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8 ELEMENTS OF SUCCESSFUL
DISTRIBUTED AGILE TEAMS
MARK KILBY - ITPALOOZA 2018
8 Elements of Successful Distributed Agile Teams   SFTA ITPallooza Dec20180
My distributed (agile) background …
2001
2003
2008
2012
2013
2014
for hire
consultingacrossindustries
volunteer
79%
What about you?
Measuring up to agile
Satisfy the Customer Welcome Change Deliver Frequently
Collaborate Daily
Support & Trust
Motivated Teams
Promote 

Face-to-Face
Conversations
Measured by Working
Software
Promote Sustainable
Pace
Promote Technical
Excellence
Maximize Through
Simplicity
Have 

Self-Organized

Teams
Reflect & Adjust 

Regularly
Adapted from http://agilemanifesto.org
✓ ✓ ✓
✓ ✓ ✓
✓ ✓ ✓
✓ ✓
? ?
Right Stuff?
8 Elements of Successful Distributed Agile Teams   SFTA ITPallooza Dec20180
8 Elements of Successful Distributed Agile Teams   SFTA ITPallooza Dec20180
Patterns
more info at
http://remotelyagile.info / @mkilby
Satellite


one or a few remote
from team
Nebula whole team dispersed
Clusters
team in a
few locations
What kind of distributed
teams have you worked in?
more info at
http://remotelyagile.info / @mkilby
Satellite


one or a few remote
from team
Nebula whole team dispersed
Clusters
team in a
few locations
Was it your choice?
IF PEOPLE CANNOT COLLOCATE 



OR



THEY CHOOSE TO WORK REMOTE…
HOW DO WE HELP PEOPLE 

BE SUCCESSFUL ON 

DISTRIBUTED TEAMS?
PRINCIPLES 

OVER 

PRACTICES & TOOLS
8 ELEMENTS
(OR PRINCIPLES)
Environment
4 ENVIRONMENTAL
ELEMENTS
Team
Team
Team
Team
ELEMENT: 

Acceptable Hours of Overlap
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
We get tangled up on time zones but

is that really the problem?
Distributed 

Collaboration 

Limits?
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Based on work preference
(not time zones)
How do we find overlap?
How Many Acceptable
Hours of Overlap?
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Can the team choose their core hours?
Can the team choose when to meet?
ELEMENT: 

Transparency at All Levels
Keep team spaces as open as possible

public appreciations 

ask questions in public
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
8 Elements of Successful Distributed Agile Teams   SFTA ITPallooza Dec20180
What level of transparency can
your organization support?
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Easy to share info across the team?
Across teams?
Across the organization?

What info is really “sensitive” or “need to know”?
ELEMENT: Culture of
Continuous Improvement
Change leaders should model improvement first

Then focus on the team

Works with rhythm

Key idea: EXPERIMENT!
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
ELEMENT: Culture of
Continuous Improvement
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Examples:

Personal - Improvement Days /Mentoring

Team - Retrospectives/ 

Training 

Org - Lean Coffee /

Meetups (in person) / 

Improvement Days
8 Elements of Successful Distributed Agile Teams   SFTA ITPallooza Dec20180
(Can the org) Create a Culture
of Continuous Improvement?
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Are individuals free to experiment?
Are teams free to experiment?
Are programs free to experiment?
Does senior leadership participate in experiments?
ELEMENT: 

Pervasive Communication
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Announcement in meeting
Q&A in chat 

backchannel
Reminders in

email
Details in wiki
“To move, to breathe, to fly, to float,

To gain all while you give,

To roam the roads of lands remote,

To travel is to live.”
― Hans Christian Andersen
Critical idea or message



(Annual vision? Pivots? 

Market shifts? Acquisitions?)
STORY
(Can your org) practice 

Pervasive Communication?
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Do you share key info in multiple channels?

Do you repeat until you hear the message repeated?
Shifts in how to 

coordinate & communicate
Back Channel - always have all
hailing frequencies open (chat);
someone should always monitor
Buddy System - each remote
person has a “buddy” in the
room to make sure they are
connected to the team
(paired communication)
Co-Pilot – someone at another
location that can help you
coordinate the whole team
(paired facilitation)
more info at http://remotelyagile.info / @mkilby
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Satellite
Clusters
Nebula
Satellite
Clusters
Clusters
4 TEAM
ELEMENTS
ELEMENT: 

Assume Good Intent
Satir Interaction Model
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Learning natural
tendencies within a team
EaseofAdoption
Time to Introduce
easy
more 

difficult
1-2 hours week weeks or months
DISC
MBTI
Strength Finder
2.0
Compass
activity 

(DIY)
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
8 Elements of Successful Distributed Agile Teams   SFTA ITPallooza Dec20180
Learning natural
tendencies within a team
EaseofAdoption
Time to Introduce
easy
more 

difficult
1-2 hours week weeks or months
DISC
MBTI
Strength Finder
2.0
Compass
activity 

(DIY)
Liftoffs (diy)
Other benefits - shared vision, 

working agreements?
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
(Can the team) 

Assume Good Intent?
Do you check-in with each other 

when there are misunderstandings?
Do you support psychological safety in 

asynchronous and synchronous communications?
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
ELEMENT:
Project Rhythm
Whether time-boxed (e.g., Scrum, XP) or in Flow
(Kanban), all teams have a rhythm

Encourage team to decide rhythm as they form

Encourage the team to change rhythm when they
are not “keeping a beat”. (e.g. retrospect)
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
STORY
(Can the team) Create a
Project Rhythm?
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Do you (en)force the same rhythm across all your teams 

or 

allow teams to determine their own rhythm based on 

their work and context?
ELEMENT: Resilience
Can we…

quickly adjust to meet a goal?

adjust to hardship?

provide an “adaptive environment”?
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Checking Resilience
Example - Communication
Can anyone on the team start a new communication channel
at any time?

Will anyone on the team initiate communications?



Is there psychological safety?

Example - Facilitation
Can anyone on the team facilitate any meeting? 

(backlog refinement, planning, standup, review, retrospective)
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Promoting Resilience through
Holistic Culture
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Promoting Resilience
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
(Can the team) Create
Resilience with Holistic Culture?
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Does the team understand each team member’s 

strengths, context, and goals?



Do teams control their schedule and their workspace?
Deep Focus can be important (and a default for
remote workers), but …

Collaboration can help you explore problems and
solutions faster
ELEMENT: 

Default to Collaboration
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
STORY
(Can the team) Default
to Collaboration?
© 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
Do team members seek collaboration or quiet time 

when working remotely?
Do team members find benefit to pairing or mobbing remotely?
How to mix elements?
Principle
Small Step 

Practices
Giant Leap 

Practices
Acceptable Hours of Overlap
Select team members in
nearby time zones
Allow team to choose core
hours and meeting times
Transparency at All Levels
Public appreciations;

Encourages questions in public
Open team channels to
organization
Culture of Continuous
Improvement
Retrospectives; lean coffee
Q&A (across org)
Mentoring; Improvement Days
or Hackathons; Meetups
Pervasive Communication
Backchannel, Buddy System,
Copilots
Multi-channel communications
(some automated)
Assume Good Intent
Learn team member tendencies
(e.g. Compass activity)
Continual coaching on listening skills,
default to high bandwidth
communications in conflict
Project Rhythms
Time-boxed synchronous activities if
>6 hours overlap; varied cadence for
flow-based
Allow team to set and adjust all
cadences via retrospective
Resilience Through Holistic
Culture
Establish psychological safety; model
“asking for help”; share some personal
context
Set rituals (1-1s, retro) where team
members share interests and goals
Default to Collaboration
Encourage daily check-ins
beyond a stand-up
Support pairing and mobbing
activities
Some distributed teams 

can look odd
or they have shiny
new tools
Focus on the right mix 

of fundamental elements to get your 

distributed team on the right course
Thanks! Questions?
more info at http://markkilby.com
Twitter: @mkilby 

http://www.linkedin.com/in/mkilby
Get the book at 

http://bit.ly/distagilebook
Want to try it? We are hiring 

https://www.sonatype.com/careers
References 

(in order of mention)
- http://agilemanifesto.org
- DISC vs MBTI assessments. https://coachfederation.org/blog/index.php/8211/
- Strengthfinder 2.0 - https://www.gallupstrengthscenter.com/
- Compass exercise adapted for online teams from “A Simple Exercise to
Strengthen Emotional Intelligence in Teams” KQED Mindshift https://
ww2.kqed.org/mindshift/2015/06/22/a-simple-exercise-to-strengthen-emotional-
intelligence-in-teams/
- Play Prelude for forming virtual teams http://www.playprelude.com/
- Liftoff: Start and Sustain Successful Agile Teams, 2nd ed. https://pragprog.com/
book/liftoff/liftoff-second-edition
- All remaining material (c) 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman - for more
information see http://markkilby.com and https://www.jrothman.com/
Photo credits (in order of appearance)
- starry sky (title slide). Mitchell Hollander on unsplash.com
- http://agilemanifesto.org
- https://pxhere.com/en/photo/287010 - 1961 photo of Yuri Gagarin in
space. CC Public Domain
- https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
File:ISS-47_Tim_Kopra_on_a_Laptop_in_the_Zvezda_Service_Mod
ule.jpg - Public Domain
- https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width_feature/
public/iss036e006695.jpg - Public Domain
- Satellite.https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Navstar-2F.jpg -
Public Domain.
- Crab Nebula.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebula#/media/
File:Crab_Nebula.jpg - Public Domain.
- The Pleiades, an open star cluster. Public Domain. https://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_astronomical_objects#/media/
File:Pleiades_large.jpg
- https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hohmann_transfer_orbit.png
- under the Creative Commons license.
- Space station concept - https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/
files/arc-15570-1_160554main_jsc2006e43519_high.jpg -
Public Domain
- https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
File:World_Time_Zones_Map.png, Public Domain
- NASA astronaut Randy Bresnik prepares to enter The Boeing
Company's CST-100 spacecraft. https://www.nasa.gov/
content/boarding-cst-100 Public domain.
- Astronaut Serena Auñón-Chancellor examines her eye with a
Fundoscope aboard ISS. https://www.nasa.gov/image-
feature/astronaut-serena-au-n-chancellor-examines-her-eye-
with-a-fundoscope Public domain.
- Space Shuttle Discovery Landing. https://www.nasa.gov/
images/content/587251main_2011-2082.jpg Public domain
- https://dribbble.com/shots/3167286-Users-Icon-Free-PSD
- Globe Photo by Juliana Kozoski on Unsplash
Photo credits, Extras (in order of appearance)
- Uhura / Star Trek https://www.flickr.com/photos/x-ray_delta_one/
12263923206 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
- Buddy System for -6 PLSS, Apollo 14 press kit. https://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/
a14/a14pk_buddy_system_en.jpg - Public Domain.
- Gemini astronauts. https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/images/
258507main_s66-44601_full.jpg - Public Domain.
- https://pixabay.com/en/puzzle-team-businessmen-cooperation-2651912/ CC0
- PlayPrelude.com logo. Used with permission.
- overhead view of orbital positions of the planets in systems with multiple
transiting planets discovered by NASA's Kepler mission. https://
www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/kepler/multimedia/images/kepler-multi-
systems_jan_2012.html Public domain.
- Neutral Buoyancy Simulator, Solar Max Testing 1983. NASA. https://flic.kr/p/
Ge2uen Public domain.
- NASA Apollo 11 moon landing. https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/
moonmars/apollo40/apollo11_aldrin.html Public domain
- SpaceX CRS-8 first stage landing - https://www.flickr.com/photos/spacex/
25788014884/ - Public Domain.
- SpaceX JCSAT-14 Launch - https://www.flickr.com/photos/spacex/
26751237322/ - Public Domain.
Other images © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman

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8 Elements of Successful Distributed Agile Teams SFTA ITPallooza Dec20180

  • 1. 8 ELEMENTS OF SUCCESSFUL DISTRIBUTED AGILE TEAMS MARK KILBY - ITPALOOZA 2018
  • 3. My distributed (agile) background … 2001 2003 2008 2012 2013 2014 for hire consultingacrossindustries volunteer
  • 4. 79%
  • 6. Measuring up to agile Satisfy the Customer Welcome Change Deliver Frequently Collaborate Daily Support & Trust Motivated Teams Promote 
 Face-to-Face Conversations Measured by Working Software Promote Sustainable Pace Promote Technical Excellence Maximize Through Simplicity Have 
 Self-Organized
 Teams Reflect & Adjust 
 Regularly Adapted from http://agilemanifesto.org ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ? ?
  • 10. Patterns more info at http://remotelyagile.info / @mkilby Satellite 
 one or a few remote from team Nebula whole team dispersed Clusters team in a few locations
  • 11. What kind of distributed teams have you worked in? more info at http://remotelyagile.info / @mkilby Satellite 
 one or a few remote from team Nebula whole team dispersed Clusters team in a few locations
  • 12. Was it your choice?
  • 13. IF PEOPLE CANNOT COLLOCATE 
 
 OR
 
 THEY CHOOSE TO WORK REMOTE…
  • 14. HOW DO WE HELP PEOPLE 
 BE SUCCESSFUL ON 
 DISTRIBUTED TEAMS?
  • 18. ELEMENT: 
 Acceptable Hours of Overlap © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman We get tangled up on time zones but
 is that really the problem?
  • 19. Distributed 
 Collaboration 
 Limits? © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman Based on work preference (not time zones)
  • 20. How do we find overlap?
  • 21. How Many Acceptable Hours of Overlap? © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman Can the team choose their core hours? Can the team choose when to meet?
  • 22. ELEMENT: 
 Transparency at All Levels Keep team spaces as open as possible public appreciations ask questions in public © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
  • 24. What level of transparency can your organization support? © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman Easy to share info across the team? Across teams? Across the organization?
 What info is really “sensitive” or “need to know”?
  • 25. ELEMENT: Culture of Continuous Improvement Change leaders should model improvement first Then focus on the team Works with rhythm Key idea: EXPERIMENT! © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
  • 26. ELEMENT: Culture of Continuous Improvement © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman Examples: Personal - Improvement Days /Mentoring Team - Retrospectives/ 
 Training Org - Lean Coffee /
 Meetups (in person) / 
 Improvement Days
  • 28. (Can the org) Create a Culture of Continuous Improvement? © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman Are individuals free to experiment? Are teams free to experiment? Are programs free to experiment? Does senior leadership participate in experiments?
  • 29. ELEMENT: 
 Pervasive Communication © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman Announcement in meeting Q&A in chat 
 backchannel Reminders in
 email Details in wiki “To move, to breathe, to fly, to float,
 To gain all while you give,
 To roam the roads of lands remote,
 To travel is to live.” ― Hans Christian Andersen Critical idea or message
 
 (Annual vision? Pivots? 
 Market shifts? Acquisitions?)
  • 30. STORY
  • 31. (Can your org) practice 
 Pervasive Communication? © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman Do you share key info in multiple channels?
 Do you repeat until you hear the message repeated?
  • 32. Shifts in how to 
 coordinate & communicate Back Channel - always have all hailing frequencies open (chat); someone should always monitor Buddy System - each remote person has a “buddy” in the room to make sure they are connected to the team (paired communication) Co-Pilot – someone at another location that can help you coordinate the whole team (paired facilitation) more info at http://remotelyagile.info / @mkilby © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman Satellite Clusters Nebula Satellite Clusters Clusters
  • 34. ELEMENT: 
 Assume Good Intent Satir Interaction Model © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
  • 35. Learning natural tendencies within a team EaseofAdoption Time to Introduce easy more 
 difficult 1-2 hours week weeks or months DISC MBTI Strength Finder 2.0 Compass activity 
 (DIY) © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
  • 37. Learning natural tendencies within a team EaseofAdoption Time to Introduce easy more 
 difficult 1-2 hours week weeks or months DISC MBTI Strength Finder 2.0 Compass activity 
 (DIY) Liftoffs (diy) Other benefits - shared vision, 
 working agreements? © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
  • 38. (Can the team) 
 Assume Good Intent? Do you check-in with each other 
 when there are misunderstandings? Do you support psychological safety in 
 asynchronous and synchronous communications? © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
  • 39. ELEMENT: Project Rhythm Whether time-boxed (e.g., Scrum, XP) or in Flow (Kanban), all teams have a rhythm Encourage team to decide rhythm as they form Encourage the team to change rhythm when they are not “keeping a beat”. (e.g. retrospect) © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
  • 40. STORY
  • 41. (Can the team) Create a Project Rhythm? © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman Do you (en)force the same rhythm across all your teams 
 or 
 allow teams to determine their own rhythm based on 
 their work and context?
  • 42. ELEMENT: Resilience Can we… quickly adjust to meet a goal? adjust to hardship? provide an “adaptive environment”? © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
  • 43. Checking Resilience Example - Communication Can anyone on the team start a new communication channel at any time? Will anyone on the team initiate communications?
 
 Is there psychological safety? Example - Facilitation Can anyone on the team facilitate any meeting? 
 (backlog refinement, planning, standup, review, retrospective) © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
  • 44. Promoting Resilience through Holistic Culture © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
  • 45. Promoting Resilience © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
  • 46. (Can the team) Create Resilience with Holistic Culture? © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman Does the team understand each team member’s 
 strengths, context, and goals?
 
 Do teams control their schedule and their workspace?
  • 47. Deep Focus can be important (and a default for remote workers), but … Collaboration can help you explore problems and solutions faster ELEMENT: 
 Default to Collaboration © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman
  • 48. STORY
  • 49. (Can the team) Default to Collaboration? © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman Do team members seek collaboration or quiet time 
 when working remotely? Do team members find benefit to pairing or mobbing remotely?
  • 50. How to mix elements? Principle Small Step 
 Practices Giant Leap 
 Practices Acceptable Hours of Overlap Select team members in nearby time zones Allow team to choose core hours and meeting times Transparency at All Levels Public appreciations;
 Encourages questions in public Open team channels to organization Culture of Continuous Improvement Retrospectives; lean coffee Q&A (across org) Mentoring; Improvement Days or Hackathons; Meetups Pervasive Communication Backchannel, Buddy System, Copilots Multi-channel communications (some automated) Assume Good Intent Learn team member tendencies (e.g. Compass activity) Continual coaching on listening skills, default to high bandwidth communications in conflict Project Rhythms Time-boxed synchronous activities if >6 hours overlap; varied cadence for flow-based Allow team to set and adjust all cadences via retrospective Resilience Through Holistic Culture Establish psychological safety; model “asking for help”; share some personal context Set rituals (1-1s, retro) where team members share interests and goals Default to Collaboration Encourage daily check-ins beyond a stand-up Support pairing and mobbing activities
  • 51. Some distributed teams 
 can look odd
  • 52. or they have shiny new tools
  • 53. Focus on the right mix 
 of fundamental elements to get your 
 distributed team on the right course
  • 54. Thanks! Questions? more info at http://markkilby.com Twitter: @mkilby 
 http://www.linkedin.com/in/mkilby Get the book at 
 http://bit.ly/distagilebook Want to try it? We are hiring 
 https://www.sonatype.com/careers
  • 55. References 
 (in order of mention) - http://agilemanifesto.org - DISC vs MBTI assessments. https://coachfederation.org/blog/index.php/8211/ - Strengthfinder 2.0 - https://www.gallupstrengthscenter.com/ - Compass exercise adapted for online teams from “A Simple Exercise to Strengthen Emotional Intelligence in Teams” KQED Mindshift https:// ww2.kqed.org/mindshift/2015/06/22/a-simple-exercise-to-strengthen-emotional- intelligence-in-teams/ - Play Prelude for forming virtual teams http://www.playprelude.com/ - Liftoff: Start and Sustain Successful Agile Teams, 2nd ed. https://pragprog.com/ book/liftoff/liftoff-second-edition - All remaining material (c) 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman - for more information see http://markkilby.com and https://www.jrothman.com/
  • 56. Photo credits (in order of appearance) - starry sky (title slide). Mitchell Hollander on unsplash.com - http://agilemanifesto.org - https://pxhere.com/en/photo/287010 - 1961 photo of Yuri Gagarin in space. CC Public Domain - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:ISS-47_Tim_Kopra_on_a_Laptop_in_the_Zvezda_Service_Mod ule.jpg - Public Domain - https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width_feature/ public/iss036e006695.jpg - Public Domain - Satellite.https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Navstar-2F.jpg - Public Domain. - Crab Nebula.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebula#/media/ File:Crab_Nebula.jpg - Public Domain. - The Pleiades, an open star cluster. Public Domain. https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_astronomical_objects#/media/ File:Pleiades_large.jpg - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hohmann_transfer_orbit.png - under the Creative Commons license. - Space station concept - https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/ files/arc-15570-1_160554main_jsc2006e43519_high.jpg - Public Domain - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:World_Time_Zones_Map.png, Public Domain - NASA astronaut Randy Bresnik prepares to enter The Boeing Company's CST-100 spacecraft. https://www.nasa.gov/ content/boarding-cst-100 Public domain. - Astronaut Serena Auñón-Chancellor examines her eye with a Fundoscope aboard ISS. https://www.nasa.gov/image- feature/astronaut-serena-au-n-chancellor-examines-her-eye- with-a-fundoscope Public domain. - Space Shuttle Discovery Landing. https://www.nasa.gov/ images/content/587251main_2011-2082.jpg Public domain - https://dribbble.com/shots/3167286-Users-Icon-Free-PSD - Globe Photo by Juliana Kozoski on Unsplash
  • 57. Photo credits, Extras (in order of appearance) - Uhura / Star Trek https://www.flickr.com/photos/x-ray_delta_one/ 12263923206 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) - Buddy System for -6 PLSS, Apollo 14 press kit. https://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/ a14/a14pk_buddy_system_en.jpg - Public Domain. - Gemini astronauts. https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/images/ 258507main_s66-44601_full.jpg - Public Domain. - https://pixabay.com/en/puzzle-team-businessmen-cooperation-2651912/ CC0 - PlayPrelude.com logo. Used with permission. - overhead view of orbital positions of the planets in systems with multiple transiting planets discovered by NASA's Kepler mission. https:// www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/kepler/multimedia/images/kepler-multi- systems_jan_2012.html Public domain. - Neutral Buoyancy Simulator, Solar Max Testing 1983. NASA. https://flic.kr/p/ Ge2uen Public domain. - NASA Apollo 11 moon landing. https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/ moonmars/apollo40/apollo11_aldrin.html Public domain - SpaceX CRS-8 first stage landing - https://www.flickr.com/photos/spacex/ 25788014884/ - Public Domain. - SpaceX JCSAT-14 Launch - https://www.flickr.com/photos/spacex/ 26751237322/ - Public Domain. Other images © 2018 Mark Kilby and Johanna Rothman