SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 22
School Desegregation in Boston
Issues with “Racially Imbalanced”
Schools in Boston
• Overcrowding
• Few Black teachers and no Black principals
• Temporary teachers
• Short or inadequate supplies or facilities (e.g. broken
windows, missing toilet seats, etc.)
• Outdated and racially offensive materials
Ruth Batson of Roxbury, a
mother of three daughters in the
Boston public school system, ran
unsuccessfully for the city’s
School Committee in 1951.
Thereafter, she joined the
education committee of the
Boston NAACP branch and spent
the next two decades fighting to
desegregate public education in
Boston.
Black Parents’ Strategies to Improve Public Ed
• Attended school board meetings
• Observed one-day boycotts of segregated schools
• Initiated freedom schools or parent-run independent schools
• Ran candidates for the Boston School Committee
• Established and fundraised for voluntary programs to move Black students to empty seats
in primarily white schools
• Won passage of the 1965 Racial Imbalance Act, which required that “racially imbalanced”
schools (those where the student pop. was more than 50 percent nonwhite) be actively
desegregated. The Boston School Committee refused to enforce the law.
** The business, financial, and religious communities all checked out of this issue. Only
parents and politicians took a position.
“Freedom Stayout” Days
• Organized to demonstrate the frustration of Boston public school (BPS) students and
families with inferior, racially imbalanced schools, local activists called for a one-day
boycott in which students would skip school and instead attend a community meeting
and teach-in.
• Thousands of Black students participated in the first Stayout Day in June 1963, where
Boston Celtics legend Bill Russell spoke before the crowd. The second Stayout Day
was held in February 1964. Comedian Dick Gregory attended to support the effort.
Celtic Bill Russell asserted, “This is not a Black and white
problem. This is an American problem…” Assessing the
effectiveness of the June 1963 Freedom Stayout, Russell
reflected, “I think we accomplished what we wanted to
accomplish in that we’ve expressed the fact that we’re
dissatisfied with the Boston school system. And the school
board has refused to recognize the problem as such. Now the
first thing to do in solving a problem is to recognize it as a
problem. If they had recognized this problem a few years ago
this would be completely unnecessary…This is just the
beginning. This is a monster we’re fighting, a real monster. It’s
a cancerous monster. And if the fight isn’t successful, it could
conceivably destroy democracy here and everywhere. The
important thing is that we have taken the first step. We’re
ready. We’re into the fight now. And I think we’ll win. When I
say we, I mean America, Boston, Massachusetts, New
England, the country, everybody. I think that if we lose this
fight, the country loses, and if we win the country wins.”
(1965)
Boston Prior to Court-Ordered Busing
Boston’s Black population grew from 63,000 in 1960 to 104,000 in
1970. Included in this growth were many Southern migrants educated in
the Jim Crow system of the South.
# of Boston public schools where more than
90 percent of students were Black
1961 7
1965 18
1974 32
Source: Boston Globe (2015)
Louise Day Hicks (lower right), head of the Boston School
Committee, joined a large gathering of demonstrators
outside the State House in Boston to protest the busing of
school children and to repeal the state’s Racial Imbalance
Act (2 May 1973). Even prior to to the court order, Hicks
did not enroll her own children in BPS.
Louise Day Hicks
U.S. Supreme Court Opinions
• Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Bd of Ed. (1971): Recommended
busing to address racial imbalance in public schools.
• Millikin v. Bradley (1974): Centered on schools in Detroit, this case
struck down a plan for busing students between schools in the city
and the suburbs. The ruling allowed for those with the means to
move to avoid complying with busing orders, leaving poor and
working-class city residents to bear the brunt of forced busing.
*The first of these rulings addressing “de facto” segregation in public
schools outside the South was issued seventeen years after the Court’s
Brown ruling.
• The Boston NAACP filed a class action federal lawsuit
in 1972 to desegregate the city’s school system.
• On June 1, 1974, Judge Arthur Garrity ruled that
Boston Public Schools had intentionally maintained
two separate school systems segregated by race and
ordered that busing be used as a remedy due to
thorough residential segregation throughout the city.
• Phase One, to begin that September, would bus
students between Roxbury, where the high school was
primarily Black, and South Boston, where it was
entirely white and predominately ethnically Irish. The
Boston School Committee vowed not to comply, so the
process was administered by the courts.
• The U.S. Supreme Court upheld this ruling, and
Garrity oversaw the desegregation of BPS for the next
13 years.
Judge W. Arthur Garrity
The JFK Birthplace in Brookline was
firebombed by anti-busing protesters
on Sep 8, 1975.
Urging calm at an antibusing protest at Boston City Hall prior to
the start of the 1974 school year, U.S. Senator Ted Kennedy (D-
MA), a vocal proponent of busing, was jeered and booed by a
crowd that was primarily Irish and Democratic, a demographic
that typically was strongly supportive of the Kennedy family.
The Boston NAACP led much of the work to
desegregate public schools in the city. This button
was from a march on Boston Common in May
1975, attended by ten thousand people.
Hicks’ organization, ROAR (Restore Our Alienated
Rights), led the antibusing movement.
Boston students looked through a broken school
bus window. Protesters threw rocks at buses
carrying Black students that day (12 Sep 1974).
Globe file photo.
A school bus was damaged after the busing system was put in place to
desegregate Boston public schools, 1974 © The Boston Globe/Getty Images
As police stood guard, black students arrived at the predominantly
white South Boston High School on the first day of court-ordered
desegregation (12 Sep 1974).
Police wearing their riot helmets lined the street in South Boston as
white women, led by anti-busing advocate Louise Day Hicks, marched
and prayed to protest the busing of students (12 Sep 1975.
Black lawyer Ted Landsmark, downtown on business, was assaulted
outside Boston City Hall by white teenaged anti-busing protesters, one of
whom used the America flag as a weapon. Landsmark suffered a broken
nose in the attack. This image, titled “The Soiling of Old Glory,” won a
Pulitzer prize for photographer Stanley Forman (5 Apr 1976).
In the first two school years of forced
busing (1974-76), one-third of white
students left the Boston public school
system. At the start of the 2022-23 school
year, there were about 48,000 students
attending BPS, only about 15 percent of
whom were white. This was the eighth year
in a row in which the BPS student
population declined.
Source: “Boston Public Schools’ enrollment drops for
8th consecutive year,” Boston Globe (2 Dec 2022).
“The Soiling of Old Glory”
Source: Boston Globe (24 Jan 2023)
WBUR
WBUR
Race and
Wealth in Boston

More Related Content

Similar to 4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx

White Resistance to Equality
White Resistance to EqualityWhite Resistance to Equality
White Resistance to Equality
20mlc11
 
White resistance to equality
White resistance to equalityWhite resistance to equality
White resistance to equality
gueste7f6022
 
Civil rights movement presentation
Civil rights movement presentationCivil rights movement presentation
Civil rights movement presentation
jaredjodom
 
Modern civil rights 2013
Modern civil rights   2013Modern civil rights   2013
Modern civil rights 2013
dstnrainey
 
Presentation18
Presentation18Presentation18
Presentation18
rbbrown
 
1.The Coconut Grove fire was a great tragedy, so much that it ev.docx
1.The Coconut Grove fire was a great tragedy, so much that it ev.docx1.The Coconut Grove fire was a great tragedy, so much that it ev.docx
1.The Coconut Grove fire was a great tragedy, so much that it ev.docx
christiandean12115
 
The Civil Rights Revolution
The Civil Rights RevolutionThe Civil Rights Revolution
The Civil Rights Revolution
reghistory
 
Edu 723 final presentation
Edu 723 final presentationEdu 723 final presentation
Edu 723 final presentation
Gilopez
 

Similar to 4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx (20)

White Resistance to Equality
White Resistance to EqualityWhite Resistance to Equality
White Resistance to Equality
 
White resistance to equality
White resistance to equalityWhite resistance to equality
White resistance to equality
 
Segregation and civil rights june 2011
Segregation and civil rights   june 2011Segregation and civil rights   june 2011
Segregation and civil rights june 2011
 
Eoct review questions gps 22 24 civil rights
Eoct review questions gps 22 24 civil rightsEoct review questions gps 22 24 civil rights
Eoct review questions gps 22 24 civil rights
 
Civil rights movement presentation
Civil rights movement presentationCivil rights movement presentation
Civil rights movement presentation
 
Modern civil rights 2013
Modern civil rights   2013Modern civil rights   2013
Modern civil rights 2013
 
Chandler, Catherine, Holly U S History
Chandler,  Catherine,  Holly  U S HistoryChandler,  Catherine,  Holly  U S History
Chandler, Catherine, Holly U S History
 
Presentation18
Presentation18Presentation18
Presentation18
 
1.The Coconut Grove fire was a great tragedy, so much that it ev.docx
1.The Coconut Grove fire was a great tragedy, so much that it ev.docx1.The Coconut Grove fire was a great tragedy, so much that it ev.docx
1.The Coconut Grove fire was a great tragedy, so much that it ev.docx
 
Case Study for journal
Case Study for journalCase Study for journal
Case Study for journal
 
Copy of crt candice lucy samantha 2
Copy of crt candice lucy samantha 2Copy of crt candice lucy samantha 2
Copy of crt candice lucy samantha 2
 
The Civil Rights Revolution
The Civil Rights RevolutionThe Civil Rights Revolution
The Civil Rights Revolution
 
Chapter 30 Period 5
Chapter 30 Period 5Chapter 30 Period 5
Chapter 30 Period 5
 
Legal System Challenge
Legal System Challenge Legal System Challenge
Legal System Challenge
 
Civil rights (1)
Civil rights (1)Civil rights (1)
Civil rights (1)
 
Civil rights
Civil rightsCivil rights
Civil rights
 
Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
 
Chapter 46
Chapter 46Chapter 46
Chapter 46
 
Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights MovementCivil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
 
Edu 723 final presentation
Edu 723 final presentationEdu 723 final presentation
Edu 723 final presentation
 

More from mary850239

4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
mary850239
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
mary850239
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
mary850239
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
mary850239
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
mary850239
 
4.4.24 Black Radicalism and Government Repression.pptx
4.4.24 Black Radicalism and Government Repression.pptx4.4.24 Black Radicalism and Government Repression.pptx
4.4.24 Black Radicalism and Government Repression.pptx
mary850239
 
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
mary850239
 
4.2.24 The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense.pptx
4.2.24 The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense.pptx4.2.24 The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense.pptx
4.2.24 The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense.pptx
mary850239
 
4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx
4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx
4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx
mary850239
 
3.26.24 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
3.26.24 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx3.26.24 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
3.26.24 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
mary850239
 
3.19.24 Urban Uprisings and the Chicago Freedom Movement.pptx
3.19.24 Urban Uprisings and the Chicago Freedom Movement.pptx3.19.24 Urban Uprisings and the Chicago Freedom Movement.pptx
3.19.24 Urban Uprisings and the Chicago Freedom Movement.pptx
mary850239
 
3.14.24 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
3.14.24 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx3.14.24 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
3.14.24 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
mary850239
 

More from mary850239 (15)

4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
4.4.24 Black Radicalism and Government Repression.pptx
4.4.24 Black Radicalism and Government Repression.pptx4.4.24 Black Radicalism and Government Repression.pptx
4.4.24 Black Radicalism and Government Repression.pptx
 
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
 
4.2.24 The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense.pptx
4.2.24 The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense.pptx4.2.24 The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense.pptx
4.2.24 The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense.pptx
 
4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx
4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx
4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx
 
3.28.24 The Poor People's Campaign.pptx
3.28.24  The Poor People's Campaign.pptx3.28.24  The Poor People's Campaign.pptx
3.28.24 The Poor People's Campaign.pptx
 
3.26.24 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
3.26.24 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx3.26.24 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
3.26.24 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
 
3.21.24 The Origins of Black Power.pptx
3.21.24  The Origins of Black Power.pptx3.21.24  The Origins of Black Power.pptx
3.21.24 The Origins of Black Power.pptx
 
3.19.24 Urban Uprisings and the Chicago Freedom Movement.pptx
3.19.24 Urban Uprisings and the Chicago Freedom Movement.pptx3.19.24 Urban Uprisings and the Chicago Freedom Movement.pptx
3.19.24 Urban Uprisings and the Chicago Freedom Movement.pptx
 
3.14.24 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
3.14.24 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx3.14.24 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
3.14.24 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
CaitlinCummins3
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of Transport
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of TransportBasic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of Transport
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of Transport
 
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhĐề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
 
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismAn overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
 
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdfIncluding Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
 
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
Supporting Newcomer Multilingual Learners
Supporting Newcomer  Multilingual LearnersSupporting Newcomer  Multilingual Learners
Supporting Newcomer Multilingual Learners
 
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
MOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptxMOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptx
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
 
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptxdemyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 
Climbers and Creepers used in landscaping
Climbers and Creepers used in landscapingClimbers and Creepers used in landscaping
Climbers and Creepers used in landscaping
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................
 
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptxThe Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
 

4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx

  • 2. Issues with “Racially Imbalanced” Schools in Boston • Overcrowding • Few Black teachers and no Black principals • Temporary teachers • Short or inadequate supplies or facilities (e.g. broken windows, missing toilet seats, etc.) • Outdated and racially offensive materials
  • 3. Ruth Batson of Roxbury, a mother of three daughters in the Boston public school system, ran unsuccessfully for the city’s School Committee in 1951. Thereafter, she joined the education committee of the Boston NAACP branch and spent the next two decades fighting to desegregate public education in Boston.
  • 4. Black Parents’ Strategies to Improve Public Ed • Attended school board meetings • Observed one-day boycotts of segregated schools • Initiated freedom schools or parent-run independent schools • Ran candidates for the Boston School Committee • Established and fundraised for voluntary programs to move Black students to empty seats in primarily white schools • Won passage of the 1965 Racial Imbalance Act, which required that “racially imbalanced” schools (those where the student pop. was more than 50 percent nonwhite) be actively desegregated. The Boston School Committee refused to enforce the law. ** The business, financial, and religious communities all checked out of this issue. Only parents and politicians took a position.
  • 5. “Freedom Stayout” Days • Organized to demonstrate the frustration of Boston public school (BPS) students and families with inferior, racially imbalanced schools, local activists called for a one-day boycott in which students would skip school and instead attend a community meeting and teach-in. • Thousands of Black students participated in the first Stayout Day in June 1963, where Boston Celtics legend Bill Russell spoke before the crowd. The second Stayout Day was held in February 1964. Comedian Dick Gregory attended to support the effort.
  • 6. Celtic Bill Russell asserted, “This is not a Black and white problem. This is an American problem…” Assessing the effectiveness of the June 1963 Freedom Stayout, Russell reflected, “I think we accomplished what we wanted to accomplish in that we’ve expressed the fact that we’re dissatisfied with the Boston school system. And the school board has refused to recognize the problem as such. Now the first thing to do in solving a problem is to recognize it as a problem. If they had recognized this problem a few years ago this would be completely unnecessary…This is just the beginning. This is a monster we’re fighting, a real monster. It’s a cancerous monster. And if the fight isn’t successful, it could conceivably destroy democracy here and everywhere. The important thing is that we have taken the first step. We’re ready. We’re into the fight now. And I think we’ll win. When I say we, I mean America, Boston, Massachusetts, New England, the country, everybody. I think that if we lose this fight, the country loses, and if we win the country wins.”
  • 8. Boston Prior to Court-Ordered Busing Boston’s Black population grew from 63,000 in 1960 to 104,000 in 1970. Included in this growth were many Southern migrants educated in the Jim Crow system of the South. # of Boston public schools where more than 90 percent of students were Black 1961 7 1965 18 1974 32 Source: Boston Globe (2015)
  • 9. Louise Day Hicks (lower right), head of the Boston School Committee, joined a large gathering of demonstrators outside the State House in Boston to protest the busing of school children and to repeal the state’s Racial Imbalance Act (2 May 1973). Even prior to to the court order, Hicks did not enroll her own children in BPS. Louise Day Hicks
  • 10. U.S. Supreme Court Opinions • Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Bd of Ed. (1971): Recommended busing to address racial imbalance in public schools. • Millikin v. Bradley (1974): Centered on schools in Detroit, this case struck down a plan for busing students between schools in the city and the suburbs. The ruling allowed for those with the means to move to avoid complying with busing orders, leaving poor and working-class city residents to bear the brunt of forced busing. *The first of these rulings addressing “de facto” segregation in public schools outside the South was issued seventeen years after the Court’s Brown ruling.
  • 11. • The Boston NAACP filed a class action federal lawsuit in 1972 to desegregate the city’s school system. • On June 1, 1974, Judge Arthur Garrity ruled that Boston Public Schools had intentionally maintained two separate school systems segregated by race and ordered that busing be used as a remedy due to thorough residential segregation throughout the city. • Phase One, to begin that September, would bus students between Roxbury, where the high school was primarily Black, and South Boston, where it was entirely white and predominately ethnically Irish. The Boston School Committee vowed not to comply, so the process was administered by the courts. • The U.S. Supreme Court upheld this ruling, and Garrity oversaw the desegregation of BPS for the next 13 years. Judge W. Arthur Garrity
  • 12.
  • 13. The JFK Birthplace in Brookline was firebombed by anti-busing protesters on Sep 8, 1975. Urging calm at an antibusing protest at Boston City Hall prior to the start of the 1974 school year, U.S. Senator Ted Kennedy (D- MA), a vocal proponent of busing, was jeered and booed by a crowd that was primarily Irish and Democratic, a demographic that typically was strongly supportive of the Kennedy family.
  • 14. The Boston NAACP led much of the work to desegregate public schools in the city. This button was from a march on Boston Common in May 1975, attended by ten thousand people. Hicks’ organization, ROAR (Restore Our Alienated Rights), led the antibusing movement.
  • 15. Boston students looked through a broken school bus window. Protesters threw rocks at buses carrying Black students that day (12 Sep 1974). Globe file photo. A school bus was damaged after the busing system was put in place to desegregate Boston public schools, 1974 © The Boston Globe/Getty Images
  • 16. As police stood guard, black students arrived at the predominantly white South Boston High School on the first day of court-ordered desegregation (12 Sep 1974).
  • 17. Police wearing their riot helmets lined the street in South Boston as white women, led by anti-busing advocate Louise Day Hicks, marched and prayed to protest the busing of students (12 Sep 1975.
  • 18. Black lawyer Ted Landsmark, downtown on business, was assaulted outside Boston City Hall by white teenaged anti-busing protesters, one of whom used the America flag as a weapon. Landsmark suffered a broken nose in the attack. This image, titled “The Soiling of Old Glory,” won a Pulitzer prize for photographer Stanley Forman (5 Apr 1976). In the first two school years of forced busing (1974-76), one-third of white students left the Boston public school system. At the start of the 2022-23 school year, there were about 48,000 students attending BPS, only about 15 percent of whom were white. This was the eighth year in a row in which the BPS student population declined. Source: “Boston Public Schools’ enrollment drops for 8th consecutive year,” Boston Globe (2 Dec 2022). “The Soiling of Old Glory”
  • 19. Source: Boston Globe (24 Jan 2023)
  • 20.

Editor's Notes

  1. Ruth Batson, shown here in a campaign flier, demanded that the Boston School Committe acknowledge a system of de facto segregation.Farah Stockman/globe staff
  2. https://dsgsites.neu.edu/desegregation/freedom-stay-out-days/
  3. https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/editorials/2015/12/20/how-standoff-over-schools-changed-country/oP7xEwikHvdAgjtc0lfNdN/story.html
  4. https://americanhistory.si.edu/blog/rethinking-busing-boston