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6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Dr. Diana Contreras, University of Salzburg, Austria
Srirama Bhamidipati, MSc., Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Sandra Contreras, B.Comm., PGd., Planeta Group Colombia
The fight of the Wayuu Community
against the Drought in La Guajira,
Colombia
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
OUTLINE
 Introduction
 Proposed
methodology
 Expected results
 Conclusions
 References
http://noticias.masverdedigital.com/colombia-declaran-calamidad-publica-en-departamento-de-la-guajira/
La Guajira - Colombia
2/17
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
CASE STUDY AREAINTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
3/17
Alta Guajira
Media Guajira
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
POPULATION
Members of the Wayuu community
http://www.radionacional.co/noticia/los-matrimonios-wayuu-y-sus-costumbres
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
4/17
Indigenous territories in Colombia
http://amejimina.blogspot.co.at/2010/01/sabias-que-cuantos-son-los-pueblos.html
270.000 People
VENEZUELA
COLOMBIA
Typical rancheria in La Guajira - Colombia
https://www.theadventurejunkies.com/wayuu-guajira-desert-photos/
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
INFRASTRUCTURE
http://www.semana.com/nacion/articulo/alerta-por-sequia-en-colombia/396628-3
Looking for water en La Guajira - Colombia
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
5/17
Water supply – Sewage System
5.3 % population
http://www.wradio.com.co/multimedia/fotogalerias/fotos-las-malas-condiciones-de-un-hospital-en-albania-municipio-de-la-guajira/20160527/fotogaleria/3144803.aspx#156509
Hospital in Albania , La Guajira - Colombia
http://static.elespectador.com/especiales/1408-guajira/index.html
bicycles
http://www.gentedecabecera.com/2016/04/transporte-para-los-ninos-de-la-alta-guajira/
trucks
https://laotracara.co/nota-ciudadania/grito-en-la-guajira/ Mototaxis
http://www.radiosantafe.com/2009/11/18/tricimovil-o-mototaxi-un-medio-de-transporte-alterno-que-se-convierte-en-problema/
Donkeis
http://www.wradio.com.co/noticias/actualidad/profesor-de-manaure-denuncia-que-toda-una-familia-esta-en-estado-critico-de-desnutricion/20160526/nota/3144377.aspx
School in Manaure, La Guajira - Colombia
Illiteracy : 60%
Rural population
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
UNDERNOURISHMENT
http://www.elheraldo.co/la-guajira/muere-otra-nina-por-
desnutricion-en-la-guajira-267940
http://www.elheraldo.co/la-guajira/confirman-la-muerte-de-otro-nino-wayuu-por-
desnutricion-270767
http://www.elheraldo.co/la-guajira/muertes-de-ninos-wayuu-este-ano-ya-superan-las-de-todo-2015-270830
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
6/17
2008 – 2013 4,151 children died
Child mortality rate: nearly 45 %
Chronic undernourishment in children: 30 %
44 children have died in 2016 (August)
Signs of undernourishment
Canal Capital (2015). Reviva el especial de Noticias Capital "Genocidio Wayúu"
Especiales Canal Capital. youtube:
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
FOOD INSECURITY
Siapana is one of the most affected regions due to the drought.
http://static.elespectador.com/especiales/1408-guajira/index.html
Low level of the streams in Guajira – Colombia
http://www.taringa.net/post/noticias/17998209/La-Guajira-Se-Esta-Quedando-Sin-Agua.html
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
7/17
NO RAINY SEASON SINCE 2012
Ranchería River in La Guajira - Colombia
Photo: Ada Luz Daza Hernández
Mining industry. El Cerrejón in Guajira - Colombia
https://laotracara.co/nota-ciudadania/grito-en-la-guajira/
17 mll Lts/day vs. 13 mll Lts/day
MINING INDUSTRY PEOPLE
WATER COMPSUMPTION
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
El Niño Phenomenon
Dry jagüey (well) in Nazareth due to the lack of rain.
http://static.elespectador.com/especiales/1408-guajira/index.html
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
8/17
CORRUPTION
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Venezuela
Selling of smuggled venezuelan products in Uribia
http://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias/2015/08/150819_colombia_alta_guajira_crisis_nc?ocid=socialflow_facebook
http://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias/2015/08/150819_colombia_alta_guajira_crisis_nc
Food shortage in Venezuela
Reopening of the border between Venezuela and Colombia
http://www.elperiodicodelara.com/2016/07/venezuela-y-colombia-fijan-condiciones.html
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
9/17
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Water management
Mill instaled between 1957 and 1963
http://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias/2015/08/150819_colombia_alta_guajira_crisis_nc?ocid=socialflow_facebook
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
10/17
 CORRUPTION
 LACK OF FINANTIAL RESOURCES
 LACK OF MAINTEINANCE
El Cercado dam
Photo: Ada Luz Daza Hernández
 Irrigation: rice and oil palm
 Mining industry
El CERCADO
DAM
 Energy generation
 Drinking water supply
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Public Calamity
http://www.taringa.net/post/noticias/17998209/La-Guajira-Se-Esta-Quedando-Sin-Agua.html
Dead animals due to the drought in La Guajira - Colombia
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
11/17
2014 – Public calamity – Colombian Government
2015 – Precautionary measures - ICHR
2016 - Open the floodgates of El Cercado dam - SCJ
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
OBJECTIVES
 To identify sources of water that can be potential alternatives
in Guajira
 To define measures that can improve supply and access to
drinking water for Wayuu community in short and long term
 To define policies based on water-management and climate-
change adaptation that ensures the food security for them
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
12/17
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
METHODOLOGY
 To know Wayuu culture
 To conduct Census per Rancheria and estimate population
density in the region
 To identify and geo-reference sources of water, both current
and potential sources
 To estimate the proportion of population benefitting or
lacking access to current sources of water
 To identify other sources of livelihood for the Wayuu
Community
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
13/17
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
EXPECTED RESULTS
A framework for policy initiatives:
 to improve water management in La Guajira, and
 to reduce impact of the severe weather (as droughts).
We foresee the potential of this framework to be adopted by
and extended to areas affected by droughts in other developing
countries.
We also hope to recommend policies to define long-term
climate adaptation measures for the Wayuu community.
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
14/17
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
TOURISM
Las Salinas de Manaure
http://caracol.com.co/radio/2016/04/21/judicial/1461274115_634562.html
El Cabo de la vela
https://www.theadventurejunkies.com/wayuu-guajira-desert-photos/National Park Serranía de Macuira
http://ahivoyviajando.blogspot.co.at/p/colombia-el-riesgo-es-que-te-quieras.html
Touristic rancheria
https://www.theadventurejunkies.com/wayuu-guajira-desert-photos/
Photo: Jinna Sánchez
Wayuu mochila bags and chicnchorros
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
15/17
Typical Wayuu dresses and accessories
http://www.rafastienda.com/web/index.php/mantas-wayuu/
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
SOLAR POWER PLANTINTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
Concentrated solar works by mirrors reflecting rays onto a central tower in Morroco (Pic: Masdar/Flickr)
http://sumo.ly/fbbq via @ClimateHome
2,190 KWh/m2/year
16/17
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
REFERENCES
 Caballero, A. 2016. Miseria Artificial. Arcadia. Bogotá D.C.: Arcadia
 Calderón, D. (2016). Guajira con “Jamushiri”. El Pais, 13 February, 2016.
 Canal Capital (2015). Reviva el especial de Noticias Capital: “Genocidio Wayúu”. Especiales Canal Capital. Youtube.
 Caracol Radio ( 2016). Gobierno pidió a la CIDH suspender medidas cautelares que protegían a niños Wayúu.
 Cosoy, N. (2015). Colombia: La tragedia de la Alta Guajira, la región en la que no llueve hace tres años. BBC Mundo. August
20th, 2005 ed. BBC Mundo.
 EJATLAS. 2016. Represa El Cercado en el río Ranchería, La Guajira, Colombia [Online]. Available:
https://ejatlas.org/conflict/represa-rio-rancheria-la-guajira-colombia [Accessed].
 Equipo Humanitario (2014). Informe Final MIRA: Alta Guajira –Uribia (La Guajira), Colombia.
 Guarnizo, J. (2014). !La Guajira S.O.S!. Semana, 19 July, 2014.
 Jaeger, W.K.; Plantinga, A.J.; Chang, H.; Dello, K.; Grant, G.; Hulse, D.; McDonnell, J.J.; Lancaster, S., Moradkhani, H., Morzillo,
A.T., Mote, P., Nolin, A., Santelmann, M. and Wu, J. (2013). Toward a formal definition of water scarcity in natural-human
systems. Water Resources Research, 49, 4506-4517.
 Pirry (2014). Hambruna en La Guajira. In: Pirry, E. (ed.)
 Kahil, M. T., Dinar, A. & Albiac, J. Cooperative water management and ecosystem protection under scarcity and drought in
arid and semiarid regions. Water Resources and Economics.
 Rojas, J. (2015). Indígenas Wayúu celebran medidas cautelares de la CIDH. In Wradio (ed).
 Tellman, B., Rivera, A., Alaniz, R. & Contreras, D. (2014). Violence as an obstacle to livelihood resilience in the context of
climate change. UNU-EHS Working Paper. United Nations University Institute of Environment and Human Security (UNU-
EHS).
 WRadio (2016). Wayúus tienen el derecho al 51% de activos de la explotación de sal en Manaure, 14 April 2016.
 Adams, H.; Istiakh A; Alaniz, R.; Andrei, S.; Barthelt, C.; Bhargava, M.; Bronen, R.; Contreras, D.; Cradock-Henry, N.; Fernando,
N.; Henly-Shepard, S.; Huq, S.; Lawless, C.; Lewis, D.; Loster, T.; McNamara, K.; Milan, A.; Mitchell, T.; Nawrotzki, R.; Olson, L.;
Prasad, V.; Rahman, A.; Rhyner, J.; Sosa, A. R.; Sietz, D.; Souza, R. M. D.; Thomalla, F.; Tellman, E.; Vivo, G.; Williams, C.;
Wrathall, D. & Zommers, Z. 2015. In Ayeb-Karlsson, S; Tanner, T.; van der Geest, K.; Warner, K. Livelihood resilience in a
changing world – 6 global policy recommendations for a more sustainable future, 31. UNU-EHS, Bonn.
DANKE
MERCI
GRACIAS
THANK YOU
dziękuję
MULTUMESC
KÖSZÖNÖM
OBRIGADA
DANKJEWEL
ధన్యవాదాలు
ขอบคุณ
HVALA
ХВАЛА
謝謝
고맙습니다ありがとうございました
anayawachijaa
17/17

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90_The Fight of the Wayuu Ethnic Community against the Drought in Guajira

  • 1. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Dr. Diana Contreras, University of Salzburg, Austria Srirama Bhamidipati, MSc., Delft University of Technology, Netherlands Sandra Contreras, B.Comm., PGd., Planeta Group Colombia The fight of the Wayuu Community against the Drought in La Guajira, Colombia
  • 2. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org OUTLINE  Introduction  Proposed methodology  Expected results  Conclusions  References http://noticias.masverdedigital.com/colombia-declaran-calamidad-publica-en-departamento-de-la-guajira/ La Guajira - Colombia 2/17
  • 3. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org CASE STUDY AREAINTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 3/17 Alta Guajira Media Guajira
  • 4. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org POPULATION Members of the Wayuu community http://www.radionacional.co/noticia/los-matrimonios-wayuu-y-sus-costumbres INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 4/17 Indigenous territories in Colombia http://amejimina.blogspot.co.at/2010/01/sabias-que-cuantos-son-los-pueblos.html 270.000 People VENEZUELA COLOMBIA Typical rancheria in La Guajira - Colombia https://www.theadventurejunkies.com/wayuu-guajira-desert-photos/
  • 5. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org INFRASTRUCTURE http://www.semana.com/nacion/articulo/alerta-por-sequia-en-colombia/396628-3 Looking for water en La Guajira - Colombia INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 5/17 Water supply – Sewage System 5.3 % population http://www.wradio.com.co/multimedia/fotogalerias/fotos-las-malas-condiciones-de-un-hospital-en-albania-municipio-de-la-guajira/20160527/fotogaleria/3144803.aspx#156509 Hospital in Albania , La Guajira - Colombia http://static.elespectador.com/especiales/1408-guajira/index.html bicycles http://www.gentedecabecera.com/2016/04/transporte-para-los-ninos-de-la-alta-guajira/ trucks https://laotracara.co/nota-ciudadania/grito-en-la-guajira/ Mototaxis http://www.radiosantafe.com/2009/11/18/tricimovil-o-mototaxi-un-medio-de-transporte-alterno-que-se-convierte-en-problema/ Donkeis http://www.wradio.com.co/noticias/actualidad/profesor-de-manaure-denuncia-que-toda-una-familia-esta-en-estado-critico-de-desnutricion/20160526/nota/3144377.aspx School in Manaure, La Guajira - Colombia Illiteracy : 60% Rural population
  • 6. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org UNDERNOURISHMENT http://www.elheraldo.co/la-guajira/muere-otra-nina-por- desnutricion-en-la-guajira-267940 http://www.elheraldo.co/la-guajira/confirman-la-muerte-de-otro-nino-wayuu-por- desnutricion-270767 http://www.elheraldo.co/la-guajira/muertes-de-ninos-wayuu-este-ano-ya-superan-las-de-todo-2015-270830 INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 6/17 2008 – 2013 4,151 children died Child mortality rate: nearly 45 % Chronic undernourishment in children: 30 % 44 children have died in 2016 (August) Signs of undernourishment Canal Capital (2015). Reviva el especial de Noticias Capital "Genocidio Wayúu" Especiales Canal Capital. youtube:
  • 7. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org FOOD INSECURITY Siapana is one of the most affected regions due to the drought. http://static.elespectador.com/especiales/1408-guajira/index.html Low level of the streams in Guajira – Colombia http://www.taringa.net/post/noticias/17998209/La-Guajira-Se-Esta-Quedando-Sin-Agua.html INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 7/17 NO RAINY SEASON SINCE 2012 Ranchería River in La Guajira - Colombia Photo: Ada Luz Daza Hernández Mining industry. El Cerrejón in Guajira - Colombia https://laotracara.co/nota-ciudadania/grito-en-la-guajira/ 17 mll Lts/day vs. 13 mll Lts/day MINING INDUSTRY PEOPLE WATER COMPSUMPTION
  • 8. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org El Niño Phenomenon Dry jagüey (well) in Nazareth due to the lack of rain. http://static.elespectador.com/especiales/1408-guajira/index.html INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 8/17 CORRUPTION
  • 9. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Venezuela Selling of smuggled venezuelan products in Uribia http://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias/2015/08/150819_colombia_alta_guajira_crisis_nc?ocid=socialflow_facebook http://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias/2015/08/150819_colombia_alta_guajira_crisis_nc Food shortage in Venezuela Reopening of the border between Venezuela and Colombia http://www.elperiodicodelara.com/2016/07/venezuela-y-colombia-fijan-condiciones.html INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 9/17
  • 10. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Water management Mill instaled between 1957 and 1963 http://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias/2015/08/150819_colombia_alta_guajira_crisis_nc?ocid=socialflow_facebook INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 10/17  CORRUPTION  LACK OF FINANTIAL RESOURCES  LACK OF MAINTEINANCE El Cercado dam Photo: Ada Luz Daza Hernández  Irrigation: rice and oil palm  Mining industry El CERCADO DAM  Energy generation  Drinking water supply
  • 11. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Public Calamity http://www.taringa.net/post/noticias/17998209/La-Guajira-Se-Esta-Quedando-Sin-Agua.html Dead animals due to the drought in La Guajira - Colombia INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 11/17 2014 – Public calamity – Colombian Government 2015 – Precautionary measures - ICHR 2016 - Open the floodgates of El Cercado dam - SCJ
  • 12. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org OBJECTIVES  To identify sources of water that can be potential alternatives in Guajira  To define measures that can improve supply and access to drinking water for Wayuu community in short and long term  To define policies based on water-management and climate- change adaptation that ensures the food security for them INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 12/17
  • 13. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org METHODOLOGY  To know Wayuu culture  To conduct Census per Rancheria and estimate population density in the region  To identify and geo-reference sources of water, both current and potential sources  To estimate the proportion of population benefitting or lacking access to current sources of water  To identify other sources of livelihood for the Wayuu Community INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 13/17
  • 14. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org EXPECTED RESULTS A framework for policy initiatives:  to improve water management in La Guajira, and  to reduce impact of the severe weather (as droughts). We foresee the potential of this framework to be adopted by and extended to areas affected by droughts in other developing countries. We also hope to recommend policies to define long-term climate adaptation measures for the Wayuu community. INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 14/17
  • 15. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org TOURISM Las Salinas de Manaure http://caracol.com.co/radio/2016/04/21/judicial/1461274115_634562.html El Cabo de la vela https://www.theadventurejunkies.com/wayuu-guajira-desert-photos/National Park Serranía de Macuira http://ahivoyviajando.blogspot.co.at/p/colombia-el-riesgo-es-que-te-quieras.html Touristic rancheria https://www.theadventurejunkies.com/wayuu-guajira-desert-photos/ Photo: Jinna Sánchez Wayuu mochila bags and chicnchorros INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 15/17 Typical Wayuu dresses and accessories http://www.rafastienda.com/web/index.php/mantas-wayuu/
  • 16. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org SOLAR POWER PLANTINTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Concentrated solar works by mirrors reflecting rays onto a central tower in Morroco (Pic: Masdar/Flickr) http://sumo.ly/fbbq via @ClimateHome 2,190 KWh/m2/year 16/17
  • 17. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org REFERENCES  Caballero, A. 2016. Miseria Artificial. Arcadia. Bogotá D.C.: Arcadia  Calderón, D. (2016). Guajira con “Jamushiri”. El Pais, 13 February, 2016.  Canal Capital (2015). Reviva el especial de Noticias Capital: “Genocidio Wayúu”. Especiales Canal Capital. Youtube.  Caracol Radio ( 2016). Gobierno pidió a la CIDH suspender medidas cautelares que protegían a niños Wayúu.  Cosoy, N. (2015). Colombia: La tragedia de la Alta Guajira, la región en la que no llueve hace tres años. BBC Mundo. August 20th, 2005 ed. BBC Mundo.  EJATLAS. 2016. Represa El Cercado en el río Ranchería, La Guajira, Colombia [Online]. Available: https://ejatlas.org/conflict/represa-rio-rancheria-la-guajira-colombia [Accessed].  Equipo Humanitario (2014). Informe Final MIRA: Alta Guajira –Uribia (La Guajira), Colombia.  Guarnizo, J. (2014). !La Guajira S.O.S!. Semana, 19 July, 2014.  Jaeger, W.K.; Plantinga, A.J.; Chang, H.; Dello, K.; Grant, G.; Hulse, D.; McDonnell, J.J.; Lancaster, S., Moradkhani, H., Morzillo, A.T., Mote, P., Nolin, A., Santelmann, M. and Wu, J. (2013). Toward a formal definition of water scarcity in natural-human systems. Water Resources Research, 49, 4506-4517.  Pirry (2014). Hambruna en La Guajira. In: Pirry, E. (ed.)  Kahil, M. T., Dinar, A. & Albiac, J. Cooperative water management and ecosystem protection under scarcity and drought in arid and semiarid regions. Water Resources and Economics.  Rojas, J. (2015). Indígenas Wayúu celebran medidas cautelares de la CIDH. In Wradio (ed).  Tellman, B., Rivera, A., Alaniz, R. & Contreras, D. (2014). Violence as an obstacle to livelihood resilience in the context of climate change. UNU-EHS Working Paper. United Nations University Institute of Environment and Human Security (UNU- EHS).  WRadio (2016). Wayúus tienen el derecho al 51% de activos de la explotación de sal en Manaure, 14 April 2016.  Adams, H.; Istiakh A; Alaniz, R.; Andrei, S.; Barthelt, C.; Bhargava, M.; Bronen, R.; Contreras, D.; Cradock-Henry, N.; Fernando, N.; Henly-Shepard, S.; Huq, S.; Lawless, C.; Lewis, D.; Loster, T.; McNamara, K.; Milan, A.; Mitchell, T.; Nawrotzki, R.; Olson, L.; Prasad, V.; Rahman, A.; Rhyner, J.; Sosa, A. R.; Sietz, D.; Souza, R. M. D.; Thomalla, F.; Tellman, E.; Vivo, G.; Williams, C.; Wrathall, D. & Zommers, Z. 2015. In Ayeb-Karlsson, S; Tanner, T.; van der Geest, K.; Warner, K. Livelihood resilience in a changing world – 6 global policy recommendations for a more sustainable future, 31. UNU-EHS, Bonn. DANKE MERCI GRACIAS THANK YOU dziękuję MULTUMESC KÖSZÖNÖM OBRIGADA DANKJEWEL ధన్యవాదాలు ขอบคุณ HVALA ХВАЛА 謝謝 고맙습니다ありがとうございました anayawachijaa 17/17

Editor's Notes

  1. Good morning, my name is Diana Contreras. I am Doctor from the University of Salzburg and today I am going to present the fight of the Wayuu Community against the Drought in La Guajira, Colombia.
  2. This is the outline of the presentation.
  3. Colombia is divided into 32 departments and one of them is La Guajira. La Guajira is located in the north of the country along the border with Venezuela. It is a desert area where the temperature varies between 35°C and 42°C along the year. The capital of the department is Riohacha and other important municipalities include Uribia, Manaure, and Maicao. The north of the depatment is known as Alta Guajira and the center is known as media Guajira.
  4. The majority of the population in La Guajira belongs to the Wayuu community. This is the biggest indigenous group in Colombia and they represent the 30% of the indigenous population in our country. Members of this ethnic group have both Colombian and Venezuelan citizenship, because their territory falls in both countries, but this map only shows its territory in Colombia. They speak Wayuunaiki and only 34% speak also Spanish. They are organized in clans. They live in the rural area of the department in small settlements called: rancherías. These are small settlements made up of no more than 10 houses built up with mud and wood. Those houses are far from each other, where relatives from the same clan live.
  5. The presence of the State in this region is scarce. It is one of the poorest and isolated areas in Colombia. A walk to access drinking water can take hours. The water and sewage system only covers about 5.3% of this population and very few places have access to electricity. There are no medical facilities nearby, they have to go to Riohacha, Uribia, or Albania, and this is the stage of the facilities. There are not roads. There is no public transport between the rancherías and the municipalities. The transport media options are limited to donkeys, bicycles , trucks or mototaxis. There are very few education facilities with very scarce resources. Children only attend primary school and of course the rate of illiteracy is 60% among the rural population.
  6. According to the National Department of Statistics in Colombia (DANE), between 2008 and 2013, about 4,151 children have died in the whole Guajira. Among these, 278 deaths were due to undernourishment, 2,671 due to illness without treatment and 1.202 were fetal deaths. The child mortality rate in Guajira is nearly 45%. The percentage of children suffering from chronic undernourishment in La Guajira is as high as 30%. The number of children suffering from undernourishment could be even higher if all of the Wayuu children were included in the national census. In this year 44 children have died already in La Guajira due to undernourishment and/or illnes related to undernourishment. The effects of the undernourishment are not only visible in children, but also in pregnant and breastfeeding women, teenagers and elderly people. The undernourishment and the related illnesses are the consequences of the shortage in food that affects mainly the North and the center of the department.
  7. The shortage in food is a result of loss in crops from the drought and bad water management policies in the department. There has been no rainy season in La Guajira since 2012, that used to seasonally replenish the streams that crossed the region. The course of the Rancheria river (the main river in the region) was altered to provide water to the nearby mining industry.
  8. The drought is the result of El Niño Phenomenon, but the consequences are aggravated due to the high degree of corruption in the department and the political situation in Venezuela.
  9. In the past, the members of the Wayuu community had other sources of income in legal or illegal trade with Venezuela, or working in Venezuela in dairy farming, cleaning services or in the construction industry. But the shortage in food in Venezuela and the close of the border with Colombia by Venezuela, eliminated these options. Now is the opposite, people from Venezuela come to Colombia to buy mainly food.
  10. The problem of lack of water in La Guajira existed since long. In the 50’s the Government installed some mills to extract ground water but, corruption, the lack of financial resources and the lack of maintenance put most of the mills out of service. The course of the Rancheria river, which used to supply water for the communities, changed when the El Cercado dam was built. The river disappeared along its middle and lower course where the settlements of the Wayuu community are located. At present, the water coming from the dam is primarily used for irrigation (rice and palm oil) for the extraction industry and not for energy generation and drinking water supply as was the original intention. The 1st August the Supreme Court of Justice and the High Court of Bogotá ordered the National Government to open the floodgates of the El cercado Dam in La Guajira in order that the water arrives to the indigenous communities.
  11. A situation of public calamity in Guajira was declared in 2014 by the Government of Colombia. In December 2015, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (ICHR) ordered the Colombian Government to take precautionary measures to protect the children of the Wayuu community in the municipalities of Manaure, Uribia, Riohacha and Maicao in La Guajira. The 1st August the Supreme Court of Justice and the High Court of Bogotá ordered the National Government to open the floodgates of the El cercado Dam in La Guajira in order that the water arrives to the indigenous communities (Fajardo, 2016).
  12. What is need to be done?
  13. The 1st August the Supreme Court of Justice and the High Court of Bogotá ordered the National Government to open the floodgates of the El cercado Dam in La Guajira in order that the water arrives to the indigenous communities (Fajardo, 2016).
  14. This is not a conclusion section as you expected. I have showed you all the problems in the department, now I want to show you the potential of the region as touristc destination. In La Guajira you can visit……
  15. La Guajira is the department of Colombia with the highest solar radiation. There is an estimation of average availability of 2.190 kilowatt hour, per square meter, per year in La Guajira. This power plant in the picture is made up of mirrors, but could be also photovoltaic panels. This could be nor only another source of energy for Colombia, but also a source of income for La Guajira and the communities contained there.