewald1, Luis Roalter1
                    1Technische   Universität München, Germany
          2Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science,

                  Electrical and Space Engineering, Luleå, Sweden



                      MUM 2012, Ulm, Germany
Institute for Media Technology
     Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




Outline
§   Motivation for Vision-Based Navigation
§   Challenges
§   Proposed User Interface Concepts
§   Evaluation
§   Discussion and Conclusion




04.12.2012                A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    2
Institute for Media Technology
     Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




 Background and Motivation
§ Location information still the
   most important contextual information
§ Indoor localization is a hot topic
   and useful for a lot of scenarios:
   □ Airports
   □ Hospitals
   □ Conference venues
   □ Large environments
§ Various indoor localization methods
   possible:
   □ WLAN/cell-based localization
   □ Sensor-based localization
   □ Beacon-based localization
   □ Vision-based localization


 04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    3
Institute for Media Technology
    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




Why vision-based localization?
                                                                                                    Live features
§ Compare query image to reference data set
§ Use existing features in the environment
§ No additional augmentation needed
§ Modern devices are equipped with a camera
   and powerful processor




04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    4
Institute for Media Technology
    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




Challenges of Vision-Based Localization
§ Query images need to be distinctive
   □ Repeating structures throughout the environment (e.g. corridors)
   □ Little visual features (e.g. uniform walls)

§ Orientation of the user’s smartphone
   □ Good candidates for query images (windows, adverts, posters) are
     typically found in eye height
   □ In a typical pose, user holds the device in a way that it points at
     the floor

§ User interface needs to address those challenges



04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    5
Institute for Media Technology
    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




User Interface Concept
                                                                                             Our
                                                                                        contrib
§ No 1 Challenge: Localization inaccuracy                                                      ution:
                                                                                          Addres
   □ When insufficient number of features                                              problem s
                                                                                                 from
     in the query image                                                                    a UI
                                                                                       perspe
                                                                                              ctive
§ Solution A: Adaption of the user interface
   □ Augmented Reality (AR) with a live view of the environment
   □ Virtual Reality (VR) with panorama images
     (compare to Google Street View)
     taken in advance

§ Solution B: Corrective actions
   □ The user needs to point at interesting regions with the camera


04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    6
Institute for Media Technology
    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                            Technische Universität München




                                                                       Augmented Reality (AR)

                                                                       • Display the live camera image

                                                                       • Impose navigation instructions
                                                                         over the image

                                                                       • Smartphone held in
                                                                         eye height

                                                                       • Direct match of information and
                                                                         the real environment




04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                      7
Institute for Media Technology
    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




  Virtual Reality (VR)

  • Uses preloaded panorama
    images

  • Navigation instructions are
    drawn in panorama

  • Smartphone can be directed
    to the ground

  • User matches environment
    and virtual reality




04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    8
Institute for Media Technology
    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




Pointing Towards Discriminative Areas




04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    9
Institute for Media Technology
    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




Highlighting Objects of Interest




04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    10
Institute for Media Technology
    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




Research Questions
§ RQ1: Which concept (AR or VR) is preferable in terms of perceived
   accuracy?

§ RQ2: Which concept (AR or VR) is preferred by users?

§ RQ3: Which visualizations are appropriate to acquire sufficient visual
   features?

§ RQ4: Can object highlighting be improved with a soft border
   visualization?




04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    11
Institute for Media Technology
    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




Methodology
§ Online Survey
§ Videos and images of mockup system
§ 81 participants (18-59 years) recruited via Mobileworks




04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    12
Virtual Reality
             Institute for Media Technology
             Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                                      Technische Universität München


Perceived Accuracy of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Views
       RQ1: Perceived accuracy
      No Error                  Orientation Error            Location Error              Loc.+Ori. Error
      Response         Std.Dev. Response            Std.Dev. Response           Std.Dev. Response             Std.Dev.
 1:                2.5      0.9                 0.8      2.0                1.7      1.5                  0.6      2.0
       §   Simulated error conditions 1.4
                   1.7      1.6                          1.8                1.4      1.8                  1.0      1.7
 2:
            □ No Error 1.0
                   2.4
                   1.7      1.5
                                                0.2
                                                1.1
                                                         2.1
                                                         1.8
                                                                            1.2
                                                              □ Orientation Error
                                                                            1.3
                                                                                     1.8
                                                                                     1.7
                                                                                                          0.4
                                                                                                          0.9
                                                                                                                   2.1
                                                                                                                   1.8
 3:         □ Location Error
                   2.3      1.0                -0.2      2.0 □ Both Errors 1.9
                                                                            0.4                          -0.5      1.9
                   1.8      1.4                 1.4      1.6                1.4      1.7                  0.9      1.8

      Augmented Reality                                            1: The system seemed to know well my location.
                                                                   2: The system seemed to know well my orientation.
      Virtual Reality                                              3: I perceived the navigation instructions as correct.


Perceived Accuracy of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Views
      No Error                           Orientation Error            Location Error              Loc.+Ori. Error
      Response                  Std.Dev. Response            Std.Dev. Response           Std.Dev. Response             Std.Dev.
                            2.3      1.0                -0.2      2.0                0.4      1.9                 -0.5      1.9
                            1.8      1.4                 1.4      1.6                1.4      1.7                  0.9      1.8

      Augmented Reality
                                                                                                                  -3: strongly disagree
      Virtual Reality                                                                                             +3: strongly agree


       04.12.2012                 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                                13
Institute for Media Technology
    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische Universität München




RQ2: User Preferences
§ In total, AR more popular with users than VR




                                                          -3: strongly disagree
                                                          +3: strongly agree

04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                     14
Institute for Media Technology
         Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




     RQ3: Feature Indicator
     § Clarity of the indicator‘s                                    a)
        meaning                                                       b)
                                                                      c)
                                              -3: strongly disagree   d)
                                              +3: strongly agree




a)                                                                    b)




c)                                                                    d)



     04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    15
Institute for Media Technology
    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




RQ4: Highlighting
methods
§ Objects of interest
   highlighting
   □ Potentially feature-rich
   □ Interaction points for
     location-based services
§ Two types
   □ Frame
   □ Soft border
§ Both equally raise attention,
   but Frame distracts more

                                 -3: strongly disagree
                                 +3: strongly agree

04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    16
Institute for Media Technology
    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




Discussion
§ Accuracy perception through the interface
   □ VR beneficial for lower localization accuracy
   □ AR preferred for reliable estimate
§ Feature indicators and object highlights potentially contribute to good
   reference images
§ Situational use
   □ VR for 45° angle
      □ Less features visible
      □ Less accuracy required
   □ AR when holding the phone up
      □ Target to visual features
      □ Highlight objects of interaction


04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    17
Institute for Media Technology
    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




Future and
Ongoing Work
§ Evaluating interfaces in the
   real world
§ Modeling the system’s
   and user’s state
   □ Localization accuracy
   □ Location/environment
   □ User context
   □ User mental model
   □ …




04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    18
Institute for Media Technology
    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                              Technische Universität München




                                      Thank you for your attention!
                                              Questions?




                                                          ?
                                                          ?
                           andreas.moeller@tum.de
                  www.vmi.ei.tum.de/team/andreas-moeller.html

                   This research project has been supported by the space agency of the German Aerospace Center with
                   funds from the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology on the basis of a resolution of the German
                   Bundestag under the reference 50NA1107.

04.12.2012               A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                        19
Institute for Media Technology
     Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




Paper References
§ Please find the full paper at:
   http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2406367.2406372

§ Please cite this work as follows:
§ Andreas Möller, Matthias Kranz, Robert Huitl, Stefan Diewald, and Luis
   Roalter. 2012. A mobile indoor navigation system interface adapted to
   vision-based localization. In Proceedings of the 11th International
   Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (MUM '12). ACM, New
   York, NY, USA, , Article 4 , 10 pages. DOI=10.1145/2406367.2406372
   http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2406367.2406372
§




04.12.2012                A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    20
Institute for Media Technology
     Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                          Technische Universität München




Please use the following BibTex file:
§  @inproceedings{Moller:2012:MIN:2406367.2406372,
  author = {M"{o}ller, Andreas and Kranz, Matthias and Huitl, Robert and Diewald,
Stefan and Roalter, Luis},
  title = {A mobile indoor navigation system interface adapted to vision-based
localization},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mobile and
Ubiquitous Multimedia},
  series = {MUM '12},
  year = {2012},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-1815-0},
  location = {Ulm, Germany},
  pages = {4:1--4:10},
  articleno = {4},
  numpages = {10},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2406367.2406372},
  doi = {10.1145/2406367.2406372},
  acmid = {2406372},
  publisher = {ACM},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  keywords = {augmented reality, indoor navigation, user interface, virtual
reality, vision-based localization},
}
                                                                                  [
04.12.2012                A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter                                    21

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A Mobile Indoor Navigation System Interface Adapted to Vision-Based Localization

  • 1. A Mobile Indoor Navigation System Interface Adapted to Vision-Based Localization Andreas Möller1, Matthias Kranz2, Robert Huitl1, Stefan Diewald1, Luis Roalter1 1Technische Universität München, Germany 2Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Luleå, Sweden MUM 2012, Ulm, Germany
  • 2. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Outline § Motivation for Vision-Based Navigation § Challenges § Proposed User Interface Concepts § Evaluation § Discussion and Conclusion 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 2
  • 3. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Background and Motivation § Location information still the most important contextual information § Indoor localization is a hot topic and useful for a lot of scenarios: □ Airports □ Hospitals □ Conference venues □ Large environments § Various indoor localization methods possible: □ WLAN/cell-based localization □ Sensor-based localization □ Beacon-based localization □ Vision-based localization 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 3
  • 4. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Why vision-based localization? Live features § Compare query image to reference data set § Use existing features in the environment § No additional augmentation needed § Modern devices are equipped with a camera and powerful processor 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 4
  • 5. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Challenges of Vision-Based Localization § Query images need to be distinctive □ Repeating structures throughout the environment (e.g. corridors) □ Little visual features (e.g. uniform walls) § Orientation of the user’s smartphone □ Good candidates for query images (windows, adverts, posters) are typically found in eye height □ In a typical pose, user holds the device in a way that it points at the floor § User interface needs to address those challenges 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 5
  • 6. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München User Interface Concept Our contrib § No 1 Challenge: Localization inaccuracy ution: Addres □ When insufficient number of features problem s from in the query image a UI perspe ctive § Solution A: Adaption of the user interface □ Augmented Reality (AR) with a live view of the environment □ Virtual Reality (VR) with panorama images (compare to Google Street View) taken in advance § Solution B: Corrective actions □ The user needs to point at interesting regions with the camera 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 6
  • 7. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Augmented Reality (AR) • Display the live camera image • Impose navigation instructions over the image • Smartphone held in eye height • Direct match of information and the real environment 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 7
  • 8. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Virtual Reality (VR) • Uses preloaded panorama images • Navigation instructions are drawn in panorama • Smartphone can be directed to the ground • User matches environment and virtual reality 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 8
  • 9. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Pointing Towards Discriminative Areas 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 9
  • 10. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Highlighting Objects of Interest 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 10
  • 11. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Research Questions § RQ1: Which concept (AR or VR) is preferable in terms of perceived accuracy? § RQ2: Which concept (AR or VR) is preferred by users? § RQ3: Which visualizations are appropriate to acquire sufficient visual features? § RQ4: Can object highlighting be improved with a soft border visualization? 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 11
  • 12. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Methodology § Online Survey § Videos and images of mockup system § 81 participants (18-59 years) recruited via Mobileworks 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 12
  • 13. Virtual Reality Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Perceived Accuracy of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Views RQ1: Perceived accuracy No Error Orientation Error Location Error Loc.+Ori. Error Response Std.Dev. Response Std.Dev. Response Std.Dev. Response Std.Dev. 1: 2.5 0.9 0.8 2.0 1.7 1.5 0.6 2.0 § Simulated error conditions 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.4 1.8 1.0 1.7 2: □ No Error 1.0 2.4 1.7 1.5 0.2 1.1 2.1 1.8 1.2 □ Orientation Error 1.3 1.8 1.7 0.4 0.9 2.1 1.8 3: □ Location Error 2.3 1.0 -0.2 2.0 □ Both Errors 1.9 0.4 -0.5 1.9 1.8 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.7 0.9 1.8 Augmented Reality 1: The system seemed to know well my location. 2: The system seemed to know well my orientation. Virtual Reality 3: I perceived the navigation instructions as correct. Perceived Accuracy of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Views No Error Orientation Error Location Error Loc.+Ori. Error Response Std.Dev. Response Std.Dev. Response Std.Dev. Response Std.Dev. 2.3 1.0 -0.2 2.0 0.4 1.9 -0.5 1.9 1.8 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.7 0.9 1.8 Augmented Reality -3: strongly disagree Virtual Reality +3: strongly agree 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 13
  • 14. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München RQ2: User Preferences § In total, AR more popular with users than VR -3: strongly disagree +3: strongly agree 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 14
  • 15. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München RQ3: Feature Indicator § Clarity of the indicator‘s a) meaning b) c) -3: strongly disagree d) +3: strongly agree a) b) c) d) 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 15
  • 16. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München RQ4: Highlighting methods § Objects of interest highlighting □ Potentially feature-rich □ Interaction points for location-based services § Two types □ Frame □ Soft border § Both equally raise attention, but Frame distracts more -3: strongly disagree +3: strongly agree 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 16
  • 17. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Discussion § Accuracy perception through the interface □ VR beneficial for lower localization accuracy □ AR preferred for reliable estimate § Feature indicators and object highlights potentially contribute to good reference images § Situational use □ VR for 45° angle □ Less features visible □ Less accuracy required □ AR when holding the phone up □ Target to visual features □ Highlight objects of interaction 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 17
  • 18. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Future and Ongoing Work § Evaluating interfaces in the real world § Modeling the system’s and user’s state □ Localization accuracy □ Location/environment □ User context □ User mental model □ … 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 18
  • 19. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Thank you for your attention! Questions? ? ? andreas.moeller@tum.de www.vmi.ei.tum.de/team/andreas-moeller.html This research project has been supported by the space agency of the German Aerospace Center with funds from the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology on the basis of a resolution of the German Bundestag under the reference 50NA1107. 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 19
  • 20. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Paper References § Please find the full paper at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2406367.2406372 § Please cite this work as follows: § Andreas Möller, Matthias Kranz, Robert Huitl, Stefan Diewald, and Luis Roalter. 2012. A mobile indoor navigation system interface adapted to vision-based localization. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (MUM '12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, , Article 4 , 10 pages. DOI=10.1145/2406367.2406372 http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2406367.2406372 § 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 20
  • 21. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Please use the following BibTex file: § @inproceedings{Moller:2012:MIN:2406367.2406372, author = {M"{o}ller, Andreas and Kranz, Matthias and Huitl, Robert and Diewald, Stefan and Roalter, Luis}, title = {A mobile indoor navigation system interface adapted to vision-based localization}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia}, series = {MUM '12}, year = {2012}, isbn = {978-1-4503-1815-0}, location = {Ulm, Germany}, pages = {4:1--4:10}, articleno = {4}, numpages = {10}, url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2406367.2406372}, doi = {10.1145/2406367.2406372}, acmid = {2406372}, publisher = {ACM}, address = {New York, NY, USA}, keywords = {augmented reality, indoor navigation, user interface, virtual reality, vision-based localization}, } [ 04.12.2012 A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. Roalter 21