SlideShare a Scribd company logo
A GOLDEN AGE OF ESP TEACHING:
MATERIALS, PRACTICE AND TEACHER
EDUCATION IN 20TH CENTURY SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION
SHONA WHYTE
Colloque GERAS Nancy 19/03/2021
ESP DIDACTICS: DOCTORAL THESES/HABILITATIONS
• Schug, D. (2019). Les cours d'anglais à travers les disciplines : une question de
motivation, Paris 8/Ca’ Foscari, Venise.
• Labetoulle, A. (2019). Etude de la complexité des environnements d’apprentissage et
d’enseignement LANSAD pour la conception, la mise en place et l’évaluation d’un
dispositif en anglais, Lille.
• Bloor, T. (2020). Travail coopératif entre une enseignante-chercheuse de physique et une
professeure d’anglais dans le secteur LANSAD (LANgues pour les Spécialistes d’Autres
Disciplines), Brest.
• Brantley, K. (2020). Re-framing the Specificity Debate in the Lansod Sector around
Pragmatics: An Action Research Project Exploring the Development of Flexible Pragmatic
Skills instead of “General English” for Second-year Students in Culture and Media, Lille.
• Carnet, A. (2020). L’utilisation de séries télévisées pour l’enseignement/apprentissage de
la communication pour la consultation médicale, Lorraine
• Conan, M. Apprendre à interagir en anglais vétérinaire : l’interculturel en langue de
spécialité, Université Côte d’Azur/Paris 3.
• Henderson, A. (2021). Intelligibility and identity : from teaching pronunciation to training
for spoken language variation, Université Savoie Mont Blanc
Sarré &
Whyte 2016
Sarré & Whyte 2017
(DIS)CONTINUITIES IN ESP: ESP DIDACTICS
• science and humanities
• disciplinary content and
language
• linguistic description and
language teaching
• teaching and learning
Is it true that we have typically
prioritised the first element in each
pair?
Are there historical explanations for
these preferences?
What reasons can be advanced in
favour of reversing the trend?
• ESP didactics - some context
• “the ESP juggernaut” - early figures in British ESP (1970s,1980s)
• conclusions and consequences
• new perspectives for ESP in French higher education
PLAN
ESP
DIDACTICS
ENGLISH
LANGUAGE
TEACHING
(ELT)
ENGLISH
STUDIES
literature
ENGLISH FOR
SPECIFIC
PURPOSES
(ESP)
NON-LANGUAGE
DISCIPLINES &
PROFESSIONS
culture
linguistics
science
law
disciplinary
CONTENT
what do we
teach?
how do we teach?
METHODS
Sarré & Whyte (2016: 37) https://journals.openedition.org/asp/4834
“the branch of English language studies which concerns the
language, discourse and culture of English-language professional
communities and specialised social groups, as well as the
learning and teaching of this object from a didactic perspective”
ESP
ESP DIDACTICS
• is a distancing and theorising process which seeks to analyse
the way ESP teaching leads to learning
• draws on several contributive sciences,
• takes a broader perspective than SLA, covering elements of
both SLA and foreign language education”
A. Johns (2013) cited in Douglas (2017)
“Unlike many other research areas in theoretical
and applied linguistics, ESP has been, at its core, a
practitioners’ movement, devoted to
establishing, through careful research, the needs
and relevant discourse features for a targeted
group of students”
EMPHASIS ON TEACHERS AND TEACHING
Whyte (2016: 27-8) https://journals.openedition.org/apliut/5487
ESP research “often focuses on the analysis of a specific variety, and not
always on how non-native speakers might acquire it (Sarré & Whyte 2016).
But for L2 learners and users, the goal is usually an acquisitional one, even
of only the ‘narrow set of occupation-specific uses and functions’ (Saville-
Troike 2006).
The goal of language education in SLA terms is communicative
competence [… focusing on] L2 learner/user comprehension and
production, rather than the explicit knowledge of language rules” which are
often emphasised in English studies and ESP research.
WHAT ABOUT LEARNING?
ENGLISH
LANGUAGE
TEACHING
(ELT)
ESP
DIDACTICS
ENGLISH
STUDIES
literature
ENGLISH FOR
SPECIFIC
PURPOSES
(ESP)
NON-LANGUAGE
DISCIPLINES &
PROFESSIONS
culture
linguistics
science
law
disciplinary
CONTENT
what do we
teach?
how do we teach?
METHODS
LEARNING
(CONTENT &
LANGUAGE)
THEORY
what and how do
students learn?
INSTRUCTED
SECOND LANGUAGE
ACQUISITION
[ISLA]
classroom
intervention
psycholinguistics
the intended or official curriculum rests atop
the taught curriculum, which teachers deliver
once they close their classroom doors, the
learned curriculum, or what students take
away from class, and the tested curriculum,
which represents an even narrower band of
knowledge
Cuban 2012
c
o
u
r
s
m
a
q
u
e
t
t
e
s
é
v
a
l
u
a
t
i
o
n
s
c
o
m
p
é
t
e
n
c
e
s
TRADITIONAL DIFFICULTIES
WITH CHANGE
MOVING FROM TEACHING TO
LEARNING
Previous reforms create the historical
context for the multi-layered curriculum
and influence the direction of
contemporary reforms. This historical
context is like a coral, a mass of skeletons
from millions of animals built up, that
over time accumulates into reefs above
and below the sea line. Its presence
cannot be ignored.
Cuban 2012
• ESP focus on the taught layer
• “the ESP juggernaut”
early figures in British ESP 1970-1980s
• 4 figures: Swales, Johns, Dudley-
Evans, Ewer
• materials, teaching practice, teacher
education
PLAN
ESP
Abbott (1978)
JOHN SWALES (1938-‘RETIRED’ 2006)
• 1957 BA Psychology (University of Cambridge),
1966 Linguistics and ELT (University of Leeds)
• British Council: Tripoli College, Libya;
English Language Servicing Unit, University of Khartoum, Sudan (1973-5)
Swales, J. (1971). Writing scientific English
• University of Aston (1978): Language Studies Unit; MA in ESP teaching
• University of Michigan, English Language Institute; Swales & Feak Academic
writing for graduate students
• Genre analysis (1990), English for Specific Purposes editor
TIM JOHNS (1936-2009)
• BA Modern History, Emmanuel
College, Cambridge 1955
• British Council
• Birmingham University (Swales)
(1971-2001): English for Overseas
Students Unit
• father of data-driven learning (DDL)
TONY DUDLEY-EVANS (1943, RETIRED 2001)
• BA Arabic (University of London), PGCE ELT
(University of Wales)
• British Council: Tripoli College, Libya
(Swales); English Language Unit, University of
Tabriz, Iran
• Birmingham University (1976-2001): English
for Overseas Students Unit (Johns, Swales)
• Bates, M. & Dudley-Evans, T. (1976). Nucleus:
General science
• English for Specific Purposes editor (Swales)
JACK EWER (1918-1982)
• Department of English, University of
Chile at Santiago
• Ewer, J & Latorre, G. (1969). A course
in basic scientific English. Longman
• “father of ESP teacher education”
• EST/ESP Chile, editor
Developing EST materials
linguistic focus of textbooks
preference for tailor-made
materials
planned and serendipitous
collaboration
• range of types of syllabus:
• structural (Ewer & Latorre 1969, Swales 1971)
• notional-functional (Bates & Dudley-Evans 1976)
• lack of scientific foundation
• no needs analysis
• no measure of effectiveness
Ewer & Boys (1981)
contemporary textbook analysis
1969
1971
1976
http://www.uefap.net/materials/materials-history
Andy GILLET
The sample used was comprehensive […] introductory university textbooks,
advanced textbooks, semi-popularisations, specialised articles, professional
papers and monographs […] the sample amounted to well over 3 million words.
[…]
The main structural and non-structural vocabulary were identified by visual
scanning; in order to reduce the subjective factor involved, each investigator
worked separately, and only the items noted by both were incorporated into
the final list
Ewer & Latorre (1967) on 1963 collaboration
early corpus linguistics
• such books undermine the professionalism of the
instructor
• they cannot meet the elaborated inventories of
requirements produced by needs analysis or by
schemes of evaluation,
• they are offered in a format ostensibly unsuitable for
communicative language teaching,
• their educational effectiveness may have been
reduced by marketing considerations
Swales (1980, 2013)
preference for tailor-made materials
The standard solution
to these difficulties
with published
materials is for each
institution,
organization, or
training
establishment to offer
its own tailor-made
programmes
Tim Johns […] would typically
respond to some description
of materials, with comments
like, “Pretty nice, but have you
thought of doing it like
this?…” Inevitably, adequate
materials would be
immediately transformed into
superior ones
Swales (2013)
Over that kitchen table and of an
evening, [Tony Dudley-Evans and I]
could plan next week's materials,
spark and improve ideas, kill off
weak or stray enthusiasms, and
cobble together collages of
photocopies and handwritten
manuscripts to take to our
secretaries for typing up
collaboration to develop materials
Teaching English for Science & Technology
content and language teacher
collaboration
remedial focus to support
“backward students” and
“underachievement among
overseas students”
challenging and creative for
teachers
EST initiative at Birmingham
English for Overseas' Students Unit (EOSU) Birmingham
University
support in EST from language and content instructors to
international graduate students in regular graduate
programmes in Plant Biology and Transportation
a) understanding academic lectures
b) producing academic/scientific English
Johns & Dudley-Evans (1980)
Johns & Dudley-Evans (1980)
3-way feedback
STUDENT
needs to know how his
performance is measuring
up to the expectations of his
teachers and to have
immediate assistance with
his difficulties as they arise
SUBJECT
TEACHER
needs to have a
clearer idea of how
effectively he is
communicating
with his students
LANGUAGE
TEACHER
needs to grasp the conceptual
structure of a subject his
learners are studying; to know
how the range of different
subjects are taught: to observe
where and how difficulties
arise
course components
1. audio recording of content lectures analysed by language teachers for
subsequent team-teaching
2. exam questions provided by content teachers, analysed by language teachers,
student writing checked by both teachers
3. oral presentations: role-play topic defined by content teacher, student plays
engineer to ‘planning committee’ of language teachers
4. research projects: team-teaching session where students present proposals;
conference with individual students to discuss drafts
Johns & Dudley-Evans (1980)
Johns & Dudley-Evans (1980)
This part of the session requires a degree of tact on the part of the
language-teacher, and of self-awareness on the part of the subject-
teacher, most of whom do not realise how many colloquialisms they use.
The majority react to the realisation by attempting to control the type
and density of colloquial expressions in their lectures; one the other
hand, one lecturer in Transportation appears to have increased his use of
sporting metaphors, perhaps with the intention of putting the language-
teachers on their mettle
content/language teacher interaction
Johns & Dudley-Evans (1980)
while there was some improvement
attributable to the team-taught
sessions for all students, that
improvement was far greater with
the stronger students than with the
weaker: that is to say, they achieved
the reverse effect to that intended
learning effects?
Where in an operation of this kind
subject and language are so enmeshed,
finding out what the language-teacher
has learnt of the subject may be as
reliable a way of estimating its success
as measuring the improvement in the
students' English
Johns & Dudley-Evans (1980)
We hope we avoided the hubris which can too easily afflict the
EAP teacher when, with a smattering of knowledge in the subject
area, and a view of himself as an expert on communication, he
comes to regard himself as an expert - or the expert - on how the
subject ought to be taught, and even on what the subject ought to
central role of ESP teacher
Dudley-Evans: “it remains the most creative aspect of teaching I
have ever been involved with” (St Johns 2012)
EST teacher education
multilayered perspective:
student, teacher, teacher
educator, programme director
ESP teacher collaboration
practical orientation
Ewer (1983)
challenges for EST teacher
1. attitude
2. concepts
3. language
4. methodology
5. organisation
SCIENCE &
TECHNOLOGY
“relaxed attitude to errors”
programme
administration
team-teaching: one “active” instructor, one
“passive” or “watching”
lecture breaks: stop every 10-15 min
group work with close supervision
teacher training programme
Ewer (1983)
central role of teacher
groups should contain at least one
fairly good student ("good" in the
sense of quickness of reaction, general
knowledge, energy and, least
important of all, knowledge of
English); if this is not done, all the best
students tend to group together,
leaving all the weak ones together too!
Again, in this game we are learning
all the time, and it often happens
that the active teacher may omit or
underemphasize a relevant point
which the watching teacher can
ensure is brought to the attention of
the students and given its due
weight
Ewer (1983)
HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF ESP
• emphasis on science over humanities
• focus on content as pre-requisite to
language
• linguistic description and language
teaching
• teaching and learning
official curriculum
taught layer
learned layer
tested layer
official curriculum
taught layer
learned layer
tested layer
ESP LEARNER
• paternalistic stance with respect to learner needs and learning
outcomes
• little exploration of intercultural dimensions or learner strategies
(BUT Dudley-Evans & Swales 1980)
• avoidance of theories of (language) learning/acquisition (Bloor &
Bloor)
The students obtain the
trimmings from the University’s
press and copy onto them […]
from textbooks, or from notes,
either the student’s on, or more
frequently borrowed from a
colleague. The multiple copying
of technical terms is illustrative
of the reliance on the ‘word’ as
given, and the fact that the
trimming strips are always
discarded after a revision session
shows how thorough has been
the process of internalisation
Dudley-Evans & Swales (1980)
second language acquisition
in most cases the teaching of a
language involves much more than
providing the cirumstances for optimal
acquisition. Although these are
essential, the teacher is also
responsible for teaching those
aspects of language that have to be
taught even to native speakers: cultural
conventions, and the system and uses
of literacy (Bloor & Bloor 1986)
when Swales directed the
establishment of the first MA in ESP in
Britain at Aston University (on which I
was a founding colleague) he would
not consider suggestions for including
a component on psychology,
psycholinguistics, or language
acquisition, which were commonly
found on masters’ degree courses in
ELT or Applied Linguistics. In this he
saved us all from wandering down
blind alleys. (Bloor 1998)
ESP teaching paradox
is ESP a materials and teaching-led movement?
linguistic inquiry is the most establised area of
research and discussion; value for teaching and
learning
a strong tradition of innovative teaching and
materials design, usually reported as case studies;
materials are most noticeable
relatively limited research and discussion literature
concerning approaches to teaching and learning
“ESP is a theoretically and
empirically based field of inquiry
that aims to identify the linguistic
features of specialist English
varieties, the nature of ESP
teaching, and to understand how
specialist English can be acquired
in instructed ESP and naturalistic
contexts”
Basturkmen (2020)
CURRENT PROJECTS IN FRENCH HIGHER EDUCATION
• Réseau d’acquisition des langues secondes
(ReAL2): intersection of second language
acquisition and teaching/learning - learner
corpora
• DidASp: Sophie Belan, Aude Labetoulle,
collaborative research (ESSE 2021 Lyon)
• CATAPULT (Computer-assisted training and
platforms to upskill LSP teachers (http://
catapult-project.eu) - teacher education
• English Medium Instruction (EMI) teacher
preparation Bordeaux University (Pagèze &
Lasagabaster 2018)
Dafouz et al 2019
“EFL language specialists are often called upon initially to provide
linguistic support to lecturers who are switching into English, yet,
[…] they are also requested to provide support in the areas of
pedagogy, intercultural competences and, more recently,
academic disciplinary language”
“if linguists wish to remain relevant and continue to gain access to
EMI contexts then they will need to take the interests of content
lecturers into account”
Airey 2020
ESP AND EMI: AN OPPORTUNITY AND A CAVEAT
CONCLUSION…
Can we emulate the energy and
creativity of early ESP teachers,
trainers, programme developers
and researchers and turn our
attention to questions of how
students learn?
ESP has historically prioritised
content, description, and teaching
Key figures in late 20th century ESP
typify a creative, innovative, and
individually driven approach to EST
Learning has been overlooked,
assumed rather than attested
A GOLDEN AGE OF ESP
TEACHING: MATERIALS,
PRACTICE AND TEACHER
EDUCATION IN 20TH CENTURY
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
EDUCATION
SHONA WHYTE
Colloque GERAS Nancy 19/03/2021
shona.whyte@univ-cotedazur.fr

More Related Content

What's hot

War stories and romances: Whyte & Sarré, ESSE 2016
War stories and romances: Whyte & Sarré, ESSE 2016War stories and romances: Whyte & Sarré, ESSE 2016
War stories and romances: Whyte & Sarré, ESSE 2016
Shona Whyte
 
Target language interaction at the IWB (EuroCALL)
Target language interaction at the IWB (EuroCALL)Target language interaction at the IWB (EuroCALL)
Target language interaction at the IWB (EuroCALL)
Shona Whyte
 
Taking to tasks
Taking to tasksTaking to tasks
Taking to tasks
Shona Whyte
 
Open educational practices in language education: resources, tools, and training
Open educational practices in language education: resources, tools, and trainingOpen educational practices in language education: resources, tools, and training
Open educational practices in language education: resources, tools, and training
Shona Whyte
 
Applied linguistics and linguistique appliquée
Applied linguistics and linguistique appliquéeApplied linguistics and linguistique appliquée
Applied linguistics and linguistique appliquée
Shona Whyte
 
ITILT 2: LPM webinar
ITILT 2: LPM webinarITILT 2: LPM webinar
ITILT 2: LPM webinar
Shona Whyte
 
Transnational settings in CALL teacher education
Transnational settings in CALL teacher educationTransnational settings in CALL teacher education
Transnational settings in CALL teacher education
Shona Whyte
 
Redesigning the college English curriculum for flipped learning
Redesigning the college English curriculum for flipped learningRedesigning the college English curriculum for flipped learning
Redesigning the college English curriculum for flipped learning
heyoungkim
 
SHOUT4HE ebooks: teacher education in higher ed contexts
SHOUT4HE ebooks: teacher education in higher ed contextsSHOUT4HE ebooks: teacher education in higher ed contexts
SHOUT4HE ebooks: teacher education in higher ed contexts
Shona Whyte
 
Action research
Action researchAction research
Action research
Fatma996
 
L2 pragmatics: politeness in French EFL classrooms
L2 pragmatics: politeness in French EFL classroomsL2 pragmatics: politeness in French EFL classrooms
L2 pragmatics: politeness in French EFL classrooms
Shona Whyte
 
Edited volume on ESP didactics: DidASP GERAS 2018
Edited volume on ESP didactics: DidASP GERAS 2018Edited volume on ESP didactics: DidASP GERAS 2018
Edited volume on ESP didactics: DidASP GERAS 2018
Shona Whyte
 
Blended Learning-Best Practices
Blended Learning-Best PracticesBlended Learning-Best Practices
Blended Learning-Best Practices
Saint Michael's College
 
A developmental framework for teacher adoption of interactive technologies in...
A developmental framework for teacher adoption of interactive technologies in...A developmental framework for teacher adoption of interactive technologies in...
A developmental framework for teacher adoption of interactive technologies in...
Shona Whyte
 
Developing corpus-based resources for language learning: looking back in "hope"
Developing corpus-based resources for language learning: looking back in "hope"Developing corpus-based resources for language learning: looking back in "hope"
Developing corpus-based resources for language learning: looking back in "hope"
Pascual Pérez-Paredes
 
Part 2. Sancho Guinda CLIL Murcia 2014
Part 2. Sancho Guinda CLIL Murcia 2014Part 2. Sancho Guinda CLIL Murcia 2014
Part 2. Sancho Guinda CLIL Murcia 2014
campusmarenostrum
 
Higher Education as a multilingual and multicultural space
Higher Education as a multilingual and multicultural spaceHigher Education as a multilingual and multicultural space
Higher Education as a multilingual and multicultural space
Pascual Pérez-Paredes
 
Education as a multilingual and multicultural space
Education as a multilingual and multicultural spaceEducation as a multilingual and multicultural space
Education as a multilingual and multicultural space
Pascual Pérez-Paredes
 
OER: insights into a multilingual landscape - EUROCALL 2014 conference
OER: insights into a multilingual landscape - EUROCALL 2014 conference  OER: insights into a multilingual landscape - EUROCALL 2014 conference
OER: insights into a multilingual landscape - EUROCALL 2014 conference
LangOER
 
TIRF at 2014 TESOL - MALL Panel Presentation
TIRF at 2014 TESOL - MALL Panel Presentation TIRF at 2014 TESOL - MALL Panel Presentation

What's hot (20)

War stories and romances: Whyte & Sarré, ESSE 2016
War stories and romances: Whyte & Sarré, ESSE 2016War stories and romances: Whyte & Sarré, ESSE 2016
War stories and romances: Whyte & Sarré, ESSE 2016
 
Target language interaction at the IWB (EuroCALL)
Target language interaction at the IWB (EuroCALL)Target language interaction at the IWB (EuroCALL)
Target language interaction at the IWB (EuroCALL)
 
Taking to tasks
Taking to tasksTaking to tasks
Taking to tasks
 
Open educational practices in language education: resources, tools, and training
Open educational practices in language education: resources, tools, and trainingOpen educational practices in language education: resources, tools, and training
Open educational practices in language education: resources, tools, and training
 
Applied linguistics and linguistique appliquée
Applied linguistics and linguistique appliquéeApplied linguistics and linguistique appliquée
Applied linguistics and linguistique appliquée
 
ITILT 2: LPM webinar
ITILT 2: LPM webinarITILT 2: LPM webinar
ITILT 2: LPM webinar
 
Transnational settings in CALL teacher education
Transnational settings in CALL teacher educationTransnational settings in CALL teacher education
Transnational settings in CALL teacher education
 
Redesigning the college English curriculum for flipped learning
Redesigning the college English curriculum for flipped learningRedesigning the college English curriculum for flipped learning
Redesigning the college English curriculum for flipped learning
 
SHOUT4HE ebooks: teacher education in higher ed contexts
SHOUT4HE ebooks: teacher education in higher ed contextsSHOUT4HE ebooks: teacher education in higher ed contexts
SHOUT4HE ebooks: teacher education in higher ed contexts
 
Action research
Action researchAction research
Action research
 
L2 pragmatics: politeness in French EFL classrooms
L2 pragmatics: politeness in French EFL classroomsL2 pragmatics: politeness in French EFL classrooms
L2 pragmatics: politeness in French EFL classrooms
 
Edited volume on ESP didactics: DidASP GERAS 2018
Edited volume on ESP didactics: DidASP GERAS 2018Edited volume on ESP didactics: DidASP GERAS 2018
Edited volume on ESP didactics: DidASP GERAS 2018
 
Blended Learning-Best Practices
Blended Learning-Best PracticesBlended Learning-Best Practices
Blended Learning-Best Practices
 
A developmental framework for teacher adoption of interactive technologies in...
A developmental framework for teacher adoption of interactive technologies in...A developmental framework for teacher adoption of interactive technologies in...
A developmental framework for teacher adoption of interactive technologies in...
 
Developing corpus-based resources for language learning: looking back in "hope"
Developing corpus-based resources for language learning: looking back in "hope"Developing corpus-based resources for language learning: looking back in "hope"
Developing corpus-based resources for language learning: looking back in "hope"
 
Part 2. Sancho Guinda CLIL Murcia 2014
Part 2. Sancho Guinda CLIL Murcia 2014Part 2. Sancho Guinda CLIL Murcia 2014
Part 2. Sancho Guinda CLIL Murcia 2014
 
Higher Education as a multilingual and multicultural space
Higher Education as a multilingual and multicultural spaceHigher Education as a multilingual and multicultural space
Higher Education as a multilingual and multicultural space
 
Education as a multilingual and multicultural space
Education as a multilingual and multicultural spaceEducation as a multilingual and multicultural space
Education as a multilingual and multicultural space
 
OER: insights into a multilingual landscape - EUROCALL 2014 conference
OER: insights into a multilingual landscape - EUROCALL 2014 conference  OER: insights into a multilingual landscape - EUROCALL 2014 conference
OER: insights into a multilingual landscape - EUROCALL 2014 conference
 
TIRF at 2014 TESOL - MALL Panel Presentation
TIRF at 2014 TESOL - MALL Panel Presentation TIRF at 2014 TESOL - MALL Panel Presentation
TIRF at 2014 TESOL - MALL Panel Presentation
 

Similar to A Golden Age of ESP teaching: 20th century practice

English for Academic Purposes by Liz Hamp-Lyons
English for Academic Purposes by Liz Hamp-LyonsEnglish for Academic Purposes by Liz Hamp-Lyons
English for Academic Purposes by Liz Hamp-Lyons
Parth Bhatt
 
Implementation and Evaluation of Material Designed for EFL Students of the Nu...
Implementation and Evaluation of Material Designed for EFL Students of the Nu...Implementation and Evaluation of Material Designed for EFL Students of the Nu...
Implementation and Evaluation of Material Designed for EFL Students of the Nu...
Jessica Garzón
 
Masters in Teaching English: VM2ANG341
Masters in Teaching English: VM2ANG341Masters in Teaching English: VM2ANG341
Masters in Teaching English: VM2ANG341
Shona Whyte
 
From syllabus design to curriculum development
From syllabus design to curriculum developmentFrom syllabus design to curriculum development
From syllabus design to curriculum development
minhthuy072
 
Vol 11 No 3 - May 2015
Vol 11 No 3 - May 2015Vol 11 No 3 - May 2015
Vol 11 No 3 - May 2015
ijlterorg
 
Thematic instruction tesol 504
Thematic instruction tesol 504Thematic instruction tesol 504
Thematic instruction tesol 504
mwy6008
 
An assessment of language arts curriculum and instruction in some schools in ...
An assessment of language arts curriculum and instruction in some schools in ...An assessment of language arts curriculum and instruction in some schools in ...
An assessment of language arts curriculum and instruction in some schools in ...
Alexander Decker
 
Genre based instruction
Genre based instructionGenre based instruction
Genre based instruction
Hikmah Pravitasari
 
T8 adamson and fujimoto adamson
T8 adamson and fujimoto adamsonT8 adamson and fujimoto adamson
T8 adamson and fujimoto adamson
Advising 2011
 
11.[22 32]a means to improve language skills and encourage student engagement...
11.[22 32]a means to improve language skills and encourage student engagement...11.[22 32]a means to improve language skills and encourage student engagement...
11.[22 32]a means to improve language skills and encourage student engagement...
Alexander Decker
 
Leslla 2011 adults as multilingual individuals final 9.27.11
Leslla 2011 adults as multilingual individuals final 9.27.11Leslla 2011 adults as multilingual individuals final 9.27.11
Leslla 2011 adults as multilingual individuals final 9.27.11
Patsy Vinogradov
 
Materials for the specific purpose
Materials for the specific purposeMaterials for the specific purpose
Materials for the specific purpose
Aprilianty Wid
 
Serving ELLs at Oakland Technical High School
Serving ELLs at Oakland Technical High SchoolServing ELLs at Oakland Technical High School
Serving ELLs at Oakland Technical High School
sarahfuchs
 
ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES
ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSESENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES
ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES
Carrie Carraway
 
9722607蔡宜君 Vivian
9722607蔡宜君 Vivian9722607蔡宜君 Vivian
9722607蔡宜君 Vivian
kdlsldn
 
Ex Ed English- research paper
Ex Ed English- research paperEx Ed English- research paper
Ex Ed English- research paper
Pendarvis Ben
 
A K (plus one) ARDS Modular Model to Improve Non-English Department English T...
A K (plus one) ARDS Modular Model to Improve Non-English Department English T...A K (plus one) ARDS Modular Model to Improve Non-English Department English T...
A K (plus one) ARDS Modular Model to Improve Non-English Department English T...
Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn)
 
A1.2 teacher guide 9no egb
A1.2 teacher guide 9no egbA1.2 teacher guide 9no egb
A1.2 teacher guide 9no egb
ANDRHEMORALES
 
Esp Oblak
Esp OblakEsp Oblak
Esp Oblak
polonaoblak40
 
AUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES IN THE CLASSROOM.pptx
AUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES IN THE CLASSROOM.pptxAUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES IN THE CLASSROOM.pptx
AUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES IN THE CLASSROOM.pptx
bengreenman
 

Similar to A Golden Age of ESP teaching: 20th century practice (20)

English for Academic Purposes by Liz Hamp-Lyons
English for Academic Purposes by Liz Hamp-LyonsEnglish for Academic Purposes by Liz Hamp-Lyons
English for Academic Purposes by Liz Hamp-Lyons
 
Implementation and Evaluation of Material Designed for EFL Students of the Nu...
Implementation and Evaluation of Material Designed for EFL Students of the Nu...Implementation and Evaluation of Material Designed for EFL Students of the Nu...
Implementation and Evaluation of Material Designed for EFL Students of the Nu...
 
Masters in Teaching English: VM2ANG341
Masters in Teaching English: VM2ANG341Masters in Teaching English: VM2ANG341
Masters in Teaching English: VM2ANG341
 
From syllabus design to curriculum development
From syllabus design to curriculum developmentFrom syllabus design to curriculum development
From syllabus design to curriculum development
 
Vol 11 No 3 - May 2015
Vol 11 No 3 - May 2015Vol 11 No 3 - May 2015
Vol 11 No 3 - May 2015
 
Thematic instruction tesol 504
Thematic instruction tesol 504Thematic instruction tesol 504
Thematic instruction tesol 504
 
An assessment of language arts curriculum and instruction in some schools in ...
An assessment of language arts curriculum and instruction in some schools in ...An assessment of language arts curriculum and instruction in some schools in ...
An assessment of language arts curriculum and instruction in some schools in ...
 
Genre based instruction
Genre based instructionGenre based instruction
Genre based instruction
 
T8 adamson and fujimoto adamson
T8 adamson and fujimoto adamsonT8 adamson and fujimoto adamson
T8 adamson and fujimoto adamson
 
11.[22 32]a means to improve language skills and encourage student engagement...
11.[22 32]a means to improve language skills and encourage student engagement...11.[22 32]a means to improve language skills and encourage student engagement...
11.[22 32]a means to improve language skills and encourage student engagement...
 
Leslla 2011 adults as multilingual individuals final 9.27.11
Leslla 2011 adults as multilingual individuals final 9.27.11Leslla 2011 adults as multilingual individuals final 9.27.11
Leslla 2011 adults as multilingual individuals final 9.27.11
 
Materials for the specific purpose
Materials for the specific purposeMaterials for the specific purpose
Materials for the specific purpose
 
Serving ELLs at Oakland Technical High School
Serving ELLs at Oakland Technical High SchoolServing ELLs at Oakland Technical High School
Serving ELLs at Oakland Technical High School
 
ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES
ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSESENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES
ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES
 
9722607蔡宜君 Vivian
9722607蔡宜君 Vivian9722607蔡宜君 Vivian
9722607蔡宜君 Vivian
 
Ex Ed English- research paper
Ex Ed English- research paperEx Ed English- research paper
Ex Ed English- research paper
 
A K (plus one) ARDS Modular Model to Improve Non-English Department English T...
A K (plus one) ARDS Modular Model to Improve Non-English Department English T...A K (plus one) ARDS Modular Model to Improve Non-English Department English T...
A K (plus one) ARDS Modular Model to Improve Non-English Department English T...
 
A1.2 teacher guide 9no egb
A1.2 teacher guide 9no egbA1.2 teacher guide 9no egb
A1.2 teacher guide 9no egb
 
Esp Oblak
Esp OblakEsp Oblak
Esp Oblak
 
AUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES IN THE CLASSROOM.pptx
AUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES IN THE CLASSROOM.pptxAUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES IN THE CLASSROOM.pptx
AUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES IN THE CLASSROOM.pptx
 

More from Shona Whyte

AILA 60th anniversary interviews
AILA 60th anniversary interviewsAILA 60th anniversary interviews
AILA 60th anniversary interviews
Shona Whyte
 
Converging trends
Converging trendsConverging trends
Converging trends
Shona Whyte
 
Key terms in DDL/SLA
Key terms in DDL/SLAKey terms in DDL/SLA
Key terms in DDL/SLA
Shona Whyte
 
LSP in higher education pedagogy
LSP in higher education pedagogyLSP in higher education pedagogy
LSP in higher education pedagogy
Shona Whyte
 
Communication médiatisée par les technologies en anglais à l'école primaire
Communication médiatisée par les technologies en anglais à l'école primaireCommunication médiatisée par les technologies en anglais à l'école primaire
Communication médiatisée par les technologies en anglais à l'école primaire
Shona Whyte
 
L'écran et la classe de langues
L'écran et la classe de languesL'écran et la classe de langues
L'écran et la classe de langues
Shona Whyte
 
Webinaire SHOUT4HE
Webinaire SHOUT4HEWebinaire SHOUT4HE
Webinaire SHOUT4HE
Shona Whyte
 
Enseigner les langues étrangères avec le numérique
Enseigner les langues étrangères avec le numériqueEnseigner les langues étrangères avec le numérique
Enseigner les langues étrangères avec le numérique
Shona Whyte
 
Acquisition et enseignement des langues étrangères en milieu guidé
Acquisition et enseignement des langues étrangères en milieu guidéAcquisition et enseignement des langues étrangères en milieu guidé
Acquisition et enseignement des langues étrangères en milieu guidé
Shona Whyte
 
Colloque PERL 2019: Technologies dans l'enseignement et pour la formation
Colloque PERL 2019: Technologies dans l'enseignement et pour la formationColloque PERL 2019: Technologies dans l'enseignement et pour la formation
Colloque PERL 2019: Technologies dans l'enseignement et pour la formation
Shona Whyte
 
La rétroaction sans douleur : proposer un feedback utile en classe de langue-...
La rétroaction sans douleur : proposer un feedback utile en classe de langue-...La rétroaction sans douleur : proposer un feedback utile en classe de langue-...
La rétroaction sans douleur : proposer un feedback utile en classe de langue-...
Shona Whyte
 
PRELA symposium: Lyon 2019
PRELA symposium: Lyon 2019PRELA symposium: Lyon 2019
PRELA symposium: Lyon 2019
Shona Whyte
 
PRELA symposium: crosslinguistic perspectives in language education
PRELA symposium: crosslinguistic perspectives in language educationPRELA symposium: crosslinguistic perspectives in language education
PRELA symposium: crosslinguistic perspectives in language education
Shona Whyte
 
SHOUT4HE - 6 questions pour les enseignant-e-s de l'UCA
SHOUT4HE - 6 questions pour les enseignant-e-s de l'UCASHOUT4HE - 6 questions pour les enseignant-e-s de l'UCA
SHOUT4HE - 6 questions pour les enseignant-e-s de l'UCA
Shona Whyte
 
SHOUT4HE at Université Côte d'Azur
SHOUT4HE at Université Côte d'AzurSHOUT4HE at Université Côte d'Azur
SHOUT4HE at Université Côte d'Azur
Shona Whyte
 
Adopting open practices in schools: a CALL teacher education study
Adopting open practices in schools: a CALL teacher education studyAdopting open practices in schools: a CALL teacher education study
Adopting open practices in schools: a CALL teacher education study
Shona Whyte
 
3LEA Intro to interpreting
3LEA Intro to interpreting3LEA Intro to interpreting
3LEA Intro to interpreting
Shona Whyte
 
Goal Session 6 2019
Goal Session 6 2019Goal Session 6 2019
Goal Session 6 2019
Shona Whyte
 
Moral politics
Moral politicsMoral politics
Moral politics
Shona Whyte
 
Moth story slam: échanges de pratiques pédagogiques UNS
Moth story slam: échanges de pratiques pédagogiques UNSMoth story slam: échanges de pratiques pédagogiques UNS
Moth story slam: échanges de pratiques pédagogiques UNS
Shona Whyte
 

More from Shona Whyte (20)

AILA 60th anniversary interviews
AILA 60th anniversary interviewsAILA 60th anniversary interviews
AILA 60th anniversary interviews
 
Converging trends
Converging trendsConverging trends
Converging trends
 
Key terms in DDL/SLA
Key terms in DDL/SLAKey terms in DDL/SLA
Key terms in DDL/SLA
 
LSP in higher education pedagogy
LSP in higher education pedagogyLSP in higher education pedagogy
LSP in higher education pedagogy
 
Communication médiatisée par les technologies en anglais à l'école primaire
Communication médiatisée par les technologies en anglais à l'école primaireCommunication médiatisée par les technologies en anglais à l'école primaire
Communication médiatisée par les technologies en anglais à l'école primaire
 
L'écran et la classe de langues
L'écran et la classe de languesL'écran et la classe de langues
L'écran et la classe de langues
 
Webinaire SHOUT4HE
Webinaire SHOUT4HEWebinaire SHOUT4HE
Webinaire SHOUT4HE
 
Enseigner les langues étrangères avec le numérique
Enseigner les langues étrangères avec le numériqueEnseigner les langues étrangères avec le numérique
Enseigner les langues étrangères avec le numérique
 
Acquisition et enseignement des langues étrangères en milieu guidé
Acquisition et enseignement des langues étrangères en milieu guidéAcquisition et enseignement des langues étrangères en milieu guidé
Acquisition et enseignement des langues étrangères en milieu guidé
 
Colloque PERL 2019: Technologies dans l'enseignement et pour la formation
Colloque PERL 2019: Technologies dans l'enseignement et pour la formationColloque PERL 2019: Technologies dans l'enseignement et pour la formation
Colloque PERL 2019: Technologies dans l'enseignement et pour la formation
 
La rétroaction sans douleur : proposer un feedback utile en classe de langue-...
La rétroaction sans douleur : proposer un feedback utile en classe de langue-...La rétroaction sans douleur : proposer un feedback utile en classe de langue-...
La rétroaction sans douleur : proposer un feedback utile en classe de langue-...
 
PRELA symposium: Lyon 2019
PRELA symposium: Lyon 2019PRELA symposium: Lyon 2019
PRELA symposium: Lyon 2019
 
PRELA symposium: crosslinguistic perspectives in language education
PRELA symposium: crosslinguistic perspectives in language educationPRELA symposium: crosslinguistic perspectives in language education
PRELA symposium: crosslinguistic perspectives in language education
 
SHOUT4HE - 6 questions pour les enseignant-e-s de l'UCA
SHOUT4HE - 6 questions pour les enseignant-e-s de l'UCASHOUT4HE - 6 questions pour les enseignant-e-s de l'UCA
SHOUT4HE - 6 questions pour les enseignant-e-s de l'UCA
 
SHOUT4HE at Université Côte d'Azur
SHOUT4HE at Université Côte d'AzurSHOUT4HE at Université Côte d'Azur
SHOUT4HE at Université Côte d'Azur
 
Adopting open practices in schools: a CALL teacher education study
Adopting open practices in schools: a CALL teacher education studyAdopting open practices in schools: a CALL teacher education study
Adopting open practices in schools: a CALL teacher education study
 
3LEA Intro to interpreting
3LEA Intro to interpreting3LEA Intro to interpreting
3LEA Intro to interpreting
 
Goal Session 6 2019
Goal Session 6 2019Goal Session 6 2019
Goal Session 6 2019
 
Moral politics
Moral politicsMoral politics
Moral politics
 
Moth story slam: échanges de pratiques pédagogiques UNS
Moth story slam: échanges de pratiques pédagogiques UNSMoth story slam: échanges de pratiques pédagogiques UNS
Moth story slam: échanges de pratiques pédagogiques UNS
 

Recently uploaded

Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docxAdvanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
adhitya5119
 
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp NetworkIntroduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
TechSoup
 
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docxMain Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
adhitya5119
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Dr. Mulla Adam Ali
 
Top five deadliest dog breeds in America
Top five deadliest dog breeds in AmericaTop five deadliest dog breeds in America
Top five deadliest dog breeds in America
Bisnar Chase Personal Injury Attorneys
 
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP ModuleHow to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
Celine George
 
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments UnitDigital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
chanes7
 
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
ak6969907
 
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptxChapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Mohd Adib Abd Muin, Senior Lecturer at Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
AyyanKhan40
 
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and InclusionExecutive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
TechSoup
 
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICTSmart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
simonomuemu
 
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptxAssessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Kavitha Krishnan
 
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
History of Stoke Newington
 
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRMHow to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
Celine George
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental DesignDigital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
amberjdewit93
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
mulvey2
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
Israel Genealogy Research Association
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
 
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docxAdvanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
 
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp NetworkIntroduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
 
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docxMain Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
 
Top five deadliest dog breeds in America
Top five deadliest dog breeds in AmericaTop five deadliest dog breeds in America
Top five deadliest dog breeds in America
 
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP ModuleHow to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
 
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments UnitDigital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
 
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
 
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptxChapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
 
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and InclusionExecutive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
 
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICTSmart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
 
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptxAssessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
 
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
 
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRMHow to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
 
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental DesignDigital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
 

A Golden Age of ESP teaching: 20th century practice

  • 1. A GOLDEN AGE OF ESP TEACHING: MATERIALS, PRACTICE AND TEACHER EDUCATION IN 20TH CENTURY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION SHONA WHYTE Colloque GERAS Nancy 19/03/2021
  • 2. ESP DIDACTICS: DOCTORAL THESES/HABILITATIONS • Schug, D. (2019). Les cours d'anglais à travers les disciplines : une question de motivation, Paris 8/Ca’ Foscari, Venise. • Labetoulle, A. (2019). Etude de la complexité des environnements d’apprentissage et d’enseignement LANSAD pour la conception, la mise en place et l’évaluation d’un dispositif en anglais, Lille. • Bloor, T. (2020). Travail coopératif entre une enseignante-chercheuse de physique et une professeure d’anglais dans le secteur LANSAD (LANgues pour les Spécialistes d’Autres Disciplines), Brest. • Brantley, K. (2020). Re-framing the Specificity Debate in the Lansod Sector around Pragmatics: An Action Research Project Exploring the Development of Flexible Pragmatic Skills instead of “General English” for Second-year Students in Culture and Media, Lille. • Carnet, A. (2020). L’utilisation de séries télévisées pour l’enseignement/apprentissage de la communication pour la consultation médicale, Lorraine • Conan, M. Apprendre à interagir en anglais vétérinaire : l’interculturel en langue de spécialité, Université Côte d’Azur/Paris 3. • Henderson, A. (2021). Intelligibility and identity : from teaching pronunciation to training for spoken language variation, Université Savoie Mont Blanc Sarré & Whyte 2016 Sarré & Whyte 2017
  • 3. (DIS)CONTINUITIES IN ESP: ESP DIDACTICS • science and humanities • disciplinary content and language • linguistic description and language teaching • teaching and learning Is it true that we have typically prioritised the first element in each pair? Are there historical explanations for these preferences? What reasons can be advanced in favour of reversing the trend?
  • 4. • ESP didactics - some context • “the ESP juggernaut” - early figures in British ESP (1970s,1980s) • conclusions and consequences • new perspectives for ESP in French higher education PLAN
  • 6. Sarré & Whyte (2016: 37) https://journals.openedition.org/asp/4834 “the branch of English language studies which concerns the language, discourse and culture of English-language professional communities and specialised social groups, as well as the learning and teaching of this object from a didactic perspective” ESP ESP DIDACTICS • is a distancing and theorising process which seeks to analyse the way ESP teaching leads to learning • draws on several contributive sciences, • takes a broader perspective than SLA, covering elements of both SLA and foreign language education”
  • 7. A. Johns (2013) cited in Douglas (2017) “Unlike many other research areas in theoretical and applied linguistics, ESP has been, at its core, a practitioners’ movement, devoted to establishing, through careful research, the needs and relevant discourse features for a targeted group of students” EMPHASIS ON TEACHERS AND TEACHING
  • 8. Whyte (2016: 27-8) https://journals.openedition.org/apliut/5487 ESP research “often focuses on the analysis of a specific variety, and not always on how non-native speakers might acquire it (Sarré & Whyte 2016). But for L2 learners and users, the goal is usually an acquisitional one, even of only the ‘narrow set of occupation-specific uses and functions’ (Saville- Troike 2006). The goal of language education in SLA terms is communicative competence [… focusing on] L2 learner/user comprehension and production, rather than the explicit knowledge of language rules” which are often emphasised in English studies and ESP research. WHAT ABOUT LEARNING?
  • 9. ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING (ELT) ESP DIDACTICS ENGLISH STUDIES literature ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES (ESP) NON-LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES & PROFESSIONS culture linguistics science law disciplinary CONTENT what do we teach? how do we teach? METHODS LEARNING (CONTENT & LANGUAGE) THEORY what and how do students learn? INSTRUCTED SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION [ISLA] classroom intervention psycholinguistics
  • 10. the intended or official curriculum rests atop the taught curriculum, which teachers deliver once they close their classroom doors, the learned curriculum, or what students take away from class, and the tested curriculum, which represents an even narrower band of knowledge Cuban 2012 c o u r s m a q u e t t e s é v a l u a t i o n s c o m p é t e n c e s TRADITIONAL DIFFICULTIES WITH CHANGE MOVING FROM TEACHING TO LEARNING
  • 11. Previous reforms create the historical context for the multi-layered curriculum and influence the direction of contemporary reforms. This historical context is like a coral, a mass of skeletons from millions of animals built up, that over time accumulates into reefs above and below the sea line. Its presence cannot be ignored. Cuban 2012
  • 12. • ESP focus on the taught layer • “the ESP juggernaut” early figures in British ESP 1970-1980s • 4 figures: Swales, Johns, Dudley- Evans, Ewer • materials, teaching practice, teacher education PLAN ESP Abbott (1978)
  • 13. JOHN SWALES (1938-‘RETIRED’ 2006) • 1957 BA Psychology (University of Cambridge), 1966 Linguistics and ELT (University of Leeds) • British Council: Tripoli College, Libya; English Language Servicing Unit, University of Khartoum, Sudan (1973-5) Swales, J. (1971). Writing scientific English • University of Aston (1978): Language Studies Unit; MA in ESP teaching • University of Michigan, English Language Institute; Swales & Feak Academic writing for graduate students • Genre analysis (1990), English for Specific Purposes editor
  • 14. TIM JOHNS (1936-2009) • BA Modern History, Emmanuel College, Cambridge 1955 • British Council • Birmingham University (Swales) (1971-2001): English for Overseas Students Unit • father of data-driven learning (DDL)
  • 15. TONY DUDLEY-EVANS (1943, RETIRED 2001) • BA Arabic (University of London), PGCE ELT (University of Wales) • British Council: Tripoli College, Libya (Swales); English Language Unit, University of Tabriz, Iran • Birmingham University (1976-2001): English for Overseas Students Unit (Johns, Swales) • Bates, M. & Dudley-Evans, T. (1976). Nucleus: General science • English for Specific Purposes editor (Swales)
  • 16. JACK EWER (1918-1982) • Department of English, University of Chile at Santiago • Ewer, J & Latorre, G. (1969). A course in basic scientific English. Longman • “father of ESP teacher education” • EST/ESP Chile, editor
  • 17. Developing EST materials linguistic focus of textbooks preference for tailor-made materials planned and serendipitous collaboration
  • 18. • range of types of syllabus: • structural (Ewer & Latorre 1969, Swales 1971) • notional-functional (Bates & Dudley-Evans 1976) • lack of scientific foundation • no needs analysis • no measure of effectiveness Ewer & Boys (1981) contemporary textbook analysis
  • 19. 1969
  • 20. 1971
  • 22. The sample used was comprehensive […] introductory university textbooks, advanced textbooks, semi-popularisations, specialised articles, professional papers and monographs […] the sample amounted to well over 3 million words. […] The main structural and non-structural vocabulary were identified by visual scanning; in order to reduce the subjective factor involved, each investigator worked separately, and only the items noted by both were incorporated into the final list Ewer & Latorre (1967) on 1963 collaboration early corpus linguistics
  • 23. • such books undermine the professionalism of the instructor • they cannot meet the elaborated inventories of requirements produced by needs analysis or by schemes of evaluation, • they are offered in a format ostensibly unsuitable for communicative language teaching, • their educational effectiveness may have been reduced by marketing considerations Swales (1980, 2013) preference for tailor-made materials The standard solution to these difficulties with published materials is for each institution, organization, or training establishment to offer its own tailor-made programmes
  • 24. Tim Johns […] would typically respond to some description of materials, with comments like, “Pretty nice, but have you thought of doing it like this?…” Inevitably, adequate materials would be immediately transformed into superior ones Swales (2013) Over that kitchen table and of an evening, [Tony Dudley-Evans and I] could plan next week's materials, spark and improve ideas, kill off weak or stray enthusiasms, and cobble together collages of photocopies and handwritten manuscripts to take to our secretaries for typing up collaboration to develop materials
  • 25. Teaching English for Science & Technology content and language teacher collaboration remedial focus to support “backward students” and “underachievement among overseas students” challenging and creative for teachers
  • 26. EST initiative at Birmingham English for Overseas' Students Unit (EOSU) Birmingham University support in EST from language and content instructors to international graduate students in regular graduate programmes in Plant Biology and Transportation a) understanding academic lectures b) producing academic/scientific English Johns & Dudley-Evans (1980)
  • 27. Johns & Dudley-Evans (1980) 3-way feedback STUDENT needs to know how his performance is measuring up to the expectations of his teachers and to have immediate assistance with his difficulties as they arise SUBJECT TEACHER needs to have a clearer idea of how effectively he is communicating with his students LANGUAGE TEACHER needs to grasp the conceptual structure of a subject his learners are studying; to know how the range of different subjects are taught: to observe where and how difficulties arise
  • 28. course components 1. audio recording of content lectures analysed by language teachers for subsequent team-teaching 2. exam questions provided by content teachers, analysed by language teachers, student writing checked by both teachers 3. oral presentations: role-play topic defined by content teacher, student plays engineer to ‘planning committee’ of language teachers 4. research projects: team-teaching session where students present proposals; conference with individual students to discuss drafts Johns & Dudley-Evans (1980)
  • 29. Johns & Dudley-Evans (1980) This part of the session requires a degree of tact on the part of the language-teacher, and of self-awareness on the part of the subject- teacher, most of whom do not realise how many colloquialisms they use. The majority react to the realisation by attempting to control the type and density of colloquial expressions in their lectures; one the other hand, one lecturer in Transportation appears to have increased his use of sporting metaphors, perhaps with the intention of putting the language- teachers on their mettle content/language teacher interaction
  • 30. Johns & Dudley-Evans (1980) while there was some improvement attributable to the team-taught sessions for all students, that improvement was far greater with the stronger students than with the weaker: that is to say, they achieved the reverse effect to that intended learning effects? Where in an operation of this kind subject and language are so enmeshed, finding out what the language-teacher has learnt of the subject may be as reliable a way of estimating its success as measuring the improvement in the students' English
  • 31. Johns & Dudley-Evans (1980) We hope we avoided the hubris which can too easily afflict the EAP teacher when, with a smattering of knowledge in the subject area, and a view of himself as an expert on communication, he comes to regard himself as an expert - or the expert - on how the subject ought to be taught, and even on what the subject ought to central role of ESP teacher Dudley-Evans: “it remains the most creative aspect of teaching I have ever been involved with” (St Johns 2012)
  • 32. EST teacher education multilayered perspective: student, teacher, teacher educator, programme director ESP teacher collaboration practical orientation
  • 33. Ewer (1983) challenges for EST teacher 1. attitude 2. concepts 3. language 4. methodology 5. organisation SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY “relaxed attitude to errors” programme administration
  • 34. team-teaching: one “active” instructor, one “passive” or “watching” lecture breaks: stop every 10-15 min group work with close supervision teacher training programme Ewer (1983)
  • 35. central role of teacher groups should contain at least one fairly good student ("good" in the sense of quickness of reaction, general knowledge, energy and, least important of all, knowledge of English); if this is not done, all the best students tend to group together, leaving all the weak ones together too! Again, in this game we are learning all the time, and it often happens that the active teacher may omit or underemphasize a relevant point which the watching teacher can ensure is brought to the attention of the students and given its due weight Ewer (1983)
  • 36. HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF ESP • emphasis on science over humanities • focus on content as pre-requisite to language • linguistic description and language teaching • teaching and learning official curriculum taught layer learned layer tested layer official curriculum taught layer learned layer tested layer
  • 37. ESP LEARNER • paternalistic stance with respect to learner needs and learning outcomes • little exploration of intercultural dimensions or learner strategies (BUT Dudley-Evans & Swales 1980) • avoidance of theories of (language) learning/acquisition (Bloor & Bloor)
  • 38. The students obtain the trimmings from the University’s press and copy onto them […] from textbooks, or from notes, either the student’s on, or more frequently borrowed from a colleague. The multiple copying of technical terms is illustrative of the reliance on the ‘word’ as given, and the fact that the trimming strips are always discarded after a revision session shows how thorough has been the process of internalisation Dudley-Evans & Swales (1980)
  • 39. second language acquisition in most cases the teaching of a language involves much more than providing the cirumstances for optimal acquisition. Although these are essential, the teacher is also responsible for teaching those aspects of language that have to be taught even to native speakers: cultural conventions, and the system and uses of literacy (Bloor & Bloor 1986) when Swales directed the establishment of the first MA in ESP in Britain at Aston University (on which I was a founding colleague) he would not consider suggestions for including a component on psychology, psycholinguistics, or language acquisition, which were commonly found on masters’ degree courses in ELT or Applied Linguistics. In this he saved us all from wandering down blind alleys. (Bloor 1998)
  • 40. ESP teaching paradox is ESP a materials and teaching-led movement? linguistic inquiry is the most establised area of research and discussion; value for teaching and learning a strong tradition of innovative teaching and materials design, usually reported as case studies; materials are most noticeable relatively limited research and discussion literature concerning approaches to teaching and learning “ESP is a theoretically and empirically based field of inquiry that aims to identify the linguistic features of specialist English varieties, the nature of ESP teaching, and to understand how specialist English can be acquired in instructed ESP and naturalistic contexts” Basturkmen (2020)
  • 41. CURRENT PROJECTS IN FRENCH HIGHER EDUCATION • Réseau d’acquisition des langues secondes (ReAL2): intersection of second language acquisition and teaching/learning - learner corpora • DidASp: Sophie Belan, Aude Labetoulle, collaborative research (ESSE 2021 Lyon) • CATAPULT (Computer-assisted training and platforms to upskill LSP teachers (http:// catapult-project.eu) - teacher education • English Medium Instruction (EMI) teacher preparation Bordeaux University (Pagèze & Lasagabaster 2018)
  • 42. Dafouz et al 2019 “EFL language specialists are often called upon initially to provide linguistic support to lecturers who are switching into English, yet, […] they are also requested to provide support in the areas of pedagogy, intercultural competences and, more recently, academic disciplinary language” “if linguists wish to remain relevant and continue to gain access to EMI contexts then they will need to take the interests of content lecturers into account” Airey 2020 ESP AND EMI: AN OPPORTUNITY AND A CAVEAT
  • 43. CONCLUSION… Can we emulate the energy and creativity of early ESP teachers, trainers, programme developers and researchers and turn our attention to questions of how students learn? ESP has historically prioritised content, description, and teaching Key figures in late 20th century ESP typify a creative, innovative, and individually driven approach to EST Learning has been overlooked, assumed rather than attested
  • 44. A GOLDEN AGE OF ESP TEACHING: MATERIALS, PRACTICE AND TEACHER EDUCATION IN 20TH CENTURY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION SHONA WHYTE Colloque GERAS Nancy 19/03/2021 shona.whyte@univ-cotedazur.fr