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85RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print) E-ISSN-2320-5482, July,2013 VOL-IV *ISSUE- 46
izkLrkfod %&
uSfrd v/k%iru gksr pkyysY;k vktP;k dkGkr
lar lkfgR;p uanknhiklkj[kk vk/kkj okVrs- egkjk’Vªkr larkaph
Fkksj ijaijk vlwu lar rqdkjke R;k ijaijsrhy egku lk{kkRdkjh
lar gks;- lar rqdkjkekuh ikp lkMsikp gtkj vHkax jpys-
foB~yHkDrh] rRoKku] ukeLej.k] izcks/ku] mins”kij] v”kk
fofo/k fo’k;koaj “ksdMks vHkax jpys vlwu R;kaps mins”kij
vHakx vktgh eukyk fuHkZ; djrkr- eukrhy rk.k nwj djk;yk
mi;ksxh iMrkr- vkf.k vktP;k uSfrdrk <klGr pkyysY;k
lektkr rj ;k vHkaxkph furkar vko”;drk vkgs- ;k vuq”kaxkus
izLrqr fuca/kkr lar rqdkjkekaP;k mins”kij ok.khpk vkLokn
?;ko;kpk vkgs-
vf/kdkj rSlk d: mins'k %&
lar Lor%r:u brjkauk rkj.kkjs vlrkr- dsoG
ekuokfo’k;hp uOgs rj izk.khek=kafo’k;hgh R;kaP;k fBdk.kh d:.kk
vkgs- R;keqGs dqekxkZyk ykx.kkÚ;k] vkiys fgr u tk.k.kkÚ;k
vK yksdkauk rs eksB;k dGoG;kus mins”k djrkr- larkP;k
fBdk.kh dlykgh LokFkZ ulrks- R;kauh ijekFkZ Eg.ktsp ije
vFkZ tk.kysyk vlrks- rs dsoG midkjkiqjrs mjysys vlrkr-
vFkkZr midkj dj.ks gk R;kapk LoHkko >kysyk vlrks-
rqdkjkekauh es/ko`’Vhizek.ks dsysY;k mins”kkps vk.k[kh
,d oSf”k’V; vls vkgs dh rks vf/kdkjkuq:i Eg.kts lk/kdkaP;k
dehvf/kd ;ksX;rsizek.ks dsysYkk vkgs- ;k lanHkkZr rqdkscakuh
EgVys vkgs dh &vf/kdj rSlk d: mins”kA lkgs vks>s R;kl
rsfp |kosAA3315AA
gRRkhoj Bsok;ph vackjh eqaxhoj Bsowu pky.kkj ukgh-
R;keqGs rh fpjMwu tkbZy- ikj/;ktoG fofo/k vk;q/ks vlrkr-
izlaxh ts ;ksX; o mi;ksxh rsp rks dk<rks okijrks- vf/kdkj
u ikgrk dsysyk mins”k R;kP;kp vfgrkyk dkj.k gksÅ “kdrks-
ijarq rqdkscakpk mins”k vf/kdkjkuq:Ik dsysyk vlwu izR;sdkyk
R;krwu dkgh uk dkgh ?ks.;klkj[ks vkgs-
dkgh rjh jk[kk [kjs %& vusd tUekuarj iwoZiq.;kbZus thokyk
euq’;nsg feGrks- gk nsg lRdk;kZdfjrk f>tokok- eukus
bZ”ojkph HkDrh djkoh vkf.k cq)hus R;kP;k loZO;kidRokps Kku
d:u ?;kos vlk Kku&HkDrh&dekZpk vkf.k eu&cq)h “kjhjkpk
Hkkxor /kekZRk lEkUo; dsyk vkgs- Eg.kwu nsg fouk”kh vlyk
rjh lk/kdkyk R;kps egRo Qkj vlY;keqGs R;kyk u NGrk
lk/ku ;k ukR;kus R;kpk mi;ksx d:u ?ksryk ikfgts- ;k n`’Vhus
July,2013
rqdkscakuh nsgkps egRo izfrikfnys vkgs- tj eukrwu vgadkj o
vk”kk lewG tkbZy rj ^ldG fparke.kh “kjhj* ¼53½ “kjhj gs
fparke.kh jRukizek.ks bfPNysyh bS”ojizkIrh d:u nsbZy-
lfPpnkuankizek.ks lk/ku ;k ukR;kus euq’; nsgkps brds egRo
vkgs dh rks izkIr Ogkok v”kh nsolq)k bPNk /kjrkr-
Ekj.k tks ekxs rks xk<okpk ckG %&
lar rqdkjke gs iz;Rukoknh lar gksrs- gs R;kaP;k vusd
vHkaxkrwu Li’V gksrs- thoukiklwu ts iG dk<rkr] R;kapk
rqdksckauh fu’ks/kp dsyk vkgs- vkRegR;k dj.ks fdaok ej.kkph
okV ikgr tx.ks gs rqdksckauk ekU; uOgrs- thoukrhy ladVkauk
?kkc:u iGwu u tkrk eksB;k /khjkus R;kauk lkeksjs tkos vlk
fopkj R;kauh ekaMyk vkgs- Eg.kwup euq’;nsg ykHkyk vkgs rj
gfjuke ?;k vkf.k lq[kkph HkkaMkjs Hkjk- pksj tlk ikBykx djrks
R;kizek.ks ikBykx d:u ;e rqeP;k vk;q’;kP;k fnoljk=hph
x.kuk djhr vkgs Eg.kwu Rojk djk- lkodk”k fgr d: vls
Eg.kw udk dkj.k ej.k vkiY;k gkrh ukgh- ^u yxs |kok tho
lgt fp tk.kkjA vkgs rks fopkj tk.kk dkgh*AA2924AA
lalkjkyk daVkGwu vkRegR;k d: u;s- tho dsOgk
rjh tk.kkjp vkgs- v”kk fLFkrhr tks ej.k ekxrks rks pkaMkG
ew[kZ vkgs- vkiY;kyk nsokP;k d”isus ykHkysys nsgkps fu/kku tks
Vkdw ikgrks R;kps fgr dls gksbZy ^ujnsg nqcGk* Eg.k.kkÚ;kyk
pkaMkG vkf.k xk<okpk ckG EgVys vkgs- Ikz;RuoknkP;k vkM
lafpr vk.k.kkÚ;kaojgh R;kauh Vhdk dsyh vkgs- ;ko:u thoukoj
vkf.k iz;Rukus ujkps ukjk;.k gks.;koj rqdksckaph J)k gksrh-
lalkjrkikus rkiys vlrkukgh thoukoj fo”okl Bsowu R;kauh
bZ”ojizkIrhdfjrk ts v[kaM iz;Ru dsys R;krp R;kaP;k ;”kkph
xq:fdYyh vkgs- ^^dkedzks/k vkM iMys ioZr A jkfgyk vuar
iyhdMs**AA
gk izfl) vHkax R;kiSdhp vkgs- vuarkps n”kZu
ikfgts vlsy rj eukrwu dkedzks/kknh ‘kMfodkj ?kkyowu fnys
ikfgtsr- i.k vkiY;k eukr ;k fodkjkaps ioZr mHks vlrkr-
;k oSÚ;kapk ?kkV vksykaMwu tk.ks dBh.k vkgs- ;k ?kkVkrwu iq<s
tk.kkjh okV lkiMr ukgh- v”kk fLFkrhr ikaMqjax dlk HksV.kkj
bZ”ojkus ts ewY;oku “kjhj fnys R;kpk mi;ksx djrk vkyk
ukgh v”kh [kar rs O;Dr djrkr- i.k gs y{kkr vkY;kuarj ek=
R;kauh dBksj lk/kuk d:u ;kph nsgh ;kph MksGk* ijes”ojkps
n”kZu ?ksrys- fueZG >kysY;k var%dj.kkrp vuar izdV gksrks-
¼1416½ fodkjkps eG tsFks jkfgys ukghr v”kh fueZG dk;k
86 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print) E-ISSN-2320-5482, July,2013 VOL-IV *ISSUE- 46
bZ”ojkps vf/k’Bku vkgs- R;keqGs vkiyh dk;k fueZG dsyh
ikfgts- R;klkBh lrr iz;Ru dsyk ikfgts vlk iz;Ruoknh
mins”k rqdksck djrkr-
vk”kk gs lewG [kkaMksfu dk<koh %&
txkrhy O;ogkj] Li/kkZ] }s’k] eRlj] LokFkZ]
vizekf.kdi.kk bR;knh ghu izo”Ùkhauh brdk cjcVysyk vkgs
dh rks dj.;kpk mRlkg okV.;k,soth R;krwu “kD; frrds
yodj ckgsj iMkos vlsp dks.kkgh lRizo”Ùk ek.klkyk okVsy-
;k O;ogkjkr ek.kls brD;k [kkyP;k ikrGhoj mrjrkr dh
rsFki;Zar mrj.ks ek.kwldh lksMY;kf”kok; “kD; gksr ukgh-
rqdksckauh ;k O;ogkjkpk Lor% vuqHko ?ksryk gksrk- Eg.kwu rks
lksMwu rs ijekFkkZP;k ekxkZyk ykxys- Lor%pk lalkj R;kauh
lksMyk ukgh- i.k R;kr rs xqarwugh jkfgys ukgh- ?kjps vUu] oL=]
xjtw yksdkauk nsÅu Vkd.;kph O;ogkjk”kwU;rk ijarq [kÚ;k
vFkkZus lk/kqrk R;kaP;k vaxh gksrh Eg.kwu lalkjh vlys rjh yksd
R;kauk xkslkoh Eg.kr vlr- i.k vls xkslkoh gks.ks lksis ulrs-
rs rqdksckalkj[;k ,[kk|kp vlkekU; iq:’kkyk lk/krs Eg.kwu
loZlkekU;kauk mins”k djrkauk rs Eg.krkr ^^vk”kk gs lewG
[kk.kksfu dk<kohA rsOgkfp xkslkoh Ogkos rs.skA —-rqdk Eg.ks tjh
;ksxkph rkrMhA vk”ksph chcqMh djh vk/kh**AA 01436AA
T;kus vk”kk eqGkldV eukrwu [k.kwu dk<yh R;kusp
xkslkoh gks.;kP;k xks’Vh cksykO;k] ukghrj lq[kkus lalkj djkok
Qftrh d:u ?ksÅ u;s] vk”kspk uk;ukV d:u fot;h Ogkos
rsOgkp lalkjkrwu fu?kkos- bZ”ojk”kh vkiyk ;ksx Ogkok v”kh tj
?kkbZ vlsy rj vk”kk lewG u’V dsyh ikfgts-
Eg.kwu ek.klkauh vkRefujh{k.k djkos o lk/kqRokps
<ksax d: u;s- ^T;kP;k var%dj.kkrwu dqfVyrk xsyh ukgh R;kus
xG;kr ekG ?kkyw u;s- T;kP;k vaxh /keZ n;k] {kek] “kkafr ukgh
R;kus vaxkyk jk[k Qklwu xkslkoh gksÅ u;s T;kYkk HkDrhpk
efgek dGyk ukgh R;kus czg~eKkukP;k xks’Vh] cksyw u;sr- T;kus
vkiys eu ftadys ukgh- R;kus iziap Vkdw u;s- vkf.k T;kyk
gfjHkDrh ukgh R;kus Hkxos oL= /kkj.k d: u;s- ¼2789½ tksi;Zar
eukrwu dks.kR;kgh xks’Vhph vk”kk xsyh ukgh rksi;Zar lq[kh
vlkos lalkjh* vls rqdkscakps lalkj vkf.k iziapkfo’k;hps /kksj.k
vkgs- HkDrhlg O;ogkj izkekf.kdi.ks dsyh dh ^ukjk;.k HkasVh
nsbZy* ¼26½
tksMksfu;k /kku mÙke osOgkjs %&
Hkkxor /kekZus lalkj vkf.k ijekFkZ ;kapk lqjs[k esG
?kkryk vkgs- R;keqGs loZ larkuh eq[;Rosd:u lalkfjdkauk
mins”k dsyk vkgs- vkn”kZ x”gLFkkJe dlk vlkok ;kps vR;ar
lqanj o.kZu rqdkscakuh ,dk vaHkxkr dsys vkgs- ^^tksMksfu;k /ku
mÙke osOgkjsA mnkl fopkjs osp djh**AA2864AA vkn”kZ
x`gLFkkJekps laqnj o.kZu ;k vHkaxkr vkys vkgs- /ku feGow u;s
vls ukgh i.k rs izkekf.kdi.ks O;ogkj d:u feGokos vkf.k
R;kr vklDrh Bsowu dsoG Lor%dfjrkp R;kpk O;; u dfjrk
LokFkZfujis{k o`Ùkhus R;k /kukpk lnqi;ksx djkok- v”kk x`gLFkkyk
iq<hy tUe vf/kd pkaxyk feGsy- tks ijksidkj djrks ijfuank
djhr ukgh- ijfL=;k T;kyk ek;cfg.khlkj[;k vkgsr-
Hkwrtkrfo”k;h T;kyk n;k vkgs- xkbZps o lalkjki;ksxh i”kqaps
tks ikyu djrks- jkuke/;s rkUgsY;k thoakuk tks ik.kh iktrks-
Lor% “kkar jkgrks] dks.kkps okbZV fparhr ukgh vkf.k ofMykauk
eku nsÅu R;kaP;k dhfrZr Hkj ?kkyrks- R;kpk x`gLFkkJe lQy
gksrks- v”kk x`gLFkkyk oSjkX;kus feG.kkjs Js’BLFkku o “kDrh
izkIr gksrs- R;kyk x`gLFkkJe lksMkok ykxr ukgh- rqdk Eg.ks
nso tksMs ;kplkBhA vkf.kd rs vkVh u yxs dkgh* ¼61½
ijes”oj izkIrh ;kp lnkpj.kkus gksrs- R;kdfjrk nqljh dkgh
;krk;kr djkoh ykxr ukgh- ?kjnkj lksMwu fHk{kk ekxr fgaMkos
ykxr ukgh-
fHk{kk ik= voyac.ksA tGks ft.ks ykftjok.ksA
,sfl;klh ukjk;.ksA mis{khys loZFkkAA 1410AA
x`gLFkkJekph drZO;s lksMwu izkekf.kdi.ks o ifjJekus
/kuktZu u dfjrk HkDrhP;k ukokus ts fHk{kk ekxrkr R;kaps ft.ks
ykftjok.ks gksrs o ukjk;.k R;kaph mis{kk dfjrks- R;kaph HkDrh
ojojph o iksVklkBh vlrs- nhu vkf.k ckiqMok.ks gksÅu txkyk
iksVklkBh lkdMs ?kky.ks gs ^jksdMs vHkkX;* vkgs- bZ”ojHkDrhyk
fHk{kk ekx.ks vko”;d ukgh vls ykftjok.ks ft.ks txw udk-
bZ”ojkoj fo”okl Bsowu fparu djhr izkekf.kdi.ks lalkj djk
Eg.kts rks fo”oaHkj dk; dj.kkj ukgh  rqdk Eg.ks lkjA n`<
ik; /kjkosA “kdwu lkax.kkjs] HkqrHkfo’; orZeku tk.k.kkjs ;kaP;k
uknh ykxw udk-
vkfy;k Hkksxklh vlkos lknj %&
Lor%ps fgr lk/kk;ps vlsy rj naHkkpk] <ksaxkpk R;kx
djk vkf.k eu”kq)h ghp nsokph lsok letk dks.kR;kgh Hkwrkpk
eRlj u dj.ks gs losZ’ojiwtukps oeZ vkgs- eukrwu okluk dk<wu
rsFks foðykyk LFkku |k- Eg.kts vyH; ykHk ?kjkyk ;srhy
¼1694½ larkuh /keZ vkf.k uhfrpk fopkj vkiY;kdfjrk vk;rk
d:u Bsoyk vkgs- rks vlk dh] T;k ?kjkrhy iziapkr ijksidkj
gksrks rs nsÅG vkgs] lk/ks ?kj ukgh /kekZus lkafxrysY;k fof/kizek.ks
T;kps lsou gksrs rks dke Eg.kts LoSjkpkj uOgs- {kf=; /kekZizek.ks
djkO;k ykx.kkÚ;k ;q)kr >kysyh vifjgk;Z gh gR;k ulwu rs
fu’dke drZO;deZ vkgs fdaok ts drZO; deZ fu’dke cq)hus
dsys tkrs rs ca/kd gks.kkjs lk/ks deZ jkgr ukgh vlk gk /keZ
o uhfrpk foosd vkgs-
vkfy;k Hkksxklh vlkos lknjA
nsokojh Hkkj ?kkyw u;sAA—
Rkqdk Eg.ks uOgs dk; R;k dfjrkA
fparkok rks vkrk fo”oaHkjAA 2396AA
izkjC/k dekZizek.ks lq[knq%[kkps ts Hkksx okV;kyk ;srhy rs
Hkksx.;kl fl) vlkos- rs VkG.;kdfjrk nsokoj Hkkj ?kkyw u;s-
rks ladVs fuokj.k dj.kkjk vkgs- ladVkph Hkhrh ckGx.;kr
nq%[k vkgs- nsokyk “kj.k tkÅu fuHkZ;i.ks Hkksx Hkksx.;kph
vkiyh r;kjh ikfgts- dkj.k nso deZQykr gkr ?kkyhr ukgh-
87RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print) E-ISSN-2320-5482, July,2013 VOL-IV *ISSUE- 46
R;kps fparu dsys Eg.kts gs Hkksx Hkksx.;kph rks “kDrh nsrks- o
ladVkps fuokj.k djrks- /ku] eku gs izkjC/kkizek.ks feGrkr
R;kdfjrk O;FkZ lksl u dfjrk ia<jhjk;kyk Hktkos- lq[knq%[ks
izkjC/kkizek.ks Hkksxkohp ykxrkr- Eg.kwu R;kaPkk Qkj cksHkkVk d:
u;s- lq[k] nq%[k] ykHk] gkfu] eku&vieku leku eku.ks gsp [kjs
lksoGs vkgs-
lR;oknh djh lalkj ldG %&
Hkkxor /kekZus ijes”oj izkIrhdfjrk ?kjnkj lksMwu
izR;{k laU;kl ?ks.;kph vko”;drk izfrikfnyh ukgh- rFkkfi
ladYi] dkeuk] vklDrh ;kaP;k R;kxkpk ijksijh iqjLdkj
dsyk vkgs- dkj.k fo’k;klDrh drZO;dekZaP;k o HkDrhP;k vkM
;srs-^^lR;oknh djh lalkj ldGA vfyIr deG tGh tSlSAA—
u cksys xq.knks’k ukbds tks dkuhA orksZuh rks tuh tuknZu**AA
1025AA
deG ik.;kr vlwu R;kyk tls ik.kh ykxr ukgh
R;kizek.ks lR;kus lalkj dj.kkjk euq’; R;kP;k vklDrhiklwu
vfyIr vlrks- tks ijksidkj djrks o T;kaP;k vaxh Hkwrn;k
vkgs rks vkRe:ip vlrks- ,o<sp uOgs rj tks vkf.kdkaps
xq.knks’k d/kh cksyr ukgh fdaok ,sdr ukgh- vlk iq:’k yksdkae/
;s O;ogkj djhr vlyk rjh Lor% tuknZu Lo:ip vlrks-
Hkwrn;k] ijksidkj] ijfuank u dj.ks o u ,sd.ks ;k lnxq.kkaps
,o<s egRo vkgs- fdacgquk ijksidkj gsp iq.; vkf.k ijihMk
Eg.ktsp iki vkgs- lR; gkp /keZ vkgs- vkf.k vlR; Eg.kts
v/kkfeZd deZ vkgs- ukeLej.k ghp ln~xrh vkgs vkf.k R;kiklwu
foeq[krk Eg.kts v/kksxrh vkgs- larkpk lax gkp LoxZokl vkgs
vkf.k vuxZG okx.kkjkpk lgokl gk ujd vkgs- ^rqdk Eg.ks
m?kMs fgr ?kkrA t;kaps mfpr djk rSls*AA 1227A
vkiys fgr d”kkr vkgs vkf.k ?kkr d”kkr vkgs gs
m?kM vkgs- T;kyk ts mfpr okVsy R;kus rs djkos loZ xks’Vh
eukP;k Lok/khu vkgsr- ln~xrh v/kksxrh eu tls vlsy r”kk
feGrkr- Eg.kwu lk/kwlaxrhus eu ,dkxz djk- LoSj /kko.kkÚ;k
;k vks<kG eukyk vko:u iz;RuiwoZd tru djk-
^rqdk Eg.ks eu mrjh Hkofla/kwA
eu djh ca/kq pkSÚ;ka”khpk*AA 1123AA
eukus lalkj lkxj r:u tkrk ;srks vkf.k rs tj Lok/khu ulsy
rj euq’; iqu% pkSÚ;ka”kh ;ksuhP;k QsÚ;kr lkiMrks-
lalkjk vkfy;k ,d lq[k vkgs %&
tUekyk vkysY;k euq’;kus vgadkj lksMwu] bZ”ojkyk
“kj.k tkÅu “kk”or dk; vkgs- v”kk”or dk; vkgs ;kpk
foosd d:u okxkos- thou {k.kHkaxwj vkgs ;kph tk.kho Bsowu
lRoj bZ”ojkyk “kj.k tkos vlk rqdksckapk eksykpk mins”k
vkgs- rs eksB;k dGoG;kus ekuoek=kyk Eg.krkr-^
vkfy;k lalkjk mBk osx djkA
“kj.k tk mnkjk ikaMqjaxkA
nsg gs nsokps /ku dqcsjkpsA
rsFks euq’;kps dk; vkgs**AA
ns.kkjk] nsofo.kkjk] us.kkjk] usofo.kkjk nso vkgs- euq’;kP;k gkrh
dkgh ukgh- rks fufeÙkek= vkgs- i.k ^eh ek>s* vls Eg.kr rks
ok;k tkrks Eg.kwu &rqdk Eg.ks dkjs uk’koarklkBh A nsoklos vkVh
ikfMrklhAA 3949AA rqdkscakpk Hkj bZ”ojkps Lej.k dj.;koj
fo”ks’k vkgs- dkj.k R;kr lq[k vkgs rs Eg.krkr- lalkjk vkfy;k
,d lq[k vkgsA vkBokos ik; foBksckpsAA 4099AA
vR;ar lksI;k “kCnkr] lksI;k n`’Vkarkuh rqdksck] xhrk
Kkus”ojh ;krhy rRoKku ekaMrkr vkf.k R;k vk/kkjkoj yksdkauk
bZ”ojHktukP;k ekxkZoj ?ksÅu tkrkr mnkgj.kkFkZ & dkjs
ukBfolh d”ikG nsoklhA iksflrks tuklh ,dyk rksAA ckGk
nq/kk dks.k dfjrs mRiÙkhA ok<oh Jhirh los nksUghAA 2310AA
v”kh nsokfo’k;h d`rKrsph tk.kho d:u nsÅu ukeLej.k
dj.;kpk mins”k djrkr-
euq’; tUe egRokpk vkgs rks HkkX;kusp feGrks- R;kpk
lnqi;ksx djkok- uk”k d: u;s- gk larkpk egŸokpk fopkj
o mins”k vkgs- rqdksckauh vusd vHkaxkrwu rks eksB;k dGdGhus
dsyk vkgs- &
cgqrk tUek varhA
tksMh ykxyh gs gkrhAA
euq’;nsgk ,slk BkoA
/kjh ikaMqjaxh HkkokAA
cgq dsyk QsjkA
;sFk lkiMyk FkkjkAA
rqdk Eg.ks tk.ks A
,sls Hkys rs “kkgk.ks AA 1355AA
thou u”oj vkgs vk;q’; vYi vkgs- euq’; tUe nqfeZG vkgs
gs y{kkr ?ksÅu euq’;kus vk;q’; fo’k;lq[kkr u’V u djrk
ijes”ojizkIrhpk dkgh rjh mik; dsyk ikfgts vk;q’; lkFkZdh
ykoys ikfgts- R;klkBh Hkxoarkps ukeLej.k gk lqyHk mik;
vkgs- vlk gk rqdkscakpk dGdGhpk mins”k vkgs gk mins”k
lkj:ikus [kkyhy vHkaxkr vkyk vkgs-
vkrk rjh iq<s gk fp mins”kA
udk d: uk”k vk;q’;kpkAA
ldGkaP;k ik;k ek>s naMorA
vkiqykys fpÙk “kq) djkAA
fgr rs djkos nsokps fparuA
d:fu;k eu ,dfo/kAA
rqdk Eg.ks ykHk gks; rks O;kikjA
djk dk; Qkj f”kdokosAA 101AA
v”kk izdkjs lar rqdkscakuh “ksdMks vHkaxke/kwu yksdkauk
es?kkalkj[kk mins”k dsyk vlwu rks vktgh ekSyhd okVrks-
R;kaP;k ;k mins”kij ok.khph oSf”k’V;sA fu’d’kZ [kkyhy izek.ks
lkaxrk ;srhy-
lar rqdkjkekP;k mins”kij dforsph oSf”k’V;s@fu’d’kZ %&
lar rqdkjkekP;k ekstD;k mins”kij vHkaxkpk vH;kl dsyk
vlrk vkf.k R;k vHkaxkfo’k;h ekU;oj leh{kdkapk vfHkizk;
88 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print) E-ISSN-2320-5482, July,2013 VOL-IV *ISSUE- 46
y{kkr ?ksrk rqdkjkekaP;k mins”kij dforsph oSf”k’V;sS@fu’d’kZ
lw=:ikus [kkyhyizek.ks ekaMrk ;s.ks “kD; vkgs-
rqdkjkekP;k mins”kij vHkaxkPkk mi;ksx yksd QDr
/kkfeZd dk;kZr u djrk] O;kogkfjd “kgk.ki.kkpk vk/kkj
Eg.kwugh djrkr- rqdkjkekaP;k mins”kij vHkaxkrwu vkysyk
mins”k dsoG rRdkyhu yksdkalkBh ulwu rks lkoZdkyhu vkgs-
rqdkjkekaP;k mins”kij vHkaxkyk ekuorkoknkpk Li”kZ >kysyk
vlwu R;kauh dsysyk mins”k gk ekuoh ewY;kaph o`)h dj.kkjk
vkgs- lar rqdkjkekaP;k mins”kij vHkaxkrwu dsysyk mins”k
R;kauh eksB;k dGoG;kus dsysyk vkgs-
R;k loZ mins”kkyk dk:.;kpk Li”kZ >kysyk vkgs-
rqdkjkekauh dsysY;k mins”kkr R;kaP;k LokuqHkokps ewY; vkgs-
1- Jh rqdkjkeckokaP;k vHkaxkph xkFkk & izdk”ku egkjk’Vª “kklu vk- nq- 1955
2- fonzksgh rqdkjke & MkW- vk- g- lkGqa[ks] yksdk;r izdk”ku] lkrkjk r”rh; vko”Ÿkh 2010
3- ejkBh ok³~e;kpk bfrgkl [kaM nqljk & laik-la- x- eky’ks] izdk”ku egkjk’Vª lkfgR; ifj’kn vk- i- 1982
R;kaPkk loZ mins”k ^vk/kh dsys ex lkafxrys* ;k i)rhpk vkgs-
lar rqdkjkekauh dsysY;k mins”kkr fofo/krk vlwu R;kyk
lR;kps vf/k’Bku vkgs-
rqdkjkekaPkk mins”k gk yksdks)kjklkBh vlwu R;kauh
yksdkaps vusd nks’kgh nk[kfoys vkgsr vkf.k rs nks’k nwj dj.;kph
fouarh d:u lnkpkjkph f”kdo.k fnyh vkgs-
lar rqdkjkekaP;k mins”kij dforsr jks[kBksdi.kk]
fuf”prrk] fu%lafnX/krk] thou O;ogkjkfo’k;hph let fnlwu
;srs- vYik{kjRo] dkO;kRedrk] ckssyh Hkk’kspk okij lqHkkf’krklkj[kh
Hkk’kk xzkE;rk gh rqdkjkekP;k mins”kij dforsph oSf”k’V;s
vkgsr- miekn`’Vkarkpk izHkkoh okij] loZlkekU;kaP;k thoukrhy
izfrekapkokij]fouksn]migklbR;knhoSf”k’V;sns[khyrqdkjkekaP;k
mins”kij dforsph fnlwu ;srkr-

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85 88

  • 1. 85RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print) E-ISSN-2320-5482, July,2013 VOL-IV *ISSUE- 46 izkLrkfod %& uSfrd v/k%iru gksr pkyysY;k vktP;k dkGkr lar lkfgR;p uanknhiklkj[kk vk/kkj okVrs- egkjk’Vªkr larkaph Fkksj ijaijk vlwu lar rqdkjke R;k ijaijsrhy egku lk{kkRdkjh lar gks;- lar rqdkjkekuh ikp lkMsikp gtkj vHkax jpys- foB~yHkDrh] rRoKku] ukeLej.k] izcks/ku] mins”kij] v”kk fofo/k fo’k;koaj “ksdMks vHkax jpys vlwu R;kaps mins”kij vHakx vktgh eukyk fuHkZ; djrkr- eukrhy rk.k nwj djk;yk mi;ksxh iMrkr- vkf.k vktP;k uSfrdrk <klGr pkyysY;k lektkr rj ;k vHkaxkph furkar vko”;drk vkgs- ;k vuq”kaxkus izLrqr fuca/kkr lar rqdkjkekaP;k mins”kij ok.khpk vkLokn ?;ko;kpk vkgs- vf/kdkj rSlk d: mins'k %& lar Lor%r:u brjkauk rkj.kkjs vlrkr- dsoG ekuokfo’k;hp uOgs rj izk.khek=kafo’k;hgh R;kaP;k fBdk.kh d:.kk vkgs- R;keqGs dqekxkZyk ykx.kkÚ;k] vkiys fgr u tk.k.kkÚ;k vK yksdkauk rs eksB;k dGoG;kus mins”k djrkr- larkP;k fBdk.kh dlykgh LokFkZ ulrks- R;kauh ijekFkZ Eg.ktsp ije vFkZ tk.kysyk vlrks- rs dsoG midkjkiqjrs mjysys vlrkr- vFkkZr midkj dj.ks gk R;kapk LoHkko >kysyk vlrks- rqdkjkekauh es/ko`’Vhizek.ks dsysY;k mins”kkps vk.k[kh ,d oSf”k’V; vls vkgs dh rks vf/kdkjkuq:i Eg.kts lk/kdkaP;k dehvf/kd ;ksX;rsizek.ks dsysYkk vkgs- ;k lanHkkZr rqdkscakuh EgVys vkgs dh &vf/kdj rSlk d: mins”kA lkgs vks>s R;kl rsfp |kosAA3315AA gRRkhoj Bsok;ph vackjh eqaxhoj Bsowu pky.kkj ukgh- R;keqGs rh fpjMwu tkbZy- ikj/;ktoG fofo/k vk;q/ks vlrkr- izlaxh ts ;ksX; o mi;ksxh rsp rks dk<rks okijrks- vf/kdkj u ikgrk dsysyk mins”k R;kP;kp vfgrkyk dkj.k gksÅ “kdrks- ijarq rqdkscakpk mins”k vf/kdkjkuq:Ik dsysyk vlwu izR;sdkyk R;krwu dkgh uk dkgh ?ks.;klkj[ks vkgs- dkgh rjh jk[kk [kjs %& vusd tUekuarj iwoZiq.;kbZus thokyk euq’;nsg feGrks- gk nsg lRdk;kZdfjrk f>tokok- eukus bZ”ojkph HkDrh djkoh vkf.k cq)hus R;kP;k loZO;kidRokps Kku d:u ?;kos vlk Kku&HkDrh&dekZpk vkf.k eu&cq)h “kjhjkpk Hkkxor /kekZRk lEkUo; dsyk vkgs- Eg.kwu nsg fouk”kh vlyk rjh lk/kdkyk R;kps egRo Qkj vlY;keqGs R;kyk u NGrk lk/ku ;k ukR;kus R;kpk mi;ksx d:u ?ksryk ikfgts- ;k n`’Vhus July,2013 rqdkscakuh nsgkps egRo izfrikfnys vkgs- tj eukrwu vgadkj o vk”kk lewG tkbZy rj ^ldG fparke.kh “kjhj* ¼53½ “kjhj gs fparke.kh jRukizek.ks bfPNysyh bS”ojizkIrh d:u nsbZy- lfPpnkuankizek.ks lk/ku ;k ukR;kus euq’; nsgkps brds egRo vkgs dh rks izkIr Ogkok v”kh nsolq)k bPNk /kjrkr- Ekj.k tks ekxs rks xk<okpk ckG %& lar rqdkjke gs iz;Rukoknh lar gksrs- gs R;kaP;k vusd vHkaxkrwu Li’V gksrs- thoukiklwu ts iG dk<rkr] R;kapk rqdksckauh fu’ks/kp dsyk vkgs- vkRegR;k dj.ks fdaok ej.kkph okV ikgr tx.ks gs rqdksckauk ekU; uOgrs- thoukrhy ladVkauk ?kkc:u iGwu u tkrk eksB;k /khjkus R;kauk lkeksjs tkos vlk fopkj R;kauh ekaMyk vkgs- Eg.kwup euq’;nsg ykHkyk vkgs rj gfjuke ?;k vkf.k lq[kkph HkkaMkjs Hkjk- pksj tlk ikBykx djrks R;kizek.ks ikBykx d:u ;e rqeP;k vk;q’;kP;k fnoljk=hph x.kuk djhr vkgs Eg.kwu Rojk djk- lkodk”k fgr d: vls Eg.kw udk dkj.k ej.k vkiY;k gkrh ukgh- ^u yxs |kok tho lgt fp tk.kkjA vkgs rks fopkj tk.kk dkgh*AA2924AA lalkjkyk daVkGwu vkRegR;k d: u;s- tho dsOgk rjh tk.kkjp vkgs- v”kk fLFkrhr tks ej.k ekxrks rks pkaMkG ew[kZ vkgs- vkiY;kyk nsokP;k d”isus ykHkysys nsgkps fu/kku tks Vkdw ikgrks R;kps fgr dls gksbZy ^ujnsg nqcGk* Eg.k.kkÚ;kyk pkaMkG vkf.k xk<okpk ckG EgVys vkgs- Ikz;RuoknkP;k vkM lafpr vk.k.kkÚ;kaojgh R;kauh Vhdk dsyh vkgs- ;ko:u thoukoj vkf.k iz;Rukus ujkps ukjk;.k gks.;koj rqdksckaph J)k gksrh- lalkjrkikus rkiys vlrkukgh thoukoj fo”okl Bsowu R;kauh bZ”ojizkIrhdfjrk ts v[kaM iz;Ru dsys R;krp R;kaP;k ;”kkph xq:fdYyh vkgs- ^^dkedzks/k vkM iMys ioZr A jkfgyk vuar iyhdMs**AA gk izfl) vHkax R;kiSdhp vkgs- vuarkps n”kZu ikfgts vlsy rj eukrwu dkedzks/kknh ‘kMfodkj ?kkyowu fnys ikfgtsr- i.k vkiY;k eukr ;k fodkjkaps ioZr mHks vlrkr- ;k oSÚ;kapk ?kkV vksykaMwu tk.ks dBh.k vkgs- ;k ?kkVkrwu iq<s tk.kkjh okV lkiMr ukgh- v”kk fLFkrhr ikaMqjax dlk HksV.kkj bZ”ojkus ts ewY;oku “kjhj fnys R;kpk mi;ksx djrk vkyk ukgh v”kh [kar rs O;Dr djrkr- i.k gs y{kkr vkY;kuarj ek= R;kauh dBksj lk/kuk d:u ;kph nsgh ;kph MksGk* ijes”ojkps n”kZu ?ksrys- fueZG >kysY;k var%dj.kkrp vuar izdV gksrks- ¼1416½ fodkjkps eG tsFks jkfgys ukghr v”kh fueZG dk;k
  • 2. 86 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print) E-ISSN-2320-5482, July,2013 VOL-IV *ISSUE- 46 bZ”ojkps vf/k’Bku vkgs- R;keqGs vkiyh dk;k fueZG dsyh ikfgts- R;klkBh lrr iz;Ru dsyk ikfgts vlk iz;Ruoknh mins”k rqdksck djrkr- vk”kk gs lewG [kkaMksfu dk<koh %& txkrhy O;ogkj] Li/kkZ] }s’k] eRlj] LokFkZ] vizekf.kdi.kk bR;knh ghu izo”Ùkhauh brdk cjcVysyk vkgs dh rks dj.;kpk mRlkg okV.;k,soth R;krwu “kD; frrds yodj ckgsj iMkos vlsp dks.kkgh lRizo”Ùk ek.klkyk okVsy- ;k O;ogkjkr ek.kls brD;k [kkyP;k ikrGhoj mrjrkr dh rsFki;Zar mrj.ks ek.kwldh lksMY;kf”kok; “kD; gksr ukgh- rqdksckauh ;k O;ogkjkpk Lor% vuqHko ?ksryk gksrk- Eg.kwu rks lksMwu rs ijekFkkZP;k ekxkZyk ykxys- Lor%pk lalkj R;kauh lksMyk ukgh- i.k R;kr rs xqarwugh jkfgys ukgh- ?kjps vUu] oL=] xjtw yksdkauk nsÅu Vkd.;kph O;ogkjk”kwU;rk ijarq [kÚ;k vFkkZus lk/kqrk R;kaP;k vaxh gksrh Eg.kwu lalkjh vlys rjh yksd R;kauk xkslkoh Eg.kr vlr- i.k vls xkslkoh gks.ks lksis ulrs- rs rqdksckalkj[;k ,[kk|kp vlkekU; iq:’kkyk lk/krs Eg.kwu loZlkekU;kauk mins”k djrkauk rs Eg.krkr ^^vk”kk gs lewG [kk.kksfu dk<kohA rsOgkfp xkslkoh Ogkos rs.skA —-rqdk Eg.ks tjh ;ksxkph rkrMhA vk”ksph chcqMh djh vk/kh**AA 01436AA T;kus vk”kk eqGkldV eukrwu [k.kwu dk<yh R;kusp xkslkoh gks.;kP;k xks’Vh cksykO;k] ukghrj lq[kkus lalkj djkok Qftrh d:u ?ksÅ u;s] vk”kspk uk;ukV d:u fot;h Ogkos rsOgkp lalkjkrwu fu?kkos- bZ”ojk”kh vkiyk ;ksx Ogkok v”kh tj ?kkbZ vlsy rj vk”kk lewG u’V dsyh ikfgts- Eg.kwu ek.klkauh vkRefujh{k.k djkos o lk/kqRokps <ksax d: u;s- ^T;kP;k var%dj.kkrwu dqfVyrk xsyh ukgh R;kus xG;kr ekG ?kkyw u;s- T;kP;k vaxh /keZ n;k] {kek] “kkafr ukgh R;kus vaxkyk jk[k Qklwu xkslkoh gksÅ u;s T;kYkk HkDrhpk efgek dGyk ukgh R;kus czg~eKkukP;k xks’Vh] cksyw u;sr- T;kus vkiys eu ftadys ukgh- R;kus iziap Vkdw u;s- vkf.k T;kyk gfjHkDrh ukgh R;kus Hkxos oL= /kkj.k d: u;s- ¼2789½ tksi;Zar eukrwu dks.kR;kgh xks’Vhph vk”kk xsyh ukgh rksi;Zar lq[kh vlkos lalkjh* vls rqdkscakps lalkj vkf.k iziapkfo’k;hps /kksj.k vkgs- HkDrhlg O;ogkj izkekf.kdi.ks dsyh dh ^ukjk;.k HkasVh nsbZy* ¼26½ tksMksfu;k /kku mÙke osOgkjs %& Hkkxor /kekZus lalkj vkf.k ijekFkZ ;kapk lqjs[k esG ?kkryk vkgs- R;keqGs loZ larkuh eq[;Rosd:u lalkfjdkauk mins”k dsyk vkgs- vkn”kZ x”gLFkkJe dlk vlkok ;kps vR;ar lqanj o.kZu rqdkscakuh ,dk vaHkxkr dsys vkgs- ^^tksMksfu;k /ku mÙke osOgkjsA mnkl fopkjs osp djh**AA2864AA vkn”kZ x`gLFkkJekps laqnj o.kZu ;k vHkaxkr vkys vkgs- /ku feGow u;s vls ukgh i.k rs izkekf.kdi.ks O;ogkj d:u feGokos vkf.k R;kr vklDrh Bsowu dsoG Lor%dfjrkp R;kpk O;; u dfjrk LokFkZfujis{k o`Ùkhus R;k /kukpk lnqi;ksx djkok- v”kk x`gLFkkyk iq<hy tUe vf/kd pkaxyk feGsy- tks ijksidkj djrks ijfuank djhr ukgh- ijfL=;k T;kyk ek;cfg.khlkj[;k vkgsr- Hkwrtkrfo”k;h T;kyk n;k vkgs- xkbZps o lalkjki;ksxh i”kqaps tks ikyu djrks- jkuke/;s rkUgsY;k thoakuk tks ik.kh iktrks- Lor% “kkar jkgrks] dks.kkps okbZV fparhr ukgh vkf.k ofMykauk eku nsÅu R;kaP;k dhfrZr Hkj ?kkyrks- R;kpk x`gLFkkJe lQy gksrks- v”kk x`gLFkkyk oSjkX;kus feG.kkjs Js’BLFkku o “kDrh izkIr gksrs- R;kyk x`gLFkkJe lksMkok ykxr ukgh- rqdk Eg.ks nso tksMs ;kplkBhA vkf.kd rs vkVh u yxs dkgh* ¼61½ ijes”oj izkIrh ;kp lnkpj.kkus gksrs- R;kdfjrk nqljh dkgh ;krk;kr djkoh ykxr ukgh- ?kjnkj lksMwu fHk{kk ekxr fgaMkos ykxr ukgh- fHk{kk ik= voyac.ksA tGks ft.ks ykftjok.ksA ,sfl;klh ukjk;.ksA mis{khys loZFkkAA 1410AA x`gLFkkJekph drZO;s lksMwu izkekf.kdi.ks o ifjJekus /kuktZu u dfjrk HkDrhP;k ukokus ts fHk{kk ekxrkr R;kaps ft.ks ykftjok.ks gksrs o ukjk;.k R;kaph mis{kk dfjrks- R;kaph HkDrh ojojph o iksVklkBh vlrs- nhu vkf.k ckiqMok.ks gksÅu txkyk iksVklkBh lkdMs ?kky.ks gs ^jksdMs vHkkX;* vkgs- bZ”ojHkDrhyk fHk{kk ekx.ks vko”;d ukgh vls ykftjok.ks ft.ks txw udk- bZ”ojkoj fo”okl Bsowu fparu djhr izkekf.kdi.ks lalkj djk Eg.kts rks fo”oaHkj dk; dj.kkj ukgh rqdk Eg.ks lkjA n`< ik; /kjkosA “kdwu lkax.kkjs] HkqrHkfo’; orZeku tk.k.kkjs ;kaP;k uknh ykxw udk- vkfy;k Hkksxklh vlkos lknj %& Lor%ps fgr lk/kk;ps vlsy rj naHkkpk] <ksaxkpk R;kx djk vkf.k eu”kq)h ghp nsokph lsok letk dks.kR;kgh Hkwrkpk eRlj u dj.ks gs losZ’ojiwtukps oeZ vkgs- eukrwu okluk dk<wu rsFks foðykyk LFkku |k- Eg.kts vyH; ykHk ?kjkyk ;srhy ¼1694½ larkuh /keZ vkf.k uhfrpk fopkj vkiY;kdfjrk vk;rk d:u Bsoyk vkgs- rks vlk dh] T;k ?kjkrhy iziapkr ijksidkj gksrks rs nsÅG vkgs] lk/ks ?kj ukgh /kekZus lkafxrysY;k fof/kizek.ks T;kps lsou gksrs rks dke Eg.kts LoSjkpkj uOgs- {kf=; /kekZizek.ks djkO;k ykx.kkÚ;k ;q)kr >kysyh vifjgk;Z gh gR;k ulwu rs fu’dke drZO;deZ vkgs fdaok ts drZO; deZ fu’dke cq)hus dsys tkrs rs ca/kd gks.kkjs lk/ks deZ jkgr ukgh vlk gk /keZ o uhfrpk foosd vkgs- vkfy;k Hkksxklh vlkos lknjA nsokojh Hkkj ?kkyw u;sAA— Rkqdk Eg.ks uOgs dk; R;k dfjrkA fparkok rks vkrk fo”oaHkjAA 2396AA izkjC/k dekZizek.ks lq[knq%[kkps ts Hkksx okV;kyk ;srhy rs Hkksx.;kl fl) vlkos- rs VkG.;kdfjrk nsokoj Hkkj ?kkyw u;s- rks ladVs fuokj.k dj.kkjk vkgs- ladVkph Hkhrh ckGx.;kr nq%[k vkgs- nsokyk “kj.k tkÅu fuHkZ;i.ks Hkksx Hkksx.;kph vkiyh r;kjh ikfgts- dkj.k nso deZQykr gkr ?kkyhr ukgh-
  • 3. 87RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print) E-ISSN-2320-5482, July,2013 VOL-IV *ISSUE- 46 R;kps fparu dsys Eg.kts gs Hkksx Hkksx.;kph rks “kDrh nsrks- o ladVkps fuokj.k djrks- /ku] eku gs izkjC/kkizek.ks feGrkr R;kdfjrk O;FkZ lksl u dfjrk ia<jhjk;kyk Hktkos- lq[knq%[ks izkjC/kkizek.ks Hkksxkohp ykxrkr- Eg.kwu R;kaPkk Qkj cksHkkVk d: u;s- lq[k] nq%[k] ykHk] gkfu] eku&vieku leku eku.ks gsp [kjs lksoGs vkgs- lR;oknh djh lalkj ldG %& Hkkxor /kekZus ijes”oj izkIrhdfjrk ?kjnkj lksMwu izR;{k laU;kl ?ks.;kph vko”;drk izfrikfnyh ukgh- rFkkfi ladYi] dkeuk] vklDrh ;kaP;k R;kxkpk ijksijh iqjLdkj dsyk vkgs- dkj.k fo’k;klDrh drZO;dekZaP;k o HkDrhP;k vkM ;srs-^^lR;oknh djh lalkj ldGA vfyIr deG tGh tSlSAA— u cksys xq.knks’k ukbds tks dkuhA orksZuh rks tuh tuknZu**AA 1025AA deG ik.;kr vlwu R;kyk tls ik.kh ykxr ukgh R;kizek.ks lR;kus lalkj dj.kkjk euq’; R;kP;k vklDrhiklwu vfyIr vlrks- tks ijksidkj djrks o T;kaP;k vaxh Hkwrn;k vkgs rks vkRe:ip vlrks- ,o<sp uOgs rj tks vkf.kdkaps xq.knks’k d/kh cksyr ukgh fdaok ,sdr ukgh- vlk iq:’k yksdkae/ ;s O;ogkj djhr vlyk rjh Lor% tuknZu Lo:ip vlrks- Hkwrn;k] ijksidkj] ijfuank u dj.ks o u ,sd.ks ;k lnxq.kkaps ,o<s egRo vkgs- fdacgquk ijksidkj gsp iq.; vkf.k ijihMk Eg.ktsp iki vkgs- lR; gkp /keZ vkgs- vkf.k vlR; Eg.kts v/kkfeZd deZ vkgs- ukeLej.k ghp ln~xrh vkgs vkf.k R;kiklwu foeq[krk Eg.kts v/kksxrh vkgs- larkpk lax gkp LoxZokl vkgs vkf.k vuxZG okx.kkjkpk lgokl gk ujd vkgs- ^rqdk Eg.ks m?kMs fgr ?kkrA t;kaps mfpr djk rSls*AA 1227A vkiys fgr d”kkr vkgs vkf.k ?kkr d”kkr vkgs gs m?kM vkgs- T;kyk ts mfpr okVsy R;kus rs djkos loZ xks’Vh eukP;k Lok/khu vkgsr- ln~xrh v/kksxrh eu tls vlsy r”kk feGrkr- Eg.kwu lk/kwlaxrhus eu ,dkxz djk- LoSj /kko.kkÚ;k ;k vks<kG eukyk vko:u iz;RuiwoZd tru djk- ^rqdk Eg.ks eu mrjh Hkofla/kwA eu djh ca/kq pkSÚ;ka”khpk*AA 1123AA eukus lalkj lkxj r:u tkrk ;srks vkf.k rs tj Lok/khu ulsy rj euq’; iqu% pkSÚ;ka”kh ;ksuhP;k QsÚ;kr lkiMrks- lalkjk vkfy;k ,d lq[k vkgs %& tUekyk vkysY;k euq’;kus vgadkj lksMwu] bZ”ojkyk “kj.k tkÅu “kk”or dk; vkgs- v”kk”or dk; vkgs ;kpk foosd d:u okxkos- thou {k.kHkaxwj vkgs ;kph tk.kho Bsowu lRoj bZ”ojkyk “kj.k tkos vlk rqdksckapk eksykpk mins”k vkgs- rs eksB;k dGoG;kus ekuoek=kyk Eg.krkr-^ vkfy;k lalkjk mBk osx djkA “kj.k tk mnkjk ikaMqjaxkA nsg gs nsokps /ku dqcsjkpsA rsFks euq’;kps dk; vkgs**AA ns.kkjk] nsofo.kkjk] us.kkjk] usofo.kkjk nso vkgs- euq’;kP;k gkrh dkgh ukgh- rks fufeÙkek= vkgs- i.k ^eh ek>s* vls Eg.kr rks ok;k tkrks Eg.kwu &rqdk Eg.ks dkjs uk’koarklkBh A nsoklos vkVh ikfMrklhAA 3949AA rqdkscakpk Hkj bZ”ojkps Lej.k dj.;koj fo”ks’k vkgs- dkj.k R;kr lq[k vkgs rs Eg.krkr- lalkjk vkfy;k ,d lq[k vkgsA vkBokos ik; foBksckpsAA 4099AA vR;ar lksI;k “kCnkr] lksI;k n`’Vkarkuh rqdksck] xhrk Kkus”ojh ;krhy rRoKku ekaMrkr vkf.k R;k vk/kkjkoj yksdkauk bZ”ojHktukP;k ekxkZoj ?ksÅu tkrkr mnkgj.kkFkZ & dkjs ukBfolh d”ikG nsoklhA iksflrks tuklh ,dyk rksAA ckGk nq/kk dks.k dfjrs mRiÙkhA ok<oh Jhirh los nksUghAA 2310AA v”kh nsokfo’k;h d`rKrsph tk.kho d:u nsÅu ukeLej.k dj.;kpk mins”k djrkr- euq’; tUe egRokpk vkgs rks HkkX;kusp feGrks- R;kpk lnqi;ksx djkok- uk”k d: u;s- gk larkpk egŸokpk fopkj o mins”k vkgs- rqdksckauh vusd vHkaxkrwu rks eksB;k dGdGhus dsyk vkgs- & cgqrk tUek varhA tksMh ykxyh gs gkrhAA euq’;nsgk ,slk BkoA /kjh ikaMqjaxh HkkokAA cgq dsyk QsjkA ;sFk lkiMyk FkkjkAA rqdk Eg.ks tk.ks A ,sls Hkys rs “kkgk.ks AA 1355AA thou u”oj vkgs vk;q’; vYi vkgs- euq’; tUe nqfeZG vkgs gs y{kkr ?ksÅu euq’;kus vk;q’; fo’k;lq[kkr u’V u djrk ijes”ojizkIrhpk dkgh rjh mik; dsyk ikfgts vk;q’; lkFkZdh ykoys ikfgts- R;klkBh Hkxoarkps ukeLej.k gk lqyHk mik; vkgs- vlk gk rqdkscakpk dGdGhpk mins”k vkgs gk mins”k lkj:ikus [kkyhy vHkaxkr vkyk vkgs- vkrk rjh iq<s gk fp mins”kA udk d: uk”k vk;q’;kpkAA ldGkaP;k ik;k ek>s naMorA vkiqykys fpÙk “kq) djkAA fgr rs djkos nsokps fparuA d:fu;k eu ,dfo/kAA rqdk Eg.ks ykHk gks; rks O;kikjA djk dk; Qkj f”kdokosAA 101AA v”kk izdkjs lar rqdkscakuh “ksdMks vHkaxke/kwu yksdkauk es?kkalkj[kk mins”k dsyk vlwu rks vktgh ekSyhd okVrks- R;kaP;k ;k mins”kij ok.khph oSf”k’V;sA fu’d’kZ [kkyhy izek.ks lkaxrk ;srhy- lar rqdkjkekP;k mins”kij dforsph oSf”k’V;s@fu’d’kZ %& lar rqdkjkekP;k ekstD;k mins”kij vHkaxkpk vH;kl dsyk vlrk vkf.k R;k vHkaxkfo’k;h ekU;oj leh{kdkapk vfHkizk;
  • 4. 88 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print) E-ISSN-2320-5482, July,2013 VOL-IV *ISSUE- 46 y{kkr ?ksrk rqdkjkekaP;k mins”kij dforsph oSf”k’V;sS@fu’d’kZ lw=:ikus [kkyhyizek.ks ekaMrk ;s.ks “kD; vkgs- rqdkjkekP;k mins”kij vHkaxkPkk mi;ksx yksd QDr /kkfeZd dk;kZr u djrk] O;kogkfjd “kgk.ki.kkpk vk/kkj Eg.kwugh djrkr- rqdkjkekaP;k mins”kij vHkaxkrwu vkysyk mins”k dsoG rRdkyhu yksdkalkBh ulwu rks lkoZdkyhu vkgs- rqdkjkekaP;k mins”kij vHkaxkyk ekuorkoknkpk Li”kZ >kysyk vlwu R;kauh dsysyk mins”k gk ekuoh ewY;kaph o`)h dj.kkjk vkgs- lar rqdkjkekaP;k mins”kij vHkaxkrwu dsysyk mins”k R;kauh eksB;k dGoG;kus dsysyk vkgs- R;k loZ mins”kkyk dk:.;kpk Li”kZ >kysyk vkgs- rqdkjkekauh dsysY;k mins”kkr R;kaP;k LokuqHkokps ewY; vkgs- 1- Jh rqdkjkeckokaP;k vHkaxkph xkFkk & izdk”ku egkjk’Vª “kklu vk- nq- 1955 2- fonzksgh rqdkjke & MkW- vk- g- lkGqa[ks] yksdk;r izdk”ku] lkrkjk r”rh; vko”Ÿkh 2010 3- ejkBh ok³~e;kpk bfrgkl [kaM nqljk & laik-la- x- eky’ks] izdk”ku egkjk’Vª lkfgR; ifj’kn vk- i- 1982 R;kaPkk loZ mins”k ^vk/kh dsys ex lkafxrys* ;k i)rhpk vkgs- lar rqdkjkekauh dsysY;k mins”kkr fofo/krk vlwu R;kyk lR;kps vf/k’Bku vkgs- rqdkjkekaPkk mins”k gk yksdks)kjklkBh vlwu R;kauh yksdkaps vusd nks’kgh nk[kfoys vkgsr vkf.k rs nks’k nwj dj.;kph fouarh d:u lnkpkjkph f”kdo.k fnyh vkgs- lar rqdkjkekaP;k mins”kij dforsr jks[kBksdi.kk] fuf”prrk] fu%lafnX/krk] thou O;ogkjkfo’k;hph let fnlwu ;srs- vYik{kjRo] dkO;kRedrk] ckssyh Hkk’kspk okij lqHkkf’krklkj[kh Hkk’kk xzkE;rk gh rqdkjkekP;k mins”kij dforsph oSf”k’V;s vkgsr- miekn`’Vkarkpk izHkkoh okij] loZlkekU;kaP;k thoukrhy izfrekapkokij]fouksn]migklbR;knhoSf”k’V;sns[khyrqdkjkekaP;k mins”kij dforsph fnlwu ;srkr-