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54
International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E-ISSN- 2320-5474, July, 2013 VOL-V * ISSUE -54
Òkjr dk fo'kky :i gekjs x©jo ,oa J)k dk fo"k; gS] ;|fi]
^,d¨·ga cgqL;ke* bldh lcls cMh fo'¨"krk gS] vkt oS'ohdj.k
ds bl ;qx esa fo?kVudkjh Áo`fÙk;‚a flj mBk jgh gSaA jktuhfr
^er* ls ysdj ^in ÁkfIr* rd lhfer g¨ x;h gS A jk"Vªh;rk
dh Òkouk,¡ Ñ’krj g¨rh tk jgh gSa A
Òkjrh; n`f"Vd¨.k ls ;tqosZn esa ^jk"Vª esa nsfg* rFkk
^jk"Vªnk jk"VªEÒsnÙk*1
'kriFk czkã.k esa le`f);qä v¨tLoh
tulewg d¨2
,rnFkZ Òk"kk] Òwfe] tuleqnk; vkfn fofÒé vFk¨Z
esa jk"Vª 'kCn Á;qä gqvk gSA ik'pkR; n`f"Vd¨.kkuqlkj us'ku
¼Nation½ 'kCn ySfVu Òk"kk ds us';¨ ¼Natio½ ls mn~Òwr gS
ftldk vFkZ gS tUe vFkok Átkfr3
Á¨-cfxZl] Á¨-jsuu b-
fo}ku¨a ds erkuqlkj ;g Li"V g¨rk gS fd fdlh Ò©x¨fyd
bdkbZ ij clk gqvk leqnk; ftldh viuh lH;rk]laLÑfr]
Òk"kk] /keZ v©j ijEijk g¨ rFkk ftldh viuh jktuhfrd ,drk
v©j dkuwu g¨] ogh jk"Vª gSa A
jk"Vªh;rk %
Òkjr ds bfrgkl esa loZÁFke osn¨a esa jk"Vªh;rk ds
n'kZu g¨rs gSaA&vFkoZosn ds i`Foh lwä rFkk _Xosn esa Á;qä
lwä gesa ,d lkFk pyus] ,d Òk"kk Á;¨x rFkk ,dlw«krk dk
lans'k nsrs gSa A ik'pkR; fo}ku¨a us jk"Vªh;rk dk laca/k
eu¨oSKkfud rF; ls LFkkfir djrs gq, Òk"kk] /keZ ijaijkv¨a ,oa
lkgp;Z&Òkouk vFkkZr ekufld Òkoukv¨a dh ,drk ij cy
fn;k x;k gSA Òkjrh; jktuhfr 'kkL«k ds fo}ku¨a us jk"Vªh;rk
ds vUrxZr fuEu rRo LohÑr fd, gSa &
1½ Ò©x¨fyd ,drk] 2½ tkrh; ,drk] 3½ lkaLÑfrd ,sfrgkfld
ijEijk dh ,drk] 4½ Òk"kk dh ,drk] 5½ /keZ dh ,drk] 6½
vkfFkZd fgar¨ dh ,drk] 7½ jktuhfrd ,drk A
jk"Vªh;rk v©j lkfgR; esa laca/k %
fo'o esa jk"Vªh; Òkouk dk lkfgR; ls vR;ar Ákphu
laca/k jgk gS A lkfgR; lekt dk niZ.k gS ;g mfä loZfofnr
gS gh ij lkfgR; lekt dk iFk&Án'kZd Òh gS A tc jk"Vªh;rk
dh Òkouk,¡ Ák;% foyqIr lh g¨rh tkrh gSa ml le; mls tkx`r
djuk lkfgR; dk gh dk;Z g¨rk gS A yxÒx 1500 bZ- ds
vuUrj lÒh ns'k¨a ds lkfgR; esa bl Òkouk us Áeq[krk ÁkIr
dhA fganh lkfgR; esa vkjaÒ ls gh jk"Vªh;rk dh Òkouk ns[kh
tk ldrh gS A ohjxkFkkdkyhu jk"Vªh; Òkouk esa tkrh;rk dk
Òko Áeq[k gSA jkl¨ ijaijk esa ohjÒko dk Ák/kkU; gS] ohjxkFkkdky
ds volku dky rd fgUnw&eqfLye laLÑfr;¨a ds laxe ls]
July,2013
jk"Vªh;rk dk vH;qn; gqvkA lar lkfgR; esa jk"Vªh;rk dk Lo:i
lkekftd mRFkku dk fof'k"V ifjpk;d jgk gS A dchj] lwj]
rqylh dk bl dky esa fo'¨"k egÙo gS A jhfrdkyhu lkfgR;
esa Òw"k.k ,oa lwnu tSls jk"Vªoknh dfo;¨aus tuekul d¨ tkx`r
dj muesa cy LQwfrZ v©j v¨t Òj fn;k A
okLro esa fganh lkfgR; esa jk"Vªh;rk dh xfr'khy ,oa
vck/k /kkjk ÒkjrsUnq ;qx ls vkjaÒ g¨rh gS A rRdkyhu Áeq[ki«k
^gfj'kpUæ&pfUædk* dh Qkbysa bl ckr dk ÁR;{k Áek.k gSA
4
f}osnh ;qx dk bfrgkl r¨ blls v¨rÁ¨r gS A v;¨/;kflag
mik/;k;] eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr] jkeujs'k f«kikBh] ukFkwjke 'kadj
bl ;qx ds Áfl) dfo gSa A Nk;koknh dkO; esa iar] Álkn
fujkyk] egknsoh oekZ] MkW-jkedqekj oekZ dh jk"Vªh; jpuk,¡
Ásj.kknk;h ,oa xzká cu iMh gSa A
cPpu ds jk"Vªh; dkO; dh i`"BÒwfe %
dfo vius ;qx dk Áfrfuf/k g¨rk gS A mlds ÑfrRo
esa lkjk ;qx ÁfrfcEcr g¨rk gSA ^dfo ekuork dk og psru&;a«k
gS ftl ij ÁR;sd Òkouk viuh rjax mRié djrh gS( tSls
Òwdai ekid ;a«k esa i`Foh ds vax esa dgh Òh mBus okyh flgju
vius vki vafdr g¨ tkrh gSA5
cPpu us tc lkfgR; txr esa inkiZ.k fd;k]ml
le; Òkjr esa jktuSfrd gypy rhoz Fkh] vaxzst¨a dk neu
pØ py jgk FkkA 1930 esa LojkT; dh e‚ax d¨ ysdj ckiw
dh Áfl) nkaMh ;k«kk ls lfou; Òax dk ;q) ÁkjaÒ g¨ pqdk
FkkA cPpu ml le; ,-,- dh ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ g¨ pqds F¨ fdUrq
ikfjokfjd rFkk vkfFkZd fparkv¨a v©j rkRdkyhu jktuSfrd
gypy¨a ds dkj.k dfo us i<kbZ N¨Mdj p[kkZ pykus] lÒk
twywl¨a esa tkus] ukjs yxkus dk dke gh ugÈ] xkao¨a esa tkdj
O;k[;ku Òh nsus yxsA [kn~nj Ápkjd Vhe cuk [kknh dk Ápkj
djus yxsA dfo us twywl¨a esa xkus ds fy, dbZ jk"Vªh; xhr
Òh fy[¨A ftuesa ^lj tk, r¨ tk, ij fgan vktknh ik,*6
okyk
xhr cgqr Áfl) gqvkA dfo ds eu esa vk;Z lekt ds
^vNwr¨)kj* v©j xka/khth ds ^gfjtu vkan¨yu* ds laLdkj iM
pqds F¨A ifj.kker% vNwr¨a dh iaxr esa cSBs cPpu us dPpk [kkuk
[kk;k]7
vius Lora«k ?kj esa pekj ckopÊ j[kus yxs bruk gh
ugÈ ^cfg"Ñr ifjokj*8
esa Ò¨tu dj ifjokj m)kj dk Òh dk;Z
fd;kA cPpu ds eu&efLr"d ij }kfjdk Álkn dk ^vlg;¨xh
Qkx*9
eSfFkyh’kj.k xqIrth dk Òkjr&Òkjrh10
iar fujkyk ds
eqä Nan¨ads lkFk ^;ax bafM;k* ^uothou*11
if«kdkv¨a dk ÁÒko
55SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN
International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E-ISSN- 2320-5474, July, 2013 VOL-V * ISSUE -54
Òh iMk FkkA Lo;a ys[kd ds 'kCn¨a esa ^^eSa dye v©j canwd pykrk
gw¡ n¨u¨a**12
;gh laLdkj ÁÒko fodflr g¨dj fo'kn :iesa
muds lkfgR; esa lwr dh rjg c¡V x, v©j jkT;lÒk ds eu¨uhr
lnL; g¨us ds ckn cPpu dk dkO; ,d [kkl vnk v©j Loj¨a
ds lkFk vorfjr g¨us yxkA
cPpu ds dkO; esa jk"Vªh;rk ds fofÒé :i vorfjr
gq, gSa ¼Findings½
jk"Vªfirk ckiw ls lacaf/kr & xka/khth ds foyk;r ÁLFkku
ij ^Òkjr ekrk dh fcnk*13
rFkk xka/khth ds tUefnu ij ^Òkjr
ekrk dh c/kkbZ*14
dforkv¨a esa ckiw ds Áfr J)k ^[kknh ds Qwy*
v©j ^lwr dh ekyk* esa ÁfrQfyr gqbZ gSA ;|fi bl esa ^xqIrkth
tSlk u bfro`Ùk oSf'k"VÓ gS] u ^iarth* ds dkO; tSlk
y¨deaxyRo u ^fujkyk* th ds dkO; tSlk mnkÙk rÙo gS] v©j
u ^fnudj* ds dkO; tSlk ncrk mÒjrk v¨t rÙo gS rFkkfi
xka/khth ds egkÁ;k.k ij vkLFkk dh J)katfy;k¡ xfjeke;
cu iMh gSaA15
vouh x©jo ls vafdr g¨a uÒ ds ys[¨]
D;k fy, nsorkv¨a us gh ;'k ds Bsds]
vorkj LoxZ dk gh i`Foh us tkuk gS]
i`Foh dk vH;qRFkku LoxZ Òh r¨ ns[¨A16
Lokra«; lqj{kk ls lacaf/kr & dfo d¨ egkÒkjr ds Ñ".k
dk :i gh vf/kd Òkrk gS] t¨ yMus ejus dk lans'k nsrk gSA
ftls fo'okl gS fd vafre fot; /keZ dh gh g¨rh gSA
vLrq&^mfr"B ;q/oLo ÒkjrA*17
;|fi cPpu 'kfä Á;¨x esa
vkLFkk j[krs gSa rFkkfi mlesa foosd v©j e;kZnk loZ«k bydrh
gSA og LokrU«;lqj{kk ds fy, vusd ckj dgrs gSa &
^gYdk Qwy ugÈ vktknh og gS Òkjh ftEesnkjh
mls mBkus d¨ da/k¨a ds ÒqtnaM¨a ds cy r¨y¨*18
^caxky dk dky*] /kkj ds b/kj m/kj* :i v©j vkokt] cgqr
fnu chrs dh dfri; dforkv¨a esa ;g Òko O;aftr gSA ykBh
d¨ jk"Vªh; gfFk;kj ekuusokys cPputh us ^ykBh v©j ckalqjh*19
xku esa Òh mldh egÙkk d¨ vafdr fd;k gSA
Òkjrh; laLÑfr ds Áfr J)k & ns'k viuh laLÑfr ij
gh thfor jgrk gSA viuh laLÑfr d¨ iqu% iqu ;kn djokus
ij Òh ns'k d¨ tkx`r g¨rs u ns[k cPputh O;aX;¨fä Ágkj
djrs gSa&
gesa g¨rk gS vfÒeku A ij vthc&lh yxrh gS ckr
fd cw<s Òkjrij chloÈ lnh dk O;aX;A
fd tgka gq, of'k"V v©j O;klA
muds Áfrfuf/k gS vkt jathr] MÓwfyi v©jeudkMA20
mudh ^n¨ pÍkus* ^cq) v©j ukp?kj* dh jpukv¨aesa
bl Òkouk ds vuqie fp«k feyrs gSaA
jk"Vª/ot ds Áfr vknj & jktuhfrd vf/kdkj Lora«krk
,oa laLÑfr d¨ lwfpr djusokyh ^x.kra«k&irkdk*21
ds Áfr
dfo viuh 'kqÒ Òkouk d¨ O;ä djrs gq, mldh efgek d¨
c[kkurs gSaA u lke nke ds le{k ;g #dh] u naM Òsn ds le{k
>qdhA lxoZ vkt 'k«kq&'kh’k ij Bqdh] fuMj /otkA gjh] lQsn]
dsljhA22
jk"Vª/ot ds Áfr >aMkxhr esa ldkj.k ifjorZu djds
vius dfo deZ d¨ fuÒkuk os ugÈ ÒwysA
jktuhfrd O;aX;&
^cPpu* th tc jkT;lÒk ds eu¨uhr lnL; cus
mUg¨aus usrkv¨a dh voljokfnrk] LokFkZijrk] lÙkky¨yqirk d¨
utnhd ls ns[kkA blesa orZeku jktuhfrK t¨ ;¨tuk#ih fpd
dh v¨V f'kdkj djrs gSa muds O;aX; dk fu'kkuk cus&^ifjokj
fu;¨tu*23
dhersa v©j dhersa24
fnYYkh dh eqlhcr*25
ubZ fnYyh
fdldh gS 26
^[ktwj* vkfn dforkv¨a esa mudh jk"Vªh; Òkouk
O;axkRed :i esa ÁLrqr gSA
Á;k.k xhr %
Òkjrh; lSfud¨a d¨ vkOgku djrs gq, dfo dgrs gSa
fd ^ohjRo&foosd*27
ds lkFk vius lhus d¨ xoZ ls rkudj
Á;k.k dj¨A ^Òkjrh; lSfud¨a dk ^lej&Á;k.k* rFkk ^f«kÒafxek*
esa Fkylsuk dk ^Á;k.kxhr* v¨t ;qä gSA dfo dgrs gSa&
tx ds iFk ij t¨ u #dsxk
t¨ u >qdsxk t¨ u eqMsxk]
mldk thou] mldh thrA28
u©&lSfud¨a ds ^Á;k.k xhr* esa os g¡lrs xkrs] fn'kkv¨a d¨ xqatkrs
gq, Á;k.k djus ds fy, dgrs gSaA
milagkj %¼Conclusion½
bl Ádkj cPputh dh jk"Vªh;Òkouk fofÒé vk;ke¨a
esa vfÒ;qä gqbZ gSA Á¨-Ñ".kpaæ iaMÓk ds 'kCn¨a esa dfo
lkekftd] /kkfeZd] jktuhfrd] uSfrd vkfn lÒh {¨«k¨a dh
jk"Vªh; leL;kv¨a d¨ viuh dfork dk fo"k; cuk;k gS v©j
ftruh fofo/k leL;kv¨a ij cPpu us ys[kuh mBkbZ gS]
Lok/khurk ds ckn dqN gh dfo muds lekukUrj py lds gSaA29
^e/kqdkO;* ls Áflf) ikusokys dfo cPpu ds lkFk
^gkykokn* dk Qrok bl dnj tqM x;k gS] fd mudk jk"Vªh;rk
ls lacaf/kr dkO; vyf{kr&lk jg x;k gSA ^e/kq'kkyk* ^e/kqckyk*
e/kqdy'k esa vafdr muds jk"Vªh;rk ds fp«k vyf{kr dj dsoy
#ekfu;r d¨ gh ljkgk x;kA mudh e/kq'kkyk dh ;s iafä;‚a&^cSj
c<krs efLtn eafnj esy djkrh e/kq'kkyk* jk"Vªh;rk dk gh
Árhd gSA
lq>ko %¼Suggestion½
vkt vko';drk bl ckr dh gS fd dkO;Áseh muds
dkO; esa jk"Vªh;rk dh iqdkj] jk"Vª ds Áfr mudh Òkouk drZO;
rFkk jk"Vªh; fopkj¨a d¨ le>us dk Á;kl djsa v©j muds
lkfgR; dk lgh ewY;kadu djs A ;g y?kq'k¨/k blh fn'kk esa
,d Á;kl gSaA

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international indexed,refereed, Monthly, Multilingual, Interdisciplainery,research journal

  • 1. 54 International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E-ISSN- 2320-5474, July, 2013 VOL-V * ISSUE -54 Òkjr dk fo'kky :i gekjs x©jo ,oa J)k dk fo"k; gS] ;|fi] ^,d¨·ga cgqL;ke* bldh lcls cMh fo'¨"krk gS] vkt oS'ohdj.k ds bl ;qx esa fo?kVudkjh Áo`fÙk;‚a flj mBk jgh gSaA jktuhfr ^er* ls ysdj ^in ÁkfIr* rd lhfer g¨ x;h gS A jk"Vªh;rk dh Òkouk,¡ Ñ’krj g¨rh tk jgh gSa A Òkjrh; n`f"Vd¨.k ls ;tqosZn esa ^jk"Vª esa nsfg* rFkk ^jk"Vªnk jk"VªEÒsnÙk*1 'kriFk czkã.k esa le`f);qä v¨tLoh tulewg d¨2 ,rnFkZ Òk"kk] Òwfe] tuleqnk; vkfn fofÒé vFk¨Z esa jk"Vª 'kCn Á;qä gqvk gSA ik'pkR; n`f"Vd¨.kkuqlkj us'ku ¼Nation½ 'kCn ySfVu Òk"kk ds us';¨ ¼Natio½ ls mn~Òwr gS ftldk vFkZ gS tUe vFkok Átkfr3 Á¨-cfxZl] Á¨-jsuu b- fo}ku¨a ds erkuqlkj ;g Li"V g¨rk gS fd fdlh Ò©x¨fyd bdkbZ ij clk gqvk leqnk; ftldh viuh lH;rk]laLÑfr] Òk"kk] /keZ v©j ijEijk g¨ rFkk ftldh viuh jktuhfrd ,drk v©j dkuwu g¨] ogh jk"Vª gSa A jk"Vªh;rk % Òkjr ds bfrgkl esa loZÁFke osn¨a esa jk"Vªh;rk ds n'kZu g¨rs gSaA&vFkoZosn ds i`Foh lwä rFkk _Xosn esa Á;qä lwä gesa ,d lkFk pyus] ,d Òk"kk Á;¨x rFkk ,dlw«krk dk lans'k nsrs gSa A ik'pkR; fo}ku¨a us jk"Vªh;rk dk laca/k eu¨oSKkfud rF; ls LFkkfir djrs gq, Òk"kk] /keZ ijaijkv¨a ,oa lkgp;Z&Òkouk vFkkZr ekufld Òkoukv¨a dh ,drk ij cy fn;k x;k gSA Òkjrh; jktuhfr 'kkL«k ds fo}ku¨a us jk"Vªh;rk ds vUrxZr fuEu rRo LohÑr fd, gSa & 1½ Ò©x¨fyd ,drk] 2½ tkrh; ,drk] 3½ lkaLÑfrd ,sfrgkfld ijEijk dh ,drk] 4½ Òk"kk dh ,drk] 5½ /keZ dh ,drk] 6½ vkfFkZd fgar¨ dh ,drk] 7½ jktuhfrd ,drk A jk"Vªh;rk v©j lkfgR; esa laca/k % fo'o esa jk"Vªh; Òkouk dk lkfgR; ls vR;ar Ákphu laca/k jgk gS A lkfgR; lekt dk niZ.k gS ;g mfä loZfofnr gS gh ij lkfgR; lekt dk iFk&Án'kZd Òh gS A tc jk"Vªh;rk dh Òkouk,¡ Ák;% foyqIr lh g¨rh tkrh gSa ml le; mls tkx`r djuk lkfgR; dk gh dk;Z g¨rk gS A yxÒx 1500 bZ- ds vuUrj lÒh ns'k¨a ds lkfgR; esa bl Òkouk us Áeq[krk ÁkIr dhA fganh lkfgR; esa vkjaÒ ls gh jk"Vªh;rk dh Òkouk ns[kh tk ldrh gS A ohjxkFkkdkyhu jk"Vªh; Òkouk esa tkrh;rk dk Òko Áeq[k gSA jkl¨ ijaijk esa ohjÒko dk Ák/kkU; gS] ohjxkFkkdky ds volku dky rd fgUnw&eqfLye laLÑfr;¨a ds laxe ls] July,2013 jk"Vªh;rk dk vH;qn; gqvkA lar lkfgR; esa jk"Vªh;rk dk Lo:i lkekftd mRFkku dk fof'k"V ifjpk;d jgk gS A dchj] lwj] rqylh dk bl dky esa fo'¨"k egÙo gS A jhfrdkyhu lkfgR; esa Òw"k.k ,oa lwnu tSls jk"Vªoknh dfo;¨aus tuekul d¨ tkx`r dj muesa cy LQwfrZ v©j v¨t Òj fn;k A okLro esa fganh lkfgR; esa jk"Vªh;rk dh xfr'khy ,oa vck/k /kkjk ÒkjrsUnq ;qx ls vkjaÒ g¨rh gS A rRdkyhu Áeq[ki«k ^gfj'kpUæ&pfUædk* dh Qkbysa bl ckr dk ÁR;{k Áek.k gSA 4 f}osnh ;qx dk bfrgkl r¨ blls v¨rÁ¨r gS A v;¨/;kflag mik/;k;] eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr] jkeujs'k f«kikBh] ukFkwjke 'kadj bl ;qx ds Áfl) dfo gSa A Nk;koknh dkO; esa iar] Álkn fujkyk] egknsoh oekZ] MkW-jkedqekj oekZ dh jk"Vªh; jpuk,¡ Ásj.kknk;h ,oa xzká cu iMh gSa A cPpu ds jk"Vªh; dkO; dh i`"BÒwfe % dfo vius ;qx dk Áfrfuf/k g¨rk gS A mlds ÑfrRo esa lkjk ;qx ÁfrfcEcr g¨rk gSA ^dfo ekuork dk og psru&;a«k gS ftl ij ÁR;sd Òkouk viuh rjax mRié djrh gS( tSls Òwdai ekid ;a«k esa i`Foh ds vax esa dgh Òh mBus okyh flgju vius vki vafdr g¨ tkrh gSA5 cPpu us tc lkfgR; txr esa inkiZ.k fd;k]ml le; Òkjr esa jktuSfrd gypy rhoz Fkh] vaxzst¨a dk neu pØ py jgk FkkA 1930 esa LojkT; dh e‚ax d¨ ysdj ckiw dh Áfl) nkaMh ;k«kk ls lfou; Òax dk ;q) ÁkjaÒ g¨ pqdk FkkA cPpu ml le; ,-,- dh ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ g¨ pqds F¨ fdUrq ikfjokfjd rFkk vkfFkZd fparkv¨a v©j rkRdkyhu jktuSfrd gypy¨a ds dkj.k dfo us i<kbZ N¨Mdj p[kkZ pykus] lÒk twywl¨a esa tkus] ukjs yxkus dk dke gh ugÈ] xkao¨a esa tkdj O;k[;ku Òh nsus yxsA [kn~nj Ápkjd Vhe cuk [kknh dk Ápkj djus yxsA dfo us twywl¨a esa xkus ds fy, dbZ jk"Vªh; xhr Òh fy[¨A ftuesa ^lj tk, r¨ tk, ij fgan vktknh ik,*6 okyk xhr cgqr Áfl) gqvkA dfo ds eu esa vk;Z lekt ds ^vNwr¨)kj* v©j xka/khth ds ^gfjtu vkan¨yu* ds laLdkj iM pqds F¨A ifj.kker% vNwr¨a dh iaxr esa cSBs cPpu us dPpk [kkuk [kk;k]7 vius Lora«k ?kj esa pekj ckopÊ j[kus yxs bruk gh ugÈ ^cfg"Ñr ifjokj*8 esa Ò¨tu dj ifjokj m)kj dk Òh dk;Z fd;kA cPpu ds eu&efLr"d ij }kfjdk Álkn dk ^vlg;¨xh Qkx*9 eSfFkyh’kj.k xqIrth dk Òkjr&Òkjrh10 iar fujkyk ds eqä Nan¨ads lkFk ^;ax bafM;k* ^uothou*11 if«kdkv¨a dk ÁÒko
  • 2. 55SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E-ISSN- 2320-5474, July, 2013 VOL-V * ISSUE -54 Òh iMk FkkA Lo;a ys[kd ds 'kCn¨a esa ^^eSa dye v©j canwd pykrk gw¡ n¨u¨a**12 ;gh laLdkj ÁÒko fodflr g¨dj fo'kn :iesa muds lkfgR; esa lwr dh rjg c¡V x, v©j jkT;lÒk ds eu¨uhr lnL; g¨us ds ckn cPpu dk dkO; ,d [kkl vnk v©j Loj¨a ds lkFk vorfjr g¨us yxkA cPpu ds dkO; esa jk"Vªh;rk ds fofÒé :i vorfjr gq, gSa ¼Findings½ jk"Vªfirk ckiw ls lacaf/kr & xka/khth ds foyk;r ÁLFkku ij ^Òkjr ekrk dh fcnk*13 rFkk xka/khth ds tUefnu ij ^Òkjr ekrk dh c/kkbZ*14 dforkv¨a esa ckiw ds Áfr J)k ^[kknh ds Qwy* v©j ^lwr dh ekyk* esa ÁfrQfyr gqbZ gSA ;|fi bl esa ^xqIrkth tSlk u bfro`Ùk oSf'k"VÓ gS] u ^iarth* ds dkO; tSlk y¨deaxyRo u ^fujkyk* th ds dkO; tSlk mnkÙk rÙo gS] v©j u ^fnudj* ds dkO; tSlk ncrk mÒjrk v¨t rÙo gS rFkkfi xka/khth ds egkÁ;k.k ij vkLFkk dh J)katfy;k¡ xfjeke; cu iMh gSaA15 vouh x©jo ls vafdr g¨a uÒ ds ys[¨] D;k fy, nsorkv¨a us gh ;'k ds Bsds] vorkj LoxZ dk gh i`Foh us tkuk gS] i`Foh dk vH;qRFkku LoxZ Òh r¨ ns[¨A16 Lokra«; lqj{kk ls lacaf/kr & dfo d¨ egkÒkjr ds Ñ".k dk :i gh vf/kd Òkrk gS] t¨ yMus ejus dk lans'k nsrk gSA ftls fo'okl gS fd vafre fot; /keZ dh gh g¨rh gSA vLrq&^mfr"B ;q/oLo ÒkjrA*17 ;|fi cPpu 'kfä Á;¨x esa vkLFkk j[krs gSa rFkkfi mlesa foosd v©j e;kZnk loZ«k bydrh gSA og LokrU«;lqj{kk ds fy, vusd ckj dgrs gSa & ^gYdk Qwy ugÈ vktknh og gS Òkjh ftEesnkjh mls mBkus d¨ da/k¨a ds ÒqtnaM¨a ds cy r¨y¨*18 ^caxky dk dky*] /kkj ds b/kj m/kj* :i v©j vkokt] cgqr fnu chrs dh dfri; dforkv¨a esa ;g Òko O;aftr gSA ykBh d¨ jk"Vªh; gfFk;kj ekuusokys cPputh us ^ykBh v©j ckalqjh*19 xku esa Òh mldh egÙkk d¨ vafdr fd;k gSA Òkjrh; laLÑfr ds Áfr J)k & ns'k viuh laLÑfr ij gh thfor jgrk gSA viuh laLÑfr d¨ iqu% iqu ;kn djokus ij Òh ns'k d¨ tkx`r g¨rs u ns[k cPputh O;aX;¨fä Ágkj djrs gSa& gesa g¨rk gS vfÒeku A ij vthc&lh yxrh gS ckr fd cw<s Òkjrij chloÈ lnh dk O;aX;A fd tgka gq, of'k"V v©j O;klA muds Áfrfuf/k gS vkt jathr] MÓwfyi v©jeudkMA20 mudh ^n¨ pÍkus* ^cq) v©j ukp?kj* dh jpukv¨aesa bl Òkouk ds vuqie fp«k feyrs gSaA jk"Vª/ot ds Áfr vknj & jktuhfrd vf/kdkj Lora«krk ,oa laLÑfr d¨ lwfpr djusokyh ^x.kra«k&irkdk*21 ds Áfr dfo viuh 'kqÒ Òkouk d¨ O;ä djrs gq, mldh efgek d¨ c[kkurs gSaA u lke nke ds le{k ;g #dh] u naM Òsn ds le{k >qdhA lxoZ vkt 'k«kq&'kh’k ij Bqdh] fuMj /otkA gjh] lQsn] dsljhA22 jk"Vª/ot ds Áfr >aMkxhr esa ldkj.k ifjorZu djds vius dfo deZ d¨ fuÒkuk os ugÈ ÒwysA jktuhfrd O;aX;& ^cPpu* th tc jkT;lÒk ds eu¨uhr lnL; cus mUg¨aus usrkv¨a dh voljokfnrk] LokFkZijrk] lÙkky¨yqirk d¨ utnhd ls ns[kkA blesa orZeku jktuhfrK t¨ ;¨tuk#ih fpd dh v¨V f'kdkj djrs gSa muds O;aX; dk fu'kkuk cus&^ifjokj fu;¨tu*23 dhersa v©j dhersa24 fnYYkh dh eqlhcr*25 ubZ fnYyh fdldh gS 26 ^[ktwj* vkfn dforkv¨a esa mudh jk"Vªh; Òkouk O;axkRed :i esa ÁLrqr gSA Á;k.k xhr % Òkjrh; lSfud¨a d¨ vkOgku djrs gq, dfo dgrs gSa fd ^ohjRo&foosd*27 ds lkFk vius lhus d¨ xoZ ls rkudj Á;k.k dj¨A ^Òkjrh; lSfud¨a dk ^lej&Á;k.k* rFkk ^f«kÒafxek* esa Fkylsuk dk ^Á;k.kxhr* v¨t ;qä gSA dfo dgrs gSa& tx ds iFk ij t¨ u #dsxk t¨ u >qdsxk t¨ u eqMsxk] mldk thou] mldh thrA28 u©&lSfud¨a ds ^Á;k.k xhr* esa os g¡lrs xkrs] fn'kkv¨a d¨ xqatkrs gq, Á;k.k djus ds fy, dgrs gSaA milagkj %¼Conclusion½ bl Ádkj cPputh dh jk"Vªh;Òkouk fofÒé vk;ke¨a esa vfÒ;qä gqbZ gSA Á¨-Ñ".kpaæ iaMÓk ds 'kCn¨a esa dfo lkekftd] /kkfeZd] jktuhfrd] uSfrd vkfn lÒh {¨«k¨a dh jk"Vªh; leL;kv¨a d¨ viuh dfork dk fo"k; cuk;k gS v©j ftruh fofo/k leL;kv¨a ij cPpu us ys[kuh mBkbZ gS] Lok/khurk ds ckn dqN gh dfo muds lekukUrj py lds gSaA29 ^e/kqdkO;* ls Áflf) ikusokys dfo cPpu ds lkFk ^gkykokn* dk Qrok bl dnj tqM x;k gS] fd mudk jk"Vªh;rk ls lacaf/kr dkO; vyf{kr&lk jg x;k gSA ^e/kq'kkyk* ^e/kqckyk* e/kqdy'k esa vafdr muds jk"Vªh;rk ds fp«k vyf{kr dj dsoy #ekfu;r d¨ gh ljkgk x;kA mudh e/kq'kkyk dh ;s iafä;‚a&^cSj c<krs efLtn eafnj esy djkrh e/kq'kkyk* jk"Vªh;rk dk gh Árhd gSA lq>ko %¼Suggestion½ vkt vko';drk bl ckr dh gS fd dkO;Áseh muds dkO; esa jk"Vªh;rk dh iqdkj] jk"Vª ds Áfr mudh Òkouk drZO; rFkk jk"Vªh; fopkj¨a d¨ le>us dk Á;kl djsa v©j muds lkfgR; dk lgh ewY;kadu djs A ;g y?kq'k¨/k blh fn'kk esa ,d Á;kl gSaA