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8D Training.PPT
Team Problem Solving
Agenda
Name
Years Service
Current Position
Team Problem Solving
• Please introduce yourself:
Course Objectives
This course will:
• Introduce Tools for the 8 Step Team
Problem Solving Process
• Establish a team-oriented method for
solving any problem using factual data
• Establish a standard reporting format for
problem resolution
• Establish a “common approach” for
communicating about problems
Why are you here ?
Past problems have
sometimes been
addressed in a quick fix
fashion without
verification of the
effectiveness of our
corrective actions
The “quick-fix” approach
Brainstorm some of
the possible
pitfalls of this
approach to
problem solving
What Failed?
• Vague problem description
• Problem solving process
expedited
• Lack of logical thought
process
• Root cause misidentified
• Permanent actions not
implemented
Preconceptions
• We already tried that
• It would not work here
• It cannot be done
• It’s good enough the way it is now
• We are too busy to do that
The Disciplined Approach
• 8 D problem solving is a matter of
D I S C I P L I N E
• Problem solvers accept
R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y
• Commitments and
corrective action plans must be
H E L D S A C R E D
The Team Problem Solving
Process
Objectives :
• Improve quality, productivity, and
customer satisfaction
• Reduce cost
• Permanently solve problems
• Reduce number of repetitive problems
• Monitor problem resolution activities
The Team Problem Solving
Process
Definition:
• Systematic approach to problem solving
using factual data
• Method to achieve an orderly thought
process that can be used to resolve any
problem
“Without data, you are
just another person
with an opinion.”
Speak with data
The Team Problem Solving
Process: G8D
D0: Prepare For The Global 8D
Process
D1: Establish The Team
D2: Describe The Problem
The Team Problem Solving
Process: G8D
D3: Develop The Interim Containment
Action (ICA)
D4: Diagnose The Problem: Define
And Verify Root Cause And
Escape Point
The Team Problem Solving
Process: G8D
D5: Choose And Verify Permanent
Corrective Actions (PCAs) For
Root Cause And Escape Point
D6: Implement And Validate
Permanent Corrective Actions
(PCAs)
The Team Problem Solving
Process: G8D
D7: Prevent Recurrence
D8: Recognize Team And Individual
Contributions
D0
Prepare For The G8D Process
• Evaluate
• Respond
• Provide ERAs (Emergency Response
Actions)
• Begin
D1
Establish The Team
• Cross functional
team
• Members with:
– Expertise
– Authority
• Select 4 -10
team members
The Team Approach
The team selected must be able to:
• Define the problem
• Find root causes
• Implement and verify corrective actions
• Prevent recurrence
Team Composition
Leader
Champion
Recorder
Members
Team Leader
• Ensures the team
performs its duties and
responsibilities
• Establishes meeting
time and location
• Directs meeting to
follow established
agenda
• Starts and ends the
meeting on time
Team Champion
• Stake Holder in the
team’s success
• Functions like a
facilitator: provides
information and
removes road blocks
• Helps team reach their
goals
Team Recorder
• Takes notes during the
meeting
• Writes, publishes, and
distributes minutes in a
timely fashion
• Works with team leader to
establish logistics of the
meeting
Team Members
• Team members are responsible for :
–respecting other’s ideas
–keeping an open mind
–being receptive to consensus
decision making
–listening actively to other team
members
90% of Problem Solving Time
is Spent...
• Solving the wrong problem
• Stating the problem so it can’t be solved
• Solving a countermeasure or cause
• Stating problems too generally
• Trying to get agreement on the solution
before there is an agreement on the
problem
D2
Describe The Problem
“ A problem well-defined is a problem
half-solved. ”
• Describe the specific object and
specific defect which resulted in a
deviation from the standard
D2
Describe The Problem
State the problem in specific terms:
• Who: Identifies individuals associated
with the problem
• What: Describe the defect/object
• When: Date / Process Step
• Where: Geographic/location on part
• How: Method of detection
• How much ( How many): Quantity
D2
Describe The Problem
• Fallacy: Avoid describing problems
as symptoms
– Some examples:
• Noisy
• Won’t work
• Contaminated
• Not to specification
Is This A Good Description
Of The Problem?
• Bill James reported that the flange
which is welded to the inlet pipe is
crooked.
• Customer reports that the problem has
resulted in several assemblies that
could not be assembled to the manifold.
Why Is This Better ?
• Bill James, Lordstown assembly line
supervisor, reported that the flange which is
welded to the inlet pipe is crooked to
centerline. This condition is putting the bolt
mounting holes out of alignment which
prevented a straight-in bolt assembly.
• The customer reported that the problem
resulted in 14 bad muffler assemblies over a
one day period.
Problem History
• Determine “Key Measurable” identified
with the problem
• Obtain past data to quantify magnitude
of the problem
• If past data is not available, start
collecting data prior to any
improvements
Coordinate action plan to minimize the
effects of the problem on the customer:
• Quarantine all similar equipment
• Implement 100% inspection
• Issue Cell Alert
D3
Develop The Interim
Containment Action (ICA)
Cell Alert Form
CELL ALERT
CELL ALERT #
SUBJECT:
EFFECTIVE DATE: EXPIRE DATE:
FOLLOW-UP INFO:
CUSTOMER: CHRYSLER FORD GM HONDA MERCEDES NISSAN Safety
PLATFORM(S):
INITIATOR: MFG. ENGR:
QUALITY ENGR: MFG SPRVR
PRODUCT
ENGR: CONCERN NUMBER:
ASSET NUMBER:
Implement Short Term
Containment Action
• Document all actions taken and
verify their effectiveness
• Remove when permanent
actions have been implemented
and verified
D4
Diagnose The Problem: Define And
Verify Root Cause and Escape Point
• Identify all potential causes which could
explain why the problem occurred
• Isolate and verify the root cause by testing
each potential cause
• Identify corrective actions to
eliminate root cause
• Isolate and verify the “Escape Point”
D4
Define the Root Cause
• Solving a problem without
identifying the root cause
is called “shooting from
the hip”
• A likely outcome of
shooting from the hip is
recurrence of the problem
Root Cause Analysis Tools
• Process Flow
Chart
• Process FMEA /
Control Plans
• Brainstorming
• Pareto Chart
• Cause and
Effect Diagram
• BOS Chart
• 5 Why’s
Problem solving / Graphical Techniques
•Flow chart
•Check Sheet
•Brain storming
•Nominal group
techniques
•Histogram
•Scatter diagram
•Control chart
•Process
capability
•Pareto chart
•Cause &
effect
•Run Chart
Problem
Identification
Problem Analysis
Flow Chart
Check Sheets
Definition:
• Simple data gathering technique for obtaining
information about a process
• A common type of check sheet logs the frequency
of defects over a period of time
• Also known as “Tally Sheets’
• Answers the questions, When & How many ?
Pareto Chart
• Purpose Of A Pareto Chart
A pareto chart is used to graphically
summarize and display the relative
importance of the differences between
groups of data.
Pareto Chart (80:20)
Pareto Chart
How To Construct A Pareto Chart
A pareto chart can be constructed by segmenting the
range of the data into groups (also called segments,
bins or categories). For example, if your business was
investigating the delay associated with processing
credit card applications, you could group the data into
the following categories:
• No signature
• Residential address not valid
• Non-legible handwriting
• Already a customer
• Other
Pareto Chart
Some Sample 80/20 Rule Applications
• 80% of process defects arise from 20% of the
process issues.
• 20% of your sales force produces 80% of
your company revenues.
• 80% of delays in schedule arise from 20% of
the possible causes of the delays.
• 80% of customer complaints arise from 20%
of your products or services.
(The above examples are rough estimates.)
Histogram
Purpose Of A Histogram
A histogram is used to graphically
summarize and display the distribution
of a process data set.
Histogram
Histogram
How To Construct A Histogram
A histogram can be constructed by
segmenting the range of the data into
equal sized bins (also called segments,
groups or classes). For example, if your
data ranges from 1.1 to 1.8, you could
have equal bins of 0.1 consisting of 1 to
1.1, 1.2 to 1.3, 1.3 to 1.4, and so on.
Cause and Effect Diagram
• Also known as “Fishbone Diagram” and
“Ishikawa Diagram”
• Diagram of the causes contributing to a
particular problem
• Focus is on the problem and root
causes rather than solutions
• Tool for organizing brainstorming ideas
How to use the
Cause and Effect Diagram
Step 1: Write the problem inside a box
on the right-hand side of the
writing surface. (“Head” of the fish)
Step 2: Draw a major horizontal arrow
from the left hand side of the
chart leading into the box.
(“Backbone” of the fish)
How to use the
Cause and Effect Diagram
Step 3: Add major 5 M categories
Man
Machine
Methods
Materials
Measurements
How to use the
Cause and Effect Diagram
Step 4: Draw slanted arrows from the
categories to the horizontal
arrow (“Ribs” of the fish)
Step 5: Place the brainstorming ideas
under the appropriate
categories
Note: Ideas may belong in two or more
categories
Cause and Effect Diagram
Scatter Diagrams
A SCATTER DIAGRAM IS USED FOR:
1. Validating "hunches" about a cause-and-effect relationship
between types of variables (examples: I wonder if students who
spend more time watching TV have higher or lower average
GPA's?; is there a relationship between the production speed of
an operator and the number of defective parts made?)
2. Displaying the direction of the relationship (positive, negative,
etc.) (examples: Will test scores increase or decrease if the
students spend more time in study hall?; will increasing
assembly line speed increase or decrease the number of
defective parts made?;)
3. Displaying the strength of the relationship (examples: How
strong is the relationship between measured IQ and grades
earned in Chemistry?; how strong is the relationship between
assembly line speed and the number of defective parts
produced?;)
Scatter Diagrams
STEPS IN CONSTRUCTING A SCATTER DIAGRAM:
Collect two pieces of data (a pair of numbers) on a
student, process, or product. Create a summary table of
the data.
1. Draw a diagram labeling the horizontal and vertical axes.
It is common that the "cause" variable be labeled the
horizontal (X) axis and the "effect" variable be labeled the
vertical (Y) axis. The values should increase up the
vertical scale and toward the right on the horizontal
scale. The scale on both the X and Y axes should be
sufficient to include both the largest and the smallest X
and Y values in the table.
2. Plot the data pairs on the diagram by placing a dot at the
intersections of the X and Y coordinates for each data
pair.
3. Interpret the scatter diagram for direction and strength.
Scatter Diagrams
Interpreting the direction:
Data patterns may be positive, negative, or display no
relationship. A positive relationship is indicated by an
ellipse of points that slopes upward demonstrating that an
increase in the cause variable also increases the effect
variable. A negative relationship is indicated by an ellipse of
points that slopes downward demonstrating that an
increase in the cause variable results in a decrease in the
effect variable. A diagram with a cluster of points such that
it is difficult or impossible to determine whether the trend is
upward sloping or downward sloping indicates that there is
no relationship between the two variables.
Interpreting the strength:
Data patterns, whether in a positive or negative direction,
should also be interpreted for strength by examining the
"tightness" of the clustered points. The more the points are
clustered to look like a straight line the stronger the
relationship.
Scatter Diagrams
Scatter Diagrams
Process FMEA
• Identify part function and potential
failure modes
• Identify causes of failure and potential
effects
• Identify corrective action
Control Plans
• Determine quality characteristics to be
controlled
• Determine inspection frequency
• Determine gauging
• Identify application of SPC techniques
• Identify reaction plans when defects are
found in the process
Brainstorming
A method for a
team to
creatively and
efficiently
generate ideas
on any topic
Scrap PPM
Brainstorming
How to use Brainstorming:
• State problem
• Each team member, in turn, gives an
idea. No ideas are criticized!
• Write each idea on a flipchart
• Team does not stop and discuss any of
the ideas during the session
Brainstorming
• Ideas are generated in turn until each
person passes indicating that the ideas
are exhausted
• Review written ideas for clarity
• Discard any duplicate ideas
or combine similar ideas
Brainstorming
Scrap PPM
• Bad seam weld
• Low recoil
• Set-Up
• Machine Capability
• Incomplete Seam Weld
• High Compression
• Low Compression
Ask Why Five Times
? ? ? ? ?
• Effective in driving the problem
solving process toward root cause
• Generates understanding of cause
and effect
How to use
Ask Why 5 Times
• Why did the shock leak?
– Because the rod seal ID and rod OD were worn
• Why were the components worn?
– Because the seal was packed with sand and grit
• Why was the seal packed with sand and grit?
– Because of contamination on bins
How to use
Ask Why 5 Times
• Why is there contamination in the bins?
– Because the bins are not washed
• Why are the bins not washed?
– Because a washer has not been
purchased
Verify Potential Causes
• Potential causes
selected are tested to
verify that they are a
root cause
• Root cause of the
problem is found when
you can turn the
problem “on” and “off”
“Have we done it ?”
HOW TO KNOW WHEN WE’VE FOUND THE
ROOT CAUSE OF A PROBLEM
Test Questions Yes/No
DEAD END: You ran into a dead end when asking,
“What caused the proposed root cause ?” _______
CONVERSATION: All conversation has come to a positive end. _______
FEELS GOOD: Everyone involved feels good, is motivated and uplifted
emotionally. _______
AGREEMENT: All agree it is the root cause that keeps the problem from
resolving. _______
EXPLAINS: It fully explains why the problem exists from all points of view. _______
BEGINNINGS: The earliest beginnings of the situation have been explored
and understood. _______
LOGICAL: The root cause is logical, makes sense and dispels all confusion. _______
SPECIFIC: Your statement gets to the exact point of the trouble without
generalizations. _______
CONTROL: The root cause is something you can influence, control and
deal with realistically. _______
HOPE: Finding the root cause has returned hope that something constructive
can be done about the situation. _______
WORKABLE: Suddenly, workable solutions, that deal with all the symptoms
begin to appear. _______
STABLE: A stable, long-term, once-and-for-all resolution of the situation
now appears feasible. _______
Root Cause Verification Tools
• Check Sheets
• Run Charts
• Process Capability
• Design of Experiments
T w in T ube Paint / Pack Rew orkable D efects
Audit Sum m ary Log Sheet
Shift: First
Nam e: Evelyn C offey
D ate: August 8,1997
Part Num ber G SH0005 G SH0016 ASH0004
C ustom er Ford Ford Ford
Incorrect Paint D aub 0 0 0
B ushing O ff C enter 0 0 300
B ad Paint 2 0 0
T otal Parts Rew orked 2 0 300
Optimization
• The most important stage
• Focuses on the reduction of variation
• Statistical processes are used to focus on:
– centering the process
– the main effects of the independent
variables
– identifying optimum levels for the “vital few”
Controls
• Preventative and Reactive controls are
put in place
• Process controls are the last thing that
should be done when analyzing a
manufacturing process
Design of Experiments
• Establish cause and effect relationships
between several different variables and
the outcome being studied
• Evaluate the interaction of two or more
variables
D5
Choose And Verify Permanent
Corrective Actions (PCAs) For Root
Cause And Escape Point
• Decision Analysis helps you select the
optimal corrective action from several
options
Decision Analysis Process
1. Separate criteria into “must have”
or desirable
2. “Must have” criteria are mandatory
and measurable
3. Rank “desirable” criteria using
problem solving techniques
Decision Analysis Process
4. Analyze potential solutions for risk.
Ask, “What could possibly go wrong if
the solution is implemented”?
5. Determine probability of the risk and the
seriousness if it does occur.
6. Select high probability and high
seriousness solutions
Decision Analysis Process
• Test selected corrective action
• Verify corrective action will permanently
eliminate the root cause without
introducing any new effects
• Use a pilot test to verify corrective actions
D6
Implement And Validate Permanent
Corrective Actions (PCAs)
• Develop a timeline to implement corrective actions
• Timeline should include:
– schedule
– milestones
– activities
– resources
– responsibilities
D6
• Track progress and effectiveness of
both containment and permanent
actions
• Remember, if you cannot prove the
problem is fixed, you cannot say it is
fixed
D7
Prevent Recurrence
• Determine where similar circumstances
could result in the same problem
• Fix the system that allowed the problem
to occur
– Update Control Plans / FMEA / Drawings
– Create Work Instructions
– Training
D8
Recognize Team And Individual
Contributions
• Calculate the cost
savings as a result
of the solution of the
problem
• Document additional
benefits to resolving
the problem
$$
D8
In addition to congratulating
team members, remember
to recognize outside
vendors or customers who
were involved in resolving
the problem
Congratulations
Team !!!

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8D Training.PPT

  • 3. Name Years Service Current Position Team Problem Solving • Please introduce yourself:
  • 4. Course Objectives This course will: • Introduce Tools for the 8 Step Team Problem Solving Process • Establish a team-oriented method for solving any problem using factual data • Establish a standard reporting format for problem resolution • Establish a “common approach” for communicating about problems
  • 5. Why are you here ? Past problems have sometimes been addressed in a quick fix fashion without verification of the effectiveness of our corrective actions
  • 6. The “quick-fix” approach Brainstorm some of the possible pitfalls of this approach to problem solving
  • 7. What Failed? • Vague problem description • Problem solving process expedited • Lack of logical thought process • Root cause misidentified • Permanent actions not implemented
  • 8. Preconceptions • We already tried that • It would not work here • It cannot be done • It’s good enough the way it is now • We are too busy to do that
  • 9. The Disciplined Approach • 8 D problem solving is a matter of D I S C I P L I N E • Problem solvers accept R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y • Commitments and corrective action plans must be H E L D S A C R E D
  • 10. The Team Problem Solving Process Objectives : • Improve quality, productivity, and customer satisfaction • Reduce cost • Permanently solve problems • Reduce number of repetitive problems • Monitor problem resolution activities
  • 11. The Team Problem Solving Process Definition: • Systematic approach to problem solving using factual data • Method to achieve an orderly thought process that can be used to resolve any problem
  • 12. “Without data, you are just another person with an opinion.” Speak with data
  • 13. The Team Problem Solving Process: G8D D0: Prepare For The Global 8D Process D1: Establish The Team D2: Describe The Problem
  • 14. The Team Problem Solving Process: G8D D3: Develop The Interim Containment Action (ICA) D4: Diagnose The Problem: Define And Verify Root Cause And Escape Point
  • 15. The Team Problem Solving Process: G8D D5: Choose And Verify Permanent Corrective Actions (PCAs) For Root Cause And Escape Point D6: Implement And Validate Permanent Corrective Actions (PCAs)
  • 16. The Team Problem Solving Process: G8D D7: Prevent Recurrence D8: Recognize Team And Individual Contributions
  • 17. D0 Prepare For The G8D Process • Evaluate • Respond • Provide ERAs (Emergency Response Actions) • Begin
  • 18. D1 Establish The Team • Cross functional team • Members with: – Expertise – Authority • Select 4 -10 team members
  • 19. The Team Approach The team selected must be able to: • Define the problem • Find root causes • Implement and verify corrective actions • Prevent recurrence
  • 21. Team Leader • Ensures the team performs its duties and responsibilities • Establishes meeting time and location • Directs meeting to follow established agenda • Starts and ends the meeting on time
  • 22. Team Champion • Stake Holder in the team’s success • Functions like a facilitator: provides information and removes road blocks • Helps team reach their goals
  • 23. Team Recorder • Takes notes during the meeting • Writes, publishes, and distributes minutes in a timely fashion • Works with team leader to establish logistics of the meeting
  • 24. Team Members • Team members are responsible for : –respecting other’s ideas –keeping an open mind –being receptive to consensus decision making –listening actively to other team members
  • 25. 90% of Problem Solving Time is Spent... • Solving the wrong problem • Stating the problem so it can’t be solved • Solving a countermeasure or cause • Stating problems too generally • Trying to get agreement on the solution before there is an agreement on the problem
  • 26. D2 Describe The Problem “ A problem well-defined is a problem half-solved. ” • Describe the specific object and specific defect which resulted in a deviation from the standard
  • 27. D2 Describe The Problem State the problem in specific terms: • Who: Identifies individuals associated with the problem • What: Describe the defect/object • When: Date / Process Step • Where: Geographic/location on part • How: Method of detection • How much ( How many): Quantity
  • 28. D2 Describe The Problem • Fallacy: Avoid describing problems as symptoms – Some examples: • Noisy • Won’t work • Contaminated • Not to specification
  • 29. Is This A Good Description Of The Problem? • Bill James reported that the flange which is welded to the inlet pipe is crooked. • Customer reports that the problem has resulted in several assemblies that could not be assembled to the manifold.
  • 30. Why Is This Better ? • Bill James, Lordstown assembly line supervisor, reported that the flange which is welded to the inlet pipe is crooked to centerline. This condition is putting the bolt mounting holes out of alignment which prevented a straight-in bolt assembly. • The customer reported that the problem resulted in 14 bad muffler assemblies over a one day period.
  • 31. Problem History • Determine “Key Measurable” identified with the problem • Obtain past data to quantify magnitude of the problem • If past data is not available, start collecting data prior to any improvements
  • 32. Coordinate action plan to minimize the effects of the problem on the customer: • Quarantine all similar equipment • Implement 100% inspection • Issue Cell Alert D3 Develop The Interim Containment Action (ICA)
  • 33. Cell Alert Form CELL ALERT CELL ALERT # SUBJECT: EFFECTIVE DATE: EXPIRE DATE: FOLLOW-UP INFO: CUSTOMER: CHRYSLER FORD GM HONDA MERCEDES NISSAN Safety PLATFORM(S): INITIATOR: MFG. ENGR: QUALITY ENGR: MFG SPRVR PRODUCT ENGR: CONCERN NUMBER: ASSET NUMBER:
  • 34. Implement Short Term Containment Action • Document all actions taken and verify their effectiveness • Remove when permanent actions have been implemented and verified
  • 35. D4 Diagnose The Problem: Define And Verify Root Cause and Escape Point • Identify all potential causes which could explain why the problem occurred • Isolate and verify the root cause by testing each potential cause • Identify corrective actions to eliminate root cause • Isolate and verify the “Escape Point”
  • 36. D4 Define the Root Cause • Solving a problem without identifying the root cause is called “shooting from the hip” • A likely outcome of shooting from the hip is recurrence of the problem
  • 37. Root Cause Analysis Tools • Process Flow Chart • Process FMEA / Control Plans • Brainstorming • Pareto Chart • Cause and Effect Diagram • BOS Chart • 5 Why’s
  • 38. Problem solving / Graphical Techniques •Flow chart •Check Sheet •Brain storming •Nominal group techniques •Histogram •Scatter diagram •Control chart •Process capability •Pareto chart •Cause & effect •Run Chart Problem Identification Problem Analysis
  • 40. Check Sheets Definition: • Simple data gathering technique for obtaining information about a process • A common type of check sheet logs the frequency of defects over a period of time • Also known as “Tally Sheets’ • Answers the questions, When & How many ?
  • 41. Pareto Chart • Purpose Of A Pareto Chart A pareto chart is used to graphically summarize and display the relative importance of the differences between groups of data.
  • 43. Pareto Chart How To Construct A Pareto Chart A pareto chart can be constructed by segmenting the range of the data into groups (also called segments, bins or categories). For example, if your business was investigating the delay associated with processing credit card applications, you could group the data into the following categories: • No signature • Residential address not valid • Non-legible handwriting • Already a customer • Other
  • 44. Pareto Chart Some Sample 80/20 Rule Applications • 80% of process defects arise from 20% of the process issues. • 20% of your sales force produces 80% of your company revenues. • 80% of delays in schedule arise from 20% of the possible causes of the delays. • 80% of customer complaints arise from 20% of your products or services. (The above examples are rough estimates.)
  • 45. Histogram Purpose Of A Histogram A histogram is used to graphically summarize and display the distribution of a process data set.
  • 47. Histogram How To Construct A Histogram A histogram can be constructed by segmenting the range of the data into equal sized bins (also called segments, groups or classes). For example, if your data ranges from 1.1 to 1.8, you could have equal bins of 0.1 consisting of 1 to 1.1, 1.2 to 1.3, 1.3 to 1.4, and so on.
  • 48. Cause and Effect Diagram • Also known as “Fishbone Diagram” and “Ishikawa Diagram” • Diagram of the causes contributing to a particular problem • Focus is on the problem and root causes rather than solutions • Tool for organizing brainstorming ideas
  • 49. How to use the Cause and Effect Diagram Step 1: Write the problem inside a box on the right-hand side of the writing surface. (“Head” of the fish) Step 2: Draw a major horizontal arrow from the left hand side of the chart leading into the box. (“Backbone” of the fish)
  • 50. How to use the Cause and Effect Diagram Step 3: Add major 5 M categories Man Machine Methods Materials Measurements
  • 51. How to use the Cause and Effect Diagram Step 4: Draw slanted arrows from the categories to the horizontal arrow (“Ribs” of the fish) Step 5: Place the brainstorming ideas under the appropriate categories Note: Ideas may belong in two or more categories
  • 52. Cause and Effect Diagram
  • 53. Scatter Diagrams A SCATTER DIAGRAM IS USED FOR: 1. Validating "hunches" about a cause-and-effect relationship between types of variables (examples: I wonder if students who spend more time watching TV have higher or lower average GPA's?; is there a relationship between the production speed of an operator and the number of defective parts made?) 2. Displaying the direction of the relationship (positive, negative, etc.) (examples: Will test scores increase or decrease if the students spend more time in study hall?; will increasing assembly line speed increase or decrease the number of defective parts made?;) 3. Displaying the strength of the relationship (examples: How strong is the relationship between measured IQ and grades earned in Chemistry?; how strong is the relationship between assembly line speed and the number of defective parts produced?;)
  • 54. Scatter Diagrams STEPS IN CONSTRUCTING A SCATTER DIAGRAM: Collect two pieces of data (a pair of numbers) on a student, process, or product. Create a summary table of the data. 1. Draw a diagram labeling the horizontal and vertical axes. It is common that the "cause" variable be labeled the horizontal (X) axis and the "effect" variable be labeled the vertical (Y) axis. The values should increase up the vertical scale and toward the right on the horizontal scale. The scale on both the X and Y axes should be sufficient to include both the largest and the smallest X and Y values in the table. 2. Plot the data pairs on the diagram by placing a dot at the intersections of the X and Y coordinates for each data pair. 3. Interpret the scatter diagram for direction and strength.
  • 55. Scatter Diagrams Interpreting the direction: Data patterns may be positive, negative, or display no relationship. A positive relationship is indicated by an ellipse of points that slopes upward demonstrating that an increase in the cause variable also increases the effect variable. A negative relationship is indicated by an ellipse of points that slopes downward demonstrating that an increase in the cause variable results in a decrease in the effect variable. A diagram with a cluster of points such that it is difficult or impossible to determine whether the trend is upward sloping or downward sloping indicates that there is no relationship between the two variables. Interpreting the strength: Data patterns, whether in a positive or negative direction, should also be interpreted for strength by examining the "tightness" of the clustered points. The more the points are clustered to look like a straight line the stronger the relationship.
  • 58. Process FMEA • Identify part function and potential failure modes • Identify causes of failure and potential effects • Identify corrective action
  • 59. Control Plans • Determine quality characteristics to be controlled • Determine inspection frequency • Determine gauging • Identify application of SPC techniques • Identify reaction plans when defects are found in the process
  • 60. Brainstorming A method for a team to creatively and efficiently generate ideas on any topic Scrap PPM
  • 61. Brainstorming How to use Brainstorming: • State problem • Each team member, in turn, gives an idea. No ideas are criticized! • Write each idea on a flipchart • Team does not stop and discuss any of the ideas during the session
  • 62. Brainstorming • Ideas are generated in turn until each person passes indicating that the ideas are exhausted • Review written ideas for clarity • Discard any duplicate ideas or combine similar ideas
  • 63. Brainstorming Scrap PPM • Bad seam weld • Low recoil • Set-Up • Machine Capability • Incomplete Seam Weld • High Compression • Low Compression
  • 64. Ask Why Five Times ? ? ? ? ? • Effective in driving the problem solving process toward root cause • Generates understanding of cause and effect
  • 65. How to use Ask Why 5 Times • Why did the shock leak? – Because the rod seal ID and rod OD were worn • Why were the components worn? – Because the seal was packed with sand and grit • Why was the seal packed with sand and grit? – Because of contamination on bins
  • 66. How to use Ask Why 5 Times • Why is there contamination in the bins? – Because the bins are not washed • Why are the bins not washed? – Because a washer has not been purchased
  • 67. Verify Potential Causes • Potential causes selected are tested to verify that they are a root cause • Root cause of the problem is found when you can turn the problem “on” and “off”
  • 68. “Have we done it ?” HOW TO KNOW WHEN WE’VE FOUND THE ROOT CAUSE OF A PROBLEM Test Questions Yes/No DEAD END: You ran into a dead end when asking, “What caused the proposed root cause ?” _______ CONVERSATION: All conversation has come to a positive end. _______ FEELS GOOD: Everyone involved feels good, is motivated and uplifted emotionally. _______ AGREEMENT: All agree it is the root cause that keeps the problem from resolving. _______ EXPLAINS: It fully explains why the problem exists from all points of view. _______ BEGINNINGS: The earliest beginnings of the situation have been explored and understood. _______ LOGICAL: The root cause is logical, makes sense and dispels all confusion. _______ SPECIFIC: Your statement gets to the exact point of the trouble without generalizations. _______ CONTROL: The root cause is something you can influence, control and deal with realistically. _______ HOPE: Finding the root cause has returned hope that something constructive can be done about the situation. _______ WORKABLE: Suddenly, workable solutions, that deal with all the symptoms begin to appear. _______ STABLE: A stable, long-term, once-and-for-all resolution of the situation now appears feasible. _______
  • 69. Root Cause Verification Tools • Check Sheets • Run Charts • Process Capability • Design of Experiments
  • 70. T w in T ube Paint / Pack Rew orkable D efects Audit Sum m ary Log Sheet Shift: First Nam e: Evelyn C offey D ate: August 8,1997 Part Num ber G SH0005 G SH0016 ASH0004 C ustom er Ford Ford Ford Incorrect Paint D aub 0 0 0 B ushing O ff C enter 0 0 300 B ad Paint 2 0 0 T otal Parts Rew orked 2 0 300
  • 71. Optimization • The most important stage • Focuses on the reduction of variation • Statistical processes are used to focus on: – centering the process – the main effects of the independent variables – identifying optimum levels for the “vital few”
  • 72. Controls • Preventative and Reactive controls are put in place • Process controls are the last thing that should be done when analyzing a manufacturing process
  • 73. Design of Experiments • Establish cause and effect relationships between several different variables and the outcome being studied • Evaluate the interaction of two or more variables
  • 74. D5 Choose And Verify Permanent Corrective Actions (PCAs) For Root Cause And Escape Point • Decision Analysis helps you select the optimal corrective action from several options
  • 75. Decision Analysis Process 1. Separate criteria into “must have” or desirable 2. “Must have” criteria are mandatory and measurable 3. Rank “desirable” criteria using problem solving techniques
  • 76. Decision Analysis Process 4. Analyze potential solutions for risk. Ask, “What could possibly go wrong if the solution is implemented”? 5. Determine probability of the risk and the seriousness if it does occur. 6. Select high probability and high seriousness solutions
  • 77. Decision Analysis Process • Test selected corrective action • Verify corrective action will permanently eliminate the root cause without introducing any new effects • Use a pilot test to verify corrective actions
  • 78. D6 Implement And Validate Permanent Corrective Actions (PCAs) • Develop a timeline to implement corrective actions • Timeline should include: – schedule – milestones – activities – resources – responsibilities
  • 79. D6 • Track progress and effectiveness of both containment and permanent actions • Remember, if you cannot prove the problem is fixed, you cannot say it is fixed
  • 80. D7 Prevent Recurrence • Determine where similar circumstances could result in the same problem • Fix the system that allowed the problem to occur – Update Control Plans / FMEA / Drawings – Create Work Instructions – Training
  • 81. D8 Recognize Team And Individual Contributions • Calculate the cost savings as a result of the solution of the problem • Document additional benefits to resolving the problem $$
  • 82. D8 In addition to congratulating team members, remember to recognize outside vendors or customers who were involved in resolving the problem Congratulations Team !!!