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Reducing health and
environmental impacts of
urban transportation
Kate Blumberg
Commission for
Environmental Cooperation
Los Cabos, Mexico
Options to reduce urban transport emissions
Objective Program Form PM BC CO2
Prevent gross
emitters
I/M, remote sensing,
spotter programs
Mandatory; generally local ✔ ✔ ✔
Accelerate fleet
renovation
Scrappage Voluntary or mandatory; local or
federal; fiscal incentives
✔ ✔
Reduce
emissions from
existing vehicles
Lower sulfur fuels Government implemented;
generally federal
✔
Retrofits for PM and
NOx control
Generally voluntary; local; fiscal
incentives
✔ ✔
Transporte Limpio/
SmartWay
Generally voluntary; federal and
local collaboration; fiscal incentives
✔ ✔ ✔
Complementary
measures
Low Emission Zones Mandatory; local ✔ ✔
Anti-idling restrictions Mandatory; local ✔ ✔ ✔
Driver training program Voluntary; local ✔
Demand and
mode shifting
Congestion relief
measures
Range from mandatory to voluntary
to government-implemented; local
✔ ✔ ✔
Improve non-motorized
& public transit options
Government-implemented; local ✔ ✔ ✔
Parking programs Mandatory or fee-based; local ✔
Local programs need federal support
Reducing health and environmental impacts
• Clean fuels
• Clean new vehicle standards
• Programs to clean up existing fleet
• Inspection and maintenance
• Fleet renovation/scrappage
• Retrofit (fuel economy and pollutants)
• Low emission zones
• Programs to reduce vehicle use or
shift to cleaner modes
• Anti-idling laws
• Improved non-motorized and public transit
infrastructure
• Parking or congestion pricing
• Freight optimization
Opportunities for further harmonization in
North America
U.S. 2025: 20.9
Canada 2025: 20.9
EU 2020: 25.8
Japan 2020: 23.4
China 2020: 21.3
S. Korea 2015: 16.7
Mexico 2016[3] : 14.6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025
KilometersperLiterofGasolineEquivalent
NormalizedtoUSCAFETestCycle
US-LDV
Canada-LDV
EU
Japan
China
S. Korea
Australia
India
Mexico
Solid dots and lines: historical performance
Solid dots and dashed lines: enacted targets
Hollow dots and dashed lines: target under study
[1] China's target reflects gasoline vehicles only. The target may be higher a er new energy vehicles are considered.
[2] US , Canada, and Mexico light-duty vehicles include light-commercial vehicles.
[3] Mexico standard considers all credits taken into account with excep on of the early ac on credits for MYs 2012 and 2013.

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Kate Blumberg: Reducing health and environmental impacts of urban transportation

  • 1. Reducing health and environmental impacts of urban transportation Kate Blumberg Commission for Environmental Cooperation Los Cabos, Mexico
  • 2. Options to reduce urban transport emissions Objective Program Form PM BC CO2 Prevent gross emitters I/M, remote sensing, spotter programs Mandatory; generally local ✔ ✔ ✔ Accelerate fleet renovation Scrappage Voluntary or mandatory; local or federal; fiscal incentives ✔ ✔ Reduce emissions from existing vehicles Lower sulfur fuels Government implemented; generally federal ✔ Retrofits for PM and NOx control Generally voluntary; local; fiscal incentives ✔ ✔ Transporte Limpio/ SmartWay Generally voluntary; federal and local collaboration; fiscal incentives ✔ ✔ ✔ Complementary measures Low Emission Zones Mandatory; local ✔ ✔ Anti-idling restrictions Mandatory; local ✔ ✔ ✔ Driver training program Voluntary; local ✔ Demand and mode shifting Congestion relief measures Range from mandatory to voluntary to government-implemented; local ✔ ✔ ✔ Improve non-motorized & public transit options Government-implemented; local ✔ ✔ ✔ Parking programs Mandatory or fee-based; local ✔
  • 3. Local programs need federal support
  • 4. Reducing health and environmental impacts • Clean fuels • Clean new vehicle standards • Programs to clean up existing fleet • Inspection and maintenance • Fleet renovation/scrappage • Retrofit (fuel economy and pollutants) • Low emission zones • Programs to reduce vehicle use or shift to cleaner modes • Anti-idling laws • Improved non-motorized and public transit infrastructure • Parking or congestion pricing • Freight optimization
  • 5. Opportunities for further harmonization in North America U.S. 2025: 20.9 Canada 2025: 20.9 EU 2020: 25.8 Japan 2020: 23.4 China 2020: 21.3 S. Korea 2015: 16.7 Mexico 2016[3] : 14.6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 KilometersperLiterofGasolineEquivalent NormalizedtoUSCAFETestCycle US-LDV Canada-LDV EU Japan China S. Korea Australia India Mexico Solid dots and lines: historical performance Solid dots and dashed lines: enacted targets Hollow dots and dashed lines: target under study [1] China's target reflects gasoline vehicles only. The target may be higher a er new energy vehicles are considered. [2] US , Canada, and Mexico light-duty vehicles include light-commercial vehicles. [3] Mexico standard considers all credits taken into account with excep on of the early ac on credits for MYs 2012 and 2013.

Editor's Notes

  1. Most programs will have some impact on both conventional pollutants (shorthand here as PM) and CO2. Meaning that there will be fuel savings from things like I/M programs and anti-idling. If you think about the full suite of climate pollutants, including black carbon, pretty much all these programs will have both health and climate impacts. Many local programs can be voluntary of mandatory or, in the case of infrastructure improvements for example, simply implemented by government. Fiscal incentives are often needed to make these programs work and the federal government can be a big help here. As the next slide shows, however, federal support is needed to truly clean up the air.
  2. Important harmonization effort on LD fuel economy standards. Still more work to do…1) Phase 2 of LD standards go out to 20252) Current LD emissions standards lag US in important aspects of the regulation (PM and NOx, especially for diesels) by 15-20 years. HD emissions standards have a lag of about 10 years. 3) HD fuel economy standards, huge opportunity for the whole region to work together on Phase 2.