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Sayed Chhattan Shah
Department of Information Communications Engineering
Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Korea
www.mgclab.com
5G Network
Acknowledgements
 5G White Paper by NGMN Alliance
 View on 5G Architecture by 5G PPP Architecture Working Group
 SK 5G Architecture Design and Implementation Guidelines
 Huawei 5G Network Architecture: A High-Level Perspective
 A Flexible Network Architecture for QoE aware Communications in 5G Systems
Contents
 Background
 Use cases
 Requirements
 Design principles
 Architectures
 Technology
5G Network
LTE Architecture
Evolved Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access Network
Evolved Packet Core
LTE Architecture
LTE Architecture
LTE Architecture
 Evolved Radio Access Network
o It mainly consists of a single RAN node named as eNodeB
o The eNB interfaces with the User Equipment
o eNodeBs use the X2 interface to communicate with each other
o eNB functions
 Radio Resource Management
 Modulates and demodulates radio signals to communicate with UE
 IP header compression and encryption of user data stream
 Routing of User Plane data towards Serving Gateway
 Scheduling and transmission of paging messages
LTE Architecture
 Evolved Packet Core
o Routing and computing brain of the LTE network
o Serving Gateway
 Acts as a router and forwards data between eNB and P-GW
 Each mobile is assigned to a single S-GW but the S-GW can be
changed if the mobile moves sufficiently far
 Performs as the mobility anchor for the user plane during
inter-eNB handovers and as the anchor for mobility between
LTE and other 3GPP technologies
LTE Architecture
 Evolved Packet Core
o Mobility Management Entity
 Primary network signaling node that does not interact with user traffic
 Large variation in functionality including managing UE contexts,
creating temporary ID, sending pages, controlling authentication
functions, and selecting the S-GW and P-GWs
o Packet Data Network Gateway
 Allocates IP addresses, routes packets, and interconnects with non-
3GPP networks
 Each mobile is assigned to a default P-GW when it first switches on, to
give it always-on connectivity to a default PDN such as Internet
LTE Architecture
 Evolved Packet Core
o Home Subscriber Server
 Master database with subscriber data
o Authentication Center
 Resides within the HSS
o Policy and Charging Rules Function
 Rules and policies related to quality of service, charging, and
access to network resources
LTE Architecture
5G Network
Detailedcomparisonofwirelessgenerations
5G Network
5G use case families and related examples
5G Network
 Broadband Access in Dense Areas
o The focus is service availability in densely-populated areas such
as multi story buildings and dense urban city centers with 1000s
people per square km
 Augmented reality, multi-user interaction, three-dimensional
services
 Collaboration in 3D cyber-real offices or operating rooms
 These applications will require a high date rate and low latency
5G Network
 Broadband Access Everywhere
o Need to provide access to broadband service everywhere, from
urban to suburban and rural areas
o A consistent user experience with respect to throughput needs a
minimum data rate guaranteed everywhere
5G Network
 Higher User Mobility
o Beyond 2020, there will be a growing demand for mobile
services in vehicles, trains and even aircrafts
 High Speed Train
• Providing a satisfactory service to the passengers at a speed of 500
kmph may be a great challenge
 Remote Computing
• Requires very low latencies with robust communication links together
with availability close to 100%
 Moving Hot Spots
5G Network
 Massive Internet of Things
o Smart Wearables
 A number of ultra-light, low power, waterproof sensors will be
integrated in people’s clothing
 These sensors can measure various environmental and health
attributes
 Overall management of the number of devices as well as the data
and applications associated with these devices
o Sensor Networks
o Mobile Automated Video Surveillance
5G Network
 Extreme Real-Time Communications
o Use cases which have a strong demand in terms of real-time
interaction
o May require one or more attributes such as extremely high
throughput, mobility, critical reliability
 Autonomous driving
 Tactile Internet
• Humans will wirelessly control real and virtual objects
5G Network
 Lifeline Communication
o Public safety and emergency services
 Require a very high level of availability in addition to the ability to
support traffic surges
 Ultra-reliable Communications
o Automated Traffic Control and Driving
o eHealth: Extreme Life Critical
o Remote Object Manipulation: Remote Surgery
5G Network
 Broadcast-like Services
o News and Information
5G Requirements
The 5G requirements are from potential use cases and business models
5G Requirements
5G Requirements
 5G use cases demand very diverse and sometimes extreme
requirements
 User Experience
o User experience requirements address the end user’s
experience when consuming one or more services
 A consistent user experience over time for a given service
everywhere the service is offered
 User experienced data rate and latency
 Mobility
• Seamless service experience to users that are moving
5G Requirements
5G Requirements
 System Performance
o System performance requirements define the system capabilities
needed to satisfy the variety and variability of users and use
cases
 Up to several hundred thousand simultaneous active
connections per square kilometer shall be supported for
massive sensor deployments
 Data rates of several tens of Mbps should be supported for
tens of thousands of users in crowded areas
5G Requirements
5G Requirements
 Device Requirements
o Operator control capabilities on devices
 high degree of programmability and configurability by the network
 network operator may choose one of the profiles depending on QoS
needs, radio node capability or radio conditions
o To enable true global roaming capability, smart devices should
be able to support multiple bands as well as multiple modes
o Battery life shall be significantly increased
5G Requirements
 Enhanced Services
o Enhanced services will be characterized by a high level of
security, experience and features
 Connectivity transparency is a key requirement for delivering
consistent experience in a highly heterogeneous environment
• A terminal may be connected to several radio access technologies
 Security
 High availability and reliability
5G Design Principles
Given the requirements and considering emerging technology trends, the 5G system
should be designed based on the design principles illustrated in following Figure
5G Design Principles
 Radio
o Higher frequencies such and license-exempt spectrum should be
exploited
o Simultaneous connections to multiple access points need to be
supported
o RF capabilities of devices must be improved to take full
advantage of different spectrum opportunities
5G Design Principles
 Radio
o With extreme densification, cell planning and coordinated
deployment will become increasingly difficult
o Enhanced multi-layer and multi-RAT coordination, as well as
dynamic and fast switching between frequencies, cells, beams
and RATs are necessary to ensure seamless user experience
while mobile in such dense deployments
o Support dynamic radio topology
 Devices should be connected through topologies that minimize battery
consumption and signaling, without limiting their visibility and reachability by the
network
5G Design Principles
 Core Network and Operations
o Network and device functions and RAT configuration should be
tailored for each use case
o Network should support flexible composition of network functions
o 5G should make it possible to exploit the network to quickly and
efficiently create new value added services and explore different
business models and opportunities
o Build in security and privacy
5G Architecture
5G Architecture
 The infrastructure resource layer
o Physical resources of a fixed-mobile converged network,
comprising access nodes, cloud nodes, 5G devices, networking
nodes and associated links
o 5G devices may have multiple configurable capabilities and may
act as a relay or a computing and storage resource
5G Architecture
 The business enablement layer
o A library of all functions required within a converged network in
the form of modular architecture building blocks, including
functions realized by software modules that can be retrieved
from the repository to the desired location, and a set of
configuration parameters for certain parts of the network
o The functions and capabilities are called upon request by the
orchestration entity, through relevant APIs
5G Architecture
 The business application layer
o Includes specific applications and services of the operator,
enterprise, verticals or third parties that utilize the 5G network
o The interface to the end-to-end management and orchestration
entity allows, for example, to build dedicated network slices for
an application
5G Architecture
 The E2E management and orchestration entity
o It is a contact point to translate the use cases and business
models into actual network functions and slices
o It defines the network slices for a given application scenario,
chains the relevant modular network functions, assigns the
relevant performance configurations, and finally maps all of this
onto the infrastructure resources
5G Architecture
 Network Slicing
o A network or 5G slice is composed of a collection of 5G network
functions and specific RAT settings that are combined together
for the specific use case or business model
o The intention of a 5G slice is to provide only the traffic treatment
that is necessary for the use case, and avoid all other
unnecessary functionality
5G Architecture
5G Architecture
 The use of both dedicated infrastructure resources for certain slices,
as well as the use of shared infrastructure resources and functions
between multiple slices is needed
o A 5G slice for typical smartphone use can be realized by setting
fully-fledged functions distributed across the network
o Security, reliability and latency will be critical for a 5G slice
supporting automotive use case
o For a 5G slice supporting massive machine type devices, some
basic C-plane functions can be configured, omitting any mobility
functions, with contention-based resources for the access
5G Technology GAP Analysis
5G Technology GAP Analysis
5G Technology GAP Analysis
5G Technology GAP Analysis
5G Technology Options
5G Technology Options
 Use of higher frequency bands
o The air interface defined by 3GPP for 5G is known as New
Radio and the specification is subdivided into two frequency
bands
 Frequency range 1 (< 6 GHz)
• The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR1 is 100 MHz
 Frequency range 2 (24–86 GHz)
• The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR2 is 400 MHz
• The maximum rate is approximately 40 Gbps
5G Technology Options
 Flexible use of licensed spectrum
o Finer frequency granularity support to exploit any spare spectrum
o Carrier aggregation to benefit from any spare MHz
 Integrated license-exempt spectrum
o Integrated use of license-exempt spectrum to improve end-user QoE
 Use of 3GPP RATs in license-exempt spectrum, tighter integration of 3GPP
RATs with local area technologies that use license-exempt spectrum
• Wi-Fi and 3GPP proposal from Intel
5G Technology Options
 Massive MIMO and enhanced multi-antenna schemes
 In massive MIMO systems, the transmitter and receiver are
equipped with a large number of antenna elements
 Massive MIMO improves spectral efficiency
 Interference coordination
o To avoid interference via information exchange between schedulers on
network side
 Technologies for small packet transmissions
o There is a wide variety of small packets transmission schemes with
different QoE for both M2M and H2H
5G Technology Options
 UE-centric network
o The use of smarter devices could impact the radio access network. In
particular, both D2D and smart caching call for an architectural
redefinition where the center of gravity moves from the network core to
the periphery
o RAN virtualization will lead to a decoupling between a node and the
hardware allocated to handle the processing associated with this node.
Hardware resources in a pool, for instance, could be dynamically
allocated to different nodes depending on metrics defined by the
network operators
o Need to move from cell-centric architecture into a device-centric one
5G Technology Options
 Densification of the network via deployment of small cells
o Capacity increase
 Dual Connectivity
o A user terminal can be associated to two different base stations for
uplink and downlink, respectively
o This is suitable in HetNets, where there are noticeable asymmetries
between cells of different sizes.
o Terminal transmission power can be backed off if associated to a small
cell placed in physical proximity
o Support for transmission power control mechanism
5G Technology Options
 Dual Connectivity Challenges
o A user terminal can be associated to two different base stations for
uplink and downlink, respectively.
o User identification, UL power control, coordination of traffic flows across
different paths, UE complexity
5G Technology Options
 Enhanced multi-RAT coordination
o Multi-connection and Multi-transmission
o RAN functionality evolution including data cache, smart service and
contents distribution and aggregation, etc.
 Device-to-Device communications
o This can be an opportunity for future cellular systems to enhance their
performance in terms of: Network off-loading, spectral efficiency,
throughput, fairness, coverage extension, latency and power-saving.
o In addition, it gives the possibility of carrying out emergency calls in out
of coverage areas.
5G Technology Options
 Software-Defined Networking
o Programmable network with centralized logically abstracted control
 Smart Edge Node
o A node at the edge of the network can actively carry out some of the
core network functionalities or additional services
 Traffic Optimization
o Intelligently choosing the transmission path and last mile based on
attributes of the end-device, available access technologies at the end-
device’s location and status of network
5G Technology Options
 Enhanced multi-operator network sharing
o Enable sharing between two or more operators at all levels within a
heterogeneous network potentially administered by multiple different
organizations
o Shared elements can include infrastructure, spectrum, BTS backhaul,
site equipment, and antennas.
 Lowers cost to provide coverage and capacity.
o Creates perception of universal access to end user, with consistent
experience across different organizations
5G Technology Options
 All optical transport network with optical router and switch
o High bandwidth with very low energy consumption. Have the potential to
accommodate future traffic growth and reduce the high energy
consumption typical in conventional routers
5G Network
 IEEE 802.11ac, 802.11ad and 802.11af standards are
very helpful and act as a building blocks in the road
towards 5G
5G Network
5G Cellular Network Architecture II
5G Cellular Network Architecture II
 Infrastructure plane
o It represents the physical and virtual hardware in the network
o It consists of
 Wireless Transmission Points that use radio resources to transmit signals
 Network nodes that provide computing resources
 Interconnecting links that provide connectivity between nodes
 Hypervisors that virtualize these resources.
o Infrastructure plane supports multiple Infrastructure Providers
5G Cellular Network Architecture II
 Data plane
o It is responsible for forwarding user data between end-points
 It does not contain any control functions or carry control traffic
o Connectivity between the end-points is realized as a chain of network
functions deployed on physical or virtual devices
 Network functions include RF front-end in order to transmit or receive signals
to or from UE over the wireless channel
5G Cellular Network Architecture II
 Control plane
o It is responsible for network control and performance optimization
o Common examples of control functions include
 Mobility management to associate UE to a particular cell
 Paging to notify inactive UEs about incoming flows
 Scheduling to allocate resource blocks to different UEs
 Link adaptation
 Power control
 System measurements and reporting
o Based on the decisions made by the control plane functions, the data
plane functions at different layers of the protocol stack process data
packets
5G Cellular Network Architecture II
 Management and Orchestration framework
o The MANO framework is shared between the Infrastructure Providers
and Service Providers
o It is primarily tasked with the management of virtualized infrastructure,
orchestration of network services, and the lifecycle management of
VNFs
A 5G Cellular Network Architecture III
5G Cellular Network Architecture III
 Device controller is responsible for the device physical layer
connectivity to the 5G network
 The Edge Controller implements the 5G network C‐Plane, including
network access control, packet routing and transfer, mobility and
connection management, security, QoS and radio resource
management functions
o The implementation of the EC is distributed over the cloud infrastructure
via a set of interconnected control applications
 The Orchestration Controller coordinates the utilization of cloud
resources. It is responsible for the allocation and maintenance of
resources required to instantiate both 5G control and data planes
5G Cellular Network Architecture III
 5G Data Plane
o During network attachment, an address is allocated to the device
o A last hop routing element (LHRE) and a network entry point (NEP) is
associated to it and then, a forwarding path is established, to allow
packets generated by the device to be routed from the LHRE to the
NEP
A 5G Cellular Network Architecture IV
5G Cellular Network Architecture IV
 In present wireless cellular architecture, for a mobile user to
communicate whether inside or outside, an outside base
station present in the middle of a cell helps in communication
o This may result in very high penetration loss, which
correspondingly costs with reduced spectral efficiency, data rate,
and energy efficiency of wireless communications
 To overcome the challenge, distinct outside and inside setups
5G Cellular Network Architecture IV
 Every building will be installed with large antenna arrays from
outside, to communicate with outdoor base stations with the help of
line of sight components.
 For indoor communication, certain technologies like Wi-Fi, small
cell, ultra wideband, millimeter wave communications, and visible
light communications are useful for small range communications
having large data rates
 Since the 5G cellular architecture is heterogeneous, so it must
include macrocells, microcells, small cells, and relays
SK 5G Cellular Network Architecture
SK 5G Cellular Network Architecture
 Innovative Services
o It includes innovative 5G Services
 Enabling Platform
o It is the middle layer that creates meaningful and service-centric values
to support the upper innovative service layer
o It utilizes two key enablers to perform this task
 Network Functions Virtualization and Software Defined Networking which
makes the network much more dynamic, agile, and flexible
 A well-defined set of Application Programming Interfaces which offers the
ability to automate and orchestrate the network
SK 5G Cellular Network Architecture
 Hyper-Connected Radio
o Deliver massive amount of data to the Enabling Platform layer in a very
efficient and seamless manner
o This layer will include the not only the existing radio network
technologies but also new novel radio network technologies
SK 5G Cellular Network Architecture
 SK believes there will eventually be two types of clouds in 5G
o Cloud radio-access networks
o Cloud core networks
o With NFV it is anticipated that most mobility network functions will be
virtualized for flexibility and efficiency
o With SDN the control plane functions will further be separated from the
data plane functions for consistency and agility
o The virtualized and de-coupled functions will then be placed and run
appropriately in the two cloud types
SK 5G Cellular Network Architecture
 SK believes there will eventually be two types of clouds in 5G
o Cloud radio-access networks
 aims to transform the RAN to be flexible, scalable and service-agile by
taking advantage of evolving IT virtualization and cloud computing
technologies
SK 5G Cellular Network Architecture
 SK believes there will eventually be two types of clouds in 5G
o Cloud core networks
 In LTE all data plane traffic must go through a single node type
called Packet Data Network Gateway
 It could potentially pose a severe limitation when there is a huge
amount of backhaul traffics in 5G
5G Network: Requirements, Design Principles, Architectures, and Enabling Technologies

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5G Network: Requirements, Design Principles, Architectures, and Enabling Technologies

  • 1. Sayed Chhattan Shah Department of Information Communications Engineering Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Korea www.mgclab.com 5G Network
  • 2. Acknowledgements  5G White Paper by NGMN Alliance  View on 5G Architecture by 5G PPP Architecture Working Group  SK 5G Architecture Design and Implementation Guidelines  Huawei 5G Network Architecture: A High-Level Perspective  A Flexible Network Architecture for QoE aware Communications in 5G Systems
  • 3. Contents  Background  Use cases  Requirements  Design principles  Architectures  Technology
  • 5. LTE Architecture Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network Evolved Packet Core
  • 8. LTE Architecture  Evolved Radio Access Network o It mainly consists of a single RAN node named as eNodeB o The eNB interfaces with the User Equipment o eNodeBs use the X2 interface to communicate with each other o eNB functions  Radio Resource Management  Modulates and demodulates radio signals to communicate with UE  IP header compression and encryption of user data stream  Routing of User Plane data towards Serving Gateway  Scheduling and transmission of paging messages
  • 9. LTE Architecture  Evolved Packet Core o Routing and computing brain of the LTE network o Serving Gateway  Acts as a router and forwards data between eNB and P-GW  Each mobile is assigned to a single S-GW but the S-GW can be changed if the mobile moves sufficiently far  Performs as the mobility anchor for the user plane during inter-eNB handovers and as the anchor for mobility between LTE and other 3GPP technologies
  • 10. LTE Architecture  Evolved Packet Core o Mobility Management Entity  Primary network signaling node that does not interact with user traffic  Large variation in functionality including managing UE contexts, creating temporary ID, sending pages, controlling authentication functions, and selecting the S-GW and P-GWs o Packet Data Network Gateway  Allocates IP addresses, routes packets, and interconnects with non- 3GPP networks  Each mobile is assigned to a default P-GW when it first switches on, to give it always-on connectivity to a default PDN such as Internet
  • 11. LTE Architecture  Evolved Packet Core o Home Subscriber Server  Master database with subscriber data o Authentication Center  Resides within the HSS o Policy and Charging Rules Function  Rules and policies related to quality of service, charging, and access to network resources
  • 14. 5G Network 5G use case families and related examples
  • 15. 5G Network  Broadband Access in Dense Areas o The focus is service availability in densely-populated areas such as multi story buildings and dense urban city centers with 1000s people per square km  Augmented reality, multi-user interaction, three-dimensional services  Collaboration in 3D cyber-real offices or operating rooms  These applications will require a high date rate and low latency
  • 16. 5G Network  Broadband Access Everywhere o Need to provide access to broadband service everywhere, from urban to suburban and rural areas o A consistent user experience with respect to throughput needs a minimum data rate guaranteed everywhere
  • 17. 5G Network  Higher User Mobility o Beyond 2020, there will be a growing demand for mobile services in vehicles, trains and even aircrafts  High Speed Train • Providing a satisfactory service to the passengers at a speed of 500 kmph may be a great challenge  Remote Computing • Requires very low latencies with robust communication links together with availability close to 100%  Moving Hot Spots
  • 18. 5G Network  Massive Internet of Things o Smart Wearables  A number of ultra-light, low power, waterproof sensors will be integrated in people’s clothing  These sensors can measure various environmental and health attributes  Overall management of the number of devices as well as the data and applications associated with these devices o Sensor Networks o Mobile Automated Video Surveillance
  • 19. 5G Network  Extreme Real-Time Communications o Use cases which have a strong demand in terms of real-time interaction o May require one or more attributes such as extremely high throughput, mobility, critical reliability  Autonomous driving  Tactile Internet • Humans will wirelessly control real and virtual objects
  • 20. 5G Network  Lifeline Communication o Public safety and emergency services  Require a very high level of availability in addition to the ability to support traffic surges  Ultra-reliable Communications o Automated Traffic Control and Driving o eHealth: Extreme Life Critical o Remote Object Manipulation: Remote Surgery
  • 21. 5G Network  Broadcast-like Services o News and Information
  • 22. 5G Requirements The 5G requirements are from potential use cases and business models
  • 24. 5G Requirements  5G use cases demand very diverse and sometimes extreme requirements  User Experience o User experience requirements address the end user’s experience when consuming one or more services  A consistent user experience over time for a given service everywhere the service is offered  User experienced data rate and latency  Mobility • Seamless service experience to users that are moving
  • 26. 5G Requirements  System Performance o System performance requirements define the system capabilities needed to satisfy the variety and variability of users and use cases  Up to several hundred thousand simultaneous active connections per square kilometer shall be supported for massive sensor deployments  Data rates of several tens of Mbps should be supported for tens of thousands of users in crowded areas
  • 28. 5G Requirements  Device Requirements o Operator control capabilities on devices  high degree of programmability and configurability by the network  network operator may choose one of the profiles depending on QoS needs, radio node capability or radio conditions o To enable true global roaming capability, smart devices should be able to support multiple bands as well as multiple modes o Battery life shall be significantly increased
  • 29. 5G Requirements  Enhanced Services o Enhanced services will be characterized by a high level of security, experience and features  Connectivity transparency is a key requirement for delivering consistent experience in a highly heterogeneous environment • A terminal may be connected to several radio access technologies  Security  High availability and reliability
  • 30. 5G Design Principles Given the requirements and considering emerging technology trends, the 5G system should be designed based on the design principles illustrated in following Figure
  • 31. 5G Design Principles  Radio o Higher frequencies such and license-exempt spectrum should be exploited o Simultaneous connections to multiple access points need to be supported o RF capabilities of devices must be improved to take full advantage of different spectrum opportunities
  • 32. 5G Design Principles  Radio o With extreme densification, cell planning and coordinated deployment will become increasingly difficult o Enhanced multi-layer and multi-RAT coordination, as well as dynamic and fast switching between frequencies, cells, beams and RATs are necessary to ensure seamless user experience while mobile in such dense deployments o Support dynamic radio topology  Devices should be connected through topologies that minimize battery consumption and signaling, without limiting their visibility and reachability by the network
  • 33. 5G Design Principles  Core Network and Operations o Network and device functions and RAT configuration should be tailored for each use case o Network should support flexible composition of network functions o 5G should make it possible to exploit the network to quickly and efficiently create new value added services and explore different business models and opportunities o Build in security and privacy
  • 35. 5G Architecture  The infrastructure resource layer o Physical resources of a fixed-mobile converged network, comprising access nodes, cloud nodes, 5G devices, networking nodes and associated links o 5G devices may have multiple configurable capabilities and may act as a relay or a computing and storage resource
  • 36. 5G Architecture  The business enablement layer o A library of all functions required within a converged network in the form of modular architecture building blocks, including functions realized by software modules that can be retrieved from the repository to the desired location, and a set of configuration parameters for certain parts of the network o The functions and capabilities are called upon request by the orchestration entity, through relevant APIs
  • 37. 5G Architecture  The business application layer o Includes specific applications and services of the operator, enterprise, verticals or third parties that utilize the 5G network o The interface to the end-to-end management and orchestration entity allows, for example, to build dedicated network slices for an application
  • 38. 5G Architecture  The E2E management and orchestration entity o It is a contact point to translate the use cases and business models into actual network functions and slices o It defines the network slices for a given application scenario, chains the relevant modular network functions, assigns the relevant performance configurations, and finally maps all of this onto the infrastructure resources
  • 39. 5G Architecture  Network Slicing o A network or 5G slice is composed of a collection of 5G network functions and specific RAT settings that are combined together for the specific use case or business model o The intention of a 5G slice is to provide only the traffic treatment that is necessary for the use case, and avoid all other unnecessary functionality
  • 41. 5G Architecture  The use of both dedicated infrastructure resources for certain slices, as well as the use of shared infrastructure resources and functions between multiple slices is needed o A 5G slice for typical smartphone use can be realized by setting fully-fledged functions distributed across the network o Security, reliability and latency will be critical for a 5G slice supporting automotive use case o For a 5G slice supporting massive machine type devices, some basic C-plane functions can be configured, omitting any mobility functions, with contention-based resources for the access
  • 42. 5G Technology GAP Analysis
  • 43. 5G Technology GAP Analysis
  • 44. 5G Technology GAP Analysis
  • 45. 5G Technology GAP Analysis
  • 47. 5G Technology Options  Use of higher frequency bands o The air interface defined by 3GPP for 5G is known as New Radio and the specification is subdivided into two frequency bands  Frequency range 1 (< 6 GHz) • The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR1 is 100 MHz  Frequency range 2 (24–86 GHz) • The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR2 is 400 MHz • The maximum rate is approximately 40 Gbps
  • 48. 5G Technology Options  Flexible use of licensed spectrum o Finer frequency granularity support to exploit any spare spectrum o Carrier aggregation to benefit from any spare MHz  Integrated license-exempt spectrum o Integrated use of license-exempt spectrum to improve end-user QoE  Use of 3GPP RATs in license-exempt spectrum, tighter integration of 3GPP RATs with local area technologies that use license-exempt spectrum • Wi-Fi and 3GPP proposal from Intel
  • 49. 5G Technology Options  Massive MIMO and enhanced multi-antenna schemes  In massive MIMO systems, the transmitter and receiver are equipped with a large number of antenna elements  Massive MIMO improves spectral efficiency  Interference coordination o To avoid interference via information exchange between schedulers on network side  Technologies for small packet transmissions o There is a wide variety of small packets transmission schemes with different QoE for both M2M and H2H
  • 50. 5G Technology Options  UE-centric network o The use of smarter devices could impact the radio access network. In particular, both D2D and smart caching call for an architectural redefinition where the center of gravity moves from the network core to the periphery o RAN virtualization will lead to a decoupling between a node and the hardware allocated to handle the processing associated with this node. Hardware resources in a pool, for instance, could be dynamically allocated to different nodes depending on metrics defined by the network operators o Need to move from cell-centric architecture into a device-centric one
  • 51. 5G Technology Options  Densification of the network via deployment of small cells o Capacity increase  Dual Connectivity o A user terminal can be associated to two different base stations for uplink and downlink, respectively o This is suitable in HetNets, where there are noticeable asymmetries between cells of different sizes. o Terminal transmission power can be backed off if associated to a small cell placed in physical proximity o Support for transmission power control mechanism
  • 52. 5G Technology Options  Dual Connectivity Challenges o A user terminal can be associated to two different base stations for uplink and downlink, respectively. o User identification, UL power control, coordination of traffic flows across different paths, UE complexity
  • 53. 5G Technology Options  Enhanced multi-RAT coordination o Multi-connection and Multi-transmission o RAN functionality evolution including data cache, smart service and contents distribution and aggregation, etc.  Device-to-Device communications o This can be an opportunity for future cellular systems to enhance their performance in terms of: Network off-loading, spectral efficiency, throughput, fairness, coverage extension, latency and power-saving. o In addition, it gives the possibility of carrying out emergency calls in out of coverage areas.
  • 54. 5G Technology Options  Software-Defined Networking o Programmable network with centralized logically abstracted control  Smart Edge Node o A node at the edge of the network can actively carry out some of the core network functionalities or additional services  Traffic Optimization o Intelligently choosing the transmission path and last mile based on attributes of the end-device, available access technologies at the end- device’s location and status of network
  • 55. 5G Technology Options  Enhanced multi-operator network sharing o Enable sharing between two or more operators at all levels within a heterogeneous network potentially administered by multiple different organizations o Shared elements can include infrastructure, spectrum, BTS backhaul, site equipment, and antennas.  Lowers cost to provide coverage and capacity. o Creates perception of universal access to end user, with consistent experience across different organizations
  • 56. 5G Technology Options  All optical transport network with optical router and switch o High bandwidth with very low energy consumption. Have the potential to accommodate future traffic growth and reduce the high energy consumption typical in conventional routers
  • 57. 5G Network  IEEE 802.11ac, 802.11ad and 802.11af standards are very helpful and act as a building blocks in the road towards 5G
  • 59. 5G Cellular Network Architecture II
  • 60. 5G Cellular Network Architecture II  Infrastructure plane o It represents the physical and virtual hardware in the network o It consists of  Wireless Transmission Points that use radio resources to transmit signals  Network nodes that provide computing resources  Interconnecting links that provide connectivity between nodes  Hypervisors that virtualize these resources. o Infrastructure plane supports multiple Infrastructure Providers
  • 61. 5G Cellular Network Architecture II  Data plane o It is responsible for forwarding user data between end-points  It does not contain any control functions or carry control traffic o Connectivity between the end-points is realized as a chain of network functions deployed on physical or virtual devices  Network functions include RF front-end in order to transmit or receive signals to or from UE over the wireless channel
  • 62. 5G Cellular Network Architecture II  Control plane o It is responsible for network control and performance optimization o Common examples of control functions include  Mobility management to associate UE to a particular cell  Paging to notify inactive UEs about incoming flows  Scheduling to allocate resource blocks to different UEs  Link adaptation  Power control  System measurements and reporting o Based on the decisions made by the control plane functions, the data plane functions at different layers of the protocol stack process data packets
  • 63. 5G Cellular Network Architecture II  Management and Orchestration framework o The MANO framework is shared between the Infrastructure Providers and Service Providers o It is primarily tasked with the management of virtualized infrastructure, orchestration of network services, and the lifecycle management of VNFs
  • 64. A 5G Cellular Network Architecture III
  • 65. 5G Cellular Network Architecture III  Device controller is responsible for the device physical layer connectivity to the 5G network  The Edge Controller implements the 5G network C‐Plane, including network access control, packet routing and transfer, mobility and connection management, security, QoS and radio resource management functions o The implementation of the EC is distributed over the cloud infrastructure via a set of interconnected control applications  The Orchestration Controller coordinates the utilization of cloud resources. It is responsible for the allocation and maintenance of resources required to instantiate both 5G control and data planes
  • 66. 5G Cellular Network Architecture III  5G Data Plane o During network attachment, an address is allocated to the device o A last hop routing element (LHRE) and a network entry point (NEP) is associated to it and then, a forwarding path is established, to allow packets generated by the device to be routed from the LHRE to the NEP
  • 67. A 5G Cellular Network Architecture IV
  • 68. 5G Cellular Network Architecture IV  In present wireless cellular architecture, for a mobile user to communicate whether inside or outside, an outside base station present in the middle of a cell helps in communication o This may result in very high penetration loss, which correspondingly costs with reduced spectral efficiency, data rate, and energy efficiency of wireless communications  To overcome the challenge, distinct outside and inside setups
  • 69. 5G Cellular Network Architecture IV  Every building will be installed with large antenna arrays from outside, to communicate with outdoor base stations with the help of line of sight components.  For indoor communication, certain technologies like Wi-Fi, small cell, ultra wideband, millimeter wave communications, and visible light communications are useful for small range communications having large data rates  Since the 5G cellular architecture is heterogeneous, so it must include macrocells, microcells, small cells, and relays
  • 70. SK 5G Cellular Network Architecture
  • 71. SK 5G Cellular Network Architecture  Innovative Services o It includes innovative 5G Services  Enabling Platform o It is the middle layer that creates meaningful and service-centric values to support the upper innovative service layer o It utilizes two key enablers to perform this task  Network Functions Virtualization and Software Defined Networking which makes the network much more dynamic, agile, and flexible  A well-defined set of Application Programming Interfaces which offers the ability to automate and orchestrate the network
  • 72. SK 5G Cellular Network Architecture  Hyper-Connected Radio o Deliver massive amount of data to the Enabling Platform layer in a very efficient and seamless manner o This layer will include the not only the existing radio network technologies but also new novel radio network technologies
  • 73. SK 5G Cellular Network Architecture  SK believes there will eventually be two types of clouds in 5G o Cloud radio-access networks o Cloud core networks o With NFV it is anticipated that most mobility network functions will be virtualized for flexibility and efficiency o With SDN the control plane functions will further be separated from the data plane functions for consistency and agility o The virtualized and de-coupled functions will then be placed and run appropriately in the two cloud types
  • 74. SK 5G Cellular Network Architecture  SK believes there will eventually be two types of clouds in 5G o Cloud radio-access networks  aims to transform the RAN to be flexible, scalable and service-agile by taking advantage of evolving IT virtualization and cloud computing technologies
  • 75. SK 5G Cellular Network Architecture  SK believes there will eventually be two types of clouds in 5G o Cloud core networks  In LTE all data plane traffic must go through a single node type called Packet Data Network Gateway  It could potentially pose a severe limitation when there is a huge amount of backhaul traffics in 5G