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4 STEPS of Exploring your
Family History of Slovenian
Origin
Vlasta Knapič, Slovenian Genealogy Society
SUA 2019 National Convention, Cleveland, 13 June 2019
Trough your DNA testing to your roots
1. Evidence of Slovenian ancestry?
2. Connect with Slovenian Genealogy Society
3. Create your family tree
4. Test the oldest family members
Step 1. Evidence of Slovenian ancestry?
 Your ancestors
immigrated to US in
~1870 / 1920
 From places in Austria,
Hungary, or Italy
 Slovenians lived until 1918
in different landmarks of
Austria-Hungary Empire 
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Austria-Hungary_map_with_legend_ES.svg
Slovenia & Slovenians
 Before 1919 Slovenian lands were part of Austria-Hungarian
monarchy
 In the period 1919 – 1940 a part of Yougoslavian monarchy as
Dravska banovina
 During the second world war a half of Slovenia belonged to Italy
(1941-1943) and a half to Germany (1941-1945)
 in the period 1945 – 1990 Slovenia was 1 of 6 republics in Socialistic
Federation of Yugoslavia
 in 1991 Slovenia became independent and in 2004 joint the
European Union as one of nowadays 28 EU Member States
(currency EUR).
Administrative organisation!
Step 2: Connect with Slovenian Genealogy
Society
Local identification
of:
ancestral places of
origin
Original family names
https://dna-
slovenia.com/slovenia
n-origin/
Variety of Slovenian dialects by Fran Ramovš, 1931 (Wikipedia).
Administrative units
Keep official vital records
< 100 years
http://www.upravneenote.gov.si/
Ecclesiastical units
The Catholic Church in Slovenia (kept vital records & pastoral books)
2 metropolitan provinces:
- Ljubljana (West)
- Maribor (East)
MP Ljubljana:
Archdiocese of Ljubljana
Diocese of Koper
Diocese of Novo mesto
MP Maribor:
Archdiocese of Maribor
Diocese of Celje
Diocese of Murska Sobota
Ancestral places of origin
- Šentjanž (St. Johan / St. John) https://www.stat.si
Slovenia:
12 statistical regions
212 municipalities
6,035 settlements,
10,396 streets
555,881 house numbers
The early 1900s gazetteer of Austria-Hungary
Kranjska Krain
 Črnomelj Tschernembl
 Kamnik Stein
 Kočevje Gottschee
 Kranj Krainburg
 Krško Gurkfeld
 Litija Littai
 Ljubljana Laibach
 Logatec Loitsch
 Novo mesto Rudolfswert
 Postojna Adelsberg
 Radovljica Radmannsdorf
Južna Štajerska Steiermark, okrajna glavarstva:
 Brežice Rann
 Celje Cilli
 Ljutomer Luttenberg –
 Maribor Marburg –
 Ptuj Pettau
 Radgona Radkersburg –
 Slovenj Gradec Windischgräz
Južna Koroška Kärnten
Primorska Küstenland
Local identification of:
ancestral places of origin
Today: Kal pri Krmelju > Šentjanž
1900: Kal, Johannisthal (Dvor)
Kal settl. part Krain Gurkfeld - Krško Ratschach - Radeče
Johannisthal – Dvor = Šentjanž
na Dolenjskem = Št. Janž
Place
name
Status Province District Subdistrict Settlement
Step 3: Create your family tree
 Ask your parents, uncles, or aunts about known family history
 Collect old photos, documents, heritage
 Create a family tree as detailed as possible
 Use the official historic records as a source of information:
Ellis Island passanger search
(https://www.libertyellisfoundation.org/passenger)
„United States Census” index and images,
FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org )
Create your family tree
to manage vital records
- For example: My Heritage https://www.myheritage.com
- Download Family Tree Builder, or
- Make an on-line family tree
Family tree can be done also on paper:
Use the form SGS recomends to record:
- Family members
- Pedigree chart
Export to
GEDmatch
Who, when,
where?
Blue-male
Red-female
Data of alive people hidden
FamilyTreeDNA – import GECOM file or
build your family tree on-line
Step 4: Test the oldest family members
 Findings despite you do not have documented family history
 Hope for adoptees & single mother descendants
 By each generation the inherited ancestral DNA is
 ~1/2 of paternal line  ¼ of grandparents  1/8 of great grandparents1/16…
 ~1/2 of maternal line  ¼ of grandparents  1/8 of great grandparents1/16…
 Your grandfather is closer to Slovenian origin
 Test or upload DNA raw data at Family Tree DNA
Each generation inherits ½ of
ancestral DNA from each parent
Time span
Generatio
n
A
Ancestors / N. of ancestors
B
Ancestors / N. of ancestors
C
Ancestors / N. of ancestors
2000– 1st gen. DNA donor
1975 – 1999 2nd gen. Parents (2)
1950 – 1974 3rd gen. Grandparents (4) DNA donor
1925 – 1949 4th gen. Great-grandparents (8) Parents (2) DNA donor
1900 – 1924 5th gen. Great(2)-grandparents (16) Grandparents (4) Parents (2)
1875 – 1899 6th gen. Great(3)-grandparents (32) Great-grandparents (8) Grandparents (4)
Your grandfather
is closer to
Slovenian origin
DNA donor‘s Year of Birth
4 generations!
1965
1940 1940
1915
1915
1915
1915
1890
1890
1880 1880
1890
1890
1890
1890
SGS Pedigree chart
SGS Pedigree chart
FamilyTreeDNA tools for analysis
Shared blocks of DNA
with Mihaea
Matching at myHeritage
Matching in Facebook group
 FB page as communication tool
 DNA analysis done at GEDmatch / Genesis
 GEDmatch provides applications for comparing your DNA test results with other
people.
 There are also applications for estimating your ancestry.
 Some applications are free.
 More advanced applications require membership in the GEDmatch Tier1 program at $10
per month.
DNA Testing FOR GENEALOGY
SGS recommendation: FamilyTreeDNA
Interested people should either:
• test atDNA at Family Tree DNA or
• transfer their raw data from other providers, like:
• Ancestry,
• 23andMe, or
• myHeritage (in 1/2 Year!)
Transfer the DNA data:
• download the file and
• upload it to the Family Tree DNA
• Discover DNA matches (cousins)
https://www.familytreedna.com/autosomal-transfer
FamilyTreeDNA Data collection
 Slovenian Genealogy Society (SGS) has selected the Family Tree DNA as the
lead testing and researching provider in genetic genealogy
 In last 10 years FTDNA is the only company in the field exclusively dedicated to
genetic genealogy, with the widest range of tests:
 Family Finder (atDNA), maternal line (mtDNA), paternal line (Y-chromosome DNA)
 Data protection - GDPR compliant !
 database with nearly 1 million records with more than a half of a million of unique
surnames.
 A lot of surnames originate from Europe, so Americans with Slovenian roots have
bigger chance to find a match, related to their Slovenian ancestors
https://www.familytreedna.com/autosomal-transfer
https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/slovenia/about
 An old platform, no activity feed, only for YDNA & mtDNA haplogroups
SLOVENIA DUAL project established by SGS International (Cleveland)
~2014
FTDNA „Slovenia“ - Y-DNA Colorized Chart
 1) help connect
different
branches of the
same Slovenian
surname,
2) help connect
different
surnames from
the same
Slovenian
village/locale,
3) explore the
relationship
between
Slovenian
genetics...
Since 2010 – work on Y chr. Family tree
New Generation
FamilyTreeDNA GAP 2.0 Home Page
 As SLOVENIA
project group is
not available to
SRD
 Firstly the
Hawlina
project group
has been
established for
Slovenian
samples
 Followed by
Slovenian
origin group
https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/hawlina ~2017
SLOVENIAN ORIGIN FamilyTreeDNA GAP
2.0 Home Page
 Anybody with Slovenian roots
can join either of projects:
 Slovenian origin
 Slovenia
 Hawlina
 Haplogroup projects
 However, merging with the
SLOVENIA project group is
suggested in new platform
 Hawlina project group will
remain for matching relatives
& those who do not speak
English
~2018
https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/slovenianorigin
Before the Admin management
After Admin management: ancestral origin
Geographical poisitions of matches
FTDNA project group Slovenian origin
More genealogy data – better chance for new discoverie
Slovenian origin - General Fund
 General Funds are from contributions to the project.
 General Fund balance is displayed to all members, as well as any credits/debits to the
fund.
 Generally, donated funds may be used at our discretion.
 However, specific requests made by donors should be honored.
 To order a new kit - verification of relationship
 To upgrade exsisting results of mtDNA & Y-DNA
What we do?
Project iniciative
Project Title: Slovenian DNA Pool – Global family search and revealing the Slovenian ancestral
origin by genetic genealogy
Project Period Goal:
The Slovenian DNA Pool program intends over the project period JUL 2018 – DEC 2021:
1. To collect the pedigree data of 1000 people of verified Slovenian origin who tested their
atDNA for genealogy purposes.
2. To prepare a geo-referenced mapping system with genealogical lineages using surnames and
places of origin.
3. To get an average ethnicity composition of a standard Slovenian per each of traditional or
statistical region.
Long-term Impact or Outcome:
To put Slovenian population on a DNA-based global ethnicity map by 2023.
Long-term Indicator: Number of collected individual pedigrees.
Slovenian DNA POOL
Annual objective 2018
 1. Framework for on-line collection of pedigree and DNA testing information is created.
Measure(s) of Success
 A dedicated project website is designed for surveying individual participants; collective
spreadsheet is created for English and Slovenian speakers with relevant instructions and help.
Activities
Domain was bought and web sites designed
The project was described
Survey forms in English and in Slovenian were created
Online system was tested
Release of the projct started with partners
General Data Protection Regulation requirements incorporrated
https://dna-slovenia.com
Personal data protection - consent
Group Project Administrator Terms &
Policies
 To Facilitate and Advise Members:
 Administrators agree to facilitate communication to benefit genealogical research between
members and others.
 Administrators will also advise members whether or not an upgrade or additional test would,
in their opinion, benefit their research or that of the project.
 Administrators will treat each project member and potential project member fairly and
equally.
 Right to be forgotten: GDPR requires that an individual be able to request that their
data be removed, known as either “right of erasure” or the “right to be forgotten.”
 A list of all administrators, along with their projects, will be displayed publicly, as
administrators may be able to view project members’ matches who are not members
of that project
 Group Project web pages are hosted on FamilyTreeDNA servers at no cost to
administrators.
100% Slovenian sample
Geographic location of earliest known ancestors
https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/slovenianorigin
Family Tree DNA
Family Finder test  atDNA
Large DNA reference pool (number of samples)
Easy to understand
Ethnicity makeup
Migrations in history of the world
 Africa  Asia  Europe  America
Efficiently finds living relatives in America & Europe
Delve deep ancestry by Y-DNA & mtDNA
 allow you to link your DNA to early human migration
https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbes-finds/2018/04/16/the-best-dna-ancestry-test/#60f69b6e44bf
Matching analysis
Using FTDNA tools and data from FamilyTreeDNA profiles
DNA – Code of Life: A - T, C - G
DNA double
helix replication
(nucleotide
bases):
A – adenine
T – thymine
C- cytosine
G - guanine
Genetic "alphabet“ :
DNA– Code of Life
 DNA contains a long linear record with 4 base letters: A C T G 
instructions for new cells
 Virus – 1000 nt  one A4 sheet of paper
 Bacterium – 3 mio base pairs a book of
500 pages
 Animal cell – 3 billion bp  MAN
500,000 pages book of instructions!
DNA from a single cell is 2 m long.
atDNA in cell nucleus is packed into chromosomes
Human DNA
Male chromosomes Female chromosomes
XY
sex
chromosomes
XX
sex
chromosomes
Autosomal DNA = 22 pairs of non-sex chromosomes (atDNA)
• has only recently been used for genealogical purposes
• determines the shares of the inheritance equal to the ancestors,
• each person has a unique hereditary record consisting of ancestral parts
23rd pair is sex chromosomes
Recombination of chromosoms
50%
Mother
(2 allels – 2 forms
of genes)
50% from
father
Poker with genes…
½ DNA from mother
½ DNA from father
Father
&
Mother
Brother
or
Sister ME
How do we differ on genetic level?
2 random people differ at ~20 million bases
(„letters“) of DNA out of 3 billion
SNPs – single nucleotide polymorphysm =
diffrenece on the same locus of DNA by a letter
Do not occure very often, but when they do,
changes in a SNP is inherited
atDNA & mtDNA tests
Family Finder & maternal line tests
How do we differ on genetic level?
STRs (Simple tandem repeats)
Each locus of DNA has many variations in repeat
number (many allels)
Relatively high mutation rate (changes in number of
repats)
STR markers used for paternity identification
atDNA & Y-DNA tests
Family Finder & paternal line tests
Tracing back by Autosomal DNA
 2 persons share a common ancestor, the chance they share
the same allele from that ancestor is:
1. Parents: 50%
2. Grandparents: 12.5%
3. Great grandparents: 3.1%
4. Great (2) grandparents: 0.78%
5. Great (3) grandparents: 0.19%
6. Great (4) grandparents: 0.05%
7. Great (5) grandparents: 0.01%
Rapid loss of relationship signal through
generations
Relatives may share a variation of gene
Suppose we follow a single marker
on each of the 22 autosomes. What
is the chance that any of these are
shared among relatives?
After 3 generations, there is a 50%
chance that AT LEAST one allele is
shared.
Generati
ons
Probability
1 99%
2 95%
3 50%
4 16%
5 4%
6 1%
7 0.3%
What we see in the FTDNA Cromosome
browser: Generations
(tMRCA)
Average size of
DNA block
1 44 cM
2 19 cM
3 12 cM
4 9 cM
5 7 cM
6 6 cM
7 5 cM
cM= centi Morgan (1% chance
of recombination)
1 cM ~ 1 million base pairs (letters)
Family Finder & similar atDNA tests
 Data is scored for around 500,000 markers (SNPS)
 Close relatives, (1-3 gens) simply use an estimate based on % DNA shared
 For more distant relatives, the size of the largest block of DNA provides
information on:
 these being relatives
 The time to MRCA
 Wide variation expected in the size of block
 For distant (>5 gens) good chance all blocks have been lost…
Family Tree first, then DNA test…
https://dna-slovenia.com/slovenian-origin/
Vlasta.Knapic@gmail.com

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4 steps of exploring your family history - Slovenian origin

  • 1. 4 STEPS of Exploring your Family History of Slovenian Origin Vlasta Knapič, Slovenian Genealogy Society SUA 2019 National Convention, Cleveland, 13 June 2019
  • 2. Trough your DNA testing to your roots 1. Evidence of Slovenian ancestry? 2. Connect with Slovenian Genealogy Society 3. Create your family tree 4. Test the oldest family members
  • 3. Step 1. Evidence of Slovenian ancestry?  Your ancestors immigrated to US in ~1870 / 1920  From places in Austria, Hungary, or Italy  Slovenians lived until 1918 in different landmarks of Austria-Hungary Empire  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Austria-Hungary_map_with_legend_ES.svg
  • 4. Slovenia & Slovenians  Before 1919 Slovenian lands were part of Austria-Hungarian monarchy  In the period 1919 – 1940 a part of Yougoslavian monarchy as Dravska banovina  During the second world war a half of Slovenia belonged to Italy (1941-1943) and a half to Germany (1941-1945)  in the period 1945 – 1990 Slovenia was 1 of 6 republics in Socialistic Federation of Yugoslavia  in 1991 Slovenia became independent and in 2004 joint the European Union as one of nowadays 28 EU Member States (currency EUR). Administrative organisation!
  • 5. Step 2: Connect with Slovenian Genealogy Society Local identification of: ancestral places of origin Original family names https://dna- slovenia.com/slovenia n-origin/ Variety of Slovenian dialects by Fran Ramovš, 1931 (Wikipedia).
  • 6. Administrative units Keep official vital records < 100 years http://www.upravneenote.gov.si/
  • 7. Ecclesiastical units The Catholic Church in Slovenia (kept vital records & pastoral books) 2 metropolitan provinces: - Ljubljana (West) - Maribor (East) MP Ljubljana: Archdiocese of Ljubljana Diocese of Koper Diocese of Novo mesto MP Maribor: Archdiocese of Maribor Diocese of Celje Diocese of Murska Sobota
  • 8. Ancestral places of origin - Šentjanž (St. Johan / St. John) https://www.stat.si Slovenia: 12 statistical regions 212 municipalities 6,035 settlements, 10,396 streets 555,881 house numbers
  • 9. The early 1900s gazetteer of Austria-Hungary Kranjska Krain  Črnomelj Tschernembl  Kamnik Stein  Kočevje Gottschee  Kranj Krainburg  Krško Gurkfeld  Litija Littai  Ljubljana Laibach  Logatec Loitsch  Novo mesto Rudolfswert  Postojna Adelsberg  Radovljica Radmannsdorf Južna Štajerska Steiermark, okrajna glavarstva:  Brežice Rann  Celje Cilli  Ljutomer Luttenberg –  Maribor Marburg –  Ptuj Pettau  Radgona Radkersburg –  Slovenj Gradec Windischgräz Južna Koroška Kärnten Primorska Küstenland
  • 10. Local identification of: ancestral places of origin Today: Kal pri Krmelju > Šentjanž 1900: Kal, Johannisthal (Dvor) Kal settl. part Krain Gurkfeld - Krško Ratschach - Radeče Johannisthal – Dvor = Šentjanž na Dolenjskem = Št. Janž Place name Status Province District Subdistrict Settlement
  • 11. Step 3: Create your family tree  Ask your parents, uncles, or aunts about known family history  Collect old photos, documents, heritage  Create a family tree as detailed as possible  Use the official historic records as a source of information: Ellis Island passanger search (https://www.libertyellisfoundation.org/passenger) „United States Census” index and images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org )
  • 12. Create your family tree to manage vital records - For example: My Heritage https://www.myheritage.com - Download Family Tree Builder, or - Make an on-line family tree Family tree can be done also on paper: Use the form SGS recomends to record: - Family members - Pedigree chart
  • 14. FamilyTreeDNA – import GECOM file or build your family tree on-line
  • 15. Step 4: Test the oldest family members  Findings despite you do not have documented family history  Hope for adoptees & single mother descendants  By each generation the inherited ancestral DNA is  ~1/2 of paternal line  ¼ of grandparents  1/8 of great grandparents1/16…  ~1/2 of maternal line  ¼ of grandparents  1/8 of great grandparents1/16…  Your grandfather is closer to Slovenian origin  Test or upload DNA raw data at Family Tree DNA
  • 16. Each generation inherits ½ of ancestral DNA from each parent Time span Generatio n A Ancestors / N. of ancestors B Ancestors / N. of ancestors C Ancestors / N. of ancestors 2000– 1st gen. DNA donor 1975 – 1999 2nd gen. Parents (2) 1950 – 1974 3rd gen. Grandparents (4) DNA donor 1925 – 1949 4th gen. Great-grandparents (8) Parents (2) DNA donor 1900 – 1924 5th gen. Great(2)-grandparents (16) Grandparents (4) Parents (2) 1875 – 1899 6th gen. Great(3)-grandparents (32) Great-grandparents (8) Grandparents (4)
  • 17. Your grandfather is closer to Slovenian origin DNA donor‘s Year of Birth 4 generations! 1965 1940 1940 1915 1915 1915 1915 1890 1890 1880 1880 1890 1890 1890 1890
  • 20. FamilyTreeDNA tools for analysis Shared blocks of DNA with Mihaea
  • 22. Matching in Facebook group  FB page as communication tool  DNA analysis done at GEDmatch / Genesis  GEDmatch provides applications for comparing your DNA test results with other people.  There are also applications for estimating your ancestry.  Some applications are free.  More advanced applications require membership in the GEDmatch Tier1 program at $10 per month.
  • 23. DNA Testing FOR GENEALOGY
  • 24. SGS recommendation: FamilyTreeDNA Interested people should either: • test atDNA at Family Tree DNA or • transfer their raw data from other providers, like: • Ancestry, • 23andMe, or • myHeritage (in 1/2 Year!) Transfer the DNA data: • download the file and • upload it to the Family Tree DNA • Discover DNA matches (cousins) https://www.familytreedna.com/autosomal-transfer
  • 25. FamilyTreeDNA Data collection  Slovenian Genealogy Society (SGS) has selected the Family Tree DNA as the lead testing and researching provider in genetic genealogy  In last 10 years FTDNA is the only company in the field exclusively dedicated to genetic genealogy, with the widest range of tests:  Family Finder (atDNA), maternal line (mtDNA), paternal line (Y-chromosome DNA)  Data protection - GDPR compliant !  database with nearly 1 million records with more than a half of a million of unique surnames.  A lot of surnames originate from Europe, so Americans with Slovenian roots have bigger chance to find a match, related to their Slovenian ancestors https://www.familytreedna.com/autosomal-transfer
  • 26. https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/slovenia/about  An old platform, no activity feed, only for YDNA & mtDNA haplogroups SLOVENIA DUAL project established by SGS International (Cleveland) ~2014
  • 27. FTDNA „Slovenia“ - Y-DNA Colorized Chart  1) help connect different branches of the same Slovenian surname, 2) help connect different surnames from the same Slovenian village/locale, 3) explore the relationship between Slovenian genetics...
  • 28. Since 2010 – work on Y chr. Family tree New Generation
  • 29. FamilyTreeDNA GAP 2.0 Home Page  As SLOVENIA project group is not available to SRD  Firstly the Hawlina project group has been established for Slovenian samples  Followed by Slovenian origin group https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/hawlina ~2017
  • 30. SLOVENIAN ORIGIN FamilyTreeDNA GAP 2.0 Home Page  Anybody with Slovenian roots can join either of projects:  Slovenian origin  Slovenia  Hawlina  Haplogroup projects  However, merging with the SLOVENIA project group is suggested in new platform  Hawlina project group will remain for matching relatives & those who do not speak English ~2018 https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/slovenianorigin
  • 31. Before the Admin management
  • 32. After Admin management: ancestral origin
  • 34. FTDNA project group Slovenian origin
  • 35. More genealogy data – better chance for new discoverie
  • 36. Slovenian origin - General Fund  General Funds are from contributions to the project.  General Fund balance is displayed to all members, as well as any credits/debits to the fund.  Generally, donated funds may be used at our discretion.  However, specific requests made by donors should be honored.  To order a new kit - verification of relationship  To upgrade exsisting results of mtDNA & Y-DNA
  • 38. Project iniciative Project Title: Slovenian DNA Pool – Global family search and revealing the Slovenian ancestral origin by genetic genealogy Project Period Goal: The Slovenian DNA Pool program intends over the project period JUL 2018 – DEC 2021: 1. To collect the pedigree data of 1000 people of verified Slovenian origin who tested their atDNA for genealogy purposes. 2. To prepare a geo-referenced mapping system with genealogical lineages using surnames and places of origin. 3. To get an average ethnicity composition of a standard Slovenian per each of traditional or statistical region. Long-term Impact or Outcome: To put Slovenian population on a DNA-based global ethnicity map by 2023. Long-term Indicator: Number of collected individual pedigrees.
  • 39. Slovenian DNA POOL Annual objective 2018  1. Framework for on-line collection of pedigree and DNA testing information is created. Measure(s) of Success  A dedicated project website is designed for surveying individual participants; collective spreadsheet is created for English and Slovenian speakers with relevant instructions and help. Activities Domain was bought and web sites designed The project was described Survey forms in English and in Slovenian were created Online system was tested Release of the projct started with partners General Data Protection Regulation requirements incorporrated https://dna-slovenia.com
  • 41. Group Project Administrator Terms & Policies  To Facilitate and Advise Members:  Administrators agree to facilitate communication to benefit genealogical research between members and others.  Administrators will also advise members whether or not an upgrade or additional test would, in their opinion, benefit their research or that of the project.  Administrators will treat each project member and potential project member fairly and equally.  Right to be forgotten: GDPR requires that an individual be able to request that their data be removed, known as either “right of erasure” or the “right to be forgotten.”  A list of all administrators, along with their projects, will be displayed publicly, as administrators may be able to view project members’ matches who are not members of that project  Group Project web pages are hosted on FamilyTreeDNA servers at no cost to administrators.
  • 43. Geographic location of earliest known ancestors https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/slovenianorigin
  • 44. Family Tree DNA Family Finder test  atDNA Large DNA reference pool (number of samples) Easy to understand Ethnicity makeup Migrations in history of the world  Africa  Asia  Europe  America Efficiently finds living relatives in America & Europe Delve deep ancestry by Y-DNA & mtDNA  allow you to link your DNA to early human migration https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbes-finds/2018/04/16/the-best-dna-ancestry-test/#60f69b6e44bf
  • 45. Matching analysis Using FTDNA tools and data from FamilyTreeDNA profiles
  • 46. DNA – Code of Life: A - T, C - G DNA double helix replication (nucleotide bases): A – adenine T – thymine C- cytosine G - guanine Genetic "alphabet“ :
  • 47. DNA– Code of Life  DNA contains a long linear record with 4 base letters: A C T G  instructions for new cells  Virus – 1000 nt  one A4 sheet of paper  Bacterium – 3 mio base pairs a book of 500 pages  Animal cell – 3 billion bp  MAN 500,000 pages book of instructions! DNA from a single cell is 2 m long. atDNA in cell nucleus is packed into chromosomes
  • 48. Human DNA Male chromosomes Female chromosomes XY sex chromosomes XX sex chromosomes Autosomal DNA = 22 pairs of non-sex chromosomes (atDNA) • has only recently been used for genealogical purposes • determines the shares of the inheritance equal to the ancestors, • each person has a unique hereditary record consisting of ancestral parts 23rd pair is sex chromosomes
  • 49. Recombination of chromosoms 50% Mother (2 allels – 2 forms of genes) 50% from father
  • 50. Poker with genes… ½ DNA from mother ½ DNA from father Father & Mother Brother or Sister ME
  • 51. How do we differ on genetic level? 2 random people differ at ~20 million bases („letters“) of DNA out of 3 billion SNPs – single nucleotide polymorphysm = diffrenece on the same locus of DNA by a letter Do not occure very often, but when they do, changes in a SNP is inherited atDNA & mtDNA tests Family Finder & maternal line tests
  • 52. How do we differ on genetic level? STRs (Simple tandem repeats) Each locus of DNA has many variations in repeat number (many allels) Relatively high mutation rate (changes in number of repats) STR markers used for paternity identification atDNA & Y-DNA tests Family Finder & paternal line tests
  • 53. Tracing back by Autosomal DNA  2 persons share a common ancestor, the chance they share the same allele from that ancestor is: 1. Parents: 50% 2. Grandparents: 12.5% 3. Great grandparents: 3.1% 4. Great (2) grandparents: 0.78% 5. Great (3) grandparents: 0.19% 6. Great (4) grandparents: 0.05% 7. Great (5) grandparents: 0.01% Rapid loss of relationship signal through generations
  • 54. Relatives may share a variation of gene Suppose we follow a single marker on each of the 22 autosomes. What is the chance that any of these are shared among relatives? After 3 generations, there is a 50% chance that AT LEAST one allele is shared. Generati ons Probability 1 99% 2 95% 3 50% 4 16% 5 4% 6 1% 7 0.3%
  • 55. What we see in the FTDNA Cromosome browser: Generations (tMRCA) Average size of DNA block 1 44 cM 2 19 cM 3 12 cM 4 9 cM 5 7 cM 6 6 cM 7 5 cM cM= centi Morgan (1% chance of recombination) 1 cM ~ 1 million base pairs (letters)
  • 56. Family Finder & similar atDNA tests  Data is scored for around 500,000 markers (SNPS)  Close relatives, (1-3 gens) simply use an estimate based on % DNA shared  For more distant relatives, the size of the largest block of DNA provides information on:  these being relatives  The time to MRCA  Wide variation expected in the size of block  For distant (>5 gens) good chance all blocks have been lost…
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59. Family Tree first, then DNA test… https://dna-slovenia.com/slovenian-origin/ Vlasta.Knapic@gmail.com

Editor's Notes

  1. Efforts to find the best service for most people. While every LAB has its pluses, and areas that could be improved, an important element is how easy the data obtained is easy to understand. What matters the most, are associated tools for comparison and the size of DNA reference pool, in wich your DNA matches can be found. , AncestryDNA is an affordable resource that efficiently finds living relatives and traces ethnic roots.