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15TH MEETING OF AFRO-ASIATIC LINGUISTICS 
Rome, 17-19 September 2014 
A 
Lexicon 
of 
Egyptian 
Lexical 
Roots 
(Project) 
Helmut 
Satzinger
Applica'on 
for 
support 
of 
project 
at 
the 
Austrian 
Fonds 
zur 
Förderung 
der 
Wissenscha2lichen 
Forschung 
(Research 
Fund), 
of 
February 
2014: 
Helmut 
Satzinger: 
Egyptian 
Root 
Lexicon 
(Project) 
The 
aim 
of 
this 
project 
is 
to 
establish 
a 
complete 
inventory 
of 
the 
lexical 
roots 
of 
the 
Egyptian 
language. 
This 
concerns 
all 
stages 
of 
the 
language 
as 
attested 
in 
hieroglyphic 
and 
hieratic 
texts, 
citing 
also 
those 
items 
that 
survive 
into 
Demotic 
and 
Coptic. 
Decision 
is 
to 
be 
expected 
by 
October 
2014.
Traditional Arabic Dictionaries are root dictionaries: 
Lexemes are arranged by the sequence of consonants of 
the roots. 
A. Stirpes of verbs 
f-t-ḥ fataḥa ‘he opened’ (trans.) 
iftataḥa ‘he opened’ (intrans.) 
B. Nominal forms: the Broken Plurals 
j-w-b jawāb ‘answer,’ ˀajwiba(t)‘answers’ 
C. Prefixes m-, t-. ’- 
f-t-ḥ miftāḥ ‘key,’ maftūḥ ‘open’ 
m-r-n tamrīn ‘exercise’ 
l-m-ð tilmīð ‘pupil’ 
ˁ-l-n ˀiˁlān ‘anouncement’ 
ṭ-r-ḥ ˀuṭrūḥa(t) ‘thesis’ 
Etc.
A. Stirpes of verbs 
Perfect Imperfect Maṣdar 
I. faˁala, yafˁalu, ... 
II. faˁˁala, yufaˁˁilu, tafˁīl 
III. fāˁala, yufāˁilu, mufāʿala 
IV. ˀafˁala, yufˁilu, ʾifˁāl 
V. tafaˁˁala, yatafaˁˁalu, tafaˁˁul 
VI. tafāˁala, yatafāˁalu, tafāˁul 
VII. infaˁala, yanfaˁilu, infaˁāl 
VIII. iftaˁala, yaftaˁilu, iftaˁāl 
IX. ifˁalla, yafˁallu, ifˁilāl 
X. istafˁala, yastafˁilu, istifˁāl 
Etc. ... 
B. Broken Plural Forms of Arabic, e.g.: 
Singular Plural 
kitāb (book) kutub (books) 
ɣurfa (room) ɣuraf (rooms) 
šaqqa (apartment) šuqaq (apartment) 
qiṭṭ (cat) qiṭaṭ (cats) 
qalb (heart) qulūb (hearts) 
kalb (dog) kilāb (dogs) 
yawm (day) ʼayyām (days) 
film (film) ʼaflām (films) 
ˁamūd (pole) ʼaˁmidah (poles) 
ṣadīq (friend) ʼaṣdiqāʼ (friends) 
saˁīd (happy) suˁadāʼ (happy)
Egyptian dictionaries do not arrange items by root 
(although the structure of the language is not dissimilar to Semitic): 
Often enough, derivatives of a root do not appear in its neighbourhood. 
The reason? 
•Prefixes: 
ˁnḫ ‘to live’ s-ˁnḫ ‘to make live’ 
šnj ‘to quarrel’ n-šnj ‘to rage’ 
ẖnj ‘to go by boat’ m-ẖn.t ‘ferry-boat’ 
•Loss of initial weak consonant: 
wsḫ ‘be wide’ sḫ.t ‘width’ 
•Reduplication: 
sn ‘to associate’ snsn ‘to fraternize’ (will appear after snj, snˁj, snˁḥ, ... 
snḫn, snḫt, snẖꜣ)
Combinations of more than one phenomenon 
Total or partial reduplication, prefix n-, prefix s-: 
ḳd ‘to sleep’ ḳdd ‘sleep’ n-ḳdd ‘to sleep’ s-ḳdd ‘to make sleep’ 
fḫ ‘to loosen’ fḫḫ, id. s-n-fḫfḫ, id.; basically ‘to cause to become loose’
Pronoun ⸗k (2sm) 
sk, Old Kingdom form of sṯ 
kw,"Old"Kingdom"variant"of"ṯw" 
" 
kb.wj ‘soles (of foot)’ 
nk.t ‘fetter’ 
⸗ṯ (2sf), ⸗ṯn (2p) 
sṯ, ỉsṯ" 
" 
ṯw" 
" 
ṯb.w,"ṯb.wt,"id." 
" 
ỉnṯ"‘to"fetter,’ ỉnṯ.t, ‘fetter’ 
" 
k : ṯ = č 
Palatalisation of Velars 
k : ṯ = č 
ḳ : ḏ = č̣ 
g : ḏ 
ẖ : š 
ḫ : ḏ = č̣ 
ḫ : š
Palatalisation of Velars 
k : ṯ = č 
ḳ : ḏ = č̣ 
g : ḏ 
ẖ : š 
ḫ : ḏ = č̣ 
ḫ : š 
dḳw ‘flour’ 
qnb!‘to!bind;!to!bend;!to!subjugate’ 
sqr ‘to strike’ 
dḏw ‘to!mill’! 
! 
ḏnb ‘to be crooked; to deflect’ 
sqr written with the determinative of sḏr 
‘to lie down’: 
! 
ḳ : ḏ = č̣
gnẖ ‘wing’ (Greek period variant) 
gAf ‘to bake’ 
wg ‘plank’ 
wgA ‘inundation’ 
gn ‘twig’ 
gAb.t, Coptic kjōˀbe, ‘leaf’ (since Dyn. 18) 
ḏnḥ ‘wing’ 
ḏAf ‘to burn’ 
wḏ, wḏy.t ‘stand of steering oar’ 
wḏnw ‘flood’ 
Late Egn. ḏl (spelt ḏnr), Coptic čal, ‘twig’ 
ḏbA.w ‘leaves’ (since Dyn. 18) 
! 
g : ḏ = č̣ 
Palatalisation of Velars 
k : ṯ = č 
ḳ : ḏ = č̣ 
g : ḏ = č̣ 
ẖ : š 
ḫ : ḏ = č̣ 
ḫ : š
ẖˁḳ ‘to shave’ 
mẖn.t ‘ferry-boat’ 
ẖkr ‘to decorate’ 
ẖA.t ‘corps’ 
*zẖA, Coptic (B, A) sḫai, ‘to write’ 
*ẖmm, Coptic (B, A) ḫmom, ‘to become 
warm’ (cf. sẖmm ‘to warm’) 
nẖ ‘to spit; spittle’ 
šˁḳ, Pyr. Text spelling of ẖˁḳ 
mšn.t, Pyr. Text spelling variant of mẖn.t 
škr, Pyr. Text spelling of ẖkr 
šA.t, Pyr. Text spelling of ẖA.t 
zš(A), rare phonetic spelling of *zẖA 
šmm ‘to become warm’ 
Aš ‘to spit’; nš ‘spittle’ 
! 
ẖ : š 
Palatalisation of Velars 
k : ṯ = č 
ḳ : ḏ = č̣ 
g : ḏ 
ẖ : š 
ḫ : ḏ = č̣ 
ḫ : š
ḫ : ḏ = č̣ 
Palatalisation of Velars 
k : ṯ = č 
ḳ : ḏ = č̣ 
g : ḏ 
ẖ : š 
ḫ : ḏ = č̣ 
ḫ : š 
nḫ ‘to protect’ 
ˁḫ ‘to burn’; ‘brazier’( 
( 
wAḫı͐ ‘to become green’ ( 
( 
wAḫy ‘colonnade(’( 
( 
mḫA(‘to make fast; to bind’ 
ḫAm(‘troops’ 
nḏ ‘to protect 
ˁḏ ‘to burn’; ‘brazier’( 
( 
wAḏ ‘to become green’ 
wAḏ(‘column’;(wAḏy.t (‘colonnade’( 
( 
mḏA(‘to(fetter’( 
( 
ḏAm(‘troops,(youth’ 
(
Palatalisation of Velars 
k : ṯ = č 
ḳ : ḏ = č̣ 
g : ḏ 
ẖ : š 
ḫ : ḏ = č̣ 
ḫ : š 
zḫz ‘to rear out’ 
ḫfˁ ‘to grasp’ 
sAḫ ‘to repuls’ 
ḫpt ‘to be discontented; discontent’ 
ḫpw, spelling variant of špw ‘blindness’ 
ı͐ḫ.t ‘thing’ 
zšš ‘to tear out’ 
šfd ‘to grasp’ 
sAš ‘to repuls’ 
špt ‘to be angry’ (Greek period) 
špw ‘blindness’ 
ı͐š.t⸗f, Old Kingdom spelling of ‘his thing’ 
! 
ḫ : š
Debuccalisation of Dentals / Alveolars 
d (=ṭ) : ˁ 
db ‘horn’ ˁb, id. 
dbdb ‘to pound (of the heart)’ ˁbb ‘knock (on door)’ (√db) 
šfd ‘to grasp’ ḫfˁ, id. 
s/ts : ˁ 
pnz ‘to distort’ pnˁ ‘to turn around’; pnˁnˁ ‘to rotate’ 
ỉz ‘tomb’ ỉˁ, id. 
zbš ‘to drown’ ˁbš, id. 
r : ˁ 
ḏrb.t ‘charcoal’ ḏˁb.t, id. 
ḏḥr ‘leather’ ḏḥˁ, id.
Debuccalisation of Velars / Laryngeals 
ḳ : ı͐ 
qbH 1) ‘to become cool’; ibH ‘to sprinkle water’; 
2) ‘to pour a libation’ ibH.w ‘libationer 
qnd ‘to rage; to be come angry’ ind ‘to be vexed; to be sad’ 
ḫ : ı͐ 
snwx ‘to cook’ snw(j?) ‘to cook’ 
xnm ‘to become friendly’ ỉAm ‘to become pleasant’ 
g : ı͐ 
pag ‘to spit’ (doublet of psg) 
paỉ ‘to spit’
Debuccalisation or Lenition of n or r (l sound) 
snm ‘to be sad’; ‘sadness’ sAm·t ‘sadness’ 
bnbn ‘to make flow (of the Nile); bAbA ‘to pour out; to overflow’ 
to swell’ 
npn ‘water’ npA ‘to make wet’ 
drp ‘to offer’ 
dAp ‘to offer’ 
Another doublet: aAb ‘to offer’ (note that -rb- would be incompatible) 
ỉrT·t ‘milk’ 
Old Kingdom var. ỉAT·t 
qrs ‘to bury’ 
Old Kingdom var. qAs 
srp·t ‘lotus leaf’ 
New Kingdom var. sAp·t 
n, r : A 
d > A 
dr ‘dispell’ Ar, id. (also m-Ar) 
dqw ‘flour’ Aqw, id.
Lenition, Palatalisation, Debuccalisation 
*q-l-b “to bend, fold” 
q q > x (lenition) q > D (palatalisation) 
n < *l qnb “to bind; to 
bend” 
qfn “to bend 
down” 
(metathesis) 
Dnb “to be crooked, to 
deflect” 
A < *l 
(debuccalisation) 
qAb “to fold over” xAb “to bend” 
r < *l qrf “to contract; 
to draw together” 
(-rb- is avoided.) 
*ɣ-l-m “young, sexually mature”; “loving, amiable” 
Arabic ġ-l-m (1) “young person”; (2) “sexual heat”; Heb., Aram. ˁ-l-m
Another Source of Complication: 
Graphemes with more than 1 value 
A (“Aleph”) graphemes (like ) – the corresponding phoneme is [l] or sim. in one main 
idiom, [ˀ] or sim. in the other. It is always transcribed as A. 
š graphemes (like ) – the corresponding phoneme was originally [x], transcription ẖ; 
when this was palatalised in many cases, ẖ > š, it corresponded to š, and a new grapheme 
was introduced for ẖ: 
Originally ẖ 
Old Kingdom ẖ š (< ẖ) 
g graphemes (like ): some see reasons to assume that it covered two phonemes, namely 
(1) g, (2) gw. Transcription always g. 
ı͐ (or j) graphemes (like ): evidence seems to point to a double (or triple) phonetic value 
(1) [ˀ], (2) [j] and perhaps (3) [ɉ]. Transcription always ı͐ or j, according to academic tradition.!
A Lexicon of 
Egyptian Lexical Roots (Project)
A Lexicon of 
Egyptian Lexical Roots (Project)
Applica'on 
for 
support 
of 
project 
at 
the 
Austrian 
Fonds 
zur 
Förderung 
der 
Wissenscha2lichen 
Forschung 
(Research 
Fund), 
of 
February 
2014: 
Helmut 
Satzinger: 
Egyptian 
Root 
Lexicon 
(Project) 
The 
aim 
of 
this 
project 
is 
to 
establish 
a 
complete 
inventory 
of 
the 
lexical 
roots 
of 
the 
Egyptian 
language. 
This 
concerns 
all 
stages 
of 
the 
language 
as 
attested 
in 
hieroglyphic 
and 
hieratic 
texts, 
citing 
also 
those 
items 
that 
survive 
into 
Demotic 
and 
Coptic. 
Decision 
is 
to 
be 
expected 
by 
October, 
2014.
N.B. 
This 
presenta'on 
has 
been 
uploaded 
at 
SLIDESHARE: 
hTp://de.slideshare.net/helmutsatzinger/slideshows 
If 
the 
Austrian 
Fonds 
zur 
Förderung 
der 
Wissenscha2lichen 
Forschung 
(Research 
Fund) 
agrees 
to 
support 
this 
PROJECT, 
there 
will 
be 
one 
or 
two 
students 
in 
part-­‐'me 
jobs 
to 
support 
the 
work 
for 
three 
years. 
Otherwise, 
it 
will 
be 
a 
long 
journey 
... 
N.B. 
This 
presenta'on 
has 
been 
uploaded 
at 
SLIDESHARE: 
hTp://de.slideshare.net/helmutsatzinger/slideshows

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A Lexicon of 
Egyptian Lexical Roots (Project)

  • 1. 15TH MEETING OF AFRO-ASIATIC LINGUISTICS Rome, 17-19 September 2014 A Lexicon of Egyptian Lexical Roots (Project) Helmut Satzinger
  • 2. Applica'on for support of project at the Austrian Fonds zur Förderung der Wissenscha2lichen Forschung (Research Fund), of February 2014: Helmut Satzinger: Egyptian Root Lexicon (Project) The aim of this project is to establish a complete inventory of the lexical roots of the Egyptian language. This concerns all stages of the language as attested in hieroglyphic and hieratic texts, citing also those items that survive into Demotic and Coptic. Decision is to be expected by October 2014.
  • 3. Traditional Arabic Dictionaries are root dictionaries: Lexemes are arranged by the sequence of consonants of the roots. A. Stirpes of verbs f-t-ḥ fataḥa ‘he opened’ (trans.) iftataḥa ‘he opened’ (intrans.) B. Nominal forms: the Broken Plurals j-w-b jawāb ‘answer,’ ˀajwiba(t)‘answers’ C. Prefixes m-, t-. ’- f-t-ḥ miftāḥ ‘key,’ maftūḥ ‘open’ m-r-n tamrīn ‘exercise’ l-m-ð tilmīð ‘pupil’ ˁ-l-n ˀiˁlān ‘anouncement’ ṭ-r-ḥ ˀuṭrūḥa(t) ‘thesis’ Etc.
  • 4. A. Stirpes of verbs Perfect Imperfect Maṣdar I. faˁala, yafˁalu, ... II. faˁˁala, yufaˁˁilu, tafˁīl III. fāˁala, yufāˁilu, mufāʿala IV. ˀafˁala, yufˁilu, ʾifˁāl V. tafaˁˁala, yatafaˁˁalu, tafaˁˁul VI. tafāˁala, yatafāˁalu, tafāˁul VII. infaˁala, yanfaˁilu, infaˁāl VIII. iftaˁala, yaftaˁilu, iftaˁāl IX. ifˁalla, yafˁallu, ifˁilāl X. istafˁala, yastafˁilu, istifˁāl Etc. ... B. Broken Plural Forms of Arabic, e.g.: Singular Plural kitāb (book) kutub (books) ɣurfa (room) ɣuraf (rooms) šaqqa (apartment) šuqaq (apartment) qiṭṭ (cat) qiṭaṭ (cats) qalb (heart) qulūb (hearts) kalb (dog) kilāb (dogs) yawm (day) ʼayyām (days) film (film) ʼaflām (films) ˁamūd (pole) ʼaˁmidah (poles) ṣadīq (friend) ʼaṣdiqāʼ (friends) saˁīd (happy) suˁadāʼ (happy)
  • 5. Egyptian dictionaries do not arrange items by root (although the structure of the language is not dissimilar to Semitic): Often enough, derivatives of a root do not appear in its neighbourhood. The reason? •Prefixes: ˁnḫ ‘to live’ s-ˁnḫ ‘to make live’ šnj ‘to quarrel’ n-šnj ‘to rage’ ẖnj ‘to go by boat’ m-ẖn.t ‘ferry-boat’ •Loss of initial weak consonant: wsḫ ‘be wide’ sḫ.t ‘width’ •Reduplication: sn ‘to associate’ snsn ‘to fraternize’ (will appear after snj, snˁj, snˁḥ, ... snḫn, snḫt, snẖꜣ)
  • 6. Combinations of more than one phenomenon Total or partial reduplication, prefix n-, prefix s-: ḳd ‘to sleep’ ḳdd ‘sleep’ n-ḳdd ‘to sleep’ s-ḳdd ‘to make sleep’ fḫ ‘to loosen’ fḫḫ, id. s-n-fḫfḫ, id.; basically ‘to cause to become loose’
  • 7. Pronoun ⸗k (2sm) sk, Old Kingdom form of sṯ kw,"Old"Kingdom"variant"of"ṯw" " kb.wj ‘soles (of foot)’ nk.t ‘fetter’ ⸗ṯ (2sf), ⸗ṯn (2p) sṯ, ỉsṯ" " ṯw" " ṯb.w,"ṯb.wt,"id." " ỉnṯ"‘to"fetter,’ ỉnṯ.t, ‘fetter’ " k : ṯ = č Palatalisation of Velars k : ṯ = č ḳ : ḏ = č̣ g : ḏ ẖ : š ḫ : ḏ = č̣ ḫ : š
  • 8. Palatalisation of Velars k : ṯ = č ḳ : ḏ = č̣ g : ḏ ẖ : š ḫ : ḏ = č̣ ḫ : š dḳw ‘flour’ qnb!‘to!bind;!to!bend;!to!subjugate’ sqr ‘to strike’ dḏw ‘to!mill’! ! ḏnb ‘to be crooked; to deflect’ sqr written with the determinative of sḏr ‘to lie down’: ! ḳ : ḏ = č̣
  • 9. gnẖ ‘wing’ (Greek period variant) gAf ‘to bake’ wg ‘plank’ wgA ‘inundation’ gn ‘twig’ gAb.t, Coptic kjōˀbe, ‘leaf’ (since Dyn. 18) ḏnḥ ‘wing’ ḏAf ‘to burn’ wḏ, wḏy.t ‘stand of steering oar’ wḏnw ‘flood’ Late Egn. ḏl (spelt ḏnr), Coptic čal, ‘twig’ ḏbA.w ‘leaves’ (since Dyn. 18) ! g : ḏ = č̣ Palatalisation of Velars k : ṯ = č ḳ : ḏ = č̣ g : ḏ = č̣ ẖ : š ḫ : ḏ = č̣ ḫ : š
  • 10. ẖˁḳ ‘to shave’ mẖn.t ‘ferry-boat’ ẖkr ‘to decorate’ ẖA.t ‘corps’ *zẖA, Coptic (B, A) sḫai, ‘to write’ *ẖmm, Coptic (B, A) ḫmom, ‘to become warm’ (cf. sẖmm ‘to warm’) nẖ ‘to spit; spittle’ šˁḳ, Pyr. Text spelling of ẖˁḳ mšn.t, Pyr. Text spelling variant of mẖn.t škr, Pyr. Text spelling of ẖkr šA.t, Pyr. Text spelling of ẖA.t zš(A), rare phonetic spelling of *zẖA šmm ‘to become warm’ Aš ‘to spit’; nš ‘spittle’ ! ẖ : š Palatalisation of Velars k : ṯ = č ḳ : ḏ = č̣ g : ḏ ẖ : š ḫ : ḏ = č̣ ḫ : š
  • 11. ḫ : ḏ = č̣ Palatalisation of Velars k : ṯ = č ḳ : ḏ = č̣ g : ḏ ẖ : š ḫ : ḏ = č̣ ḫ : š nḫ ‘to protect’ ˁḫ ‘to burn’; ‘brazier’( ( wAḫı͐ ‘to become green’ ( ( wAḫy ‘colonnade(’( ( mḫA(‘to make fast; to bind’ ḫAm(‘troops’ nḏ ‘to protect ˁḏ ‘to burn’; ‘brazier’( ( wAḏ ‘to become green’ wAḏ(‘column’;(wAḏy.t (‘colonnade’( ( mḏA(‘to(fetter’( ( ḏAm(‘troops,(youth’ (
  • 12. Palatalisation of Velars k : ṯ = č ḳ : ḏ = č̣ g : ḏ ẖ : š ḫ : ḏ = č̣ ḫ : š zḫz ‘to rear out’ ḫfˁ ‘to grasp’ sAḫ ‘to repuls’ ḫpt ‘to be discontented; discontent’ ḫpw, spelling variant of špw ‘blindness’ ı͐ḫ.t ‘thing’ zšš ‘to tear out’ šfd ‘to grasp’ sAš ‘to repuls’ špt ‘to be angry’ (Greek period) špw ‘blindness’ ı͐š.t⸗f, Old Kingdom spelling of ‘his thing’ ! ḫ : š
  • 13. Debuccalisation of Dentals / Alveolars d (=ṭ) : ˁ db ‘horn’ ˁb, id. dbdb ‘to pound (of the heart)’ ˁbb ‘knock (on door)’ (√db) šfd ‘to grasp’ ḫfˁ, id. s/ts : ˁ pnz ‘to distort’ pnˁ ‘to turn around’; pnˁnˁ ‘to rotate’ ỉz ‘tomb’ ỉˁ, id. zbš ‘to drown’ ˁbš, id. r : ˁ ḏrb.t ‘charcoal’ ḏˁb.t, id. ḏḥr ‘leather’ ḏḥˁ, id.
  • 14. Debuccalisation of Velars / Laryngeals ḳ : ı͐ qbH 1) ‘to become cool’; ibH ‘to sprinkle water’; 2) ‘to pour a libation’ ibH.w ‘libationer qnd ‘to rage; to be come angry’ ind ‘to be vexed; to be sad’ ḫ : ı͐ snwx ‘to cook’ snw(j?) ‘to cook’ xnm ‘to become friendly’ ỉAm ‘to become pleasant’ g : ı͐ pag ‘to spit’ (doublet of psg) paỉ ‘to spit’
  • 15. Debuccalisation or Lenition of n or r (l sound) snm ‘to be sad’; ‘sadness’ sAm·t ‘sadness’ bnbn ‘to make flow (of the Nile); bAbA ‘to pour out; to overflow’ to swell’ npn ‘water’ npA ‘to make wet’ drp ‘to offer’ dAp ‘to offer’ Another doublet: aAb ‘to offer’ (note that -rb- would be incompatible) ỉrT·t ‘milk’ Old Kingdom var. ỉAT·t qrs ‘to bury’ Old Kingdom var. qAs srp·t ‘lotus leaf’ New Kingdom var. sAp·t n, r : A d > A dr ‘dispell’ Ar, id. (also m-Ar) dqw ‘flour’ Aqw, id.
  • 16. Lenition, Palatalisation, Debuccalisation *q-l-b “to bend, fold” q q > x (lenition) q > D (palatalisation) n < *l qnb “to bind; to bend” qfn “to bend down” (metathesis) Dnb “to be crooked, to deflect” A < *l (debuccalisation) qAb “to fold over” xAb “to bend” r < *l qrf “to contract; to draw together” (-rb- is avoided.) *ɣ-l-m “young, sexually mature”; “loving, amiable” Arabic ġ-l-m (1) “young person”; (2) “sexual heat”; Heb., Aram. ˁ-l-m
  • 17. Another Source of Complication: Graphemes with more than 1 value A (“Aleph”) graphemes (like ) – the corresponding phoneme is [l] or sim. in one main idiom, [ˀ] or sim. in the other. It is always transcribed as A. š graphemes (like ) – the corresponding phoneme was originally [x], transcription ẖ; when this was palatalised in many cases, ẖ > š, it corresponded to š, and a new grapheme was introduced for ẖ: Originally ẖ Old Kingdom ẖ š (< ẖ) g graphemes (like ): some see reasons to assume that it covered two phonemes, namely (1) g, (2) gw. Transcription always g. ı͐ (or j) graphemes (like ): evidence seems to point to a double (or triple) phonetic value (1) [ˀ], (2) [j] and perhaps (3) [ɉ]. Transcription always ı͐ or j, according to academic tradition.!
  • 20. Applica'on for support of project at the Austrian Fonds zur Förderung der Wissenscha2lichen Forschung (Research Fund), of February 2014: Helmut Satzinger: Egyptian Root Lexicon (Project) The aim of this project is to establish a complete inventory of the lexical roots of the Egyptian language. This concerns all stages of the language as attested in hieroglyphic and hieratic texts, citing also those items that survive into Demotic and Coptic. Decision is to be expected by October, 2014.
  • 21. N.B. This presenta'on has been uploaded at SLIDESHARE: hTp://de.slideshare.net/helmutsatzinger/slideshows If the Austrian Fonds zur Förderung der Wissenscha2lichen Forschung (Research Fund) agrees to support this PROJECT, there will be one or two students in part-­‐'me jobs to support the work for three years. Otherwise, it will be a long journey ... N.B. This presenta'on has been uploaded at SLIDESHARE: hTp://de.slideshare.net/helmutsatzinger/slideshows