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Introduction to RDF and RDFS Mark Birbeck http://webBackplane.com/mark-birbeck
RDF...a four letter word
RDF/XML is the real villain
The promise of XML
RDF Documents Primer Concepts Syntax Semantics Vocabulary Test cases
This tutorial Concepts Transporting  RDF Storing Some sources of RDF data Querying Defining vocabularies
Metadata: data about data
Getting data from the web is easy...getting metadata is hard
 
XML was supposed to give us this information
<music genre=&quot;classical&quot;> <title> The Well-tempered Clavier </title> <composer>J. S. Bach</composer> </music>
Why has XML not delivered?
<document type=&quot;classical music&quot;> <name> The Well-tempered Clavier </name> <author>J. S. Bach</author> </document>
We want to say: &quot;give me everything   created by   J. S. Bach&quot;
To achieve that we need to agree how to  say ' created by ' in any  document
Dublin, Ohio Photo by Sleestak66: http://www.flickr.com/people/kesselring/
 
DC.Creator = &quot;J. S. Bach&quot;
DC.Title = &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;
abstract audience contributor creator description publisher rightsHolder ...and many more Often called a vocabulary or taxonomy
<html> <head> <title> Bach: The Well Tempered Clavier </title> <meta name=&quot; DC.Title &quot; content=&quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot; /> <meta name=&quot; DC.Creator &quot; content=&quot;J. S. Bach&quot; /> </head> <body> ... </body> </html>
<html> <head> <title> An introduction to RDF </title> <meta name=&quot; title &quot; content=&quot;Introduction to RDF&quot; /> <meta name=&quot; author &quot; content=&quot;Mark Birbeck&quot; /> </head> <body> ... </body> </html>
<html> <head> <title> An introduction to RDF </title> <meta name=&quot; DC.Title &quot; content=&quot;Introduction to RDF&quot; /> <meta name=&quot; DC.Creator &quot; content=&quot;Mark Birbeck&quot; /> </head> <body> ... </body> </html>
<music genre=&quot;classical&quot;> <title> The Well-tempered Clavier </title> <composer>J. S. Bach</composer> </music> <document type=&quot;classical music&quot;> <name> The Well-tempered Clavier </name> <author>J. S. Bach</author> </document>
<music genre=&quot;classical&quot;> <title> The Well-tempered Clavier </title> < dc:creator >J. S. Bach</ dc:creator > </music> <document type=&quot;classical music&quot;> <name> The Well-tempered Clavier </name> < dc:creator >J. S. Bach</ dc:creator > </document>
Recap XML doesn't help Having unique identifiers does
Unique identifiers are a key concept in RDF
DC.Creator DC.Title
http://purl.org/dc/terms/ creator http://purl.org/dc/terms/ title
Resource  Description Framework
http://purl.org/dc/terms/ creator http://purl.org/dc/terms/ title
 
 
 
Recap Resources and unique identifiers are fundamental for RDF: http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator http://purl.org/dc/terms/title http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier
Triples
<html> <head> <title> Bach: The Well Tempered Clavier </title> <meta name=&quot; DC.Title &quot; content=&quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot; /> <meta name=&quot; DC.Creator &quot; content=&quot;J. S. Bach&quot; /> </head> <body> ... </body> </html>
 
var piece = {   title : &quot;The Well-tempered Clavier&quot;,   creator : &quot;J. S. Bach&quot; };
Triples are sometimes called statements: J. S. Bach  composed  &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach  was born on  21 st  March, 1685. J. S. Bach  died on  28 th  July, 1750.
The parts of a triple
Subject A URI: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach
Predicate Also a URI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator
Object Literal or URI: &quot;Johann Sebastian Bach&quot; http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier
Plain literals Essentially strings: &quot;Johann Sebastian Bach&quot; &quot;The Well-Tempered Clavier&quot;
Plain literals But can contain language information: &quot;Johann Sebastian Bach&quot;@en &quot;Бах, Иоганн Себастьян&quot;@ru &quot;The Well-Tempered Clavier&quot;@en &quot;Wohltemperiertes Klavie&quot;@de
Typed literals And a datatype: &quot;1685-03-21&quot;^^xsd:date &quot;1750-07-28&quot;^^xsd:date
XML literals &quot;H<sub>2</sub>O&quot;^^rdf:XMLLiteral
Recap J. S. Bach  composed  &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach  was born on  21 st  March, 1685 J. S. Bach  died on  28 th  July, 1750.
Recap J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st  March, 1685 J. S. Bach died on 28 th  July, 1750. <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> dc:creator  <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier> . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier>   dc:title  &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;@en . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier>   dc:title  &quot;Wohltemperiertes Klavie&quot;@de .
Recap J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st  March, 1685 J. S. Bach died on 28 th  July, 1750. <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach>   p:dateOfBirth  &quot;1685-03-21&quot;^^xsd:date .
Recap J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st  March, 1685 J. S. Bach died on 28 th  July, 1750. <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach>   p:dateOfDeath  &quot;1750-07-28&quot;^^xsd:date .
Graphs
The Well Tempered Clavier Wohltemperiertes Klavie dc:title dc:title 1685-03-21 1750-07-28 p:dateOfBirth p:dateOfDeath dc:creator
rdf:type
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach>   rdf:type  yago:Composer . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach>   rdf:type  foaf:Person .
Lists
Performed by Performed by dc:creator Performed by dc:creator rdf:Bag rdf:type
Blank nodes
Representing RDF
RDF/XML <rdf:RDF> <yago:Composer109947232 rdf:about=&quot;http://[...]/Johann_Sebastian_Bach&quot;   >   <p:birthPlace   rdf:resource=&quot;http://[...]/Eisenach&quot; />   <p:dateOfDeath   rdf:datatype=&quot;http://[...]/XMLSchema#date&quot; >1750-07-28</p:dateOfDeath>   </yago:Composer109947232> </rdf:RDF>
Turtle dbpedia:Johann_Sebastian_Bach   p:dateOfBirth &quot;1685-03-21&quot;^^xsd:date; p:dateOfDeath &quot;1750-07-28&quot;^^xsd:date; p:death &quot;1750-07-28&quot;^^xsd:date; p:deathPlace dbpedia:Leipzig;   a yago:Composer, foaf:Person   .
RDFa <html> <head> <title> Johann Sebastian Bach </title> < link   rel =&quot;dc:creator&quot; href =&quot;http://[...]/Well-Tempered_Clavier&quot; /> <meta property=&quot;p:dateOfBirth&quot; content =&quot;1685-03-21&quot;  datatype =&quot;xsd:date&quot; /> </head> <body> ... </body> </html>
RDFa <html> <head> ... </head> <body> <span property=&quot;foaf:name&quot;> Johann Sebastian Bach </span> was born in <span property=&quot;p:dateOfBirth&quot; content=&quot;1685-03-21&quot; datatype=&quot;xsd:date&quot; > 1685 </span> , in  <span rel=&quot;p:placeOfBirth&quot; resource=&quot; [dbp:Eisenach] &quot;> Eisenach </span>.  </body> </html>
Storing RDF
Sources of RDF
Querying RDF
SELECT  ?composer WHERE {  ?composer  rdf:type yago:Composer }
SELECT ?composer WHERE { ?composer rdf:type yago:Composer } <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ludwig_van_Beethoven>
SELECT  ?piece WHERE { dbpr: Johann_Sebastian_Bach  dc:creator  ?piece  } <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier> <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Cello_Suites_%28Bach%29>
Creating vocabularies
Classes
Composer Musician Is a type of Artist Is a type of Creator Is a type of
yago:Composer a  rdfs:Class  .
yago:Composer a rdfs:Class . yago:Composer  rdfs:subClassOf  yago:Musician . yago:Musician  rdfs:subClassOf  yago:Artist . yago:Artist  rdfs:subClassOf  yago:Creator .
yago:Composer a rdfs:Class . yago:Composer rdfs:subClassOf yago:Musician . yago:Musician rdfs:subClassOf yago:Artist . yago:Artist rdfs:subClassOf yago:Creator . dbpedia:Johann_Sebastian_Bach   a  yago:Composer , foaf:Person   .
SELECT  ?composer WHERE {  ?composer  rdf:type yago:Composer } <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ludwig_van_Beethoven>
SELECT ?s WHERE { ?s rdf:type  yago:Artist  } <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ludwig_van_Beethoven>
Properties
foaf:surname a  rdfs:Property  .
foaf:surname a rdfs:Property . foaf:surname  rdfs:Range rdfs:Literal  .
foaf:surname a rdfs:Property . foaf:surname rdfs:Range rdfs:Literal . foaf:surname  rdfs:Domain  foaf:Person .
Validation v. inference
foaf:surname a rdfs:Property . foaf:surname rdfs:Range rdfs:Literal . foaf:surname rdfs:Domain foaf:Person . dbpedia:Johann_Sebastian_Bach   foaf:surname  &quot;Bach&quot; . dbpedia:Johann_Sebastian_Bach a foaf:Person .
xyz:composedBy a rdfs:Property . xyz:composedBy rdfs:Range yago:Composer . xyz:composedBy rdfs:Domain yago:Piece . dbp:Cello_Suites_%28Bach%29   xyz:composedBy  dbp:Johann_Sebastian_Bach . dbp:Johann_Sebastian_Bach a yago:Composer .
xyz:composedBy a rdfs:Property . xyz:composedBy rdfs:Range yago:Composer . xyz:composedBy rdfs:Domain yago:Piece . xyz:composedBy   rdfs :subPropertyOf  dc:creator .
OWL
Conclusion
References RDF Primer: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/ RDF Schema: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/ OWL: http://www.w3.org/2004/OWL/

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A First Course in RDF and RDFS (Resource Description Framework and Resource Description Framework Schema)

  • 1. Introduction to RDF and RDFS Mark Birbeck http://webBackplane.com/mark-birbeck
  • 3. RDF/XML is the real villain
  • 5. RDF Documents Primer Concepts Syntax Semantics Vocabulary Test cases
  • 6. This tutorial Concepts Transporting RDF Storing Some sources of RDF data Querying Defining vocabularies
  • 8. Getting data from the web is easy...getting metadata is hard
  • 9.  
  • 10. XML was supposed to give us this information
  • 11. <music genre=&quot;classical&quot;> <title> The Well-tempered Clavier </title> <composer>J. S. Bach</composer> </music>
  • 12. Why has XML not delivered?
  • 13. <document type=&quot;classical music&quot;> <name> The Well-tempered Clavier </name> <author>J. S. Bach</author> </document>
  • 14. We want to say: &quot;give me everything created by J. S. Bach&quot;
  • 15. To achieve that we need to agree how to say ' created by ' in any document
  • 16. Dublin, Ohio Photo by Sleestak66: http://www.flickr.com/people/kesselring/
  • 17.  
  • 18. DC.Creator = &quot;J. S. Bach&quot;
  • 19. DC.Title = &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;
  • 20. abstract audience contributor creator description publisher rightsHolder ...and many more Often called a vocabulary or taxonomy
  • 21. <html> <head> <title> Bach: The Well Tempered Clavier </title> <meta name=&quot; DC.Title &quot; content=&quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot; /> <meta name=&quot; DC.Creator &quot; content=&quot;J. S. Bach&quot; /> </head> <body> ... </body> </html>
  • 22. <html> <head> <title> An introduction to RDF </title> <meta name=&quot; title &quot; content=&quot;Introduction to RDF&quot; /> <meta name=&quot; author &quot; content=&quot;Mark Birbeck&quot; /> </head> <body> ... </body> </html>
  • 23. <html> <head> <title> An introduction to RDF </title> <meta name=&quot; DC.Title &quot; content=&quot;Introduction to RDF&quot; /> <meta name=&quot; DC.Creator &quot; content=&quot;Mark Birbeck&quot; /> </head> <body> ... </body> </html>
  • 24. <music genre=&quot;classical&quot;> <title> The Well-tempered Clavier </title> <composer>J. S. Bach</composer> </music> <document type=&quot;classical music&quot;> <name> The Well-tempered Clavier </name> <author>J. S. Bach</author> </document>
  • 25. <music genre=&quot;classical&quot;> <title> The Well-tempered Clavier </title> < dc:creator >J. S. Bach</ dc:creator > </music> <document type=&quot;classical music&quot;> <name> The Well-tempered Clavier </name> < dc:creator >J. S. Bach</ dc:creator > </document>
  • 26. Recap XML doesn't help Having unique identifiers does
  • 27. Unique identifiers are a key concept in RDF
  • 30. Resource Description Framework
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35. Recap Resources and unique identifiers are fundamental for RDF: http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator http://purl.org/dc/terms/title http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier
  • 37. <html> <head> <title> Bach: The Well Tempered Clavier </title> <meta name=&quot; DC.Title &quot; content=&quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot; /> <meta name=&quot; DC.Creator &quot; content=&quot;J. S. Bach&quot; /> </head> <body> ... </body> </html>
  • 38.  
  • 39. var piece = { title : &quot;The Well-tempered Clavier&quot;, creator : &quot;J. S. Bach&quot; };
  • 40. Triples are sometimes called statements: J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st March, 1685. J. S. Bach died on 28 th July, 1750.
  • 41. The parts of a triple
  • 42. Subject A URI: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach
  • 43. Predicate Also a URI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator
  • 44. Object Literal or URI: &quot;Johann Sebastian Bach&quot; http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier
  • 45. Plain literals Essentially strings: &quot;Johann Sebastian Bach&quot; &quot;The Well-Tempered Clavier&quot;
  • 46. Plain literals But can contain language information: &quot;Johann Sebastian Bach&quot;@en &quot;Бах, Иоганн Себастьян&quot;@ru &quot;The Well-Tempered Clavier&quot;@en &quot;Wohltemperiertes Klavie&quot;@de
  • 47. Typed literals And a datatype: &quot;1685-03-21&quot;^^xsd:date &quot;1750-07-28&quot;^^xsd:date
  • 49. Recap J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st March, 1685 J. S. Bach died on 28 th July, 1750.
  • 50. Recap J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st March, 1685 J. S. Bach died on 28 th July, 1750. <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> dc:creator <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier> . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier> dc:title &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;@en . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier> dc:title &quot;Wohltemperiertes Klavie&quot;@de .
  • 51. Recap J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st March, 1685 J. S. Bach died on 28 th July, 1750. <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> p:dateOfBirth &quot;1685-03-21&quot;^^xsd:date .
  • 52. Recap J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st March, 1685 J. S. Bach died on 28 th July, 1750. <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> p:dateOfDeath &quot;1750-07-28&quot;^^xsd:date .
  • 54. The Well Tempered Clavier Wohltemperiertes Klavie dc:title dc:title 1685-03-21 1750-07-28 p:dateOfBirth p:dateOfDeath dc:creator
  • 56. <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> rdf:type yago:Composer . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> rdf:type foaf:Person .
  • 57. Lists
  • 58. Performed by Performed by dc:creator Performed by dc:creator rdf:Bag rdf:type
  • 61. RDF/XML <rdf:RDF> <yago:Composer109947232 rdf:about=&quot;http://[...]/Johann_Sebastian_Bach&quot; > <p:birthPlace rdf:resource=&quot;http://[...]/Eisenach&quot; /> <p:dateOfDeath rdf:datatype=&quot;http://[...]/XMLSchema#date&quot; >1750-07-28</p:dateOfDeath> </yago:Composer109947232> </rdf:RDF>
  • 62. Turtle dbpedia:Johann_Sebastian_Bach p:dateOfBirth &quot;1685-03-21&quot;^^xsd:date; p:dateOfDeath &quot;1750-07-28&quot;^^xsd:date; p:death &quot;1750-07-28&quot;^^xsd:date; p:deathPlace dbpedia:Leipzig; a yago:Composer, foaf:Person .
  • 63. RDFa <html> <head> <title> Johann Sebastian Bach </title> < link rel =&quot;dc:creator&quot; href =&quot;http://[...]/Well-Tempered_Clavier&quot; /> <meta property=&quot;p:dateOfBirth&quot; content =&quot;1685-03-21&quot; datatype =&quot;xsd:date&quot; /> </head> <body> ... </body> </html>
  • 64. RDFa <html> <head> ... </head> <body> <span property=&quot;foaf:name&quot;> Johann Sebastian Bach </span> was born in <span property=&quot;p:dateOfBirth&quot; content=&quot;1685-03-21&quot; datatype=&quot;xsd:date&quot; > 1685 </span> , in <span rel=&quot;p:placeOfBirth&quot; resource=&quot; [dbp:Eisenach] &quot;> Eisenach </span>. </body> </html>
  • 68. SELECT ?composer WHERE { ?composer rdf:type yago:Composer }
  • 69. SELECT ?composer WHERE { ?composer rdf:type yago:Composer } <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ludwig_van_Beethoven>
  • 70. SELECT ?piece WHERE { dbpr: Johann_Sebastian_Bach dc:creator ?piece } <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier> <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Cello_Suites_%28Bach%29>
  • 73. Composer Musician Is a type of Artist Is a type of Creator Is a type of
  • 74. yago:Composer a rdfs:Class .
  • 75. yago:Composer a rdfs:Class . yago:Composer rdfs:subClassOf yago:Musician . yago:Musician rdfs:subClassOf yago:Artist . yago:Artist rdfs:subClassOf yago:Creator .
  • 76. yago:Composer a rdfs:Class . yago:Composer rdfs:subClassOf yago:Musician . yago:Musician rdfs:subClassOf yago:Artist . yago:Artist rdfs:subClassOf yago:Creator . dbpedia:Johann_Sebastian_Bach a yago:Composer , foaf:Person .
  • 77. SELECT ?composer WHERE { ?composer rdf:type yago:Composer } <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ludwig_van_Beethoven>
  • 78. SELECT ?s WHERE { ?s rdf:type yago:Artist } <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ludwig_van_Beethoven>
  • 80. foaf:surname a rdfs:Property .
  • 81. foaf:surname a rdfs:Property . foaf:surname rdfs:Range rdfs:Literal .
  • 82. foaf:surname a rdfs:Property . foaf:surname rdfs:Range rdfs:Literal . foaf:surname rdfs:Domain foaf:Person .
  • 84. foaf:surname a rdfs:Property . foaf:surname rdfs:Range rdfs:Literal . foaf:surname rdfs:Domain foaf:Person . dbpedia:Johann_Sebastian_Bach foaf:surname &quot;Bach&quot; . dbpedia:Johann_Sebastian_Bach a foaf:Person .
  • 85. xyz:composedBy a rdfs:Property . xyz:composedBy rdfs:Range yago:Composer . xyz:composedBy rdfs:Domain yago:Piece . dbp:Cello_Suites_%28Bach%29 xyz:composedBy dbp:Johann_Sebastian_Bach . dbp:Johann_Sebastian_Bach a yago:Composer .
  • 86. xyz:composedBy a rdfs:Property . xyz:composedBy rdfs:Range yago:Composer . xyz:composedBy rdfs:Domain yago:Piece . xyz:composedBy rdfs :subPropertyOf dc:creator .
  • 87. OWL
  • 89. References RDF Primer: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/ RDF Schema: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/ OWL: http://www.w3.org/2004/OWL/