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Spanish Colonial
Period
1521 - 1898
Historical Overview
• Though the South have been
resistant, the Spanish Colonizers
gained control in the Central part,
which they classified them as
“Lowland Christians.”;
• Art forms, as they demanded, are
under the strict rule of the
church and the colonial state, and;
• By Religious orders they
dispatched to convert all the
natives to Catholicism
Historical
Overview
• Art forms are stylistically and
culturally which are classified under:
− Religious art
− Lowland Christian art
− Folk art.
• To carry out their projects like, the
plaza complex, they relocated the
natives and let them build town
centers, municipio(s), and cruches
• Designed according to
prescriptions of the Spanish
crown, establishments must
imposes scale and overall visual
appeal like:
− Cruciform churches with a
shape of the Latin cross, and;
− Hispanic churches, the
baroque style are
predominantly employed to
appeal emotions
Historical
Overview
• Baroque are implied with
churches like:
− San Agustin Church in Manila
− Morong Church in Rizal
− Paoay Church in Ilocos NorteS
− Sto. Tomas de Villanueva Church
in Miag-ao, Iloilo.
• European inspired but with
local interventions suits its
native sensibilities and
adjustment to local
environmental conditions
Historical
Overview
• façade of Miag-ao Church -
surrounded by reliefs or relleves
- tropical motifs
• - palm fronds and papaya
trees
• - adobe, limestone, or brick
• - thick buttresses or wing-
like projections
• It is called the Colonial Baroque
or Philippine or Tropical
Baroque
Historical
Overview
• We will be focusing on Spanish
application in different aspects and new
introduction to new forms of arts in
the following aspect.
Architecture
Sculpture and Ornamentation
Music
Writing System
Theater
Dance
Paintings
Printing System
Historical
Overview
•And topic focusing on the
development of statuses in
the Spanish Era
Rise of Classes and Privilege
Different Prominent
Painting Styles and their
Artists
Historical
Overview
Architechture
• Saints and interpretations are the
essentials into worship
• As the process of engravinf, painting
and sculpting they are highly
supervised in accordance to
imposing scale and overall visual
appeal.
Architecture
• The friars brought the Western
models for our local artists to copy
which are most likely made from
either ivory or wood and portrays
classical and baroque models
• In the 17th century, Chinese artisans
are engaged in making icons or
saints or santos, building churches
and houses, making furniture.
Architecture
Architecture
• spread which later on spread
throughout Cebu, Batangas,
Manila, and Ilocos
• It drew upon Chinese features
and techniques like in Nuestra
Señora del Rosario in Bohol
which Kuanyin, the deity of
mercy in East Asian Buddhism
Sculpture and
Ornamentation
• Santos are displayed most on
decorative altar niche, which are
called retablo.
• Town’s patron saint implies
with architecture and sculpture
which embellished with rosettes,
scrolls, pediments and
Solomonic columns and are
color dependently classified
(gilded or polychromed)
Sculpture
And
Ornamentation
• Via Crucis (14 paintings or relief
sculptures) is series of reliefs which
shows Christ’s crucifixion and
resurrection
Sculpture
And
Ornamentation
• In other churches, Holy Family, the
Virgin Mary, and the four
evangelists proliferate in the ceilings
and walls in an ornate manner of
trompe l’oeil.
• In Taal Basilica in Batangas or at the
St. James the Apostle Parish in Betis,
Pampanga it can be seen.
Sculpture
And
Ornamentation
Sculpture
And
Ornamentation
• Church altars *carved figurative
protrusions like relleves in organic
designs and in hammered silver or
the plateria (plateria technique)
which can be seen at bodies of the
carroza
Music
Music
• Western musical instruments like
the pipe organ, the violin, the guitar,
and the piano gives a very new
European flavor with new rhythms,
melodies and musical forms.
• Catholic liturgical music, in 1742,
where Archbishop of Manila, Juan
Rodriguez Angel started singing
schools in Manila Cathedral which
boomed the industry of choirs.
Music
• Other musical forms like pasyon or
pabasa which are biblical narration
of Christ’s passion chanted
(sometimes read)
• Lowland Christian communities of
Pampanga, Ilocos, Bicol, and Iloilo,
on another hand, has awit and the
corrido which musical forms
chanted, based on European
literature
Music
• Another one is Balitao which is
sentimental love songs and lullabies
in the latter half of the 19th century
• Sentiments began to develop which
Kundiman is born that spoke about
resignation and fatalism, a vehicle
for resistance with lyrics of
unrequited love.
• The love object pointed to which is
the Philippines is cleverly concealed
as a beautiful woman
Writing System
• Mangyans of Mindoro has bamboo
poles which are etched with
Baybayin script, used for courtship
and emotional concerns
• In the town of Ticao, Southern
Leyte, a huge stone contained of
Baybayin invocate a safe journey by
sea.
Writing
System
Writing
System
• Spanish colonization brought with it
printing technology in the form of
catechism and prayer books in
Spanish for a lot to read and write
and to evangel.
Theater
• There are a lot of theater forms
formed locally and through
colonization with a simultaneously
development of literature and other
art forms.
• One of the earliest forms of theater
is pomp and pageantry
− A religious processions with
embellished carrozas that shows
religious tableaus, saints and scenes
Theater
• Zarzuela or Sarsuwels in the
19th century is a singing and
dancing - prose dialogue which
the story is carried out in song
• Later on, the locals learned to
write locally language
sarsuwelas in the leadership of
Severino Reyes and Hermogenes
Ilagan and Honorata ‘Atang’
dela Rama as their lead actress.
Theater
• Another one is Senakulo
− Christ’s suffering in metaphor to
the suffering of Filipinos under
Spanish colonial rule.
• 1st senakulo written in 1704 by
Gaspar Aquino de Belen is now
divided into two main types :
Komedya de Santo - life of Christ
or of any saint - during church
celebrations - stylized way -
extravagant costumes - elaborately
choreographed war scene
Secular Komedya commonly
known as “Moro-Moro” which is
typical a love story Christian hero
and an Islamic heroine, clashes,
and is done with dance
Theater
• Today several groups are still
performing komedya & senakulo
• Like there are several families who
align themselves to a local parish
church to stage
• Scripts are handed down to children
or apprentices which serves as a
form of panata or devotion to the
Church
Theater
Theater
• In many towns in the provinces
of Pampanga and Tarlac,
senakulo is in Kapampangan or
Ilocano and is a full staging
crucifixion, literally, which
serves also a major tourist and
media attraction
• Senakulo in Nueva Ecija
− araguio or arakyo
Dance
Dance
• As the galleon trade between
Mexico and the Philippines
brought Mexican influences
Cariñosa, Pandanggo or
Fandango, Polka, Dansa and the
Rigodon and European influence
like Habañera, Jota, and Tango
dances from Spain
Paintings
Paintings
• Paintings are expressed through
visual interpretation through biblical
texts in Catholic devotion.
• Like; Heaven, Earth, and Hell (1850)
is a mural of Jose Dans placed now
in Paete Church, Laguna that shows
the map of the universe and the
terrifying depiction of hell
Paintings
• Image making during the period
are conformed like in Basi
Revolt which is are 14 paintings
by Esteban Villanueva that
shows the defeat of Ilocanos
who rebelled at the Spanish
government’s monopoly of basi
or rice wine in 1821
Printing System
• Reprographic art of printmaking is
brought as early as the 16th century
which is a technique of xylography
or woodcut printing
• Doctrina Christiana (The Teachings
of Christianity)
− printed in 1593 in Spanish and in
Tagalog compiling song lyrics,
commandments, sacraments, and other
catechetical material.
Printing
System
• It also engraves the production
of secular or non-religious
works like which scientists and
artists does maps as other
sources of classification
• In 1734, Jesuit priest Fr. Pedro
Murillo Velarde with artists
Francisco Suarez and the
engraver Nicolas de la Cruz
Bagay made Carta
Hydrographica y Chorographica
de las Yslas Filipinas is a
scientific map of the Philippines
Printing
System
Printing
System
•development of lithography
born the reproduction of
color palates, the mass
printing of newspapers and
periodicals
•Another example is,
Augustinian botanist Fr.
Manuel Blanco made an
extensive compilation of the
Philippine plants in Flora de
Filipinas in 1878
Rise of Classes
and Privilege
• opening of Manila to
international trade in 1834 and
Suez Canal in 1869, economic
benefits raise for the native
elites
• Commercial ventures opens
opportunity to study in Europe
with the class rose the Ilustrado
or “enlightened” ones
Rise of
Classes
and
Privilege
• Development of music with the
efforts of Pakil-born Marcelo Adonay
are compositions based on the
Western tradition of Gregorian
chants
• Domestic realm with their altars
comprised of delicate santos in
viriña and urna.
Rise of
Classes
and
Privilege
Rise of
Classes
and
Privilege
• Manifestation in town organization
is focused when they occupied the
plaza complex
• Which are called “bahay na bato” for
rich and prominent families,
spacious interiors, commissioned
portrait paintings, miniaturist style
which artist use to reveal meticulous
signify the wealth and refinement of
the sitter.
Different
Prominent
Painting Styles
and their
Artists
Different
Artist
and their
Styles
• Simon Flores’s painting Portrait
of the Quiazon Family in 1800
is a type of miniature.
• Other miniature painters are
Antonio Malantic, Isidro Arceo,
Dionisio de Castro, and
Justiniano Asuncion
• Details in painting, like Letras y
Figuras with combining names
and vignettes of everyday life
became popular. As the Filipino
natives acquired Spanish names
under a decree implemented in
1884
Different
Artist
and their
Styles
• Another Academia-trained Lorenzo
Guerrero painted The Water Carrier
uses of chiaroscuro in the late 19th
century
• Another one from Pampanga-born
Simon Flores, Primeras Letras in
1890 shows a woman teaching a
child how to read.
Different
Artist
and their
Styles
• In 1884, Juan Luna won gold
for Spoliarium and Felix
Resurreccion Hidalgo silver
medal for Virgenes christianas
expuestas al populacho in the
Madrid Exposition which
exhibits Filipino artistic
excellence even in standards set
by the European academy
Different
Artist
and their
Styles
• Hidalgo’s Virgenes christianas
expuestas al populacho
emphasizes on a woman held
captive which counterparts
Philippines’ oppression under
Spanish rule.
Different
Artist
and their
Styles
• Luna’s (Spolarium) depiction of a
lifeless body of a gladiator being
pulled across the coliseum, and;
• Luna with ilustrados’ Propaganda
Movement in España y Filipinas by
1886
American
Colonial
Period
1898 - 1940
Photo CC BY 2.0
• Independence – Philippine
revolution of 1896 was cut
short to the establishment of
American colonial government
• Treaty of Paris in 1898 is where
the Spain “surrendered the
Philippines to the United States
Historical
Overview
• 1899 to 1913, The bloody
Philippine American war begun
with the institution of
government and education who
took charge in initiating the
natives to American way of living
• Filipino playwrights found
themselves confronted by
censorship in issuance of the
Sedition Law which banned
writing, printing, and publication
of materials advocating Philippine
independence
Historical
Overview
Here it will show us how
the Americans influenced
Philippine Culture and
Standards by:
Eyeopener to New Forma(s)
The Clique
Education
Modern Art
Historical
Overview
An Eyeopener to
New Forma(s)
Lingua franca in English, poems
and stories from books in
classroom to facilitate the
teaching of the English through
public school system, which the
Americans had brought.
In less than a decade, Filipino -
began to write plays in English.
- In 1915, Lino Castillejo
and Jesus Araullo authored A
Modern Filipina which first
Filipino play written in English
An
Eyeopener
to New
Forma(s)
Vaudeville (originated from
France) form of theater during
the 1920s.
Motley collection of slapstick,
songs, dances, acrobatics,
comedy skits, chorus girls,
magic acts, and stand-up comic
acts which is locally called
bodabil.
An
Eyeopener
to New
Forma(s)
In a time span, some
performances has hidden
messages to the guerillas
 After the war, bodabil
deteriorated into vulgar shows
and soon died away, replaced by
the popularity of film and later,
television
An
Eyeopener
to New
Forma(s)
The Clique
In the beginning of the 20th
century, a new urban
pattern - secular goals of
education, health, and
governance
 - architect and urban
planner Daniel Burnham -
American government -
design Manila and Baguio -
 - Architect William
Parsons - Burnham Plan
The Clique
 City Beautiful Movement introduced
in 1893 at Chicago World Fair in
which new urban design, Neoclassic
architecture are integrated parks
and lawns, to make attractive
buildings impressive and places for
leisure amid urban blight
 Manila’s Neoclastic architecture
examples are:
− Post Office and the Legislative
Building
− National Art Gallery
 Which are monumental in scale and
are iconically composed of thick
columns
The Clique
Other Filipino architects
designed buildings with
Neoclassism are:
− Tomas Mapua, Juan Arellano
− Andres Luna de San Pedro
− Antonio Toledo
Who got their training in the
US or in Europe
The Clique
Education
 1909, a year after
establishment of the University
of the Philippines, School of
Fine Arts was opened and the
course on commercial design
aforementioned had in-
demands.
Fernando Amorsolo became a
professor in the UP School of
Fine Arts, which students
pertained to as “Amorsolo
School”
Education
Guillermo Tolentino, on the
other hand, in sculpture
studied Fine Arts in Rome
being influenced by the
classical tradition
He made the Oblation (1935,
original/1958, bronze cast
found at the UP Oblation
plaza)
Bonifacio Monument, 1933
in Caloocan
Education
academic (a term referring to the
kind of art that was influenced by
European academies) tradition of
painting and sculpture
*Amorsolo and Tolentino challenged
National Artist Victorio Edades in the
modern art movement in the
homecoming exhibition in 1928 by which
Philippine Columbian Club value
conservative styles of Amorsolo.
Education
latter’s pastoral images,
Edades’s The Builders, 1928
− dull colors; a shift in the
treatment of form and
subject matter
Education
Modern Art
The proponent of Modern
Art, Victorio Edades style
were initially rejected and
misunderstood in which his
modernist sensibility was
shared by several artists:
Carlos “Botong” V. Francisco
Galo Ocampo
Modern Art
 Botong Francisco had his magisterial
mural titled the Filipino Struggles
Through History in 1964 placed in
Manila City Hall
 Another piece is Brown Madonna in
1938 of Galo Ocampo
*Edades, Francisco, and Ocampo are called
“triumvirate” of modern art with their collaborative
work that survives to this day is Nature’s Bounty, (ca.
1935)
• With various mediums, techniques,
and themes it is defined as “new”
and even “shocking
Modern Art
Edades publicized a roster of
artists modernist leanings. They
are the “Thirteen Moderns”
included himself and 12 others:
− Arsenio Capili
− Bonifacio Cristobal
− Demetrio Diego
− National Artist Carlos Francisco
− National Artist Cesar Legaspi
− Diosdado Lorenzo
− Anita Magsaysay-Ho
− Galo Ocampo
− National Artist Hernando R.
Ocampo
− Jose Pardo
− Ricarte Purugganan.
Modern Art
Japanese & Post
War Republic
1946 - 1969
•As the Japanese Occupation of
Manila, the Modern Art
project begun to slow down t
•The “Moderns” and
“Conservatives” continued to
producing art in KALIBAPI
(Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod ng
Bagong Pilipinas)
Historical
Overview
As the Japanese left a scar
into a lot of hearts; we will
see how many good sight the
colonization has brought
through the following:
Pro & Con "-paganda"
Genre Paintings
Other Modern Styles
"Conservatives" vs.
"Moderns"
Historical
Overview
Pro & Con
"-paganda"
• Japanese forces built a formation
“Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity
Sphere” - a movement created a
Pan-Asian to rejected Western
through sponsored publications
such as Shin-Seiki, and newspapers
and magazines like Liwayway and
Tribune
• Images, texts, and music underwent
scrutiny which subversive or anti-
Japanese led to torturous
consequences, even death
Pro & Con
"-paganda"
• Regulating the information
campaign was a Japanese
Information Bureau or Hodobu
who employed local artists and
cultural workers
• National Artist Felipe P. de Leon
said to have been “commanded at
the point of the gun” to write Awit
sa Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas
declared as the anthem for the
period, which conveyed allegiance
reared in East Asia, especially Japan
who is in political power
Pro & Con
"-paganda"
•Strictly policed under the
Second World War
Amorsolo’s paintings still
though has little or no
indication of war’s atrocities
−Harvest Scene, 1942
−Rice Planting, 1942
*semblance of peace, idealized
work in the countryside with docile
industriousness
Pro & Con
"-paganda"
Genre
Paintings
•Genre paintings are widely
produced showing neutral
relationship between the
Filipinos and the Japanese of the
normality of daily living
•Colonizers preferred to have
showed indigenous and pre-
colonial traditions representing
different ethnolinguistic groups
− Crispin Lopez’s Study of an Aeta,
1943
Genre
Paintings
•Although scenes of war made
imagery remained neutral but
rather on the aesthetic
qualities of ruin and disaster
− Amorsolo’s Bombing of the
Intendencia, 1942
− Ruins of the Manila Cathedral,
1945 - elegant handling - value in
the billows of smoke or the pile of
ruins
Genre
Paintings
•Works that depicted the
horrors:
Diosdado Lorenzo’s Atrocities in
Paco
Dominador Castañeda’s Doomed
Family were painted after 1945.
Genre
Paintings
Other
Modern
Styles
•Alice Guillermo as an artists
and writers reflected national
identity with rising from the
ashes of war
•Debates for art’s sake and art
conscious about “true social
conditions” of the period
Other
Modern
Styles
•Period has a promising
development of modern art
when a new kind of
modernism emerged, observed
by the artist-writer E. Aguilar
Cruz, which he named
NeoRealism
Other
Modern
Styles
•Many artists explored folk
themes, crafted commentaries,
and urban condition in the
effects of the war.
•Manansala, Legaspi, and HR
Ocampo are other artisit
associated with Neo-Realism.
•Manansala’s The Beggars, 1952
& Tuba Drinkers, 1954
•Legaspi’s Gadgets II, 1949
Other
Modern
Styles
•Most of Legaspi’s Bar Girls,
1947
•HR Ocampo’s The Contrast,
1940, and;
•Genesis, 1968
*tapestry hanging - Main
Theater or Bulwagang Nicanor
Abelardo of the CCP.
Other
Modern
Styles
"Conservatives"
vs
"Moderns"
•Two years later, the rift between
the “Conservatives” subscribe to
the Amorsolo and Tolentino
style & “Moderns” by Edades
would resurface in the AAP art
competition
•Artists who continued
conservative tradition, walked
out to protest and exhibited
their works on the streets
"Conservatives"
vs
"Moderns"
•Their studios lining the street
of Mabini, Manila, referred to
as Mabini painters
•UP Diliman campus’ Church
of Holy Sacrifice, 1955 -
employed concrete as primary
material with rounded or
parabolic forms
"Conservatives"
vs
"Moderns"
•Chapel of St. Joseph the
Worker in Victorias, Negros
•Angry Christ
"Conservatives"
vs
"Moderns"
•Abstraction (by modernists)
• avoided mimetic (exact copy)
representation referred as non-
representational or non-
objective art with relationships
of line, color, and space or the
flatness of the canvas.
"Conservatives"
vs
"Moderns"
•abstract expressionist is an
aspect of spontaneity in the
process of making
National Artist Jose Joya uses
thick and often vigorous
application of paint
"Conservatives"
vs
"Moderns"
70s to
Contemporary
• helm of Ferdinand and Imelda
Marcos in 1965
*cultural projects built backdrop of
poverty and volatile social
conditions
• National chaos of emergency
proportions emerged as Martial
Law was declared on September
21, 1972 that envisioned a New
Society or Bagong Lipunan
Historical
Overview
• propagated and implemented
through an art and culture
program - fine arts,
architecture, interior design,
tourism, convention city
building (hotels, theaters,
coliseums), engineering, urban
planning, health, among many
others.
Historical
Overview
• Marcoses is considered either
an friend or a foe but let us see
how they have influenced the
art industry through the
following:
Marcos Regime Bloom
Hybriding Arts
Developmental Art
Social Realism
Historical
Overview
Marcos
Regime
Bloom
• discerned in the anthem or songs,
aims optimism toward a new
beginning
*Levi Celerio and Felipe Padilla de Leon’s
- Bagong Pagsilang
• Index of progress, refinement,
radical experiment, national identity
and love for country circulated in
the intricate network of institutions
in threads of the pre-modern,
vernacular, the modern and
international
Marcos
Regime
Bloom
• Cultural Center of the Philippines
(CCP) is a bureaucratic entity of art
acquisition that upholds exhibition
making, workshops, grants, and
awards
*created on 25 June 1966 in the
Executive Order 30 and inaugurated in
1969, the year Marcos was elected to his
second term as Philippine President
Marcos
Regime
Bloom
• Leandro Locsin designed the modernist
building, crossing between the
vernacular bahay kubo and art brut
minimalist structures as shrine to High
Art
• Structure presides - entrance of the
CCP complex - satellite structures
o Folk Arts Theater - venue of the first
Ms. Universe Pageant in the Philippines in
1974
o Philippine International Convention
Center (PICC) - 1976 IMFWorld Bank
Conference
o Tahanang Filipino or Coconut Palace -
anticipation of a papal visit
o Manila Film Center - Manila International
Film Festival - rival Cannes
Marcos
Regime
Bloom
Hybriding
Arts
• CCP supported artists by
providing venues and grants
and served as a validating entity
of major awards to National
Artists.
• Propped up, the authority on
modern art had an avant-garde
like composer and
ethnomusicologist National
Artist Jose Maceda was staged
in CCP
Hybriding
Arts
• Opened and managed by artist
professor Roberto Chabet, tasked as
first director - avowedly conceptual,
emphasizing the idea rather than
technique and form. He considered
himself as Flux artist - instrumental
to CCP’s - became an establishment
figure
• Group exhibition, Objects in CCP in
1973 is a tore up a copy of a coffee-
table book to Philippine
contemporary art into trash bin
Hybriding
Arts
• Tearing into Pieces was scandalous
critique to conventions of the art
world, The Struggle for Philippine
Art referred by Purita Kalaw-
Ledesma which she says “anti-
museum art.”
• Under Chabet and later Raymundo
Albano, CCP Museum opened its
exhibition programming influenced
western avant-garde - tenets, pop
art, happenings, environmental
assemblages, new realism,
performance art, and sound works.
Hybriding
Arts
Developmental
Art
• Curatorial stance of Albano as more
populist - initiated projects into a
rubrics he termed “developmental
art”
• In 1971-1975 - it is still in the
“exposure phase” as advanced art is
experimental in nature
*with the use of sand, junk, iron, non-art
materials such as law lumber, rocks
Developmental
Art
• People were shocked, scared,
delighted, and satisfied by the
notions of art did not agree
• Under Albano’s directorship, CCP
also reached out to regions outside
Manila and beyond through art
workshops and outreach programs
through PAS
Developmental
Art
Social
Realism
• Social Realism (SR) is a significant
strand of intense political ferment in
the 70s and the 80s
• various mediums, techniques, and
styles was referred to as protest art
in sociopolitical issues
Social
Realism
• Struggles that a realist approaches is
conscious with regards for the
oppressed and underrepresented
masses
• Commonly tackles plight of the
marginalized, inequality, and forms
of repression
* In a worked collectively, and in
collaboration not only producing murals
and other art forms but also in making
aesthetic decisions grounded on a
common mass-based, scientific and
nationalist framework.
Social
Realism

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  • 2. Historical Overview • Though the South have been resistant, the Spanish Colonizers gained control in the Central part, which they classified them as “Lowland Christians.”; • Art forms, as they demanded, are under the strict rule of the church and the colonial state, and; • By Religious orders they dispatched to convert all the natives to Catholicism
  • 3. Historical Overview • Art forms are stylistically and culturally which are classified under: − Religious art − Lowland Christian art − Folk art. • To carry out their projects like, the plaza complex, they relocated the natives and let them build town centers, municipio(s), and cruches
  • 4. • Designed according to prescriptions of the Spanish crown, establishments must imposes scale and overall visual appeal like: − Cruciform churches with a shape of the Latin cross, and; − Hispanic churches, the baroque style are predominantly employed to appeal emotions Historical Overview
  • 5. • Baroque are implied with churches like: − San Agustin Church in Manila − Morong Church in Rizal − Paoay Church in Ilocos NorteS − Sto. Tomas de Villanueva Church in Miag-ao, Iloilo. • European inspired but with local interventions suits its native sensibilities and adjustment to local environmental conditions Historical Overview
  • 6. • façade of Miag-ao Church - surrounded by reliefs or relleves - tropical motifs • - palm fronds and papaya trees • - adobe, limestone, or brick • - thick buttresses or wing- like projections • It is called the Colonial Baroque or Philippine or Tropical Baroque Historical Overview
  • 7. • We will be focusing on Spanish application in different aspects and new introduction to new forms of arts in the following aspect. Architecture Sculpture and Ornamentation Music Writing System Theater Dance Paintings Printing System Historical Overview
  • 8. •And topic focusing on the development of statuses in the Spanish Era Rise of Classes and Privilege Different Prominent Painting Styles and their Artists Historical Overview
  • 10. • Saints and interpretations are the essentials into worship • As the process of engravinf, painting and sculpting they are highly supervised in accordance to imposing scale and overall visual appeal. Architecture
  • 11. • The friars brought the Western models for our local artists to copy which are most likely made from either ivory or wood and portrays classical and baroque models • In the 17th century, Chinese artisans are engaged in making icons or saints or santos, building churches and houses, making furniture. Architecture
  • 12. Architecture • spread which later on spread throughout Cebu, Batangas, Manila, and Ilocos • It drew upon Chinese features and techniques like in Nuestra Señora del Rosario in Bohol which Kuanyin, the deity of mercy in East Asian Buddhism
  • 14. • Santos are displayed most on decorative altar niche, which are called retablo. • Town’s patron saint implies with architecture and sculpture which embellished with rosettes, scrolls, pediments and Solomonic columns and are color dependently classified (gilded or polychromed) Sculpture And Ornamentation
  • 15. • Via Crucis (14 paintings or relief sculptures) is series of reliefs which shows Christ’s crucifixion and resurrection Sculpture And Ornamentation
  • 16. • In other churches, Holy Family, the Virgin Mary, and the four evangelists proliferate in the ceilings and walls in an ornate manner of trompe l’oeil. • In Taal Basilica in Batangas or at the St. James the Apostle Parish in Betis, Pampanga it can be seen. Sculpture And Ornamentation
  • 17. Sculpture And Ornamentation • Church altars *carved figurative protrusions like relleves in organic designs and in hammered silver or the plateria (plateria technique) which can be seen at bodies of the carroza
  • 18. Music
  • 19. Music • Western musical instruments like the pipe organ, the violin, the guitar, and the piano gives a very new European flavor with new rhythms, melodies and musical forms. • Catholic liturgical music, in 1742, where Archbishop of Manila, Juan Rodriguez Angel started singing schools in Manila Cathedral which boomed the industry of choirs.
  • 20. Music • Other musical forms like pasyon or pabasa which are biblical narration of Christ’s passion chanted (sometimes read) • Lowland Christian communities of Pampanga, Ilocos, Bicol, and Iloilo, on another hand, has awit and the corrido which musical forms chanted, based on European literature
  • 21. Music • Another one is Balitao which is sentimental love songs and lullabies in the latter half of the 19th century • Sentiments began to develop which Kundiman is born that spoke about resignation and fatalism, a vehicle for resistance with lyrics of unrequited love. • The love object pointed to which is the Philippines is cleverly concealed as a beautiful woman
  • 23. • Mangyans of Mindoro has bamboo poles which are etched with Baybayin script, used for courtship and emotional concerns • In the town of Ticao, Southern Leyte, a huge stone contained of Baybayin invocate a safe journey by sea. Writing System
  • 24. Writing System • Spanish colonization brought with it printing technology in the form of catechism and prayer books in Spanish for a lot to read and write and to evangel.
  • 26. • There are a lot of theater forms formed locally and through colonization with a simultaneously development of literature and other art forms. • One of the earliest forms of theater is pomp and pageantry − A religious processions with embellished carrozas that shows religious tableaus, saints and scenes Theater
  • 27. • Zarzuela or Sarsuwels in the 19th century is a singing and dancing - prose dialogue which the story is carried out in song • Later on, the locals learned to write locally language sarsuwelas in the leadership of Severino Reyes and Hermogenes Ilagan and Honorata ‘Atang’ dela Rama as their lead actress. Theater
  • 28. • Another one is Senakulo − Christ’s suffering in metaphor to the suffering of Filipinos under Spanish colonial rule. • 1st senakulo written in 1704 by Gaspar Aquino de Belen is now divided into two main types : Komedya de Santo - life of Christ or of any saint - during church celebrations - stylized way - extravagant costumes - elaborately choreographed war scene Secular Komedya commonly known as “Moro-Moro” which is typical a love story Christian hero and an Islamic heroine, clashes, and is done with dance Theater
  • 29. • Today several groups are still performing komedya & senakulo • Like there are several families who align themselves to a local parish church to stage • Scripts are handed down to children or apprentices which serves as a form of panata or devotion to the Church Theater
  • 30. Theater • In many towns in the provinces of Pampanga and Tarlac, senakulo is in Kapampangan or Ilocano and is a full staging crucifixion, literally, which serves also a major tourist and media attraction • Senakulo in Nueva Ecija − araguio or arakyo
  • 31. Dance
  • 32. Dance • As the galleon trade between Mexico and the Philippines brought Mexican influences Cariñosa, Pandanggo or Fandango, Polka, Dansa and the Rigodon and European influence like Habañera, Jota, and Tango dances from Spain
  • 34. Paintings • Paintings are expressed through visual interpretation through biblical texts in Catholic devotion. • Like; Heaven, Earth, and Hell (1850) is a mural of Jose Dans placed now in Paete Church, Laguna that shows the map of the universe and the terrifying depiction of hell
  • 35. Paintings • Image making during the period are conformed like in Basi Revolt which is are 14 paintings by Esteban Villanueva that shows the defeat of Ilocanos who rebelled at the Spanish government’s monopoly of basi or rice wine in 1821
  • 37. • Reprographic art of printmaking is brought as early as the 16th century which is a technique of xylography or woodcut printing • Doctrina Christiana (The Teachings of Christianity) − printed in 1593 in Spanish and in Tagalog compiling song lyrics, commandments, sacraments, and other catechetical material. Printing System
  • 38. • It also engraves the production of secular or non-religious works like which scientists and artists does maps as other sources of classification • In 1734, Jesuit priest Fr. Pedro Murillo Velarde with artists Francisco Suarez and the engraver Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay made Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas is a scientific map of the Philippines Printing System
  • 39. Printing System •development of lithography born the reproduction of color palates, the mass printing of newspapers and periodicals •Another example is, Augustinian botanist Fr. Manuel Blanco made an extensive compilation of the Philippine plants in Flora de Filipinas in 1878
  • 40. Rise of Classes and Privilege
  • 41. • opening of Manila to international trade in 1834 and Suez Canal in 1869, economic benefits raise for the native elites • Commercial ventures opens opportunity to study in Europe with the class rose the Ilustrado or “enlightened” ones Rise of Classes and Privilege
  • 42. • Development of music with the efforts of Pakil-born Marcelo Adonay are compositions based on the Western tradition of Gregorian chants • Domestic realm with their altars comprised of delicate santos in viriña and urna. Rise of Classes and Privilege
  • 43. Rise of Classes and Privilege • Manifestation in town organization is focused when they occupied the plaza complex • Which are called “bahay na bato” for rich and prominent families, spacious interiors, commissioned portrait paintings, miniaturist style which artist use to reveal meticulous signify the wealth and refinement of the sitter.
  • 45. Different Artist and their Styles • Simon Flores’s painting Portrait of the Quiazon Family in 1800 is a type of miniature. • Other miniature painters are Antonio Malantic, Isidro Arceo, Dionisio de Castro, and Justiniano Asuncion • Details in painting, like Letras y Figuras with combining names and vignettes of everyday life became popular. As the Filipino natives acquired Spanish names under a decree implemented in 1884
  • 46. Different Artist and their Styles • Another Academia-trained Lorenzo Guerrero painted The Water Carrier uses of chiaroscuro in the late 19th century • Another one from Pampanga-born Simon Flores, Primeras Letras in 1890 shows a woman teaching a child how to read.
  • 47. Different Artist and their Styles • In 1884, Juan Luna won gold for Spoliarium and Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo silver medal for Virgenes christianas expuestas al populacho in the Madrid Exposition which exhibits Filipino artistic excellence even in standards set by the European academy
  • 48. Different Artist and their Styles • Hidalgo’s Virgenes christianas expuestas al populacho emphasizes on a woman held captive which counterparts Philippines’ oppression under Spanish rule.
  • 49. Different Artist and their Styles • Luna’s (Spolarium) depiction of a lifeless body of a gladiator being pulled across the coliseum, and; • Luna with ilustrados’ Propaganda Movement in España y Filipinas by 1886
  • 51. • Independence – Philippine revolution of 1896 was cut short to the establishment of American colonial government • Treaty of Paris in 1898 is where the Spain “surrendered the Philippines to the United States Historical Overview
  • 52. • 1899 to 1913, The bloody Philippine American war begun with the institution of government and education who took charge in initiating the natives to American way of living • Filipino playwrights found themselves confronted by censorship in issuance of the Sedition Law which banned writing, printing, and publication of materials advocating Philippine independence Historical Overview
  • 53. Here it will show us how the Americans influenced Philippine Culture and Standards by: Eyeopener to New Forma(s) The Clique Education Modern Art Historical Overview
  • 55. Lingua franca in English, poems and stories from books in classroom to facilitate the teaching of the English through public school system, which the Americans had brought. In less than a decade, Filipino - began to write plays in English. - In 1915, Lino Castillejo and Jesus Araullo authored A Modern Filipina which first Filipino play written in English An Eyeopener to New Forma(s)
  • 56. Vaudeville (originated from France) form of theater during the 1920s. Motley collection of slapstick, songs, dances, acrobatics, comedy skits, chorus girls, magic acts, and stand-up comic acts which is locally called bodabil. An Eyeopener to New Forma(s)
  • 57. In a time span, some performances has hidden messages to the guerillas  After the war, bodabil deteriorated into vulgar shows and soon died away, replaced by the popularity of film and later, television An Eyeopener to New Forma(s)
  • 59. In the beginning of the 20th century, a new urban pattern - secular goals of education, health, and governance  - architect and urban planner Daniel Burnham - American government - design Manila and Baguio -  - Architect William Parsons - Burnham Plan The Clique
  • 60.  City Beautiful Movement introduced in 1893 at Chicago World Fair in which new urban design, Neoclassic architecture are integrated parks and lawns, to make attractive buildings impressive and places for leisure amid urban blight  Manila’s Neoclastic architecture examples are: − Post Office and the Legislative Building − National Art Gallery  Which are monumental in scale and are iconically composed of thick columns The Clique
  • 61. Other Filipino architects designed buildings with Neoclassism are: − Tomas Mapua, Juan Arellano − Andres Luna de San Pedro − Antonio Toledo Who got their training in the US or in Europe The Clique
  • 63.  1909, a year after establishment of the University of the Philippines, School of Fine Arts was opened and the course on commercial design aforementioned had in- demands. Fernando Amorsolo became a professor in the UP School of Fine Arts, which students pertained to as “Amorsolo School” Education
  • 64. Guillermo Tolentino, on the other hand, in sculpture studied Fine Arts in Rome being influenced by the classical tradition He made the Oblation (1935, original/1958, bronze cast found at the UP Oblation plaza) Bonifacio Monument, 1933 in Caloocan Education
  • 65. academic (a term referring to the kind of art that was influenced by European academies) tradition of painting and sculpture *Amorsolo and Tolentino challenged National Artist Victorio Edades in the modern art movement in the homecoming exhibition in 1928 by which Philippine Columbian Club value conservative styles of Amorsolo. Education
  • 66. latter’s pastoral images, Edades’s The Builders, 1928 − dull colors; a shift in the treatment of form and subject matter Education
  • 68. The proponent of Modern Art, Victorio Edades style were initially rejected and misunderstood in which his modernist sensibility was shared by several artists: Carlos “Botong” V. Francisco Galo Ocampo Modern Art
  • 69.  Botong Francisco had his magisterial mural titled the Filipino Struggles Through History in 1964 placed in Manila City Hall  Another piece is Brown Madonna in 1938 of Galo Ocampo *Edades, Francisco, and Ocampo are called “triumvirate” of modern art with their collaborative work that survives to this day is Nature’s Bounty, (ca. 1935) • With various mediums, techniques, and themes it is defined as “new” and even “shocking Modern Art
  • 70. Edades publicized a roster of artists modernist leanings. They are the “Thirteen Moderns” included himself and 12 others: − Arsenio Capili − Bonifacio Cristobal − Demetrio Diego − National Artist Carlos Francisco − National Artist Cesar Legaspi − Diosdado Lorenzo − Anita Magsaysay-Ho − Galo Ocampo − National Artist Hernando R. Ocampo − Jose Pardo − Ricarte Purugganan. Modern Art
  • 71. Japanese & Post War Republic 1946 - 1969
  • 72. •As the Japanese Occupation of Manila, the Modern Art project begun to slow down t •The “Moderns” and “Conservatives” continued to producing art in KALIBAPI (Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod ng Bagong Pilipinas) Historical Overview
  • 73. As the Japanese left a scar into a lot of hearts; we will see how many good sight the colonization has brought through the following: Pro & Con "-paganda" Genre Paintings Other Modern Styles "Conservatives" vs. "Moderns" Historical Overview
  • 75. • Japanese forces built a formation “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” - a movement created a Pan-Asian to rejected Western through sponsored publications such as Shin-Seiki, and newspapers and magazines like Liwayway and Tribune • Images, texts, and music underwent scrutiny which subversive or anti- Japanese led to torturous consequences, even death Pro & Con "-paganda"
  • 76. • Regulating the information campaign was a Japanese Information Bureau or Hodobu who employed local artists and cultural workers • National Artist Felipe P. de Leon said to have been “commanded at the point of the gun” to write Awit sa Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas declared as the anthem for the period, which conveyed allegiance reared in East Asia, especially Japan who is in political power Pro & Con "-paganda"
  • 77. •Strictly policed under the Second World War Amorsolo’s paintings still though has little or no indication of war’s atrocities −Harvest Scene, 1942 −Rice Planting, 1942 *semblance of peace, idealized work in the countryside with docile industriousness Pro & Con "-paganda"
  • 79. •Genre paintings are widely produced showing neutral relationship between the Filipinos and the Japanese of the normality of daily living •Colonizers preferred to have showed indigenous and pre- colonial traditions representing different ethnolinguistic groups − Crispin Lopez’s Study of an Aeta, 1943 Genre Paintings
  • 80. •Although scenes of war made imagery remained neutral but rather on the aesthetic qualities of ruin and disaster − Amorsolo’s Bombing of the Intendencia, 1942 − Ruins of the Manila Cathedral, 1945 - elegant handling - value in the billows of smoke or the pile of ruins Genre Paintings
  • 81. •Works that depicted the horrors: Diosdado Lorenzo’s Atrocities in Paco Dominador Castañeda’s Doomed Family were painted after 1945. Genre Paintings
  • 83. •Alice Guillermo as an artists and writers reflected national identity with rising from the ashes of war •Debates for art’s sake and art conscious about “true social conditions” of the period Other Modern Styles
  • 84. •Period has a promising development of modern art when a new kind of modernism emerged, observed by the artist-writer E. Aguilar Cruz, which he named NeoRealism Other Modern Styles
  • 85. •Many artists explored folk themes, crafted commentaries, and urban condition in the effects of the war. •Manansala, Legaspi, and HR Ocampo are other artisit associated with Neo-Realism. •Manansala’s The Beggars, 1952 & Tuba Drinkers, 1954 •Legaspi’s Gadgets II, 1949 Other Modern Styles
  • 86. •Most of Legaspi’s Bar Girls, 1947 •HR Ocampo’s The Contrast, 1940, and; •Genesis, 1968 *tapestry hanging - Main Theater or Bulwagang Nicanor Abelardo of the CCP. Other Modern Styles
  • 88. •Two years later, the rift between the “Conservatives” subscribe to the Amorsolo and Tolentino style & “Moderns” by Edades would resurface in the AAP art competition •Artists who continued conservative tradition, walked out to protest and exhibited their works on the streets "Conservatives" vs "Moderns"
  • 89. •Their studios lining the street of Mabini, Manila, referred to as Mabini painters •UP Diliman campus’ Church of Holy Sacrifice, 1955 - employed concrete as primary material with rounded or parabolic forms "Conservatives" vs "Moderns"
  • 90. •Chapel of St. Joseph the Worker in Victorias, Negros •Angry Christ "Conservatives" vs "Moderns"
  • 91. •Abstraction (by modernists) • avoided mimetic (exact copy) representation referred as non- representational or non- objective art with relationships of line, color, and space or the flatness of the canvas. "Conservatives" vs "Moderns"
  • 92. •abstract expressionist is an aspect of spontaneity in the process of making National Artist Jose Joya uses thick and often vigorous application of paint "Conservatives" vs "Moderns"
  • 94. • helm of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos in 1965 *cultural projects built backdrop of poverty and volatile social conditions • National chaos of emergency proportions emerged as Martial Law was declared on September 21, 1972 that envisioned a New Society or Bagong Lipunan Historical Overview
  • 95. • propagated and implemented through an art and culture program - fine arts, architecture, interior design, tourism, convention city building (hotels, theaters, coliseums), engineering, urban planning, health, among many others. Historical Overview
  • 96. • Marcoses is considered either an friend or a foe but let us see how they have influenced the art industry through the following: Marcos Regime Bloom Hybriding Arts Developmental Art Social Realism Historical Overview
  • 98. • discerned in the anthem or songs, aims optimism toward a new beginning *Levi Celerio and Felipe Padilla de Leon’s - Bagong Pagsilang • Index of progress, refinement, radical experiment, national identity and love for country circulated in the intricate network of institutions in threads of the pre-modern, vernacular, the modern and international Marcos Regime Bloom
  • 99. • Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) is a bureaucratic entity of art acquisition that upholds exhibition making, workshops, grants, and awards *created on 25 June 1966 in the Executive Order 30 and inaugurated in 1969, the year Marcos was elected to his second term as Philippine President Marcos Regime Bloom
  • 100. • Leandro Locsin designed the modernist building, crossing between the vernacular bahay kubo and art brut minimalist structures as shrine to High Art • Structure presides - entrance of the CCP complex - satellite structures o Folk Arts Theater - venue of the first Ms. Universe Pageant in the Philippines in 1974 o Philippine International Convention Center (PICC) - 1976 IMFWorld Bank Conference o Tahanang Filipino or Coconut Palace - anticipation of a papal visit o Manila Film Center - Manila International Film Festival - rival Cannes Marcos Regime Bloom
  • 102. • CCP supported artists by providing venues and grants and served as a validating entity of major awards to National Artists. • Propped up, the authority on modern art had an avant-garde like composer and ethnomusicologist National Artist Jose Maceda was staged in CCP Hybriding Arts
  • 103. • Opened and managed by artist professor Roberto Chabet, tasked as first director - avowedly conceptual, emphasizing the idea rather than technique and form. He considered himself as Flux artist - instrumental to CCP’s - became an establishment figure • Group exhibition, Objects in CCP in 1973 is a tore up a copy of a coffee- table book to Philippine contemporary art into trash bin Hybriding Arts
  • 104. • Tearing into Pieces was scandalous critique to conventions of the art world, The Struggle for Philippine Art referred by Purita Kalaw- Ledesma which she says “anti- museum art.” • Under Chabet and later Raymundo Albano, CCP Museum opened its exhibition programming influenced western avant-garde - tenets, pop art, happenings, environmental assemblages, new realism, performance art, and sound works. Hybriding Arts
  • 106. • Curatorial stance of Albano as more populist - initiated projects into a rubrics he termed “developmental art” • In 1971-1975 - it is still in the “exposure phase” as advanced art is experimental in nature *with the use of sand, junk, iron, non-art materials such as law lumber, rocks Developmental Art
  • 107. • People were shocked, scared, delighted, and satisfied by the notions of art did not agree • Under Albano’s directorship, CCP also reached out to regions outside Manila and beyond through art workshops and outreach programs through PAS Developmental Art
  • 109. • Social Realism (SR) is a significant strand of intense political ferment in the 70s and the 80s • various mediums, techniques, and styles was referred to as protest art in sociopolitical issues Social Realism
  • 110. • Struggles that a realist approaches is conscious with regards for the oppressed and underrepresented masses • Commonly tackles plight of the marginalized, inequality, and forms of repression * In a worked collectively, and in collaboration not only producing murals and other art forms but also in making aesthetic decisions grounded on a common mass-based, scientific and nationalist framework. Social Realism