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INTRODUCTION
A) Name and Location of Plant :
Name of plant: FIL INDUSTRIES PVT LIMITED
Location: Rangreth
District: Srinagar
State: Jammu and Kashmir
Province: Kashmir
B) Divisions of the plant :
a) Consumer division: Apple juice concentrate manufacturing.
b) Food and Beverage division: Ready to serve drinks of juices in tetra pack & pet bottles
and packaged drinking water.
c) Ware house division: Controlled atmosphere storage, Processes & packing of
fruits/vegetables.
C) Fact Sheet :
Year of establishment: 1997
Legal status of firm: Limited liability / cooperation
Nature of business: Manufacturer
Major market: NZ /Australia, East & North Europe
Established in 1997 FIL Industries Ltd. is a company that works closely with the
Indian farmers to protect and preserve their produce. Over a decade FIL Industries has evolved
into a food and beverage company other than being a renowned producer of pesticides with
worldwide presence. FIL industries is a place of apple juice conc. Manufacturing, RTS drinks in
tetra packs & pet bottles, packaged drinking water, controlled atmosphere storage of fruits &
vegetables, etc. FIL Industries is committed to provide the best protection for bumper crop,
achieving international standards in food processing setting up infrastructure for post harvest
management and the provision of quality and high yielding seeds for the finest crops.
Apple (Malus domestica) is a principal crop of temperate regions of the world. In India it is
cultivated in Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and hills of U.P. Apple are primarily used
for table purposes and processing. The objective of processing of apple is to produce juice in
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single strength or concentrated form. An insignificant proportion is utilized for the production of
preserves like Jam, Jelly and candy.
Approximate percentage composition of Apple:
Fruit Apple
Water 84.1 %
Carbohydrates 14.9%
Proteins 0.3 %
Ash 0.3 %
Fat 0.4 %
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CONSUMER DIVISION
In the consumer division, FIL Industries Pvt. Limited is primarily engaged in the manufacture
and export of Apple Juice Concentrate. The Apple Juice Concentrate is sold under the brand
name of KOHINOOR. Apple juice concentrate is manufactured by pressing of apples. The
resulting juice may be further treated by enzymatic and centrifugal clarification to remove the
starch and pectin, which holds fine particulate in suspension, and then pasteurized for packaging,
in glass, metal or aseptic processing system containers, or further treated by dehydration
processes to a concentrate. A concentrate is a form of substance which has had the majority of its
base component in the case of a liquid; the solvent removed. Typically this will be the removal
of water from a solution or suspension such as the removal of water from fruit juice. One benefit
of producing a concentrate is that of a reduction in weight and volume for transportation as the
concentrate can be reconstituted at the time of usage by the addition of the solvent. The
concentrate juice may be further treated by enzymatic and centrifugal clarification to remove the
starch and pectin, which holds fine particulate in suspension, and then pasteurized for packaging
in glass, metal or aseptic processing system containers, or further treated by dehydration process
to a concentrate.
The consumer division of FIL Industries Limited was set-up over a decade ago with the foray
and development of one of the largest fruit juice concentrate units in Asia, with an annual
capacity of 7500 MT. The manufacturing process of juice concentrate is a complex and costly
process and requires a lot of machinery and equipments. The FIL Industries limited explores the
potential source of raw material in the state combined together with the state-of-art-technology
from Australia, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom installed in FIL’s manufacturing unit, that
has allowed FIL Industries to achieve best international standard and great customer satisfaction.
In the consumer division, FIL industries manufacture Apple Juice Concentrate and Apple
Aroma, and are leading suppliers of the two to dairy producers, the confectionary and bakery
industries, renowned baby food manufacturers, health and functional products, as well as in the
pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry.
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Manufacturing Facility:
The consumer division unit is a hallmark of technological excellence, commissioned with state
of the art advanced machinery procured from the best sources worldwide. The salient features
include:
 A Bellmer double wrinkle fruit press from Germany, with a crushing capacity of 20 MT
per hour.
 India’s first Ultrafiltration plant from PCI membrane of United Kingdom.
 A separate aroma recovery unit from SCHMIDT Bretten of Germany that extracts the
aroma of each fruit in order to restore the original flavor to the end product.
 A 4 stage SCHMIDT Bretten Sigmaster plate evaporator that ensures the desired degree
of juice concentration.
 Fully equipped testing laboratory including HPLC equipment for testing of patulin.
Apple juice concentrate is a common beverage for both adults and children. Vitamin C is
sometimes added by fortification, because content is variable and much is lost in processing.
Other vitamin concentrations are low, but apple juice does contain some minerals, including
Boron, which may promote healthy bones. Apple juice has a significant concentration of
polyphenols that may protect from disease associated with ageing due to the antioxidant effects
which help to reduce the likeliness of cancer development. Research suggests that apple juice
increases the acetylcholine in the brain, resulting in increased memory.
Table: Specifications for the Apple Juice Concentrate
Brix 710
B
Density 1.325
Acidity (%) 1.0-3.5
Pectin Negative
Starch Negative
Flavor Fruity
Turbidity Clear
Total patulin Less than 50 ppb
Yeast & Mold Less than 50 ppb
Shelf life 18 months at 10 0
C
Crop time Aug-Sep
Packaging HDPE food grade drums
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Manufacturing Process of Apple Juice Concentrate
Apple Reception
The apples are received from the orchards and weighed on a weigh bridge before
unloading on an unloading ramp. After unloading the apples are pre-washed in the water
channels, through which water flows, pumped by high pressure hydrostat pump. In these water
channels the foreign materials (Stones, iron fillings, sand, etc) and fully rotten apples settle
down. The prewashed fruit is then final washed and lifted by the screw elevator which has water
nozzle for the purpose. The screw elevator puts the fruit onto the sorting belt; the sorting belt
has three tracks (one big in the middle and two small side tracks). The Apples are manually
sorted; sorting is done to separate the rotten apples which could become a potential source of
patulin and other mycotoxins in the finished product. The sorted apples are then carried by an
inclined belt conveyer to the Fruit mill, while as the spoiled apples are disposed off to the bins.
Fruit Mill
In the fruit mill crushing of the apples is done to form a mash for the juice extraction in the
subsequent operations. Enzyme dosing is done in the fruit mill to get maximum extraction of the
juice. The enzymes added in the fruit mill are:
- Amylase
- Pectinase
The enzymes are added at the dosage of 30-40 grams/ton of apples.
The enzymes are added to aid in the rupturing of cells for the better extraction and yield of the
juice and thus to increase productivity. The crushing capacity is 2.5 MT/hour.
Mash Heater
A mash heater is a tube in tube arrangement of pipes in
which the mash is passed through the inner tube and the
hot water is allowed to pass through the tube surrounding
the inner tube. The mash is heated to the temperature of
40-45 0
C. Heating is done for the purpose to activate the
enzymes and soften the mash to enhance pressing.
Figure. Mash Heater
Mash Holding Tank
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There are two mash holding tanks in which heated mash is pumped into, to provide sufficient
time for the enzymes to act on the substrate. The holding time allows the enzymes to act properly
on the mash which results in the increased yield by the rupturing of juice cells. The holding time
of 30 minutes is provided to the mash at 40 0
C. To ensure the continuous flow of the prod uct.
There are two holding tanks installed in the FIL Industries Limited.
Primary Press
After the sufficient holding time is provided to the mash in the mash holding tanks, the mash is
pumped to the primary press. There is a BELT PRESS (BELMER PRESS) installed in the FIL
industries. This primary press has two belts (lower and upper) between which the fruit (mash) is
trapped. The belts pass over the roller and crush the mash as it passes. The belts are porous. It
yields about 80% of the juice from the mash.
The Belmer press extracts juice in the four stages:
Pre-extraction (1st
stage): The fresh mash is fed across a horizontal belt. A large part of the
juice sums up as a result of gravity. The WPW is equipped with an adjustable pressing belt. This
is the step for maximum yield of juice.
Wedge section (2nd
stage): After the preliminary extraction the two circulating belts form a
vertical wedge shaped section. The extraction is affected by slowly increasing pressure resulting
from the belt movement, the height of the section and the adjustable setting angle of the wedge.
Low pressure press section (3rd
stage): The mash is fed around the first perforated rolls by the
two belts. Here the extraction is affected directly to the outside and additionally to the inside.
High pressure press section (4th
stage): It is the S-shaped section. The mash cake between the
belts is extracted. The resulting kneading and shearing action free the enclosed liquid to obtain
the very high yields. The relatively short press time of 3.5 minutes ensure minimal oxidation.
The high pressure press section of the WPX is equipped with the additional press rolls and press
nip.
Collection of juice: The juice extracted from the mash in the primary press runs off at different
positions and is collected in the trough below the perforated roll from where it is guided farther
via one outlet.
In the primary press two products are formed
- Juice
- Pomace
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The juice from the primary press is passed through sieves into the balance tank and the
remaining pulpy matter (Pomace) is pumped into the secondary press. Some amount of hot water
is mixed to the Pomace from the primary press for further pressing in the secondary press to
obtain remaining amount of juice from it.
Secondary Presses
The Pomace is pressed in the secondary press to extract remaining amount of juice, called as
secondary extraction or Leaching. Juice obtained from the secondary press is passed through
vibro screen to sieve out the coarse matter. The clear juice after sieving is fed to the balance tank.
Centrifuge
From the balance tank the juice is pumped into the centrifuge as the juice collected in the balance
tank is not clear up to the mark. During the centrifugal separation the colloidal suspension from
the juice is removed. The colloidal suspension from the juice consists of pulp and other
suspended solids and these are removed as sludge. The centrifuged juice is pumped into the
Pasteurizer.
Decanter
The juice mixed with waste from centrifuge is sent to Decanter where the remaining juice is
separated from the waste, the juice is fed to the pasteurizer while as the waste is thrown out.
Pasteurizer
Pasteurization is one of the key steps in the manufacturing
process of all the food processes. It is one of the
important unit operations from the microbiological stand
point of view. In the pasteurization process
microorganisms are destroyed. The juice is pasteurized by
heating it to 92 0
C with 20 seconds of holding time. The
type of pasteurizer is PHE (plate heat exchanger). The
type of pasteurization is HTST (high temperature short
time).The PHE consists of series of parallel, closely
spaced stainless steel plates pressed in the Figure. Pasteurizer
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frame. Gaskets made of synthetic or natural rubber, seal the plate edges and ports to prevent the
intermixing of liquids. The direction of the product stream versus cooling/heating media can be
either parallel flow or counter current flow. Special patterns are pressed on the plates to cause
increased turbulence in the product stream thus achieving better heat transfer. PHE is suitable for
low viscosity fluids. The pasteurized juice should meet following standards:
Total patulin count Less than 50 ppb
Yeast and MOLD count Less than 50 ppb
Coliforms Absent
E.coli Absent
Salmonella Absent
Temperature of Juice leaving Not less than 55 0
C
the pasteurizer
The TSS of the pasteurized juice is 15 0
B; the outlet temperature of pasteurized juice should be
600
C. The flow rate of juice in pasteurizer is 16000-18000 liters/hour.
Dearomisation
The pasteurized juice is pumped into the Dearomisation unit to evaporator to stripe off the aroma
from it. The process of Dearomisation is carried out by heating the juice to 70 0
C under reduced
pressure. The use of lower temperature for this purpose has the following advantages:
• There is no product burning.
• Less fuel is consumed and thus is
economical.
The process evaporates the aroma in the juice
this is because the aroma is collection of
volatile organic compounds. The evaporated
aroma is condensed by the cooling water
sprays from tabular column and is collected
in the cyclone separators, which is then filled
in the cans and drums to
Figure. Dearomisation Unit
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be sold out separately as a valued product. The TSS content of the juice is maintained at 14-15
0
B during the Dearomisation by regulating volumetric flow rate. Juice leaves the Dearomisation
unit at about 50-55 0
C. There are various reasons for extracting aroma from the juice:
• Aroma decreases the shelf life of the product, thus, by extracting aroma shelf life of
product increases by the decreased chances of microbial spoilage.
• The aroma is sold out separately as it is the sale-value product.
Thus from the Dearomisation unit two separate products are formed
-Aroma
-juice
The juice leaving the Dearomisation unit at 50-55 0
C is pumped into the Enzymation tanks. The
enzyme dosage needed for the degradation of pectin and starch is checked at this stage by taking
different samples.
Enzyme Mixing Tanks
The juice leaving the Dearomisation unit enters the enzyme mixing tanks. There are five enzyme
mixing tanks with each tank having a capacity of 14000 litres, to ensure the continuous flow of
the product. The enzymes are added to the dearomised juice in these tanks. The following
enzymes are added:
-Amylase
-Pectinase
Amylase degrades the starch while as the Pectinase degrades the pectic substances to make the
product starch and pectin free because they pose clarity problems in the final product. The
holding time of 1 hour is provided to give
enzymes an appropriate time required to degrade
the starch and pectin. The enzyme are added at
the dosage of 70-80 grams/ton but however is
not same throughout the year as it depends upon
the maturity of fruit, with more mature fruits
requiring less dosage and likewise. It is essential
to make the juice starch and pectin free because:
- They pose clarity problems in the final
product. Figure. Enzyme Mixing Tanks
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-The starch and pectin substances clog the pore of Ultrafiltration membranes, thus impair the
efficiency of Ultrafiltration membranes. After the holding time of one hour various starch and
pectin tests are carried out that should be negative. After the starch and pectin tests read negative
then fine dosing is carried out.In the process of fine dosing Bentonite, Gelatin, and silica sol are
used together with the various fining agents to obtain better clarity on the final product. These
chemicals are used for the following reasons:
• Fining agents: improves clarity and color of the product i.e. the stability of the product
• Bentonite: settles down the suspended materials and other impurities that get deposited in
the triangular tank and are removed as sludge afterwards.
• Gelatin: improves color and clarity by reducing the content of polyphenols, tannins and
HMF but increases turbidity.
• Silica sol: Since the addition of gelatin increases the turbidity, to decrease it silica sol is
added.
After the fine dosing of the juice a minimum of 30 minutes holding time is essential to allow
these compounds to act properly and to provide the suspended particles, impurities, etc enough
time to settle down in the form of sludge. After fine dosing the juice is forced into the Ultra
filtration unit.
Ultra filtration
The juice is pumped into the Ultrafilteration feed tank. The tank feeds the Ultrafilteration
membranes for subsequent processes. In the Ultrafilteration feed tank the outlet pipe that feeds
the Ultrafilteration is fitted as such that it is raised
to the few feet above the bottom. The purpose of
this is to keep the juice in the bottom of the tank
away from the Ultrafilteration as it contains sludge
that may block the pores of the membranes, thus the
bottom portion is to be drained out.
Ultrafiltration is a process that uses membrane as a
separation barrier. The membrane is porous which
separates a solution into its constituents based on
the molecular shape and size. The size of the pores
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Figure Ultrafilteration Unit
determines its separation properties. An operating pressure of 1-10 bars is required to obtain
acceptable flow of liquid through the open structure of these membranes. The membranes are
having the pore size of 0.02 microns, and there are 63 membranes in it. The membranes are in
the form of tubes, grouped together in the bundles. The flow rate of the juice pumped into the
Ultrafiltration membranes is 125000 liters/hour; the flow rate of this level is optimum to prevent
choking of the membranes pores. The output capacity of Ultrafiltration is 16000 liters/hour.
Membranes retain the particles above the size of 0.02 microns allowing the fine juice to pass
through to obtain 99.99% clear juice.
The clear juice from the Ultrafilteration unit is pumped to the fine juice tank after testing the
clarified juice samples taken from Ultrafilteration unit. The juice is tested for the following
Clarity Should be a minimum of 95%
Color Natural
Turbidity Less than 1 FNU
Fine Juice Tank-I
The clarified juice from Ultrafilteration unit is pumped into the fine juice tank-I. From where it is
transferred to stabilization unit, and on the way PVPP inline dosing is done. The PVPP absorbs
Patulin, tannins, polyphenols, thus absorbs the dark color while giving it clarity. The PVPP is fed
at a rate of 150 metric cube/hour.
Stabilization Plant
After preparing PVPP solution in DOSMAT tank, it is injected into the juice pipeline by a dosing
pump at high pressure. The flow is regulated by FCV (flow control valve). The juice-PVPP
mixture is then fed into the FILTEROMATE TANK. The FILTEROMATE tank has a stalk of
perforated plats transverse by the juice pipe which has got perforations at the respective plate
sites to pour the juice-PVPP mixture over the plate. The juice passes through the porous plates
and is collected at the bottom via a separate pipeline, while the PVPP is retained over the plates
and is not allowed to pass through. The juice collected is virtually of good clarity and color. The
PVPP retained over the plates is regenerated using caustic CIP and is then pumped back into the
DOSMAT tank, for the further use. The juice leaving the fine juice tank-II having now the TSS
of 14-15 0
B is pumped into the concentration unit.
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PVPP: PVPP is the polymerized vinylpyrrolidone. It has a high absorbing power for soluble and
insoluble tanning agents, especially for anthocyanogens or polyphenols. Nut is insoluble in beer,
caustic soda and light acids. Treating the juice with PVPP will reduce the concentration of the
polyphenols. This will raise the colloidal stability the intended effect. All the other quality
characteristics won’t change.
Regulations by law: The application of PVPP is allowed up to 70 grams per hl beer in
Switzerland, upto 50 grams per hl beer in western Germany.
Characteristics of PVPP:
1. Swelling: PVPP swells in water. This swelling is necessary to raise the efficiency of the
stabilization. It is useful to prepare a day before the first use.
2. Particle size distribution: It varies over a wide range (1 to 450 micrometers). 30-40% of the
particles are smaller than 60 micrometer. The specific volume is six times higher than Kieselgur.
3. Compressibility: swelling of the material causes compressibility of the PVPP. This is the
reason why smallest particles are pressed into the filter elements during filtration. Even cleaning
by the moveable spray tube, mechanical cleaning is recommended now and then.
Preparing the PVPP: The DOSMAT mixing vessel is filled with the warm water (400C
). The
ratio of PVPP to water is 1:10 or 1:12. For the proper swelling the preparation should be done
one day before use.
Loss of PVPP in the beginning: The extreme wide range in the particle size distribution is the
reason why a lot of fine particles are lost during the foremost regenerations.
Loss of PVPP per regeneration: The loss of PVPP during regeneration will lower to 1 to 2%
per regeneration.
Adding of PVPP: It is best to add PVPP before the entering of the residual PVPP in the plant.
Then the DOSMAT is being spouted out and consequently, the adding reaches a mixing ratio of
about 1:10 or 1:12.
Fine Juice Tank-II
The PVPP treated juice is taken to the Fine juice tank-II, from where it is pumped into the
concentration unit. The samples are taken for the quality tests.
Concentration
The process of increasing the quantity of a component in a solution. That is the opposite of
dilution. The juice is concentrated in the concentration unit, the concentration is meant to
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increase the TSS of the juice from 150
B. The process is carried out by heating the juice at 700
C
under reduced pressure. The heating is done by means of PHE (plate heat exchangers)
evaporating the water. The concentration is continued till the TSS reaches 710
B. The juice is then
sent to the concentration mixing tanks (Blending tanks). The concentrate leaving the
concentration tanks now having the TSS of 700
B +/- 0.50
B is pumped into Blending tanks.
Blending Tank
The mixing tanks are meant for providing proper holding time to the product to ensure proper
mixing and homogenization. The homogenizations tanks have agitators that continuously agitate
the product. There are two homogenization tanks to ensure continuous flow of the product with
each tank having a capacity of 2.5 MT per tank. The following tests are conducted at this stage to
ensure quality:
• Acidity
• Brix
• Clarity
• Color
• Turbidity
• Stability
• Mobility
• TPC
• Yeast and Mold
• Coliforms
• E. coli
Concentrate Sterilizer
From the blending tank, the concentrate is
pumped into the sterilization unit. Sterilization
refers to the complete destruction of
microorganisms. Because of the resistance of
some microbial spore to heat, this requires a
treatment of temperature above 100 0
C. The
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degree of sterilization at which all the pathogen and toxin forming organisms have been
destroyed, as well as all other types of microorganisms which if present could grow in product
produce spoilage under normal handling and storage conditions is called as commercial
sterilization. The sterilization is carried out at 105 0
C with the holding time of 20 seconds. The
sterilization is meant to achieve a commercially sterile product (free from microorganisms) for
longer shelf-life. The sterilization unit is again a PHE system. Again the above mentioned tests
are conducted to check the efficiency of sterilizer. The concentrate leaving the sterilization unit
is cooled to 10-12 0
C and is sent into the filling unit or to the cold store.
FILLING
As the sterilization is completed the concentrate is sent into the filling unit through the pipeline.
The pipeline has three valves i.e. for aseptic, non aseptic filling and cold store which are opened
accordingly.
• Aseptic filling: The
aseptic filler
receives drums or
bins through roller
conveyers the
operator places the
presterilised bags in
the container
(capacity of 275kg)
then they are automatically transported under the filling station. The presterilised
bag is manually placed under the aseptic chamber in a sterile
environment saturated by over pressure steam. The cap is automatically removed,
the bag filled with sterilized product then recapped. At the end of filling cycle, the
roller conveyer transports the containers to the exit..
• Non-aseptic filling: in this case the sterilized concentrate is filled into the open
top HDPE food grade drums non-aseptically that is the juice from the sterilizer is
filled directly in cans.
After filling the concentrate is dispatched accordingly.
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Cold Store:
If the concentrate is not to be filled then it is sent into the cold store. At the FIL industries limited
there are 13 tanks in the cold store with each having capacity of 50 metric tons. The concentrate
sent into the cold store is again sterilized before dispatch.
Figure:
Storage Tanks in Cold Store
Machines Used in the Consumer Division
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The manufacturing process of apple juice concentrate is a complex process and therefore,
requires a lot of machines and equipments. There are various machines and equipments installed
at the FIL industries limited. FIL industries use technological advancement from Germany, Italy,
Australia, United Kingdom.
Fruit Mill
The mill crushes the fruit into the mash. It consists of a high speed rotor fitted inside a
cylindrical chamber. There are hammers fitted on this high speed rotor that crush the fruit. The
pulverizing action of the hammer mill creates a uniform mash that translates to greater surface
area, as a result upto 15% more juice is yielded in downstream processing. The chamber walls of
the fruit mill have smooth or lined with corrugated breaker plates. The hammers are fixed or
swinging. Swinging hammers are used when it is necessary to reduce the risk of damage in the
case of encounter between the hammer and large hard chunks. The principle crushing action
takes place as a result of the collision between the fruit and the hammers. The leading face of the
hammer is blunt or sharp. Very sharp hammers are used in case of fibrous materials where some
shearing action is necessary. The chamber exit is fitted with the interchangeable screens that
permit continuous removal of the sufficiently small particles, while the large and over size
material is retained for further size reduction.
Bellmer Press
Owing to international competition, the fruit juice and concentrate manufacturing plants have to
produce high quality juices and concentrates despite small margins. This requires three things at
the minimum:
- Best utilization of the raw material.
- Lowest investment costs.
- Lowest operating costs.
Due to the continuous and fully automatic operating belt filter press ensure compatible and safe
handling and can be easily integrated in the entire production processes. Short timing presses of
approximately 4 minutes allow production of high quality juices. In addition to it, the acquisition
and operating costs of the belt filter presses are favorable in comparison with other systems.
The Bellmer press offers following advantages:
• Open construction for easy handling and cleaning.
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• Fully Automatic operating and ensures continuous flow.
• New developments can be easily fitted.
• Yield of 84% by weight in primary pressing.
• Careful mash handling, less sediment content.
• Machine frame is stainless steel, hence easily cleaned.
• Water saving high pressure belt cleaning device.
• Hydraulic belt tensioning for highest press pressure.
• Automatic belt alignment control.
• Slowly increases pressure for low turbidity in juices.
• Dry matter content increases in pomace of 3.5%.
• The integrated high pressure area can be retro-fitted to existing plant.
• The roller configuration and exceptionally long high pressure press area ensure highest
possible juice yield.
Process Technology
The Bellmer press shows great flexibility owing to its roller configuration. The use of the press is
advantageous. The process stages within the press are optimized consistently in order to use the
shearing and kneading action between the belts.
Machine Equipments
The Bellmer press has following machine parts:
 Rolls
 Bearings
 Belt tensioning device
 Belt guide control
 Scraper
 Rotary brush
 Belt cleaning
Rotary brush slightly touches the belt when machine is in no-loading operation (i.e. when no
mash is on the belt).
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Construction
The machine frame is completely executed in stainless steel. This enables an easier cleaning and
longer lifetime of the machine.
All the parts correspond with the highest standards of Bellmer Quality. Al roller bearings have a
designed life time of 10,000 operating hours. Belt tensioning is executed with the proven
hydraulic control. The patented water saving high pressure rotor belt cleaning guarantees the
problem free application of soft stored fruits.
Juice production: The juice in the Bellmer press is produced in the four stages
Pre-extraction (1st
stage): The fresh mash is fed across a horizontal belt. A large part of the
juice sums up as a result of gravity. The WPW is equipped with an adjustable pressing belt. This
is the step for maximum yield of juice.
Wedge section (2nd
stage): After the preliminary extraction the two circulating belts form a
vertical wedge shaped section. The extraction is affected by slowly increasing pressure resulting
from the belt movement, the height of the section and the adjustable setting angle of the wedge.
Low pressure press section (3rd
stage): The mash is fed around the first perforated rolls by the
two belts. Here the extraction is affected directly to the outside and additionally to the inside.
High pressure press section (4th
stage): It is the S-shaped section. The mash cake between the
belts is extracted. The resulting kneading and shearing action free the enclosed liquid to obtain
the very high yields. The relatively short press time of 3.5 minutes ensure minimal oxidation.
The high pressure press section of the WPX is equipped with the additional press rolls and press
nip.
Juice collection: The juice extracted from the mash in the primary press runs off at different
positions and is collected in the trough below the perforated roll from where it is guided farther
via one outlet.
Cleaning
• Daily cleaning: involves rinsing with cold water or hot water having temperature
of 600
C.
• Weekly cleaning: involves use of cleaning agents in proper concentration for 15
minutes and then rinsing with cold water.
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Plate Heat Exchangers
Introduction:
The plate heat exchanger invented more than 70 years ago has found wide application in the
dairy and food beverage industry. a schematic of a plate heat exchanger consists of a series of
parallel, closely spaced stainless steel plates pressed in a frame. Gaskets, made of natural of
synthetic rubber, seal the plate edges and ports to prevent intermixing of liquids. The gaskets
help to direct the heating or cooling and t he product streams into the respective alternate gaps.
The direction of the product stream versus the heating/cooling stream can be either parallel flow
(same direction) or countercurrent flow (opposite direction) to each other.
Figure: Plate heat exchanger
The plates used in the PHE are constructed from stainless steel. Special patterns are pressed on
the plates to cause increased turbulence in the product stream, thus achieving the better heat
transfer. Plate heat exchangers are suitable for low viscosity (< 5 pa s) fluids. If suspended solids
are present, the equivalent diameter of the particulate should be less than 0.03 cm. larger
particulates can bridge across the plate contact points and “burn on” in the heating section.
Advantages of PHE:
Plate heat exchangers offer various degrees of advantages as:
• Maintenance of PHE is simple, can be easily and quickly dismantled for product surface
inspection.
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• Sanitary design for food applications.
• Capacity can be easily increased by adding more plates to the frame.
• With PHE we can heat or cool product to within 10
C of the adjacent media temperature,
with less capital investment than other non-contact type exchangers.
• PHE offers opportunities for energy conservation by regeneration.
SCHMIDT-BRETTEN PHE
This type of PHE is used worldwide in the most varied industrial fields. For exchange between
liquid or vaporous media at various temperatures. The heart of every unit consists of the
corrugated heat exchanging plate made of various materials depending on the conditions of
application. A gasket fitted to the edge of each plate is then installed into a compact frame
together, thus forming flow channels for the media.
Plates and gaskets:
For the various areas of application there are SIGMA
plates with different corrugation patterns. The plates
are made of the stainless steel material. The surface
area varies from 0.06 to 2.4 meter square. For the
sealing of the flow channels, soft Gaskets (e.g. NPR,
EPDM) or Hard Gaskets (e.g. IT) are used in it.
Gaskets are used between the plates to seal and
separate two fluids either glued in place or affixed
using glue free or mechanical design. In order to
replace the gaskets, the heat exchanger plates have to
be removed from the frame. It is noteworthy to note
that the PHE plates must be unpressurized and
cooled down (maximum 30-400
C) when they are to Figure: Plate of PHE
be removed.
Removal of gaskets:
The plates have to be cleaned and examined to find out the possible damage. The worn out
gaskets are detached by warming the back of the gasket groove with hot air or a weak solder
Page | 22
flame, but this has to be done so as to prevent the formation of tarnish on the plates (particularly
important with the titanium plates). In case of large number of plates or a very short operation
stop of PHE, the gasket can also be detached by plunging the plates into the liquid nitrogen (-
1960
C). The remaining gasket and adhesive particles still sticking in the gasket grooves must be
removed by:
- Mechanically: by shoving them with a stainless steel scraper or with emery/ abrasive paper.
- Chemically: with solvent following by mechanical cleaning.
Plate arrangement:
Plate are arranged in the form of “L” style (left hand flow) or “R” style (right hand flow) to
alternate two opposing fluids in heat exchanger. Assembly of thermal plates between the fixed
frame plate and the moveable pressure plate is called “Plate Pack”.
Flow channels:
The plate pack is clamped between the cover and the frame head by means of tie rods on each
side of the unit. This results in the formation of narrow flow channels between the plates that are
sealed together by gaskets. These channels are connected to the flow ports on the frame head,
through which primary and secondary media flow into and out of the appliance.
Frame:
As a standard All the SCHMIDT plate heat exchangers come completed as a frame with closure
either by means of screws or spindles. All parts of the frame are lacquered, or if required
stainless steel clad. In the food and beverage industries spindle frame closure are preferred. The
plates are clamped together by means of one or two spindles, that press against the centre of
moveable cover so that it does not take the long to open and close the unit.
By combining plates of different corrugation patters as well as varying the plate size an optimal
adaptation to each area of application can be guaranteed. The materials for the plates as well as
appropriate gaskets are chosen according to the operating temperatures and the media which are
run through the unit.
Installation:
While installation of PHE following points should be born in mind:
• Sufficient floor space must be provided on at least one side to allow adequate working
space for the installation and removal of the plates, for installation and loosening of the
rods, for tightening the plate pack and for fitting the connection pipes.
• The unit must be brought into its final position before the connection pipes are fitted.
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Cleaning:
Deposits and dirt accumulated on heat exchanging surface may considerably is called as fouling.
Fouling affects heat transfer and cause corrosion of the plates and thus decreasing the efficiency
of PHE. Regular cleaning not only serves to maintain heat exchanging performance, but it is also
necessary to maintain and preserve the valuable unit.
Fouling: type and frequency of cleaning depends on the type of fouling. Fouling can be
minimized by increasing the velocity of PHE at regular intervals. This creates larger turbulence
that removes scale deposits. If solids are present in the fluid, then strainer or filter must be placed
in the pipeline that feeds the PHS to prevent them from entering PHE.
There are different types of fouling as:
• Scaling: It is a common form of fouling caused by high concentration of calcium,
carbonate, CaSO4, silicates in the cooling water. It can be removed chemically by CIP or
COP and using soft brush and running water. In chemical cleaning 4% water at 140 0
F,
nitric acid, and sulfamic acid and complexing agents such as EDTA & NTA.
• Biological fouling: This type of fouling is caused by the microorganisms.
• Sedimentary fouling: This type of fouling is caused by metal oxides, corrosion product of
slit, alumina.
• Residual fouling: caused by Hydrocarbon based deposits from oils, asphalt and fat.
• Gross fouling: plugging caused by fibers, assorted solids and seaweed.
CIP procedure:
• Close all valves and drain exchange through CIP.
• Flush both sides with water (100-1200
C) until water is clear and free process fluids.
• Completely drain rinse water from CIP system.
• Refill the CIP system with water and add cleaning solution.
• Circulate cleaning solution at 140-1800
C for 3-6 hours.
• Crain cleaning solution from CIP and flush with boiling water. Do step 2 and 3 again.
• Close valve to CIP system.
• Start up.
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Maintenance:
Apart from regular cleaning of the heat exchanger surfaces, the proper maintenance is essential.
Some standard rules are to be followed for performing maintenance work:
• All plates are stamped with an L at one end and R at the other.
• Odd number plates (1, 3, 5,…) are installed in R at top and even number plates (2, 4, 6,
….) with L at the top to alternate fluid flow at every other channel.
Pasteurization Plant:
This plant is used to pasteurize the apple juice with 10-120
B, pulp content maximum 2%, and
size of fiber maximum of 1 nm. It is a continuous-process pasteurization plant.
Data of performance and consumption
Inlet temperature 10/200
C
Heating temperature 950
C
Outlet temperature 20/500
C
Input rate of apple juice 20,000 l/h
Steam requirement 1,400 kg/h
Portable water for startup/rinse 18 m3
/h
Cooling water, 150
C/300
C 23/10 m3
/h
Electrical power, installation value 19.4 kW
Instrument air 1 Nm3
/h
The product must not exceed a chloride ion content of 50 ppm; otherwise there will be a risk of
corrosion.
Description Of Most Important Components Of Pasteurization Plant:
This short time heating plant essentially consists of the following plant sections:
Balance tank: Incoming product is delivered to the balance tank. The tank is installed to make
sure continuous processing of pasteurization plant.
Product pump: The product pump, delivers the juice via heat exchanger pre line, holding tube,
heat exchanger return line and cooler.
Level probe: Anti-dry ran protection for the product pump. It stops when level reaches to certain
point.
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SCHMIST plate heat exchanger: In the heat exchanger the juice will be heated upto
pasteurization temperature and cooled down to filing temperature.
Heat exchanger hot water circuit: In the tubular heat exchanger the circuit water will be heated
by means of saturated steam at 2-3 bars.
Hot water pump: With the hot water pump, the water is pumped to the tubular heat exchanger
fed with steam. Afterwards the water reaches the heat exchanger and flows back to pump.
Steam control valve: The steam control valve controls the required steam flow rate.
Cooling water control valve: The water control valve controls the required water flow rate.
Temperature control loop for heating: The required temperature for heating is sent on the
electronic controller.
Butterfly valve: The butterfly valve is required for the sterilization/CIP plant. The butterfly
valve is only required to separate product/water and for cleaning.
Flow control valve: The product control valve controls the required product flow rate.
Flow meter: The installed flow meter indicates the flow rate of the product.
Holding tube: The installed average holding time for apple juice has to be 20 seconds.
Control Cabinet: The control cabinet which accommodates the control components is located
on the plant on site.
Ultra Filtration
Introduction: ultra filtration uses membrane as a separation barrier but in this case it is a porous
membrane which separate the solution into its constituents based on the molecular shape and
size. The size of the pores determines its separation properties. Operating pressures of only 1-10
bars are required to obtain acceptable flows of liquid through the open structure of these
membranes.
Ultra Filtration Plant And Process:
FIL industries Limited clarify the apple juice solution by Ultrafilteration. This is the separation
of the clarified juice from the pulp by passing the feed solution over a semi-permeable
membrane.
Page | 26
• When pressure is applied to the feed solution, the membrane allows the passage of water
and small molecules (referred to as permeate) but retains the larger pulp molecules in the
solution (referred to as concentrate).
• Within this plant, the membranes
are in the form of tubes, grouped
together in bundles of 19. They
are equipped with end caps such
that the solution passes through
the 19 tubes in parallel before
leaving the module.
• This tube bundle is enclosed in a
cylindrical shroud for permeate
collection, similar to the shell of
a shell and tube heat exchanger.
The whole assembly is termed as
A19 module.
• A module with similar construction minus the internals is used as a heat exchanger for
the temperature control. This is termed as A19 heat exchanger.
• Modules are mounted on the framework to form a stack. Pipe work is provided to
distribute fluid to the modules and collect concentrate and permeate from the modules.
The fluid passes through 13 modules and one heat exchanger in series.
• To ensure the correct fluid velocity is achieved in the module, the solution is pumped
through the module stack using a feed pump which maintains the correct velocity across
the membrane surface.
• As delivered each stack is fitted with 13 membrane modules, giving a membrane area of
32.5 m2
and one A19 heat exchanger. The total plant membrane area is 162.5m2
.
• Feed solution from the feed/batch tank is fed via the feed pump FPI to the module stacks.
The flow rate is measured and controlled.
• The feed tank enters the 5 processing stacks in parallel.
Page | 27
• Within the modules some permeate is separated and the pressure falls. The concentrate
leaving the modules return via a pressure control valve to the feed tank for further
processing.
• Within the module some permeate is separated and the pressure falls. The concentrate
leaving the modules returns via a pressure control valve to the batch tank for the further
processing and the permeate flows by gravity to the permeate break tank.
Cleaning of UF plant
During the course of process operation the surface of the membrane will become dirty restricting
the flow of permeate, this plant runs at constant module inlet pressure so the permeate flow will
gradually decline. To counteract this membrane must be cleaned and the method used is CIP
(cleaning in place). A cleaning solution is circulated through the plant at upto 550
C. After a
timed period of circulation the cleaning solution is drained from the module tubeside using clean
water from the CIP tank. Finally the module shrouds are refilled.
Preservation
If the plant is to remain unused for more than two hours, it should be preserved. This
preservation solution remains in the plant during the period of the shut-down. The solution must
be thoroughly displaced from the plant before it is returned to process operation.
DIAFILTRATION:
In case of ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration the amount of small molecular weight material or
mineral salts removed respectively can be enhanced by adding water to the feed. This added
water then washes these components out of the concentrate as permeate thereby reducing their
level in the concentrate. This technique is called as Diafiltration.
This simply involves addition of water to the feed tank so that any dissolved solids remaining in
the concentrated apple pulp will be dissolved in water and be recovered as permeate. The water
added should be demineralized, and at the same temperature as the apple pulp.
Page | 28
Laboratory Analysis of Fruit Juices
AIM: Determination of the acidity of juices
Reagents
0.1 N NaOH, Phenolphthalein.
Procedure
a. For Juices
1. By pH meter
A. 20 ml of juice was taken in a clean beaker and the pH meter was switched on.
B. After the pH meter was switched on, it was kept on for 15 minutes before it was used for
checking the pH of the juice.
C. The pH meter was also calibrated with 7.0pH or 4pH or 9 pH solutions.
D. The pH of the sample was observed on the digital dial.
2. By Phenolphthalein method
A. 20 ml of juice was taken and diluted with distilled water with pH of 7.0.
B. Few drops of phenolphthalein were added and the solution was titrated against 0.1N NaOH.
C. Color change was observed and the volume of 0.1N NaOH was noted down.
Calculations
Acidity = ml of NaOH used × Normality × Molecular Weight of major acid × 100
Weight/volume of sample taken × 1000
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b. For Concentrate
1. 2g of Concentrate was taken in a clean beaker which was diluted with the distilled water with
pH equal to 7.0.
2. Few drops of phenolphthalein were added and the solution was titrated against 0.1N NaOH.
3. Color change will be observed and the volume of 0.1N NaOH is noted down.
Calculations
Acidity = ml of NaOH used × Normality × Molecular Weight of major acid × 100
Weight/volume of sample taken × 1000
RESULT: acidity was 0.98
AIM: Determination of Brix of fruit juices
Introduction
Brix is defined as the percentage of dissolved sugar in a water solution on a weight for weight
basis and is expressed in degrees Brix (°B). Thus, for example, a 10°B solution implies that in
100g of solution there are 10g of dissolved sugar. Brix can be calculated by using different
types of refractrometers- Hand held Refractrometer, Abey’s Refractrometer and Digital
Refractrometer. The major disadvantage of Hand held Refractrometer is that the temperature
can’t be controlled which leads to faulty results.
Procedure
By Abbey’s Refractrometer:
 The temperature of the refractrometer was maintained at 20o
C and water was circulated
through water bath which helped to keep the refractrometer at constant temperature.
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 The refractrometer was calibrated with the help of distilled water. The prism of the
refractrometer was dried by tissue paper which could have otherwise diluted the sample
when placed on it.
 The sample was placed on the prism of the refractrometer and the Brix readings were
observed
Results
The value of TSS (o
Brix) was found to be 68o
Brix.
AIM: Determination of clarity/transmittence of fruit juices
Introduction
Clarity is calculated in %age. According to International Standards, for calculating the clarity,
Juice should have 11.28o
B and should be clarified. According to German Standards, TSS of
fruit juice should be 12o
B. For clarified juices, clarity should be >90%. Clarity of juices is
checked at 625nm. Cuvits are also to be calibrated before experiment.
Procedure
1. The Spectrophotometer is calibrated with the help of distilled water.
2. The sample has to put in the photo spectrometer and the readings noted down.
AIM: Determination of colour of fruit juices.
Introduction
Color of fruit juices is calculated at a wavelength of 440 nm and the TSS of the fruit juice
should be 11.2 -12o
Brix. It is calculated in %age.
Procedure
1. The Spectrophotometer was calibrated with the help of distilled water.
2. The sample was put in the photo spectrometer and the readings were noted down.
Results
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The clarity of juice was calculated to be 12%.
AIM: Determination of turbidity of fruit juice.
Introduction
Turbidity can either be checked by Turbidity meter or by spectrometer. Turbidity is expressed
either in Indian Units- NTU (Napthelenic Turbidity Unit) or as per German Standards- FNU
(Farmezine Napthalenic Unit).
Procedure
D. By Spectrometer:
1. The Spectrometer has to be switched on and the wavelength of the spectrometer is to be set
at a wavelength of 860nm absolute.
2. The sample is then put in the Spectrometer and the readings are observed.
AIM: Determination of shelf-life stability of fruit juices (shelf-life testing of fruit juices).
Procedure
Different methods are used to determine the shelf life of fruit juices;
Method I:
1. The apple juice with TSS of 11.2o
B was prepared from apple Concentrate by diluting with
distilled water.
2. The juice and Ethanol were mixed in a ratio of 50:50 and the solution was allowed to stand
for about 1 hour.
Results
No Turbidity or precipitation appeared in the juice indicating the good shelf life of the juice.
Method II:
1. The apple juice with TSS of 11.2o
B was prepared from apple concentrate by diluting with
distilled water.
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2. The juice and acetone were mixed in 50:50 ratios in a test tube.
3. The solution was allowed to stand for 24 hours
Results
No Turbidity or precipitation appeared in the juice indicating the good shelf life stability of the
juice.
Method III:
1. The juice prepared from concentrate was pasteurized at a temperature of 70o
C for 20
minutes.
2. The solution was hold for 24 hours at 60o
C.
Results
No Turbidity or precipitation appeared in the juice indicating the good shelf life stability of the
juice.
THE FOOD & BEVERAGE DIVISION
The food and beverage division is engaged in the production of a wide range of juices, beverages
and packaged drinking water that are perfect combination of taste and nutrition and refreshment.
These products are so designed as to meet the individual nutritional needs and are also smart and
healthy beverage choices. The products from the F & D division come in tetrapack and PET
bottles which retain the natural freshness of the juice. Some of the leading product brands of
FIL’s F & D division are:
• Tuk 3
• Frugo mango
Page | 33
• Fruitfill
• 7- springs
Essentially a prime table fruit, mango pulp is perfectly suited for conversion to juices, nectars,
drinks etc. Although fruit juices were originally developed to use up the surplus fresh fruit
production, fruit is now grown for juicing. A variety of juices is available at FIL. These includes:
apple, pineapple, mango & mixed. The quality of juice depends essentially on the species &
maturity of the fresh fruit. The main factors that influence the quality are the sugar to acid ratio,
the aroma volatiles, and the phenolic components of ascorbic acid content. Satisfactory juice
productions depend on sound judgment of the raw materials & blending procedures adopted. A
key step in the processing of fruit juices from the packaging point of view is the deaeration step.
This is important both to minimize oxidative reactions in the juice (e.g. oxidation of ascorbic
acid & flavor compounds) & reduce corrosion if the juice is packaged in a metal container. The
four key deteriorative reactions in juices are microbiological spoilage, non-enzymic browning,
oxidation resulting in loss or degradation of flavor components and absorption of flavor
compounds by the package. Although preservatives were commonly added to fruit juices to
overcome microbiological problems. At FIL industries the juice is packed in PET bottles and
Tetra packs.
PET DIVISION
In the PET division at the FIL industries ltd. processing and packaging of drinking water (7-
SPRINGS) and fruit juices (FRUGO MANGO & FRUITFILL) is undertaken. The underlying
technology involved in both the processes is same however a CIP (by nitration and caustic soda
treatment) of the line is done essentially in order to alternate between the two processes. The
entire process is carried out in fully aseptic conditions. And the final product is sourced to the
consumer in durable and attractive packing options, after processing and packaging in FIL's
state-of-the-art plant, with a univocal assurance of the highest standards of hygiene and quality.
PET (Polyethylene Terepthalate)
Commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is a thermoplastic
polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other
Page | 34
liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with
glass.
PET (polyester) enjoys a substantial growth as a packaging material across global markets
and for diverse applications. Its replacement of glass, metal, and other plastics has been quite
remarkable — no other rigid plastics packaging sector has matched the growth rate of PET
bottles over the last 20 years. PET is now a commodity polymer competing directly with
polyolefin’s and styrene’s in the markets for food and beverage packaging, as well as for other
products.
Introduction To Pet Bottle Launch (7-SPRINGS)
Launching of packaged drinking water by the name 7-Springs lately, in the market is
considered as one of the important milestones in the success history of FIL industries ltd. There
are several national brands of mineral water available in the market. But then since Kashmir’s
water is quality-wise better, so it was thought to launch this product not only in Kashmir but also
throughout India. Each drop of its water is purified as per the international standards. The
processing is done in such a way that all the natural minerals of the water are retained and a
balanced mineral content is maintained. Besides, it is ensured that all the organic matter,
bacteria, other micro-organisms, suspended matter, residual chlorine and odors are removed. The
bottles remain untouched right through the rinsing, filling, capping and labeling operations. It is
rather filled automatically and the cap is also fixed automatically. The company develops two
pack sizes of the product, viz. 1 liter and 20 liters, so as to suit the need of every individual. FIL
Industries Ltd is committed to offer pure drinking water to its consumers and they therefore
follow rigorous R&D and stringent quality controls, so as to make 7-Springs the most preferred
brand in packaged drinking. The water is put through multiple stages of purification and is
ionized before making it available for consumption. It is ensured to maintain strict hygiene
conditions in the plant. The consumer satisfaction has always been the focus of the company.
Manufacturing any product always ensures to provide the best quality to the consumers. Both the
consumer and food and beverage divisions of FIL are ISO and HACCP certified in order to
strengthen the commitment of world-class standards and quality parameters. FIL offers a wide
range of juice and beverage products keeping in mind the distinct tastes of the consumers. These
products not only meet the individual nutritional needs, but are hygienic and tasty as well. The
Page | 35
latest technology is used in the manufacturing and packaging so as to keep the juices fresher for
a longer period of time without any added preservatives. The entire product range is available in
tetra pack and PET bottles that retain the natural freshness of the juices.
Packaged Drinking Water
Clean drinking water is essential to human and other life forms. Access to safe drinking water
has improved steadily over the last decades in almost every part of the world.
Different Stages Of Processing Of Packaged Drinking Water
SOURCE {Bore-well 2}
SAND FILTER {Filtration & removal of mud}
BALANCE TANK 1{Continuous supply to degasser}
DEGASSER {Removal of dissolved gases & odors}
FINE SAND FILTER {Further filter removal of mud}
ANTI-SCALANT DOSING REVERSE OSMOSIS UNIT {Residue water out}
Page | 36
OZONATOR PRODUCT TANK {Ozone is added to improve quality}
FILLER BALANCE TANK
RINSING BOTTLE FILLER {Filling of bottles}
CAPPING BOTTLE DRYER {Drying of bottles}
LABELLING
PRINTER
SHRINKING OF LABELS
PACKAGING
COOLING PERIOD
STORAGE
Source: The water for packaged drinking is extracted from an officially recognized. Certain
parameters which are taken into consideration while choosing the source are:
1. Hydrological distribution
2. Physical & chemical characteristics of water
3. Microbiological analysis
4. Level of toxic substances
5. Freedom from pollution
6. Stability of the source
Generally, the source should be deep aquifier with a long transit time and few cracks or
fissures. In case of shallow aquifier the main concern is the possibility of the surface water
Page | 37
passing more or less directly into the source. However, no aquifier is 100% free from pollution.
In general the source of water at FIL Industries is 200 feet above the ground.
Abstraction: The means of extraction depends on the nature of the source. Spring water
typically rises from spring through a bed of gravel while water from wells and bores do not
require pumping. Contamination of the point of source should be carefully avoided. Pumps used
for abstraction may become a source of contamination which needs to be carefully prevented.
Precautions must be taken against pollution from ancillary operations. The abstracted water is
then kept in a tank till further processing called as a reservoir tank. Here settling of heavy
suspended material takes place. And thus partial purification of water is achieved.
Sand Filter: Here in filtration and mud removal takes place. Filtration is commonly the
mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or
gases) by interposing a medium through which only the fluid can pass. Oversize solids in the
fluid are retained, but the separation is not complete; solids will be contaminated with some fluid
and filtrate will contain fine particles (depending on the pore size and filter thickness).
Sand filters are used for water purification in FIL industries. They are typically 1 to 2 meters
deep & can be rectangular or cylindrical. The length & breadth of the tanks is determined by the
flow rate desired by the filters which usually is 0.1 to 0.2 meters per hour. In general, there are
three main types;
1. Rapid (gravity) sand filters
2. Upflow sand filters
3. Slow sand filters
All three methods are used extensively in the water industry throughout the world. The first
two require the use of flocculent chemicals to work effectively whilst slow sand filters can
produce very high quality water free from pathogens, taste and odor without the need for
chemical aids.
Back washing is done to remove mud from the filters after certain amount of water has been
filtered.
Page | 38
Balance Tank 1: From the sand filter the water passes to another tank next ahead in the line
called as a balance tank 1.Here in the partially filtered water is held for some time. From this
balance tank a continuous supply of water is sent to the degasser.
Degasser: A degasser installed in the line is employed for the removal of the dissolved gases
and odor for the proper purification of water. These gases if not removed from the water can
adversely affect its quality and in turn decrease the acceptance of the final product in the market.
Thus, the function of a degasser in a packaged drinking processing line is very important.
Fine Sand Filter: A fine sand filter further facilitates the removal of finest mud or dirt particles
which may be still present in the water. This again works on the principle of filtration. This
activity however does not change the microbiological status of water or improve its quality.
Reverse Osmosis Unit: Next in the line is the reverse osmosis unit which treats the water by the
reverse osmosis process. This is the most economical method of removing 90% to 95% of all
microorganisms. The pore structure of RO membrane is much smaller than UF membranes.RO
membranes are capable of rejecting practically all particles, bacteria, and organics greater than
300 Daltons molecular weight. In fact, this technique is used by most of the bottling plants.
In water purification systems, hydraulic pressure is applied to the concentrated solution to
counteract the osmotic pressure. Pure water was driven from the concentrated solution &
collected downstream of the membrane.
Reverse Osmosis is highly effective in removing several impurities from water such as total
dissolved solids, turbidity, lead & other heavy metals & radium. Anti scaling dosing is done at
this stage to prevent the scale formation during RO operation.
Product Tank: In the product tank, water is given further purification treatment via Ozonisation.
This involves the addition of ozone gas to the water. Ozonisation is often coupled with
microfiltration
Ozone has great disinfection effectiveness against bacteria and viruses compared to chlorination.
In addition, the oxidizing properties can also reduce the concentration of iron, manganese, sulfur
and reduce or eliminate taste and odor problems. Ozone oxides the iron, manganese, and sulfur
in the water to form insoluble metal oxides or elemental sulfur. These insoluble particles are
then removed by post-filtration. Organic particles and chemicals will be eliminated through
Page | 39
either coagulation or chemical oxidation. This improves the product shelf life, color, taste and
reduces the turbidity. pH of water is checked here.
Ultra Violet Treatment: Ultraviolet tubes are used in which ultra violet energy causes
permanent inactivation of microorganisms by disrupting DNA so that they are no longer able to
maintain metabolism and reproduce. The maximum effectiveness occurs in between 240nm and
280nm with the most effective wavelength typically 254nm.
All bacteria, spores, viruses, and protozoa are permanently inactivated by UV. UV
disinfection is most effective for treating a high clarity purified reverse osmosis distilled water.
Suspended particles are a problem because microorganisms buried within particles are shielded
from the UV light and pass through the unit unaffected. However, UV systems can be coupled
with a pre-filter to remove those larger organisms that would otherwise pass through the UV
system unaffected.
Filler Balance Tank: After passing through the UV treatment unit the water passes to a filler
balance tank. This tank ensures a continuous and sufficient supply of water to the filler which is
next in the line.
Bottle Filler: Next in the processing line at FIL industries is the bottle filler where filling of
bottles takes place. This involves initially the rinsing of PET bottles with chlorinated water.
Chlorination is effective against many pathogenic bacteria, but at normal dosage rates it does not
kill all viruses, cysts, or worms. When combined with filtration, chlorination is an excellent way
to disinfect drinking water supplies. A bottle filling section /unit operates continuously to fill the
bottles with highly purified drinking water.
Bottle Dryer: The bottles after filling are dried in a bottle drying facility. Since the bottles itself
contain water, not convenient for sleeve labeling or carton packaging, this facility will let the
bottles dry, to ensure the sleeve labeling and carton packaging smoothly. Also capping of bottles
is done here simultaneously.
Labeling: Water bottle labels serve a vital function as they give accurate information about the
contents of the bottle one purchases. Here at FIL industries labeling is done manually. These
labels serve as guidelines for the purchase of these water bottles as they notify its product brand
name, nutritional contents, and ingredients.
Page | 40
Screening: The employees at the screening counter supervise the overall quality of the product
simply by checking the presence of any suspended particles in the bottles by keeping them in the
passage of a bright light emitting device.
Printer: Here automatic printing is done on the bottle sleeves. This includes printing of initials
of names of every worker in charge of the production, date of manufacture and expiry and price
of the bottle.
Shrinking Of Labels: Next ahead in the line is the facility where shrinking of the labels takes
place. Shrink labels shrinks to the contour of the container which upon shrinkage not only gives
the container an attractive look but also 360 degree brand coverage. Bar codes printed on PET
can be easily detected by the scanner.
Cartons: After labeling and shrinking of labels, the bottles are loaded into cartons manually.
These cartons are then given a cooling period of about 48 hours and a quality assurance
clearance is done for the cooling period.
Storage And Dispatch: The cartons are stacked on pallets in the store and are then ready for
dispatch.
WATER LABORARTORY ANALYSIS
AIM: Determination of total hardness by EDTA method.
PRINCIPLE:
Hardness is generally caused by the calcium& magnesium ions, aluminum, zinc, & magnesium
etc. are also capable of precipitating the soap & thus contributing to the hardness. However, the
concentration of these ions is very low in natural waters, therefore hardness is generally measured
as concentration of only calcium& magnesium (as calcium carbonate), which are far higher in
quantities over other hardness producing ions.
Calcium & magnesium form a complex a wine red color with Erichorme black T AT Ph. of
10.0=0.1. The EDTA has got a stronger affinity towards CA++
& Mg++
& therefore, by addition of
EDTA, the former complex is broken down & a new complex of blue color is formed.
REAGENTS
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1) EDTA solution of 0.01N
2) Buffer ammonia solution.
3) Reagent D
PROCEDURE
1) Take 100ml of water sample in a beaker.
2) Add 2 tabs of reagent D (Total hardness indicator) to the sample.
3) Stir the sample using the magnetic stirrer.
4) Add 1 ml of buffer ammonia solution.
5) Titrate with EDTA.
6) Blue color is the end point.
CALCULATION
Hardness as mg/L CaCo3 = ml EDTA used ×I000
Volume of sample
Bore well = 29×1000
100
= 2990ppm
PDW = 8×1000
100
= 90ppm
Aim: To determine amount of calcium in water sample.
PRINCIPLE
Many indicators such as Ammonia purpurate, calcon etc. form a compound with only Calcium
but not with Magnesium at higher pH.
As EDTA is having a higher affinity towards Calcium; the former complex is broken down &
new complex is formed. However, EDTA has property to combine with both CA++
& Mg++
;
therefore, Magnesium is largely precipitated as its hydroxide at sufficiently higher pH.
REAGENTS
Page | 42
1) EDTA solution 0.01M.
2) Sodium hydroxide 1N.
3) Murexide indicator.
PROCEDURE
1) Take 50ml of sample in a conical flask.
2) Add 2 ml of NaOH solution to the sample.
3) Then add 100-200mg of Murexide indicator to the sample which causes
development of pink color.
4) Titrate with EDTA solution until color changes to purple.
CALCULATION
Calcium(ppm) = volume of EDTA used ×400.8
Ml of sample
Bore well = 6.5×400.8
50
= 52.1ppm
AIM: Determination of alkalinity of water sample.
Materials
Phenolphthalein, Methyl Orange, Water sample
Procedure
1. 50 ml of water sample to be tested was taken in a clean titration flask.
2. 3-4 drops of Phenolphthalein were added (If the pink color appears it shows the presence of
alkalinity in water sample and if the color remained unchanged it indicates the absence of
Phenolphthalein alkalinity. Phenolphthalein alkalinity is present at pH above 8.2 and is
completely absent at pH values 6.5-7.5 which is the normal pH of water).
3. The pink color appeared indicating the presence of alkalinity.
Page | 43
4. The solution was then titrated against 0.1 N HCl till the solution became colorless and at
this stage 3-4 drops of Methyl Orange were added to it and was again titrated against 0.1 N
HCl to pink color.
Calculations:
Phenolphthalein Alkalinity = A× Normality of HCl ×1000× 50
ml of Sample used
Phenolphthalein Alkalinity = 3.6 × 0.1 × 100 × 50
50
= 38
Methyl Orange Alkalinity = B× Normality of HCl ×1000× 50
ml of Sample used
Methyl Orange Alkalinity = 4.2 × 0.1 ×1000× 50
50
= 42
Total Alkalinity = (A+B) × Normality of HCl× 1000 ×50
ml of Sample taken
A= ml of HCl used for Phenolphthalein Alkalinity.
B= ml of HCl used for Methyl Orange Alkalinity
Aim: To determine amount of chloride in water.
PRINCIPLE
The portable water is chlorinated to make the water free from micro- organisms. However ,
some times the concentration of chloride ions in water is increased than what is normally
required. Apart from this water also receives chloride ion from multifarious source. The chloride
ion (Cl-
) is estimated by titrating with silver nitrate solution.
REQUIREMENTS
1) Water sample.
Page | 44
2) Beaker
3) Pipette
4) Silver nitrate (AgNO3)
5) Potassium dichromate solution.
PROCEDURE
1) Take 50ml of water sample in a beaker.
2) Add few drops of potassium dichromate solution(indicator) to the sample
3) Titrate solution against silver nitrate till the brick red color appears
CALCULATION
Chlorides (ppm) = ml of AgNO3×1000×35.5
ml of sample taken
= 2.6×0.02×1000×35.5
50
= 36.9ppm
= 1.5×0.02×1000×35.5
50
= 21.3ppm
AIM: Determination of free carbon dioxide.
Reagents
1) Sodium hydroxide 0.05 N
2) Phenolphthalein indicator
PROCEDURE
1) 100 ml of sample was taken in a beaker
Page | 45
2) 2-3 drop[s of phenolphthalein indicator was added to it
3) The sample was titrated against o.o5NaOH and was used to change the color from
colorless to pink.
CALCULATION: ml used× Normality×1000×44
Volume of sample
= .8×0.05×1000×44
100
= 17.6 mglt
AIM: To remove dissolved oxygen from water.
REAGENTS
1) Sodium thiosulfate (2.5 gm) in 100ml of water
2) Potassium hydroxide (2 gm)
3) Potassium iodide (12 gm).
4) Starch indicator (0.5 gm) in 50ml of water
5) Manganese sulfate (50 gm) in 100 ml distilled water.
PROCEDURE
1) 300 ml was taken in to stopperd BOD flask in order to avoid bubbling &
entrapment of air.
2) 2ml of manganese sulfate and potassium iodide was poured in to the sample.
3) Separate pipettes were used for these reagents.
4) When the reagents were poured, the precipitate appeared.
5) The stopper was placed on to the bottle and the contents were shaken by inverting
the bottle repeatedly.
6) The bottle were kept undisturbed for some time to settle down the precipitate
Page | 46
7) 2ml of concentrated H2So4 was added and the sample was shaken again to
dissolve the precipitate.
8) Part of the contents was then removed (50-100ml) in a conical flask for titration
and the bubbling was prevented in order to avoid mixing of oxygen.
9) The contents was titrated with in one hour of dissolution of the precipitate against
sodium thiosulfate solution using starch as an indicator.
10) At the end the color changes from dark blue to colorless.
CALCULATIONS.
DISSOLVED O2 mglt = ml used×Normalityof titrate ×8×1000
V2
AIM: To determine chemical oxygen demand in a given water sample
REAGENTS: Ferrous ammonium sulfate (0.1N), ferrion indicator, sulfuric acid, mercuric
sulfate, silver sulfate.
PROCEDURE:
1. Take 200ml sample in COD flask (500ml).
2. If sample has more than 50ppm COD, use 0.2N K2Cr2O7 and 0.1N ferrous ammonium sulfate.
3. Add a pinch of mercuric sulfate and silver sulfate (100-200 mg).
4. Add 30ml sulfuric acid, it causes exothermic reaction so it should be placed in a water bath.
Sulfuric acid should be added along the walls while shaking the flask.
5. Reflux it for 2 hrs. Place it on a hot plate and attach it to a condenser. The condenser cools it
and it trickles down.
6. Disconnect the reflux and cool down the sample.
7. Make up volume to 140ml.
8. Add 2-3 drops of ferrion indicator.
9. Titrate against Ferrous ammonium sulfate.
10. Run a blank using dist. Water and follow the same procedure as for the sample.
CALCULATIONS: COD (ppm) = B-A × Normality of FAS × 1000× 8
ml of sample used
Page | 47
RESULT: = 2.3 × 0.1 × 1000× 8
20
= 92
Multiply by dilution factor (10) = 92×10 =920mg/lt.
PET BOTTLED JUICES
Juice is also packed in PET bottles, the PET bottles for juices have features like air sealing,
light weight, reusable, fragrance free and great strength. All these features help in maintaining
freshness of the juice for a longer time. Here two varieties of fruit juices are packed in PET
bottles by the names FRUGO mango containing mango pulp and FRUIT FILL containing mango
pulp, apple juice concentrate and sea buck thorn. The technology employed for packing of fruit
juices is similar to that used for packaged drinking water
PET BOTTLED JUICES-TECHNOLOGY
Hot filling is specially designed for PET bottled juices. The temperature of the juice during
filling is 720
C. This production line is fully equipped with machines and is thus highly
automated, however easy to operate. The bottling is done accurately to prevent any loss of juices
and the entire production and packaging facility is maintained pollution free.
PROCESSING AT A GLANCE
RAW MATERIALS
BLENDING
HOMOGENISATION {160-180 psi}
DEAREATOR
Page | 48
STERLISATION {108 degrees}
HOT FILLING {720
C}
CAPPING
LABELLING
DATING
PACKAGING
Raw Materials : The basic raw materials used are fruit pulp, sugar, pectin, color, citric or
ascorbic acid, sodium benzoate and natural and artificial color. Sugar not only provides
sweetness to the juice but also adds body
and mouth feel. Natural color is added to
enhance the eye-appeal of the product.
Acids are added to enhance flavor and to
act as preservative against microbial
growth. Natural and artificial flavorings
are added in order to increase overall
flavor of the juice. These should be
stable under processing conditions.
Sodium benzoate is added as a
preservative.
Blending: Fruit pulp along with the other ingredients are added or mixed in a blending tank. The
various ingredients are added according to a formulation which should meet the product
specifications. After being completely mixed the mixture is taken to the next stage in the line.
Homogenization: Homogenization causes disruption of particles in a suspension. It is often used
in beverages to reduce sedimentation, to increase viscosity or to create a better texture It
enhances mouth-feel, color and flavor. Homogenizer used at FIL industries ltd is built to meet
high maintenance, reliability and noise specifications. Homogenization is essentially done only
for the mango pulp. This step is very important as it gives the juice a finer and better consistency.
Page | 49
Deaerator: The deaerator is one of the necessary equipment in fruit juice. It is mainly used for
deaerating the homogenized juice under
vacuum condition and to prevent the juice
from being oxidized and then to prolong
the storing period the juice.
Sterilization: The next stage in the
processing of fruit juices is sterilization.
Sterilization involves heating of juice to a
temperature of 108 degrees for about 20
seconds. It is done to eliminate most of the
microbes in the juice, reduce the microbial
load and make it sterile. PHE is used for sterilization of juices. It consists of three stages in
which one stage is used for regeneration, one for heating, one for cooling. Sterilization is carried
out at 1080
C and cooling is done at 15-200
C. A flow diversion valve is used which diverts the
flow of juice back to sterilizer.
Filling: Hot filling of the juices takes place here. The empty bottles are rinsed with chlorinated
water before the commencement of filling process. And here at FIL industries a micro vacuum is
used for hot filling of juices. The juice
temperature at the time of filling is 72-80
degrees, and should not be low than 70
degrees (otherwise the juice is sent back to
the heating section).The bottles are neck
gripped and screw capping is done. After
capping, the bottles are sprayed with cold
water for the creation of vacuum inside
the bottles. And then the bottles are moved
on a conveyor to the labeling section.
Figure: Filling of juice in PET bottles
Page | 50
Labeling: Labeling of the PET bottles is done manually. Labels notify the product brand name,
ingredients used, nutritional status of the product etc. Shrinking of labels is done in the same way
as that for the packaged drinking water.
Dating: Automatic printing is done on the
bottle sleeve to indicate manufacturing and
expiry date, price and initials of names of
the people in charge of production.
Packaging & Dispatch: The juices bottles
are finally packed and loaded into cartons
manually. And then stored at low
temperature until dispatch to the market.
Figure: juice filled PET botlles
TETRA PAK
Tetra pak is a multinational food processing & packaging company of Swedish origin. It was
founded in 1951 in Sweden by Ruben Rausing. Tetra pack develops a market for complete
processing, packaging, and distribution systems for food stuffs. Tetra pak has expanded its
business to include much more than packaging of liquid food products. Today, ice cream, cheese,
dry fruits, fruits, vegetables & PET foods are examples of products that can be processed or
packaged in tetra pak in processing & packaging lines. Tetra paks innovation is in the area of
Figure: Tetrapak (printing the date)
Page | 51
aseptic processing liquid food packaging which when combined with ultra high temperature
processing allows, liquid food to be packaged and stored under room temperature conditions for
up to a year. This allows for perishable goods to be saved and distributed over greater distances
without the need for a cool chain.
Raw Materials for Tetra Pak Package:
To produce packaging materials, tetra pak uses paper board (73%), plastic (22%), and for aseptic
packages, aluminum foil (5%). Raw materials have the greatest environmental impact of all the
stages within the package life cycle. The paperboard is made from wood, a renewable resource.
The paperboard provides stiffness and stability to the package. The plastic (polyethylene) is
used in layers on both sides of the paper structure to protect the package from inside and outside
moisture. Cartons designed for long life or high acidity content contains aluminum foil, which is
about 6 micrometre. This layer provides addition protection for the content against oxygen,
bacteria, undesired flavors and light.
Transportation: through the square shape and low ratio of package-to-content, the use of space
is optimised, less type of transportation is thus needed for this type of package compared to most
other shapes and materials. Transportation of packaging material to factories is also optimised to
large rolls of material instead of empty packages. Aseptic packages also allow transportation
without consistent cooling, which also reduces the environmental footprint.
Flow Diagram of Tetra Pak
RAW MATERIALS
BLENDING
HOMOGENIZATION (160-180 Psi)
DEARATION
Page | 52
STERILIZATION (108 0
C)
ASEPTIC BRIK FILLING
PRINTING
TRAY PACKING
SHRINK WRAPPING & DISPATCH
Raw Materials: Raw materials used in the preparation of tetra pack juices were first pulp, sugar,
color, citric or ascorbic acid, and flavors.
Blending: Fruit pulp and sugar and various other ingredients are added / mixed together in
blending tanks. After blending, blended mixture is pumped into homogenizer.
Homogenizer is used to disperse fat or fruit pulp in products using high pressure. This is very
important and gives juice a finer and more consistency. Homogenizer used in FIL industries is
built to meet high maintenance, reliability & noise specifications.
Deaeration: The vacuum deaerator is one of the necessary equipment in fruit juice. It was
mainly used for deaerating the homogenized juice under vacuum condition and to prevent the
juice from oxidation and then prolong the strong period of juice.
Sterilization: The next stage in the processing of fruit juices is sterilization. Sterilization involves
heating of juice to a temperature of 108 degrees for
about 20 seconds. It is done to eliminate most of
the microbes in the juice, reduce the microbial load
and make it sterile. PHE is used for sterilization of
juices. It consists of five stages in which two
Page | 53
stages are used for regeneration, one for heating, one for cooling, and one for chilling.
Sterilization is carried out at 1080
C and cooling is done at 15-200
C. A flow diversion valve is
used which diverts the flow of juice Figure. Filling of juice in tetrapak
back to sterilizer.
Filling: After sterilization, juice is filled in aseptic packages. Juice is filled at the temperature
below 150
C known as cold filling only material of package to the contents is food grade
polythene. The aseptic treatment and packaging of juices provides longer shelf life without
needing to resort to artificial preservation. The packaging material is loaded into the machines
where it is sterilized by hydrogen peroxide vapors and the pack is then sealed at two places.
Printing The Date: Automatic dating is done to indicate manufacturing and expiry date. Batch
no is also printed on the pack.
Tray Packer: It fills 27 packs in each tray and then shrink packaged.
Shrink Packaging: Shrink packaging is the secondary type of packaging. Tetra paks are further
packed into boxes and shrink wrapped for eventual marketing, shrink sleeves are of polyvinyl
chloride but oriented polystyrene sleeves can also be used.
Page | 54
WAREHOUSE DIVISION
This division was set up by FIL industry to provide comprehensive post-harvest
management facilities to farmers through Controlled Atmospheric Storage. FIL is among
the top three companies in India to have invested in the development of CA storage with
an integrated capacity of 10,000 metric tons, along with the state-of-the-art packing and
grading line. The company has been the pioneer in bringing the facility to India and other
leading business houses have followed it.
Grading and Packaging Line:
Grading process of fruits is
designed to segregate damaged, rotten and
cracked fruits from those that are of
acceptable quality standards. Only healthy,
attractive, clean and bright fruits are selected.
The grades are mostly based on the condition
and the quality of the fruits and not
specifically on their size as is commonly
FIL industry has exclusive grading facility
available for grading of apples. It has two
grading houses. One is adjacent to the CA stores (Sada Bahar & Nav Bahar) and the other one is
located near the manual CA store (Bahar).
Integrated Pack House Grading Line:
This grading line serves to grade the apples to be stored in the manual CA store and for
those that are to be dispatched to the market. It has a capacity of around 2 metric tones and has
eight separate exit lines that are capable of sorting apples that fall in the weight range of 200-460
grams.
CA Store Grading Line
Page | 55
Grading in both the grading houses follows a common process and involves similar steps that are
briefly described as under:
RECEPTION
CHAIN CONVEYOR
WASHING
INCLINED CONVEYOR
DRYING STAGE-1
WAXING
ELECTRICAL DRYING TUNNEL
MANUAL SORTING
CLASSIFICATION (COLOR / WEIGHT)
EXIT LINES
PACKAGING (BOXES / CRATES)
Page | 56
Reception Of Apples: Apples are brought into the grading room loaded in bins whereby
workers transfer the fruit onto chain conveyers which conveys the produce to “BIN
DUMPER”.
Washing: Apples are washed in a pool of
water to remove extraneous materials
present on the surface of the fruit
keeping in view the consumer health
and acceptance of the product. Water is
usually treated with fungicides like
DPL SCALDEX and QUINTAL to
ensure a fungal infectivity free product.
Page | 57
Inclined Conveyor: The force of water pushes the fruit up an inclined conveyor designed to
send the fruit rolling upwards while water is collected in a trough just before the start of
the conveyor.
Drying Stage 1: Apples are dried by hot air using a special equipment to remove all traces of
moisture from its surface. This enables further dealing out of apples i.e waxing.
Waxing: A coating of wax is applied on apples by passing them over a brush conveyor. This is
essential to prevent loss of moisture resulting from transpiration. Transpiration otherwise
reduces the weight of apples and is a cause for withered exterior. Besides, wax also forms
a protective coating against microbial growth and adds a gloss and sheen to the product
that serves as a factor of desirability for
consumers and influences their buying
decisions. Also, one of the reasons these apples
are able to maintain their attractiveness and
quality during transport and marketing is this
thin coat of natural wax applied in the
warehouse.
Drying Stage 2: Further, in the next stage, again drying takes place, this time though of waxed
apples to dry the applied wax layer. Apples are sent to an electrical drying tunnel, where
drying of apples takes place by the electrically heated air.
Manual Sorting: Workers line up along the sides of a belt, through which fruit is passed to sort
out un-waxed, partially waxed apples, which are sent back for complete and proper
waxing. Also B-grade apples that may have escaped earlier inspection are removed from
the line.
Page | 58
Classification Of Apples: Before packing, apples are graded on different parameters of quality,
like color, size or weight. Of many varieties of apples available, which differ in their
features, this grading is essential to segregate fruit into similar groups such that fruits of a
kind are packed together. Although, manual grading is possible it is however subject to
errors due to human limitations. Technology has permitted development of many
instruments and machines which can be used for the process of grading. These techniques
are more efficient, reliable and fast at the same time, thus proving to be a boon for the
industry at large.
In this industry two options of classification are available:
1. Camera unit.
2. Weight grading unit.
Page | 59
Camera Unit: FIL industry has installed a camera
unit in its grading facility, which serves to
classify fruit according to its color. The unit
has seven cameras which scan the fruit, from
many angles and ascertain its mean or average
color. Different varieties of apples have a
different characteristic color at maturity stage;
hence the unit helps to select the fruit which is
in conformity with its accepted standard of
color, and rejects those which fall short of acceptable color standard. Figure: Camera
Unit in grading line
Weight Grading Unit: Apples are passed over sensors that weigh them and transfer them on to
a conveyor belt that has many cup shaped
carriers. Each cup is activated by a different
weight and conveys the apple of a particular
weight over to an assigned exit line for
particular range of weight. There are 21 exit
lines in this facility. At each exit line fruits are
packaged in cardboard boxes if they are to be
dispatched to market or in crates if they are to be stored in the CA store.
Packaging: Card board boxes are circulated across all exit line by means of an aerial conveyor.
These boxes are stored upstairs and are attached to the conveyor line on a hanger like
attachment to ensure its availability at each exit line.
THE C.A STORES OF FIL INDUSTRY
FIL has been at the forefront in the setting up of Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage. FIL
industries Limited is amongst the top three companies in India to have invested in the
development of post-harvest management systems and has been the pioneer in bringing the CA
storage technology in India. FIL has its own Controlled Atmosphere storage with an integrated
capacity of 10,000 MT, with its own state-o-art pack and grade line. The CA storage facilities at
FIL Industries Limited are a key component towards the setting up of a well organized cold
Page | 60
chain which is a pre-requisite to guaranteeing the supply of high quality and branded fruits and
vegetables to the market.
FIL industry has four CA stores SADA BAHAR, NAV BAHAR, and BAHAR and another one
which has not been commissioned yet.
These Controlled Atmospheric stores
have provided the valley fruit growers an
opportunity to keep their produce fresh
longer while the consumer benefit from the
easy availability of fruits even during off
season. Agricultural commodities can be
stored in these stores under conditions,
scientifically established to be beneficial
for them.
CA stores have proven proficiency
to prolong life of products like fruits vegetables but having a suppressing effect on quality
deterioration. CA stores function under low oxygen and high carbon dioxide conditions along
with reduced temperature. These conditions reduce the respiratory activity of agricultural
commodities and also prevent microbial proliferation thus obviously enabling a better kept
product
Sada Bahar CA store has a storage capacity of around 6000-7000 metric tons. Each
chamber can store 1000-1100 crates stacked on top of each other. Bahar has eight chambers
having a capacity of 125 metric tons per chamber. These large and filled crates and lifted and
piled atop other crates by means of a fork lift. While Sada Bahar and Nav Bahar store apples
Bahar CA store is used for storage of apples and grapes.
One of the most salient features of the store is its construction. By all means a solid
and secure construction has been ensured at the FIL CA stores. The walls of the CA chamber are
made of POLY URATHANE FOAM. This provides a leak proof enclosure
That does not allow the exchange of gases between the sealed chamber and outer surroundings.
Page | 61
The Salient Features
Built in collaboration and with technical expertise of ICA, United Kingdom and David Bishop, a
renowned name in the field since 1937.
 Located near fruit growing areas to ensure minimum transit time.
 Easily accessible.
 Optimum chamber size.
 Fully automated Monitoring of Oxygen, Nitrogen and CO2.
 Monitoring of chambers through two control centres.
 Relative Humidity of More than 90% maintainable.
 State-of-art grading line from Sammo and Geefa. Italy with a capacity of 12 MT.
 Grading as per size, color, and weight possible.
CONDITIONS MAINTAINED IN THE CA STORE
02 2.5%
CO2 1.5%
RELATIVE HUMIDITY 90-95%
TEMPRATURE 0-0.5°C
Page | 62
Oxygen Level: Though the normal level of O2 in atmosphere is 21% it is reduced to around
2.5% in the CA sore. Such low level decreases the respiration of fruit, keeping the fruit
fresh for a longer period of time.
Carbon Dioxide Level: CO2 level is increased in the CA store from the atmospheric level of
0.03% to around 1.5%.Again this increase causes a reciprocating decrease in O2 level.
Relative Humidity: RH is maintained at 90-95%. Humidity level less than this will cause loss of
moisture from fruits and thus a shriveled appearance, while on the contrary an increase in
the humidity will cause moisture accumulation on the product surface that is particularly
inviting for possible mold growth.
Temperature: For a longer shelf life temperatures need to be decreased to a low level of 0-
0.5°C which keeps apples in a safe storage temperature.
It is a known fact that higher temperatures permit faster degradation of fruits
and vegetables. The cause again as is known to all is increase in the rate of enzymatic activity
and faster rate of chemical and biochemical reactions with increase in storage temperature.
PROCESS DIAGRAM FOR CA STORAGE
HANDLING AT ORCHARDS
RECEPTION
Page | 63
RANDOM SAMPLING AND PROJECTION
TESTS
GRADING LINE
COOLING OF CA STORE
STACKING (in crates)
SEALING
NITROGEN FLUSHING
STORAGE
MONITORING
(CO2, TEMPERATURE,
PRESSURE)
SAMPLING (after 1 month)
Page | 64
GRADING
DISPATCH
Handling at Orchards: The fruits from the orchards should be handled very carefully to prevent
any bruises or other injuries, which reduce their storage life and market value.
Reception: The fruits from orchards are transported for storage in the CA store and for that
proper reception is necessary.
Random sampling and projection: Before unloading few fruits are selected randomly from the
lot for this purpose, which are checked for the colorless, bruised, scab, bitter pit, hail damaged,
deshaped and other defects in the fruits. The projection is done to check out the % age of the big
sized, medium sized and small sized fruits in the lot.
Tests: The tests are carried out on the sample taken earlier. The following tests are carried out:
• Starch rating test
• Pressure test
• TSS
Grading Line: Grading process of fruits is designed to segregate damaged, rotten and cracked
fruits from those that are of acceptable quality standards. Only healthy, attractive, clean and
bright fruits are selected. The grades are mostly based on the condition and the quality of the
fruits and not specifically on their size as is commonly understood. This grading line serves to
grade the fruits to be stored in the manual CA store and for those that are to be dispatched to the
market.
Cooling of CA store: The cooling runs are carried out in the CA store before storing the fruits in
it.
Page | 65
Stacking: Stacking is done by stacker or reach truck. Fruits are stacked in crates till a certain
height. A gap of 8 inch is maintained from all the sides for proper air circulation.
Sealing: After stacking, the chamber is sealed air tight. RIB FILL paint is used to prevent any
leakage from the walls. It forms a rubbery layer.
Nitrogen flushing: After the chamber has been sealed air tight, nitrogen is flushed into it.
Nitrogen is an inert gas and is used to replace the majority gases in the CA chamber, i.e. to
reduce the O2 level, and reduce the rate of respiration.
Storage: The fruits are stored as per requirement in the market. During storage sampling is
carried out after a month of storage to check the condition of the fruit. The CA store is timely
monitored for the temperature, pressure, CO2 concentration.
Grading: Grading is again done before dispatching the fruits to check for any defects in the
stored fruits.
Dispatch: The fruits from the CA store are dispatched according to the market requirements.
Monitoring Of Internal Conditions
To maintain and monitor the internal atmospheric conditions of the chamber many devices are
being used. Temperature sensors located in the store detect the inside temperature and display it
for monitoring. A display external to the chamber provides information on the temperature
inside. . A large cooling unit can be seen on the ceiling of the chamber which is responsible for
the cool conditions inside. Excessive cooling may at times cause frosting in the cooling unit, so
externally a pipeline can be seen passing around the chamber through which lukewarm water is
circulated to cause defrosting of the chamber. Defrosting is done electrically in the Bahar CA
store.
A pneumatic tube inside the store is used to suck in the internal atmospheric gas sample and
transfer it outside the chamber for its analysis so that conditions can be maintained close to
requirement. Also an analyzer valve is present on the door of the store to which a manual
analyzer can be fitted to obtain information regarding internal conditions.
Externally an inclined Manometer is used to measure pressure inside the chamber. This
manometer is calibrated in terms of mm of water column. If gas is leaking out of the chamber or
external gases have found way into the chamber the pressure is bound to decrease or increase,
Page | 66
which is measured by this pressure measuring instrument, and can be corrected immediately. A
sample door is present on the chamber door. When unlocked this door serves as an opening
through which samples of apples are collected for testing their quality. All the required
conditions of the store are controlled by means of a computer managed system that runs a
software program for it. The controls can also be handled manually.
For efficient running of CA system all the machines and control equipments used in FIL industry
are found to have a backup available so that in case of a failure or breakdown in one machine the
other can be used. The working and function of machinery used here is described below:
Cooling System: It consists of the following sub units:
Refrigerant: In the CA stores (Sada Bahar and Nav Bahar) Ammonia is used as a refrigerant.
Ammonia has high heat transfer ability so it is preferred to be used as cooling agent in this store,
while Freon is used in Nav Bahar.
Compressor: High pressure is maintained in this part of the cooling system.
Condenser: The function of this sub system is to condense the vapors under high pressure.
Cooling Tower: Refrigerant is passed onto the cooling tower from where it is circulated into
the store to produce cooling effect and thus decrease in temperature.
Purger: The purger is used to remove impurity from gases.
Figure. Purger
Water Softener: A water softener has been provided to “soften” the water or in other words
to reduce the alkalinity of the incoming water that has to be used for circulation in the defrosting
line.
Page | 67
Defrosting Pump: Luke warm softened water is passed through is pumped up through
defrosting pump into the defrosting lines in (Sada Bahar) and (Nav Bahar) store. In case of
(Bahar) electrical heating coils are used for defrostin
Carbon Dioxide Scrubber: A CO2 scrubber has the
function of removing excess CO2 from air in the chamber
to maintain CO2 within limits. It contains CMS (carbon
molecular sieve) which traps CO2 molecules.
Nitrogen Generators: This equipment generates N2
gas that is used for flushing of the chamber. Nitrogen is an inert gas and is used to replace the
majority gases in the CA chamber. This generator has chemicals that accumulate atmospheric
nitrogen once air comes in contact with these chemicals.
Electrical Control System: Electric control system is PLC (programmable logic controlled).
Figure: Electrical control system
Generator: A generator is available in the facility to ensure uninterrupted power supply to the
stores in case of power failure.
LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR CA STORE
(I) STARCH RATING TEST
Page | 68
4. PROJECT REPORT-FIL
4. PROJECT REPORT-FIL
4. PROJECT REPORT-FIL
4. PROJECT REPORT-FIL

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4. PROJECT REPORT-FIL

  • 1. INTRODUCTION A) Name and Location of Plant : Name of plant: FIL INDUSTRIES PVT LIMITED Location: Rangreth District: Srinagar State: Jammu and Kashmir Province: Kashmir B) Divisions of the plant : a) Consumer division: Apple juice concentrate manufacturing. b) Food and Beverage division: Ready to serve drinks of juices in tetra pack & pet bottles and packaged drinking water. c) Ware house division: Controlled atmosphere storage, Processes & packing of fruits/vegetables. C) Fact Sheet : Year of establishment: 1997 Legal status of firm: Limited liability / cooperation Nature of business: Manufacturer Major market: NZ /Australia, East & North Europe Established in 1997 FIL Industries Ltd. is a company that works closely with the Indian farmers to protect and preserve their produce. Over a decade FIL Industries has evolved into a food and beverage company other than being a renowned producer of pesticides with worldwide presence. FIL industries is a place of apple juice conc. Manufacturing, RTS drinks in tetra packs & pet bottles, packaged drinking water, controlled atmosphere storage of fruits & vegetables, etc. FIL Industries is committed to provide the best protection for bumper crop, achieving international standards in food processing setting up infrastructure for post harvest management and the provision of quality and high yielding seeds for the finest crops. Apple (Malus domestica) is a principal crop of temperate regions of the world. In India it is cultivated in Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and hills of U.P. Apple are primarily used for table purposes and processing. The objective of processing of apple is to produce juice in Page | 1
  • 2. single strength or concentrated form. An insignificant proportion is utilized for the production of preserves like Jam, Jelly and candy. Approximate percentage composition of Apple: Fruit Apple Water 84.1 % Carbohydrates 14.9% Proteins 0.3 % Ash 0.3 % Fat 0.4 % Page | 2
  • 4. CONSUMER DIVISION In the consumer division, FIL Industries Pvt. Limited is primarily engaged in the manufacture and export of Apple Juice Concentrate. The Apple Juice Concentrate is sold under the brand name of KOHINOOR. Apple juice concentrate is manufactured by pressing of apples. The resulting juice may be further treated by enzymatic and centrifugal clarification to remove the starch and pectin, which holds fine particulate in suspension, and then pasteurized for packaging, in glass, metal or aseptic processing system containers, or further treated by dehydration processes to a concentrate. A concentrate is a form of substance which has had the majority of its base component in the case of a liquid; the solvent removed. Typically this will be the removal of water from a solution or suspension such as the removal of water from fruit juice. One benefit of producing a concentrate is that of a reduction in weight and volume for transportation as the concentrate can be reconstituted at the time of usage by the addition of the solvent. The concentrate juice may be further treated by enzymatic and centrifugal clarification to remove the starch and pectin, which holds fine particulate in suspension, and then pasteurized for packaging in glass, metal or aseptic processing system containers, or further treated by dehydration process to a concentrate. The consumer division of FIL Industries Limited was set-up over a decade ago with the foray and development of one of the largest fruit juice concentrate units in Asia, with an annual capacity of 7500 MT. The manufacturing process of juice concentrate is a complex and costly process and requires a lot of machinery and equipments. The FIL Industries limited explores the potential source of raw material in the state combined together with the state-of-art-technology from Australia, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom installed in FIL’s manufacturing unit, that has allowed FIL Industries to achieve best international standard and great customer satisfaction. In the consumer division, FIL industries manufacture Apple Juice Concentrate and Apple Aroma, and are leading suppliers of the two to dairy producers, the confectionary and bakery industries, renowned baby food manufacturers, health and functional products, as well as in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Page | 4
  • 5. Manufacturing Facility: The consumer division unit is a hallmark of technological excellence, commissioned with state of the art advanced machinery procured from the best sources worldwide. The salient features include:  A Bellmer double wrinkle fruit press from Germany, with a crushing capacity of 20 MT per hour.  India’s first Ultrafiltration plant from PCI membrane of United Kingdom.  A separate aroma recovery unit from SCHMIDT Bretten of Germany that extracts the aroma of each fruit in order to restore the original flavor to the end product.  A 4 stage SCHMIDT Bretten Sigmaster plate evaporator that ensures the desired degree of juice concentration.  Fully equipped testing laboratory including HPLC equipment for testing of patulin. Apple juice concentrate is a common beverage for both adults and children. Vitamin C is sometimes added by fortification, because content is variable and much is lost in processing. Other vitamin concentrations are low, but apple juice does contain some minerals, including Boron, which may promote healthy bones. Apple juice has a significant concentration of polyphenols that may protect from disease associated with ageing due to the antioxidant effects which help to reduce the likeliness of cancer development. Research suggests that apple juice increases the acetylcholine in the brain, resulting in increased memory. Table: Specifications for the Apple Juice Concentrate Brix 710 B Density 1.325 Acidity (%) 1.0-3.5 Pectin Negative Starch Negative Flavor Fruity Turbidity Clear Total patulin Less than 50 ppb Yeast & Mold Less than 50 ppb Shelf life 18 months at 10 0 C Crop time Aug-Sep Packaging HDPE food grade drums Page | 5
  • 7. Manufacturing Process of Apple Juice Concentrate Apple Reception The apples are received from the orchards and weighed on a weigh bridge before unloading on an unloading ramp. After unloading the apples are pre-washed in the water channels, through which water flows, pumped by high pressure hydrostat pump. In these water channels the foreign materials (Stones, iron fillings, sand, etc) and fully rotten apples settle down. The prewashed fruit is then final washed and lifted by the screw elevator which has water nozzle for the purpose. The screw elevator puts the fruit onto the sorting belt; the sorting belt has three tracks (one big in the middle and two small side tracks). The Apples are manually sorted; sorting is done to separate the rotten apples which could become a potential source of patulin and other mycotoxins in the finished product. The sorted apples are then carried by an inclined belt conveyer to the Fruit mill, while as the spoiled apples are disposed off to the bins. Fruit Mill In the fruit mill crushing of the apples is done to form a mash for the juice extraction in the subsequent operations. Enzyme dosing is done in the fruit mill to get maximum extraction of the juice. The enzymes added in the fruit mill are: - Amylase - Pectinase The enzymes are added at the dosage of 30-40 grams/ton of apples. The enzymes are added to aid in the rupturing of cells for the better extraction and yield of the juice and thus to increase productivity. The crushing capacity is 2.5 MT/hour. Mash Heater A mash heater is a tube in tube arrangement of pipes in which the mash is passed through the inner tube and the hot water is allowed to pass through the tube surrounding the inner tube. The mash is heated to the temperature of 40-45 0 C. Heating is done for the purpose to activate the enzymes and soften the mash to enhance pressing. Figure. Mash Heater Mash Holding Tank Page | 7
  • 8. There are two mash holding tanks in which heated mash is pumped into, to provide sufficient time for the enzymes to act on the substrate. The holding time allows the enzymes to act properly on the mash which results in the increased yield by the rupturing of juice cells. The holding time of 30 minutes is provided to the mash at 40 0 C. To ensure the continuous flow of the prod uct. There are two holding tanks installed in the FIL Industries Limited. Primary Press After the sufficient holding time is provided to the mash in the mash holding tanks, the mash is pumped to the primary press. There is a BELT PRESS (BELMER PRESS) installed in the FIL industries. This primary press has two belts (lower and upper) between which the fruit (mash) is trapped. The belts pass over the roller and crush the mash as it passes. The belts are porous. It yields about 80% of the juice from the mash. The Belmer press extracts juice in the four stages: Pre-extraction (1st stage): The fresh mash is fed across a horizontal belt. A large part of the juice sums up as a result of gravity. The WPW is equipped with an adjustable pressing belt. This is the step for maximum yield of juice. Wedge section (2nd stage): After the preliminary extraction the two circulating belts form a vertical wedge shaped section. The extraction is affected by slowly increasing pressure resulting from the belt movement, the height of the section and the adjustable setting angle of the wedge. Low pressure press section (3rd stage): The mash is fed around the first perforated rolls by the two belts. Here the extraction is affected directly to the outside and additionally to the inside. High pressure press section (4th stage): It is the S-shaped section. The mash cake between the belts is extracted. The resulting kneading and shearing action free the enclosed liquid to obtain the very high yields. The relatively short press time of 3.5 minutes ensure minimal oxidation. The high pressure press section of the WPX is equipped with the additional press rolls and press nip. Collection of juice: The juice extracted from the mash in the primary press runs off at different positions and is collected in the trough below the perforated roll from where it is guided farther via one outlet. In the primary press two products are formed - Juice - Pomace Page | 8
  • 9. The juice from the primary press is passed through sieves into the balance tank and the remaining pulpy matter (Pomace) is pumped into the secondary press. Some amount of hot water is mixed to the Pomace from the primary press for further pressing in the secondary press to obtain remaining amount of juice from it. Secondary Presses The Pomace is pressed in the secondary press to extract remaining amount of juice, called as secondary extraction or Leaching. Juice obtained from the secondary press is passed through vibro screen to sieve out the coarse matter. The clear juice after sieving is fed to the balance tank. Centrifuge From the balance tank the juice is pumped into the centrifuge as the juice collected in the balance tank is not clear up to the mark. During the centrifugal separation the colloidal suspension from the juice is removed. The colloidal suspension from the juice consists of pulp and other suspended solids and these are removed as sludge. The centrifuged juice is pumped into the Pasteurizer. Decanter The juice mixed with waste from centrifuge is sent to Decanter where the remaining juice is separated from the waste, the juice is fed to the pasteurizer while as the waste is thrown out. Pasteurizer Pasteurization is one of the key steps in the manufacturing process of all the food processes. It is one of the important unit operations from the microbiological stand point of view. In the pasteurization process microorganisms are destroyed. The juice is pasteurized by heating it to 92 0 C with 20 seconds of holding time. The type of pasteurizer is PHE (plate heat exchanger). The type of pasteurization is HTST (high temperature short time).The PHE consists of series of parallel, closely spaced stainless steel plates pressed in the Figure. Pasteurizer Page | 9
  • 10. frame. Gaskets made of synthetic or natural rubber, seal the plate edges and ports to prevent the intermixing of liquids. The direction of the product stream versus cooling/heating media can be either parallel flow or counter current flow. Special patterns are pressed on the plates to cause increased turbulence in the product stream thus achieving better heat transfer. PHE is suitable for low viscosity fluids. The pasteurized juice should meet following standards: Total patulin count Less than 50 ppb Yeast and MOLD count Less than 50 ppb Coliforms Absent E.coli Absent Salmonella Absent Temperature of Juice leaving Not less than 55 0 C the pasteurizer The TSS of the pasteurized juice is 15 0 B; the outlet temperature of pasteurized juice should be 600 C. The flow rate of juice in pasteurizer is 16000-18000 liters/hour. Dearomisation The pasteurized juice is pumped into the Dearomisation unit to evaporator to stripe off the aroma from it. The process of Dearomisation is carried out by heating the juice to 70 0 C under reduced pressure. The use of lower temperature for this purpose has the following advantages: • There is no product burning. • Less fuel is consumed and thus is economical. The process evaporates the aroma in the juice this is because the aroma is collection of volatile organic compounds. The evaporated aroma is condensed by the cooling water sprays from tabular column and is collected in the cyclone separators, which is then filled in the cans and drums to Figure. Dearomisation Unit Page | 10
  • 11. be sold out separately as a valued product. The TSS content of the juice is maintained at 14-15 0 B during the Dearomisation by regulating volumetric flow rate. Juice leaves the Dearomisation unit at about 50-55 0 C. There are various reasons for extracting aroma from the juice: • Aroma decreases the shelf life of the product, thus, by extracting aroma shelf life of product increases by the decreased chances of microbial spoilage. • The aroma is sold out separately as it is the sale-value product. Thus from the Dearomisation unit two separate products are formed -Aroma -juice The juice leaving the Dearomisation unit at 50-55 0 C is pumped into the Enzymation tanks. The enzyme dosage needed for the degradation of pectin and starch is checked at this stage by taking different samples. Enzyme Mixing Tanks The juice leaving the Dearomisation unit enters the enzyme mixing tanks. There are five enzyme mixing tanks with each tank having a capacity of 14000 litres, to ensure the continuous flow of the product. The enzymes are added to the dearomised juice in these tanks. The following enzymes are added: -Amylase -Pectinase Amylase degrades the starch while as the Pectinase degrades the pectic substances to make the product starch and pectin free because they pose clarity problems in the final product. The holding time of 1 hour is provided to give enzymes an appropriate time required to degrade the starch and pectin. The enzyme are added at the dosage of 70-80 grams/ton but however is not same throughout the year as it depends upon the maturity of fruit, with more mature fruits requiring less dosage and likewise. It is essential to make the juice starch and pectin free because: - They pose clarity problems in the final product. Figure. Enzyme Mixing Tanks Page | 11
  • 12. -The starch and pectin substances clog the pore of Ultrafiltration membranes, thus impair the efficiency of Ultrafiltration membranes. After the holding time of one hour various starch and pectin tests are carried out that should be negative. After the starch and pectin tests read negative then fine dosing is carried out.In the process of fine dosing Bentonite, Gelatin, and silica sol are used together with the various fining agents to obtain better clarity on the final product. These chemicals are used for the following reasons: • Fining agents: improves clarity and color of the product i.e. the stability of the product • Bentonite: settles down the suspended materials and other impurities that get deposited in the triangular tank and are removed as sludge afterwards. • Gelatin: improves color and clarity by reducing the content of polyphenols, tannins and HMF but increases turbidity. • Silica sol: Since the addition of gelatin increases the turbidity, to decrease it silica sol is added. After the fine dosing of the juice a minimum of 30 minutes holding time is essential to allow these compounds to act properly and to provide the suspended particles, impurities, etc enough time to settle down in the form of sludge. After fine dosing the juice is forced into the Ultra filtration unit. Ultra filtration The juice is pumped into the Ultrafilteration feed tank. The tank feeds the Ultrafilteration membranes for subsequent processes. In the Ultrafilteration feed tank the outlet pipe that feeds the Ultrafilteration is fitted as such that it is raised to the few feet above the bottom. The purpose of this is to keep the juice in the bottom of the tank away from the Ultrafilteration as it contains sludge that may block the pores of the membranes, thus the bottom portion is to be drained out. Ultrafiltration is a process that uses membrane as a separation barrier. The membrane is porous which separates a solution into its constituents based on the molecular shape and size. The size of the pores Page | 12
  • 13. Figure Ultrafilteration Unit determines its separation properties. An operating pressure of 1-10 bars is required to obtain acceptable flow of liquid through the open structure of these membranes. The membranes are having the pore size of 0.02 microns, and there are 63 membranes in it. The membranes are in the form of tubes, grouped together in the bundles. The flow rate of the juice pumped into the Ultrafiltration membranes is 125000 liters/hour; the flow rate of this level is optimum to prevent choking of the membranes pores. The output capacity of Ultrafiltration is 16000 liters/hour. Membranes retain the particles above the size of 0.02 microns allowing the fine juice to pass through to obtain 99.99% clear juice. The clear juice from the Ultrafilteration unit is pumped to the fine juice tank after testing the clarified juice samples taken from Ultrafilteration unit. The juice is tested for the following Clarity Should be a minimum of 95% Color Natural Turbidity Less than 1 FNU Fine Juice Tank-I The clarified juice from Ultrafilteration unit is pumped into the fine juice tank-I. From where it is transferred to stabilization unit, and on the way PVPP inline dosing is done. The PVPP absorbs Patulin, tannins, polyphenols, thus absorbs the dark color while giving it clarity. The PVPP is fed at a rate of 150 metric cube/hour. Stabilization Plant After preparing PVPP solution in DOSMAT tank, it is injected into the juice pipeline by a dosing pump at high pressure. The flow is regulated by FCV (flow control valve). The juice-PVPP mixture is then fed into the FILTEROMATE TANK. The FILTEROMATE tank has a stalk of perforated plats transverse by the juice pipe which has got perforations at the respective plate sites to pour the juice-PVPP mixture over the plate. The juice passes through the porous plates and is collected at the bottom via a separate pipeline, while the PVPP is retained over the plates and is not allowed to pass through. The juice collected is virtually of good clarity and color. The PVPP retained over the plates is regenerated using caustic CIP and is then pumped back into the DOSMAT tank, for the further use. The juice leaving the fine juice tank-II having now the TSS of 14-15 0 B is pumped into the concentration unit. Page | 13
  • 14. PVPP: PVPP is the polymerized vinylpyrrolidone. It has a high absorbing power for soluble and insoluble tanning agents, especially for anthocyanogens or polyphenols. Nut is insoluble in beer, caustic soda and light acids. Treating the juice with PVPP will reduce the concentration of the polyphenols. This will raise the colloidal stability the intended effect. All the other quality characteristics won’t change. Regulations by law: The application of PVPP is allowed up to 70 grams per hl beer in Switzerland, upto 50 grams per hl beer in western Germany. Characteristics of PVPP: 1. Swelling: PVPP swells in water. This swelling is necessary to raise the efficiency of the stabilization. It is useful to prepare a day before the first use. 2. Particle size distribution: It varies over a wide range (1 to 450 micrometers). 30-40% of the particles are smaller than 60 micrometer. The specific volume is six times higher than Kieselgur. 3. Compressibility: swelling of the material causes compressibility of the PVPP. This is the reason why smallest particles are pressed into the filter elements during filtration. Even cleaning by the moveable spray tube, mechanical cleaning is recommended now and then. Preparing the PVPP: The DOSMAT mixing vessel is filled with the warm water (400C ). The ratio of PVPP to water is 1:10 or 1:12. For the proper swelling the preparation should be done one day before use. Loss of PVPP in the beginning: The extreme wide range in the particle size distribution is the reason why a lot of fine particles are lost during the foremost regenerations. Loss of PVPP per regeneration: The loss of PVPP during regeneration will lower to 1 to 2% per regeneration. Adding of PVPP: It is best to add PVPP before the entering of the residual PVPP in the plant. Then the DOSMAT is being spouted out and consequently, the adding reaches a mixing ratio of about 1:10 or 1:12. Fine Juice Tank-II The PVPP treated juice is taken to the Fine juice tank-II, from where it is pumped into the concentration unit. The samples are taken for the quality tests. Concentration The process of increasing the quantity of a component in a solution. That is the opposite of dilution. The juice is concentrated in the concentration unit, the concentration is meant to Page | 14
  • 15. increase the TSS of the juice from 150 B. The process is carried out by heating the juice at 700 C under reduced pressure. The heating is done by means of PHE (plate heat exchangers) evaporating the water. The concentration is continued till the TSS reaches 710 B. The juice is then sent to the concentration mixing tanks (Blending tanks). The concentrate leaving the concentration tanks now having the TSS of 700 B +/- 0.50 B is pumped into Blending tanks. Blending Tank The mixing tanks are meant for providing proper holding time to the product to ensure proper mixing and homogenization. The homogenizations tanks have agitators that continuously agitate the product. There are two homogenization tanks to ensure continuous flow of the product with each tank having a capacity of 2.5 MT per tank. The following tests are conducted at this stage to ensure quality: • Acidity • Brix • Clarity • Color • Turbidity • Stability • Mobility • TPC • Yeast and Mold • Coliforms • E. coli Concentrate Sterilizer From the blending tank, the concentrate is pumped into the sterilization unit. Sterilization refers to the complete destruction of microorganisms. Because of the resistance of some microbial spore to heat, this requires a treatment of temperature above 100 0 C. The Page | 15
  • 16. degree of sterilization at which all the pathogen and toxin forming organisms have been destroyed, as well as all other types of microorganisms which if present could grow in product produce spoilage under normal handling and storage conditions is called as commercial sterilization. The sterilization is carried out at 105 0 C with the holding time of 20 seconds. The sterilization is meant to achieve a commercially sterile product (free from microorganisms) for longer shelf-life. The sterilization unit is again a PHE system. Again the above mentioned tests are conducted to check the efficiency of sterilizer. The concentrate leaving the sterilization unit is cooled to 10-12 0 C and is sent into the filling unit or to the cold store. FILLING As the sterilization is completed the concentrate is sent into the filling unit through the pipeline. The pipeline has three valves i.e. for aseptic, non aseptic filling and cold store which are opened accordingly. • Aseptic filling: The aseptic filler receives drums or bins through roller conveyers the operator places the presterilised bags in the container (capacity of 275kg) then they are automatically transported under the filling station. The presterilised bag is manually placed under the aseptic chamber in a sterile environment saturated by over pressure steam. The cap is automatically removed, the bag filled with sterilized product then recapped. At the end of filling cycle, the roller conveyer transports the containers to the exit.. • Non-aseptic filling: in this case the sterilized concentrate is filled into the open top HDPE food grade drums non-aseptically that is the juice from the sterilizer is filled directly in cans. After filling the concentrate is dispatched accordingly. Page | 16
  • 17. Cold Store: If the concentrate is not to be filled then it is sent into the cold store. At the FIL industries limited there are 13 tanks in the cold store with each having capacity of 50 metric tons. The concentrate sent into the cold store is again sterilized before dispatch. Figure: Storage Tanks in Cold Store Machines Used in the Consumer Division Page | 17
  • 18. The manufacturing process of apple juice concentrate is a complex process and therefore, requires a lot of machines and equipments. There are various machines and equipments installed at the FIL industries limited. FIL industries use technological advancement from Germany, Italy, Australia, United Kingdom. Fruit Mill The mill crushes the fruit into the mash. It consists of a high speed rotor fitted inside a cylindrical chamber. There are hammers fitted on this high speed rotor that crush the fruit. The pulverizing action of the hammer mill creates a uniform mash that translates to greater surface area, as a result upto 15% more juice is yielded in downstream processing. The chamber walls of the fruit mill have smooth or lined with corrugated breaker plates. The hammers are fixed or swinging. Swinging hammers are used when it is necessary to reduce the risk of damage in the case of encounter between the hammer and large hard chunks. The principle crushing action takes place as a result of the collision between the fruit and the hammers. The leading face of the hammer is blunt or sharp. Very sharp hammers are used in case of fibrous materials where some shearing action is necessary. The chamber exit is fitted with the interchangeable screens that permit continuous removal of the sufficiently small particles, while the large and over size material is retained for further size reduction. Bellmer Press Owing to international competition, the fruit juice and concentrate manufacturing plants have to produce high quality juices and concentrates despite small margins. This requires three things at the minimum: - Best utilization of the raw material. - Lowest investment costs. - Lowest operating costs. Due to the continuous and fully automatic operating belt filter press ensure compatible and safe handling and can be easily integrated in the entire production processes. Short timing presses of approximately 4 minutes allow production of high quality juices. In addition to it, the acquisition and operating costs of the belt filter presses are favorable in comparison with other systems. The Bellmer press offers following advantages: • Open construction for easy handling and cleaning. Page | 18
  • 19. • Fully Automatic operating and ensures continuous flow. • New developments can be easily fitted. • Yield of 84% by weight in primary pressing. • Careful mash handling, less sediment content. • Machine frame is stainless steel, hence easily cleaned. • Water saving high pressure belt cleaning device. • Hydraulic belt tensioning for highest press pressure. • Automatic belt alignment control. • Slowly increases pressure for low turbidity in juices. • Dry matter content increases in pomace of 3.5%. • The integrated high pressure area can be retro-fitted to existing plant. • The roller configuration and exceptionally long high pressure press area ensure highest possible juice yield. Process Technology The Bellmer press shows great flexibility owing to its roller configuration. The use of the press is advantageous. The process stages within the press are optimized consistently in order to use the shearing and kneading action between the belts. Machine Equipments The Bellmer press has following machine parts:  Rolls  Bearings  Belt tensioning device  Belt guide control  Scraper  Rotary brush  Belt cleaning Rotary brush slightly touches the belt when machine is in no-loading operation (i.e. when no mash is on the belt). Page | 19
  • 20. Construction The machine frame is completely executed in stainless steel. This enables an easier cleaning and longer lifetime of the machine. All the parts correspond with the highest standards of Bellmer Quality. Al roller bearings have a designed life time of 10,000 operating hours. Belt tensioning is executed with the proven hydraulic control. The patented water saving high pressure rotor belt cleaning guarantees the problem free application of soft stored fruits. Juice production: The juice in the Bellmer press is produced in the four stages Pre-extraction (1st stage): The fresh mash is fed across a horizontal belt. A large part of the juice sums up as a result of gravity. The WPW is equipped with an adjustable pressing belt. This is the step for maximum yield of juice. Wedge section (2nd stage): After the preliminary extraction the two circulating belts form a vertical wedge shaped section. The extraction is affected by slowly increasing pressure resulting from the belt movement, the height of the section and the adjustable setting angle of the wedge. Low pressure press section (3rd stage): The mash is fed around the first perforated rolls by the two belts. Here the extraction is affected directly to the outside and additionally to the inside. High pressure press section (4th stage): It is the S-shaped section. The mash cake between the belts is extracted. The resulting kneading and shearing action free the enclosed liquid to obtain the very high yields. The relatively short press time of 3.5 minutes ensure minimal oxidation. The high pressure press section of the WPX is equipped with the additional press rolls and press nip. Juice collection: The juice extracted from the mash in the primary press runs off at different positions and is collected in the trough below the perforated roll from where it is guided farther via one outlet. Cleaning • Daily cleaning: involves rinsing with cold water or hot water having temperature of 600 C. • Weekly cleaning: involves use of cleaning agents in proper concentration for 15 minutes and then rinsing with cold water. Page | 20
  • 21. Plate Heat Exchangers Introduction: The plate heat exchanger invented more than 70 years ago has found wide application in the dairy and food beverage industry. a schematic of a plate heat exchanger consists of a series of parallel, closely spaced stainless steel plates pressed in a frame. Gaskets, made of natural of synthetic rubber, seal the plate edges and ports to prevent intermixing of liquids. The gaskets help to direct the heating or cooling and t he product streams into the respective alternate gaps. The direction of the product stream versus the heating/cooling stream can be either parallel flow (same direction) or countercurrent flow (opposite direction) to each other. Figure: Plate heat exchanger The plates used in the PHE are constructed from stainless steel. Special patterns are pressed on the plates to cause increased turbulence in the product stream, thus achieving the better heat transfer. Plate heat exchangers are suitable for low viscosity (< 5 pa s) fluids. If suspended solids are present, the equivalent diameter of the particulate should be less than 0.03 cm. larger particulates can bridge across the plate contact points and “burn on” in the heating section. Advantages of PHE: Plate heat exchangers offer various degrees of advantages as: • Maintenance of PHE is simple, can be easily and quickly dismantled for product surface inspection. Page | 21
  • 22. • Sanitary design for food applications. • Capacity can be easily increased by adding more plates to the frame. • With PHE we can heat or cool product to within 10 C of the adjacent media temperature, with less capital investment than other non-contact type exchangers. • PHE offers opportunities for energy conservation by regeneration. SCHMIDT-BRETTEN PHE This type of PHE is used worldwide in the most varied industrial fields. For exchange between liquid or vaporous media at various temperatures. The heart of every unit consists of the corrugated heat exchanging plate made of various materials depending on the conditions of application. A gasket fitted to the edge of each plate is then installed into a compact frame together, thus forming flow channels for the media. Plates and gaskets: For the various areas of application there are SIGMA plates with different corrugation patterns. The plates are made of the stainless steel material. The surface area varies from 0.06 to 2.4 meter square. For the sealing of the flow channels, soft Gaskets (e.g. NPR, EPDM) or Hard Gaskets (e.g. IT) are used in it. Gaskets are used between the plates to seal and separate two fluids either glued in place or affixed using glue free or mechanical design. In order to replace the gaskets, the heat exchanger plates have to be removed from the frame. It is noteworthy to note that the PHE plates must be unpressurized and cooled down (maximum 30-400 C) when they are to Figure: Plate of PHE be removed. Removal of gaskets: The plates have to be cleaned and examined to find out the possible damage. The worn out gaskets are detached by warming the back of the gasket groove with hot air or a weak solder Page | 22
  • 23. flame, but this has to be done so as to prevent the formation of tarnish on the plates (particularly important with the titanium plates). In case of large number of plates or a very short operation stop of PHE, the gasket can also be detached by plunging the plates into the liquid nitrogen (- 1960 C). The remaining gasket and adhesive particles still sticking in the gasket grooves must be removed by: - Mechanically: by shoving them with a stainless steel scraper or with emery/ abrasive paper. - Chemically: with solvent following by mechanical cleaning. Plate arrangement: Plate are arranged in the form of “L” style (left hand flow) or “R” style (right hand flow) to alternate two opposing fluids in heat exchanger. Assembly of thermal plates between the fixed frame plate and the moveable pressure plate is called “Plate Pack”. Flow channels: The plate pack is clamped between the cover and the frame head by means of tie rods on each side of the unit. This results in the formation of narrow flow channels between the plates that are sealed together by gaskets. These channels are connected to the flow ports on the frame head, through which primary and secondary media flow into and out of the appliance. Frame: As a standard All the SCHMIDT plate heat exchangers come completed as a frame with closure either by means of screws or spindles. All parts of the frame are lacquered, or if required stainless steel clad. In the food and beverage industries spindle frame closure are preferred. The plates are clamped together by means of one or two spindles, that press against the centre of moveable cover so that it does not take the long to open and close the unit. By combining plates of different corrugation patters as well as varying the plate size an optimal adaptation to each area of application can be guaranteed. The materials for the plates as well as appropriate gaskets are chosen according to the operating temperatures and the media which are run through the unit. Installation: While installation of PHE following points should be born in mind: • Sufficient floor space must be provided on at least one side to allow adequate working space for the installation and removal of the plates, for installation and loosening of the rods, for tightening the plate pack and for fitting the connection pipes. • The unit must be brought into its final position before the connection pipes are fitted. Page | 23
  • 24. Cleaning: Deposits and dirt accumulated on heat exchanging surface may considerably is called as fouling. Fouling affects heat transfer and cause corrosion of the plates and thus decreasing the efficiency of PHE. Regular cleaning not only serves to maintain heat exchanging performance, but it is also necessary to maintain and preserve the valuable unit. Fouling: type and frequency of cleaning depends on the type of fouling. Fouling can be minimized by increasing the velocity of PHE at regular intervals. This creates larger turbulence that removes scale deposits. If solids are present in the fluid, then strainer or filter must be placed in the pipeline that feeds the PHS to prevent them from entering PHE. There are different types of fouling as: • Scaling: It is a common form of fouling caused by high concentration of calcium, carbonate, CaSO4, silicates in the cooling water. It can be removed chemically by CIP or COP and using soft brush and running water. In chemical cleaning 4% water at 140 0 F, nitric acid, and sulfamic acid and complexing agents such as EDTA & NTA. • Biological fouling: This type of fouling is caused by the microorganisms. • Sedimentary fouling: This type of fouling is caused by metal oxides, corrosion product of slit, alumina. • Residual fouling: caused by Hydrocarbon based deposits from oils, asphalt and fat. • Gross fouling: plugging caused by fibers, assorted solids and seaweed. CIP procedure: • Close all valves and drain exchange through CIP. • Flush both sides with water (100-1200 C) until water is clear and free process fluids. • Completely drain rinse water from CIP system. • Refill the CIP system with water and add cleaning solution. • Circulate cleaning solution at 140-1800 C for 3-6 hours. • Crain cleaning solution from CIP and flush with boiling water. Do step 2 and 3 again. • Close valve to CIP system. • Start up. Page | 24
  • 25. Maintenance: Apart from regular cleaning of the heat exchanger surfaces, the proper maintenance is essential. Some standard rules are to be followed for performing maintenance work: • All plates are stamped with an L at one end and R at the other. • Odd number plates (1, 3, 5,…) are installed in R at top and even number plates (2, 4, 6, ….) with L at the top to alternate fluid flow at every other channel. Pasteurization Plant: This plant is used to pasteurize the apple juice with 10-120 B, pulp content maximum 2%, and size of fiber maximum of 1 nm. It is a continuous-process pasteurization plant. Data of performance and consumption Inlet temperature 10/200 C Heating temperature 950 C Outlet temperature 20/500 C Input rate of apple juice 20,000 l/h Steam requirement 1,400 kg/h Portable water for startup/rinse 18 m3 /h Cooling water, 150 C/300 C 23/10 m3 /h Electrical power, installation value 19.4 kW Instrument air 1 Nm3 /h The product must not exceed a chloride ion content of 50 ppm; otherwise there will be a risk of corrosion. Description Of Most Important Components Of Pasteurization Plant: This short time heating plant essentially consists of the following plant sections: Balance tank: Incoming product is delivered to the balance tank. The tank is installed to make sure continuous processing of pasteurization plant. Product pump: The product pump, delivers the juice via heat exchanger pre line, holding tube, heat exchanger return line and cooler. Level probe: Anti-dry ran protection for the product pump. It stops when level reaches to certain point. Page | 25
  • 26. SCHMIST plate heat exchanger: In the heat exchanger the juice will be heated upto pasteurization temperature and cooled down to filing temperature. Heat exchanger hot water circuit: In the tubular heat exchanger the circuit water will be heated by means of saturated steam at 2-3 bars. Hot water pump: With the hot water pump, the water is pumped to the tubular heat exchanger fed with steam. Afterwards the water reaches the heat exchanger and flows back to pump. Steam control valve: The steam control valve controls the required steam flow rate. Cooling water control valve: The water control valve controls the required water flow rate. Temperature control loop for heating: The required temperature for heating is sent on the electronic controller. Butterfly valve: The butterfly valve is required for the sterilization/CIP plant. The butterfly valve is only required to separate product/water and for cleaning. Flow control valve: The product control valve controls the required product flow rate. Flow meter: The installed flow meter indicates the flow rate of the product. Holding tube: The installed average holding time for apple juice has to be 20 seconds. Control Cabinet: The control cabinet which accommodates the control components is located on the plant on site. Ultra Filtration Introduction: ultra filtration uses membrane as a separation barrier but in this case it is a porous membrane which separate the solution into its constituents based on the molecular shape and size. The size of the pores determines its separation properties. Operating pressures of only 1-10 bars are required to obtain acceptable flows of liquid through the open structure of these membranes. Ultra Filtration Plant And Process: FIL industries Limited clarify the apple juice solution by Ultrafilteration. This is the separation of the clarified juice from the pulp by passing the feed solution over a semi-permeable membrane. Page | 26
  • 27. • When pressure is applied to the feed solution, the membrane allows the passage of water and small molecules (referred to as permeate) but retains the larger pulp molecules in the solution (referred to as concentrate). • Within this plant, the membranes are in the form of tubes, grouped together in bundles of 19. They are equipped with end caps such that the solution passes through the 19 tubes in parallel before leaving the module. • This tube bundle is enclosed in a cylindrical shroud for permeate collection, similar to the shell of a shell and tube heat exchanger. The whole assembly is termed as A19 module. • A module with similar construction minus the internals is used as a heat exchanger for the temperature control. This is termed as A19 heat exchanger. • Modules are mounted on the framework to form a stack. Pipe work is provided to distribute fluid to the modules and collect concentrate and permeate from the modules. The fluid passes through 13 modules and one heat exchanger in series. • To ensure the correct fluid velocity is achieved in the module, the solution is pumped through the module stack using a feed pump which maintains the correct velocity across the membrane surface. • As delivered each stack is fitted with 13 membrane modules, giving a membrane area of 32.5 m2 and one A19 heat exchanger. The total plant membrane area is 162.5m2 . • Feed solution from the feed/batch tank is fed via the feed pump FPI to the module stacks. The flow rate is measured and controlled. • The feed tank enters the 5 processing stacks in parallel. Page | 27
  • 28. • Within the modules some permeate is separated and the pressure falls. The concentrate leaving the modules return via a pressure control valve to the feed tank for further processing. • Within the module some permeate is separated and the pressure falls. The concentrate leaving the modules returns via a pressure control valve to the batch tank for the further processing and the permeate flows by gravity to the permeate break tank. Cleaning of UF plant During the course of process operation the surface of the membrane will become dirty restricting the flow of permeate, this plant runs at constant module inlet pressure so the permeate flow will gradually decline. To counteract this membrane must be cleaned and the method used is CIP (cleaning in place). A cleaning solution is circulated through the plant at upto 550 C. After a timed period of circulation the cleaning solution is drained from the module tubeside using clean water from the CIP tank. Finally the module shrouds are refilled. Preservation If the plant is to remain unused for more than two hours, it should be preserved. This preservation solution remains in the plant during the period of the shut-down. The solution must be thoroughly displaced from the plant before it is returned to process operation. DIAFILTRATION: In case of ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration the amount of small molecular weight material or mineral salts removed respectively can be enhanced by adding water to the feed. This added water then washes these components out of the concentrate as permeate thereby reducing their level in the concentrate. This technique is called as Diafiltration. This simply involves addition of water to the feed tank so that any dissolved solids remaining in the concentrated apple pulp will be dissolved in water and be recovered as permeate. The water added should be demineralized, and at the same temperature as the apple pulp. Page | 28
  • 29. Laboratory Analysis of Fruit Juices AIM: Determination of the acidity of juices Reagents 0.1 N NaOH, Phenolphthalein. Procedure a. For Juices 1. By pH meter A. 20 ml of juice was taken in a clean beaker and the pH meter was switched on. B. After the pH meter was switched on, it was kept on for 15 minutes before it was used for checking the pH of the juice. C. The pH meter was also calibrated with 7.0pH or 4pH or 9 pH solutions. D. The pH of the sample was observed on the digital dial. 2. By Phenolphthalein method A. 20 ml of juice was taken and diluted with distilled water with pH of 7.0. B. Few drops of phenolphthalein were added and the solution was titrated against 0.1N NaOH. C. Color change was observed and the volume of 0.1N NaOH was noted down. Calculations Acidity = ml of NaOH used × Normality × Molecular Weight of major acid × 100 Weight/volume of sample taken × 1000 Page | 29
  • 30. b. For Concentrate 1. 2g of Concentrate was taken in a clean beaker which was diluted with the distilled water with pH equal to 7.0. 2. Few drops of phenolphthalein were added and the solution was titrated against 0.1N NaOH. 3. Color change will be observed and the volume of 0.1N NaOH is noted down. Calculations Acidity = ml of NaOH used × Normality × Molecular Weight of major acid × 100 Weight/volume of sample taken × 1000 RESULT: acidity was 0.98 AIM: Determination of Brix of fruit juices Introduction Brix is defined as the percentage of dissolved sugar in a water solution on a weight for weight basis and is expressed in degrees Brix (°B). Thus, for example, a 10°B solution implies that in 100g of solution there are 10g of dissolved sugar. Brix can be calculated by using different types of refractrometers- Hand held Refractrometer, Abey’s Refractrometer and Digital Refractrometer. The major disadvantage of Hand held Refractrometer is that the temperature can’t be controlled which leads to faulty results. Procedure By Abbey’s Refractrometer:  The temperature of the refractrometer was maintained at 20o C and water was circulated through water bath which helped to keep the refractrometer at constant temperature. Page | 30
  • 31.  The refractrometer was calibrated with the help of distilled water. The prism of the refractrometer was dried by tissue paper which could have otherwise diluted the sample when placed on it.  The sample was placed on the prism of the refractrometer and the Brix readings were observed Results The value of TSS (o Brix) was found to be 68o Brix. AIM: Determination of clarity/transmittence of fruit juices Introduction Clarity is calculated in %age. According to International Standards, for calculating the clarity, Juice should have 11.28o B and should be clarified. According to German Standards, TSS of fruit juice should be 12o B. For clarified juices, clarity should be >90%. Clarity of juices is checked at 625nm. Cuvits are also to be calibrated before experiment. Procedure 1. The Spectrophotometer is calibrated with the help of distilled water. 2. The sample has to put in the photo spectrometer and the readings noted down. AIM: Determination of colour of fruit juices. Introduction Color of fruit juices is calculated at a wavelength of 440 nm and the TSS of the fruit juice should be 11.2 -12o Brix. It is calculated in %age. Procedure 1. The Spectrophotometer was calibrated with the help of distilled water. 2. The sample was put in the photo spectrometer and the readings were noted down. Results Page | 31
  • 32. The clarity of juice was calculated to be 12%. AIM: Determination of turbidity of fruit juice. Introduction Turbidity can either be checked by Turbidity meter or by spectrometer. Turbidity is expressed either in Indian Units- NTU (Napthelenic Turbidity Unit) or as per German Standards- FNU (Farmezine Napthalenic Unit). Procedure D. By Spectrometer: 1. The Spectrometer has to be switched on and the wavelength of the spectrometer is to be set at a wavelength of 860nm absolute. 2. The sample is then put in the Spectrometer and the readings are observed. AIM: Determination of shelf-life stability of fruit juices (shelf-life testing of fruit juices). Procedure Different methods are used to determine the shelf life of fruit juices; Method I: 1. The apple juice with TSS of 11.2o B was prepared from apple Concentrate by diluting with distilled water. 2. The juice and Ethanol were mixed in a ratio of 50:50 and the solution was allowed to stand for about 1 hour. Results No Turbidity or precipitation appeared in the juice indicating the good shelf life of the juice. Method II: 1. The apple juice with TSS of 11.2o B was prepared from apple concentrate by diluting with distilled water. Page | 32
  • 33. 2. The juice and acetone were mixed in 50:50 ratios in a test tube. 3. The solution was allowed to stand for 24 hours Results No Turbidity or precipitation appeared in the juice indicating the good shelf life stability of the juice. Method III: 1. The juice prepared from concentrate was pasteurized at a temperature of 70o C for 20 minutes. 2. The solution was hold for 24 hours at 60o C. Results No Turbidity or precipitation appeared in the juice indicating the good shelf life stability of the juice. THE FOOD & BEVERAGE DIVISION The food and beverage division is engaged in the production of a wide range of juices, beverages and packaged drinking water that are perfect combination of taste and nutrition and refreshment. These products are so designed as to meet the individual nutritional needs and are also smart and healthy beverage choices. The products from the F & D division come in tetrapack and PET bottles which retain the natural freshness of the juice. Some of the leading product brands of FIL’s F & D division are: • Tuk 3 • Frugo mango Page | 33
  • 34. • Fruitfill • 7- springs Essentially a prime table fruit, mango pulp is perfectly suited for conversion to juices, nectars, drinks etc. Although fruit juices were originally developed to use up the surplus fresh fruit production, fruit is now grown for juicing. A variety of juices is available at FIL. These includes: apple, pineapple, mango & mixed. The quality of juice depends essentially on the species & maturity of the fresh fruit. The main factors that influence the quality are the sugar to acid ratio, the aroma volatiles, and the phenolic components of ascorbic acid content. Satisfactory juice productions depend on sound judgment of the raw materials & blending procedures adopted. A key step in the processing of fruit juices from the packaging point of view is the deaeration step. This is important both to minimize oxidative reactions in the juice (e.g. oxidation of ascorbic acid & flavor compounds) & reduce corrosion if the juice is packaged in a metal container. The four key deteriorative reactions in juices are microbiological spoilage, non-enzymic browning, oxidation resulting in loss or degradation of flavor components and absorption of flavor compounds by the package. Although preservatives were commonly added to fruit juices to overcome microbiological problems. At FIL industries the juice is packed in PET bottles and Tetra packs. PET DIVISION In the PET division at the FIL industries ltd. processing and packaging of drinking water (7- SPRINGS) and fruit juices (FRUGO MANGO & FRUITFILL) is undertaken. The underlying technology involved in both the processes is same however a CIP (by nitration and caustic soda treatment) of the line is done essentially in order to alternate between the two processes. The entire process is carried out in fully aseptic conditions. And the final product is sourced to the consumer in durable and attractive packing options, after processing and packaging in FIL's state-of-the-art plant, with a univocal assurance of the highest standards of hygiene and quality. PET (Polyethylene Terepthalate) Commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other Page | 34
  • 35. liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass. PET (polyester) enjoys a substantial growth as a packaging material across global markets and for diverse applications. Its replacement of glass, metal, and other plastics has been quite remarkable — no other rigid plastics packaging sector has matched the growth rate of PET bottles over the last 20 years. PET is now a commodity polymer competing directly with polyolefin’s and styrene’s in the markets for food and beverage packaging, as well as for other products. Introduction To Pet Bottle Launch (7-SPRINGS) Launching of packaged drinking water by the name 7-Springs lately, in the market is considered as one of the important milestones in the success history of FIL industries ltd. There are several national brands of mineral water available in the market. But then since Kashmir’s water is quality-wise better, so it was thought to launch this product not only in Kashmir but also throughout India. Each drop of its water is purified as per the international standards. The processing is done in such a way that all the natural minerals of the water are retained and a balanced mineral content is maintained. Besides, it is ensured that all the organic matter, bacteria, other micro-organisms, suspended matter, residual chlorine and odors are removed. The bottles remain untouched right through the rinsing, filling, capping and labeling operations. It is rather filled automatically and the cap is also fixed automatically. The company develops two pack sizes of the product, viz. 1 liter and 20 liters, so as to suit the need of every individual. FIL Industries Ltd is committed to offer pure drinking water to its consumers and they therefore follow rigorous R&D and stringent quality controls, so as to make 7-Springs the most preferred brand in packaged drinking. The water is put through multiple stages of purification and is ionized before making it available for consumption. It is ensured to maintain strict hygiene conditions in the plant. The consumer satisfaction has always been the focus of the company. Manufacturing any product always ensures to provide the best quality to the consumers. Both the consumer and food and beverage divisions of FIL are ISO and HACCP certified in order to strengthen the commitment of world-class standards and quality parameters. FIL offers a wide range of juice and beverage products keeping in mind the distinct tastes of the consumers. These products not only meet the individual nutritional needs, but are hygienic and tasty as well. The Page | 35
  • 36. latest technology is used in the manufacturing and packaging so as to keep the juices fresher for a longer period of time without any added preservatives. The entire product range is available in tetra pack and PET bottles that retain the natural freshness of the juices. Packaged Drinking Water Clean drinking water is essential to human and other life forms. Access to safe drinking water has improved steadily over the last decades in almost every part of the world. Different Stages Of Processing Of Packaged Drinking Water SOURCE {Bore-well 2} SAND FILTER {Filtration & removal of mud} BALANCE TANK 1{Continuous supply to degasser} DEGASSER {Removal of dissolved gases & odors} FINE SAND FILTER {Further filter removal of mud} ANTI-SCALANT DOSING REVERSE OSMOSIS UNIT {Residue water out} Page | 36
  • 37. OZONATOR PRODUCT TANK {Ozone is added to improve quality} FILLER BALANCE TANK RINSING BOTTLE FILLER {Filling of bottles} CAPPING BOTTLE DRYER {Drying of bottles} LABELLING PRINTER SHRINKING OF LABELS PACKAGING COOLING PERIOD STORAGE Source: The water for packaged drinking is extracted from an officially recognized. Certain parameters which are taken into consideration while choosing the source are: 1. Hydrological distribution 2. Physical & chemical characteristics of water 3. Microbiological analysis 4. Level of toxic substances 5. Freedom from pollution 6. Stability of the source Generally, the source should be deep aquifier with a long transit time and few cracks or fissures. In case of shallow aquifier the main concern is the possibility of the surface water Page | 37
  • 38. passing more or less directly into the source. However, no aquifier is 100% free from pollution. In general the source of water at FIL Industries is 200 feet above the ground. Abstraction: The means of extraction depends on the nature of the source. Spring water typically rises from spring through a bed of gravel while water from wells and bores do not require pumping. Contamination of the point of source should be carefully avoided. Pumps used for abstraction may become a source of contamination which needs to be carefully prevented. Precautions must be taken against pollution from ancillary operations. The abstracted water is then kept in a tank till further processing called as a reservoir tank. Here settling of heavy suspended material takes place. And thus partial purification of water is achieved. Sand Filter: Here in filtration and mud removal takes place. Filtration is commonly the mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by interposing a medium through which only the fluid can pass. Oversize solids in the fluid are retained, but the separation is not complete; solids will be contaminated with some fluid and filtrate will contain fine particles (depending on the pore size and filter thickness). Sand filters are used for water purification in FIL industries. They are typically 1 to 2 meters deep & can be rectangular or cylindrical. The length & breadth of the tanks is determined by the flow rate desired by the filters which usually is 0.1 to 0.2 meters per hour. In general, there are three main types; 1. Rapid (gravity) sand filters 2. Upflow sand filters 3. Slow sand filters All three methods are used extensively in the water industry throughout the world. The first two require the use of flocculent chemicals to work effectively whilst slow sand filters can produce very high quality water free from pathogens, taste and odor without the need for chemical aids. Back washing is done to remove mud from the filters after certain amount of water has been filtered. Page | 38
  • 39. Balance Tank 1: From the sand filter the water passes to another tank next ahead in the line called as a balance tank 1.Here in the partially filtered water is held for some time. From this balance tank a continuous supply of water is sent to the degasser. Degasser: A degasser installed in the line is employed for the removal of the dissolved gases and odor for the proper purification of water. These gases if not removed from the water can adversely affect its quality and in turn decrease the acceptance of the final product in the market. Thus, the function of a degasser in a packaged drinking processing line is very important. Fine Sand Filter: A fine sand filter further facilitates the removal of finest mud or dirt particles which may be still present in the water. This again works on the principle of filtration. This activity however does not change the microbiological status of water or improve its quality. Reverse Osmosis Unit: Next in the line is the reverse osmosis unit which treats the water by the reverse osmosis process. This is the most economical method of removing 90% to 95% of all microorganisms. The pore structure of RO membrane is much smaller than UF membranes.RO membranes are capable of rejecting practically all particles, bacteria, and organics greater than 300 Daltons molecular weight. In fact, this technique is used by most of the bottling plants. In water purification systems, hydraulic pressure is applied to the concentrated solution to counteract the osmotic pressure. Pure water was driven from the concentrated solution & collected downstream of the membrane. Reverse Osmosis is highly effective in removing several impurities from water such as total dissolved solids, turbidity, lead & other heavy metals & radium. Anti scaling dosing is done at this stage to prevent the scale formation during RO operation. Product Tank: In the product tank, water is given further purification treatment via Ozonisation. This involves the addition of ozone gas to the water. Ozonisation is often coupled with microfiltration Ozone has great disinfection effectiveness against bacteria and viruses compared to chlorination. In addition, the oxidizing properties can also reduce the concentration of iron, manganese, sulfur and reduce or eliminate taste and odor problems. Ozone oxides the iron, manganese, and sulfur in the water to form insoluble metal oxides or elemental sulfur. These insoluble particles are then removed by post-filtration. Organic particles and chemicals will be eliminated through Page | 39
  • 40. either coagulation or chemical oxidation. This improves the product shelf life, color, taste and reduces the turbidity. pH of water is checked here. Ultra Violet Treatment: Ultraviolet tubes are used in which ultra violet energy causes permanent inactivation of microorganisms by disrupting DNA so that they are no longer able to maintain metabolism and reproduce. The maximum effectiveness occurs in between 240nm and 280nm with the most effective wavelength typically 254nm. All bacteria, spores, viruses, and protozoa are permanently inactivated by UV. UV disinfection is most effective for treating a high clarity purified reverse osmosis distilled water. Suspended particles are a problem because microorganisms buried within particles are shielded from the UV light and pass through the unit unaffected. However, UV systems can be coupled with a pre-filter to remove those larger organisms that would otherwise pass through the UV system unaffected. Filler Balance Tank: After passing through the UV treatment unit the water passes to a filler balance tank. This tank ensures a continuous and sufficient supply of water to the filler which is next in the line. Bottle Filler: Next in the processing line at FIL industries is the bottle filler where filling of bottles takes place. This involves initially the rinsing of PET bottles with chlorinated water. Chlorination is effective against many pathogenic bacteria, but at normal dosage rates it does not kill all viruses, cysts, or worms. When combined with filtration, chlorination is an excellent way to disinfect drinking water supplies. A bottle filling section /unit operates continuously to fill the bottles with highly purified drinking water. Bottle Dryer: The bottles after filling are dried in a bottle drying facility. Since the bottles itself contain water, not convenient for sleeve labeling or carton packaging, this facility will let the bottles dry, to ensure the sleeve labeling and carton packaging smoothly. Also capping of bottles is done here simultaneously. Labeling: Water bottle labels serve a vital function as they give accurate information about the contents of the bottle one purchases. Here at FIL industries labeling is done manually. These labels serve as guidelines for the purchase of these water bottles as they notify its product brand name, nutritional contents, and ingredients. Page | 40
  • 41. Screening: The employees at the screening counter supervise the overall quality of the product simply by checking the presence of any suspended particles in the bottles by keeping them in the passage of a bright light emitting device. Printer: Here automatic printing is done on the bottle sleeves. This includes printing of initials of names of every worker in charge of the production, date of manufacture and expiry and price of the bottle. Shrinking Of Labels: Next ahead in the line is the facility where shrinking of the labels takes place. Shrink labels shrinks to the contour of the container which upon shrinkage not only gives the container an attractive look but also 360 degree brand coverage. Bar codes printed on PET can be easily detected by the scanner. Cartons: After labeling and shrinking of labels, the bottles are loaded into cartons manually. These cartons are then given a cooling period of about 48 hours and a quality assurance clearance is done for the cooling period. Storage And Dispatch: The cartons are stacked on pallets in the store and are then ready for dispatch. WATER LABORARTORY ANALYSIS AIM: Determination of total hardness by EDTA method. PRINCIPLE: Hardness is generally caused by the calcium& magnesium ions, aluminum, zinc, & magnesium etc. are also capable of precipitating the soap & thus contributing to the hardness. However, the concentration of these ions is very low in natural waters, therefore hardness is generally measured as concentration of only calcium& magnesium (as calcium carbonate), which are far higher in quantities over other hardness producing ions. Calcium & magnesium form a complex a wine red color with Erichorme black T AT Ph. of 10.0=0.1. The EDTA has got a stronger affinity towards CA++ & Mg++ & therefore, by addition of EDTA, the former complex is broken down & a new complex of blue color is formed. REAGENTS Page | 41
  • 42. 1) EDTA solution of 0.01N 2) Buffer ammonia solution. 3) Reagent D PROCEDURE 1) Take 100ml of water sample in a beaker. 2) Add 2 tabs of reagent D (Total hardness indicator) to the sample. 3) Stir the sample using the magnetic stirrer. 4) Add 1 ml of buffer ammonia solution. 5) Titrate with EDTA. 6) Blue color is the end point. CALCULATION Hardness as mg/L CaCo3 = ml EDTA used ×I000 Volume of sample Bore well = 29×1000 100 = 2990ppm PDW = 8×1000 100 = 90ppm Aim: To determine amount of calcium in water sample. PRINCIPLE Many indicators such as Ammonia purpurate, calcon etc. form a compound with only Calcium but not with Magnesium at higher pH. As EDTA is having a higher affinity towards Calcium; the former complex is broken down & new complex is formed. However, EDTA has property to combine with both CA++ & Mg++ ; therefore, Magnesium is largely precipitated as its hydroxide at sufficiently higher pH. REAGENTS Page | 42
  • 43. 1) EDTA solution 0.01M. 2) Sodium hydroxide 1N. 3) Murexide indicator. PROCEDURE 1) Take 50ml of sample in a conical flask. 2) Add 2 ml of NaOH solution to the sample. 3) Then add 100-200mg of Murexide indicator to the sample which causes development of pink color. 4) Titrate with EDTA solution until color changes to purple. CALCULATION Calcium(ppm) = volume of EDTA used ×400.8 Ml of sample Bore well = 6.5×400.8 50 = 52.1ppm AIM: Determination of alkalinity of water sample. Materials Phenolphthalein, Methyl Orange, Water sample Procedure 1. 50 ml of water sample to be tested was taken in a clean titration flask. 2. 3-4 drops of Phenolphthalein were added (If the pink color appears it shows the presence of alkalinity in water sample and if the color remained unchanged it indicates the absence of Phenolphthalein alkalinity. Phenolphthalein alkalinity is present at pH above 8.2 and is completely absent at pH values 6.5-7.5 which is the normal pH of water). 3. The pink color appeared indicating the presence of alkalinity. Page | 43
  • 44. 4. The solution was then titrated against 0.1 N HCl till the solution became colorless and at this stage 3-4 drops of Methyl Orange were added to it and was again titrated against 0.1 N HCl to pink color. Calculations: Phenolphthalein Alkalinity = A× Normality of HCl ×1000× 50 ml of Sample used Phenolphthalein Alkalinity = 3.6 × 0.1 × 100 × 50 50 = 38 Methyl Orange Alkalinity = B× Normality of HCl ×1000× 50 ml of Sample used Methyl Orange Alkalinity = 4.2 × 0.1 ×1000× 50 50 = 42 Total Alkalinity = (A+B) × Normality of HCl× 1000 ×50 ml of Sample taken A= ml of HCl used for Phenolphthalein Alkalinity. B= ml of HCl used for Methyl Orange Alkalinity Aim: To determine amount of chloride in water. PRINCIPLE The portable water is chlorinated to make the water free from micro- organisms. However , some times the concentration of chloride ions in water is increased than what is normally required. Apart from this water also receives chloride ion from multifarious source. The chloride ion (Cl- ) is estimated by titrating with silver nitrate solution. REQUIREMENTS 1) Water sample. Page | 44
  • 45. 2) Beaker 3) Pipette 4) Silver nitrate (AgNO3) 5) Potassium dichromate solution. PROCEDURE 1) Take 50ml of water sample in a beaker. 2) Add few drops of potassium dichromate solution(indicator) to the sample 3) Titrate solution against silver nitrate till the brick red color appears CALCULATION Chlorides (ppm) = ml of AgNO3×1000×35.5 ml of sample taken = 2.6×0.02×1000×35.5 50 = 36.9ppm = 1.5×0.02×1000×35.5 50 = 21.3ppm AIM: Determination of free carbon dioxide. Reagents 1) Sodium hydroxide 0.05 N 2) Phenolphthalein indicator PROCEDURE 1) 100 ml of sample was taken in a beaker Page | 45
  • 46. 2) 2-3 drop[s of phenolphthalein indicator was added to it 3) The sample was titrated against o.o5NaOH and was used to change the color from colorless to pink. CALCULATION: ml used× Normality×1000×44 Volume of sample = .8×0.05×1000×44 100 = 17.6 mglt AIM: To remove dissolved oxygen from water. REAGENTS 1) Sodium thiosulfate (2.5 gm) in 100ml of water 2) Potassium hydroxide (2 gm) 3) Potassium iodide (12 gm). 4) Starch indicator (0.5 gm) in 50ml of water 5) Manganese sulfate (50 gm) in 100 ml distilled water. PROCEDURE 1) 300 ml was taken in to stopperd BOD flask in order to avoid bubbling & entrapment of air. 2) 2ml of manganese sulfate and potassium iodide was poured in to the sample. 3) Separate pipettes were used for these reagents. 4) When the reagents were poured, the precipitate appeared. 5) The stopper was placed on to the bottle and the contents were shaken by inverting the bottle repeatedly. 6) The bottle were kept undisturbed for some time to settle down the precipitate Page | 46
  • 47. 7) 2ml of concentrated H2So4 was added and the sample was shaken again to dissolve the precipitate. 8) Part of the contents was then removed (50-100ml) in a conical flask for titration and the bubbling was prevented in order to avoid mixing of oxygen. 9) The contents was titrated with in one hour of dissolution of the precipitate against sodium thiosulfate solution using starch as an indicator. 10) At the end the color changes from dark blue to colorless. CALCULATIONS. DISSOLVED O2 mglt = ml used×Normalityof titrate ×8×1000 V2 AIM: To determine chemical oxygen demand in a given water sample REAGENTS: Ferrous ammonium sulfate (0.1N), ferrion indicator, sulfuric acid, mercuric sulfate, silver sulfate. PROCEDURE: 1. Take 200ml sample in COD flask (500ml). 2. If sample has more than 50ppm COD, use 0.2N K2Cr2O7 and 0.1N ferrous ammonium sulfate. 3. Add a pinch of mercuric sulfate and silver sulfate (100-200 mg). 4. Add 30ml sulfuric acid, it causes exothermic reaction so it should be placed in a water bath. Sulfuric acid should be added along the walls while shaking the flask. 5. Reflux it for 2 hrs. Place it on a hot plate and attach it to a condenser. The condenser cools it and it trickles down. 6. Disconnect the reflux and cool down the sample. 7. Make up volume to 140ml. 8. Add 2-3 drops of ferrion indicator. 9. Titrate against Ferrous ammonium sulfate. 10. Run a blank using dist. Water and follow the same procedure as for the sample. CALCULATIONS: COD (ppm) = B-A × Normality of FAS × 1000× 8 ml of sample used Page | 47
  • 48. RESULT: = 2.3 × 0.1 × 1000× 8 20 = 92 Multiply by dilution factor (10) = 92×10 =920mg/lt. PET BOTTLED JUICES Juice is also packed in PET bottles, the PET bottles for juices have features like air sealing, light weight, reusable, fragrance free and great strength. All these features help in maintaining freshness of the juice for a longer time. Here two varieties of fruit juices are packed in PET bottles by the names FRUGO mango containing mango pulp and FRUIT FILL containing mango pulp, apple juice concentrate and sea buck thorn. The technology employed for packing of fruit juices is similar to that used for packaged drinking water PET BOTTLED JUICES-TECHNOLOGY Hot filling is specially designed for PET bottled juices. The temperature of the juice during filling is 720 C. This production line is fully equipped with machines and is thus highly automated, however easy to operate. The bottling is done accurately to prevent any loss of juices and the entire production and packaging facility is maintained pollution free. PROCESSING AT A GLANCE RAW MATERIALS BLENDING HOMOGENISATION {160-180 psi} DEAREATOR Page | 48
  • 49. STERLISATION {108 degrees} HOT FILLING {720 C} CAPPING LABELLING DATING PACKAGING Raw Materials : The basic raw materials used are fruit pulp, sugar, pectin, color, citric or ascorbic acid, sodium benzoate and natural and artificial color. Sugar not only provides sweetness to the juice but also adds body and mouth feel. Natural color is added to enhance the eye-appeal of the product. Acids are added to enhance flavor and to act as preservative against microbial growth. Natural and artificial flavorings are added in order to increase overall flavor of the juice. These should be stable under processing conditions. Sodium benzoate is added as a preservative. Blending: Fruit pulp along with the other ingredients are added or mixed in a blending tank. The various ingredients are added according to a formulation which should meet the product specifications. After being completely mixed the mixture is taken to the next stage in the line. Homogenization: Homogenization causes disruption of particles in a suspension. It is often used in beverages to reduce sedimentation, to increase viscosity or to create a better texture It enhances mouth-feel, color and flavor. Homogenizer used at FIL industries ltd is built to meet high maintenance, reliability and noise specifications. Homogenization is essentially done only for the mango pulp. This step is very important as it gives the juice a finer and better consistency. Page | 49
  • 50. Deaerator: The deaerator is one of the necessary equipment in fruit juice. It is mainly used for deaerating the homogenized juice under vacuum condition and to prevent the juice from being oxidized and then to prolong the storing period the juice. Sterilization: The next stage in the processing of fruit juices is sterilization. Sterilization involves heating of juice to a temperature of 108 degrees for about 20 seconds. It is done to eliminate most of the microbes in the juice, reduce the microbial load and make it sterile. PHE is used for sterilization of juices. It consists of three stages in which one stage is used for regeneration, one for heating, one for cooling. Sterilization is carried out at 1080 C and cooling is done at 15-200 C. A flow diversion valve is used which diverts the flow of juice back to sterilizer. Filling: Hot filling of the juices takes place here. The empty bottles are rinsed with chlorinated water before the commencement of filling process. And here at FIL industries a micro vacuum is used for hot filling of juices. The juice temperature at the time of filling is 72-80 degrees, and should not be low than 70 degrees (otherwise the juice is sent back to the heating section).The bottles are neck gripped and screw capping is done. After capping, the bottles are sprayed with cold water for the creation of vacuum inside the bottles. And then the bottles are moved on a conveyor to the labeling section. Figure: Filling of juice in PET bottles Page | 50
  • 51. Labeling: Labeling of the PET bottles is done manually. Labels notify the product brand name, ingredients used, nutritional status of the product etc. Shrinking of labels is done in the same way as that for the packaged drinking water. Dating: Automatic printing is done on the bottle sleeve to indicate manufacturing and expiry date, price and initials of names of the people in charge of production. Packaging & Dispatch: The juices bottles are finally packed and loaded into cartons manually. And then stored at low temperature until dispatch to the market. Figure: juice filled PET botlles TETRA PAK Tetra pak is a multinational food processing & packaging company of Swedish origin. It was founded in 1951 in Sweden by Ruben Rausing. Tetra pack develops a market for complete processing, packaging, and distribution systems for food stuffs. Tetra pak has expanded its business to include much more than packaging of liquid food products. Today, ice cream, cheese, dry fruits, fruits, vegetables & PET foods are examples of products that can be processed or packaged in tetra pak in processing & packaging lines. Tetra paks innovation is in the area of Figure: Tetrapak (printing the date) Page | 51
  • 52. aseptic processing liquid food packaging which when combined with ultra high temperature processing allows, liquid food to be packaged and stored under room temperature conditions for up to a year. This allows for perishable goods to be saved and distributed over greater distances without the need for a cool chain. Raw Materials for Tetra Pak Package: To produce packaging materials, tetra pak uses paper board (73%), plastic (22%), and for aseptic packages, aluminum foil (5%). Raw materials have the greatest environmental impact of all the stages within the package life cycle. The paperboard is made from wood, a renewable resource. The paperboard provides stiffness and stability to the package. The plastic (polyethylene) is used in layers on both sides of the paper structure to protect the package from inside and outside moisture. Cartons designed for long life or high acidity content contains aluminum foil, which is about 6 micrometre. This layer provides addition protection for the content against oxygen, bacteria, undesired flavors and light. Transportation: through the square shape and low ratio of package-to-content, the use of space is optimised, less type of transportation is thus needed for this type of package compared to most other shapes and materials. Transportation of packaging material to factories is also optimised to large rolls of material instead of empty packages. Aseptic packages also allow transportation without consistent cooling, which also reduces the environmental footprint. Flow Diagram of Tetra Pak RAW MATERIALS BLENDING HOMOGENIZATION (160-180 Psi) DEARATION Page | 52
  • 53. STERILIZATION (108 0 C) ASEPTIC BRIK FILLING PRINTING TRAY PACKING SHRINK WRAPPING & DISPATCH Raw Materials: Raw materials used in the preparation of tetra pack juices were first pulp, sugar, color, citric or ascorbic acid, and flavors. Blending: Fruit pulp and sugar and various other ingredients are added / mixed together in blending tanks. After blending, blended mixture is pumped into homogenizer. Homogenizer is used to disperse fat or fruit pulp in products using high pressure. This is very important and gives juice a finer and more consistency. Homogenizer used in FIL industries is built to meet high maintenance, reliability & noise specifications. Deaeration: The vacuum deaerator is one of the necessary equipment in fruit juice. It was mainly used for deaerating the homogenized juice under vacuum condition and to prevent the juice from oxidation and then prolong the strong period of juice. Sterilization: The next stage in the processing of fruit juices is sterilization. Sterilization involves heating of juice to a temperature of 108 degrees for about 20 seconds. It is done to eliminate most of the microbes in the juice, reduce the microbial load and make it sterile. PHE is used for sterilization of juices. It consists of five stages in which two Page | 53
  • 54. stages are used for regeneration, one for heating, one for cooling, and one for chilling. Sterilization is carried out at 1080 C and cooling is done at 15-200 C. A flow diversion valve is used which diverts the flow of juice Figure. Filling of juice in tetrapak back to sterilizer. Filling: After sterilization, juice is filled in aseptic packages. Juice is filled at the temperature below 150 C known as cold filling only material of package to the contents is food grade polythene. The aseptic treatment and packaging of juices provides longer shelf life without needing to resort to artificial preservation. The packaging material is loaded into the machines where it is sterilized by hydrogen peroxide vapors and the pack is then sealed at two places. Printing The Date: Automatic dating is done to indicate manufacturing and expiry date. Batch no is also printed on the pack. Tray Packer: It fills 27 packs in each tray and then shrink packaged. Shrink Packaging: Shrink packaging is the secondary type of packaging. Tetra paks are further packed into boxes and shrink wrapped for eventual marketing, shrink sleeves are of polyvinyl chloride but oriented polystyrene sleeves can also be used. Page | 54
  • 55. WAREHOUSE DIVISION This division was set up by FIL industry to provide comprehensive post-harvest management facilities to farmers through Controlled Atmospheric Storage. FIL is among the top three companies in India to have invested in the development of CA storage with an integrated capacity of 10,000 metric tons, along with the state-of-the-art packing and grading line. The company has been the pioneer in bringing the facility to India and other leading business houses have followed it. Grading and Packaging Line: Grading process of fruits is designed to segregate damaged, rotten and cracked fruits from those that are of acceptable quality standards. Only healthy, attractive, clean and bright fruits are selected. The grades are mostly based on the condition and the quality of the fruits and not specifically on their size as is commonly FIL industry has exclusive grading facility available for grading of apples. It has two grading houses. One is adjacent to the CA stores (Sada Bahar & Nav Bahar) and the other one is located near the manual CA store (Bahar). Integrated Pack House Grading Line: This grading line serves to grade the apples to be stored in the manual CA store and for those that are to be dispatched to the market. It has a capacity of around 2 metric tones and has eight separate exit lines that are capable of sorting apples that fall in the weight range of 200-460 grams. CA Store Grading Line Page | 55
  • 56. Grading in both the grading houses follows a common process and involves similar steps that are briefly described as under: RECEPTION CHAIN CONVEYOR WASHING INCLINED CONVEYOR DRYING STAGE-1 WAXING ELECTRICAL DRYING TUNNEL MANUAL SORTING CLASSIFICATION (COLOR / WEIGHT) EXIT LINES PACKAGING (BOXES / CRATES) Page | 56
  • 57. Reception Of Apples: Apples are brought into the grading room loaded in bins whereby workers transfer the fruit onto chain conveyers which conveys the produce to “BIN DUMPER”. Washing: Apples are washed in a pool of water to remove extraneous materials present on the surface of the fruit keeping in view the consumer health and acceptance of the product. Water is usually treated with fungicides like DPL SCALDEX and QUINTAL to ensure a fungal infectivity free product. Page | 57
  • 58. Inclined Conveyor: The force of water pushes the fruit up an inclined conveyor designed to send the fruit rolling upwards while water is collected in a trough just before the start of the conveyor. Drying Stage 1: Apples are dried by hot air using a special equipment to remove all traces of moisture from its surface. This enables further dealing out of apples i.e waxing. Waxing: A coating of wax is applied on apples by passing them over a brush conveyor. This is essential to prevent loss of moisture resulting from transpiration. Transpiration otherwise reduces the weight of apples and is a cause for withered exterior. Besides, wax also forms a protective coating against microbial growth and adds a gloss and sheen to the product that serves as a factor of desirability for consumers and influences their buying decisions. Also, one of the reasons these apples are able to maintain their attractiveness and quality during transport and marketing is this thin coat of natural wax applied in the warehouse. Drying Stage 2: Further, in the next stage, again drying takes place, this time though of waxed apples to dry the applied wax layer. Apples are sent to an electrical drying tunnel, where drying of apples takes place by the electrically heated air. Manual Sorting: Workers line up along the sides of a belt, through which fruit is passed to sort out un-waxed, partially waxed apples, which are sent back for complete and proper waxing. Also B-grade apples that may have escaped earlier inspection are removed from the line. Page | 58
  • 59. Classification Of Apples: Before packing, apples are graded on different parameters of quality, like color, size or weight. Of many varieties of apples available, which differ in their features, this grading is essential to segregate fruit into similar groups such that fruits of a kind are packed together. Although, manual grading is possible it is however subject to errors due to human limitations. Technology has permitted development of many instruments and machines which can be used for the process of grading. These techniques are more efficient, reliable and fast at the same time, thus proving to be a boon for the industry at large. In this industry two options of classification are available: 1. Camera unit. 2. Weight grading unit. Page | 59
  • 60. Camera Unit: FIL industry has installed a camera unit in its grading facility, which serves to classify fruit according to its color. The unit has seven cameras which scan the fruit, from many angles and ascertain its mean or average color. Different varieties of apples have a different characteristic color at maturity stage; hence the unit helps to select the fruit which is in conformity with its accepted standard of color, and rejects those which fall short of acceptable color standard. Figure: Camera Unit in grading line Weight Grading Unit: Apples are passed over sensors that weigh them and transfer them on to a conveyor belt that has many cup shaped carriers. Each cup is activated by a different weight and conveys the apple of a particular weight over to an assigned exit line for particular range of weight. There are 21 exit lines in this facility. At each exit line fruits are packaged in cardboard boxes if they are to be dispatched to market or in crates if they are to be stored in the CA store. Packaging: Card board boxes are circulated across all exit line by means of an aerial conveyor. These boxes are stored upstairs and are attached to the conveyor line on a hanger like attachment to ensure its availability at each exit line. THE C.A STORES OF FIL INDUSTRY FIL has been at the forefront in the setting up of Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage. FIL industries Limited is amongst the top three companies in India to have invested in the development of post-harvest management systems and has been the pioneer in bringing the CA storage technology in India. FIL has its own Controlled Atmosphere storage with an integrated capacity of 10,000 MT, with its own state-o-art pack and grade line. The CA storage facilities at FIL Industries Limited are a key component towards the setting up of a well organized cold Page | 60
  • 61. chain which is a pre-requisite to guaranteeing the supply of high quality and branded fruits and vegetables to the market. FIL industry has four CA stores SADA BAHAR, NAV BAHAR, and BAHAR and another one which has not been commissioned yet. These Controlled Atmospheric stores have provided the valley fruit growers an opportunity to keep their produce fresh longer while the consumer benefit from the easy availability of fruits even during off season. Agricultural commodities can be stored in these stores under conditions, scientifically established to be beneficial for them. CA stores have proven proficiency to prolong life of products like fruits vegetables but having a suppressing effect on quality deterioration. CA stores function under low oxygen and high carbon dioxide conditions along with reduced temperature. These conditions reduce the respiratory activity of agricultural commodities and also prevent microbial proliferation thus obviously enabling a better kept product Sada Bahar CA store has a storage capacity of around 6000-7000 metric tons. Each chamber can store 1000-1100 crates stacked on top of each other. Bahar has eight chambers having a capacity of 125 metric tons per chamber. These large and filled crates and lifted and piled atop other crates by means of a fork lift. While Sada Bahar and Nav Bahar store apples Bahar CA store is used for storage of apples and grapes. One of the most salient features of the store is its construction. By all means a solid and secure construction has been ensured at the FIL CA stores. The walls of the CA chamber are made of POLY URATHANE FOAM. This provides a leak proof enclosure That does not allow the exchange of gases between the sealed chamber and outer surroundings. Page | 61
  • 62. The Salient Features Built in collaboration and with technical expertise of ICA, United Kingdom and David Bishop, a renowned name in the field since 1937.  Located near fruit growing areas to ensure minimum transit time.  Easily accessible.  Optimum chamber size.  Fully automated Monitoring of Oxygen, Nitrogen and CO2.  Monitoring of chambers through two control centres.  Relative Humidity of More than 90% maintainable.  State-of-art grading line from Sammo and Geefa. Italy with a capacity of 12 MT.  Grading as per size, color, and weight possible. CONDITIONS MAINTAINED IN THE CA STORE 02 2.5% CO2 1.5% RELATIVE HUMIDITY 90-95% TEMPRATURE 0-0.5°C Page | 62
  • 63. Oxygen Level: Though the normal level of O2 in atmosphere is 21% it is reduced to around 2.5% in the CA sore. Such low level decreases the respiration of fruit, keeping the fruit fresh for a longer period of time. Carbon Dioxide Level: CO2 level is increased in the CA store from the atmospheric level of 0.03% to around 1.5%.Again this increase causes a reciprocating decrease in O2 level. Relative Humidity: RH is maintained at 90-95%. Humidity level less than this will cause loss of moisture from fruits and thus a shriveled appearance, while on the contrary an increase in the humidity will cause moisture accumulation on the product surface that is particularly inviting for possible mold growth. Temperature: For a longer shelf life temperatures need to be decreased to a low level of 0- 0.5°C which keeps apples in a safe storage temperature. It is a known fact that higher temperatures permit faster degradation of fruits and vegetables. The cause again as is known to all is increase in the rate of enzymatic activity and faster rate of chemical and biochemical reactions with increase in storage temperature. PROCESS DIAGRAM FOR CA STORAGE HANDLING AT ORCHARDS RECEPTION Page | 63
  • 64. RANDOM SAMPLING AND PROJECTION TESTS GRADING LINE COOLING OF CA STORE STACKING (in crates) SEALING NITROGEN FLUSHING STORAGE MONITORING (CO2, TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE) SAMPLING (after 1 month) Page | 64
  • 65. GRADING DISPATCH Handling at Orchards: The fruits from the orchards should be handled very carefully to prevent any bruises or other injuries, which reduce their storage life and market value. Reception: The fruits from orchards are transported for storage in the CA store and for that proper reception is necessary. Random sampling and projection: Before unloading few fruits are selected randomly from the lot for this purpose, which are checked for the colorless, bruised, scab, bitter pit, hail damaged, deshaped and other defects in the fruits. The projection is done to check out the % age of the big sized, medium sized and small sized fruits in the lot. Tests: The tests are carried out on the sample taken earlier. The following tests are carried out: • Starch rating test • Pressure test • TSS Grading Line: Grading process of fruits is designed to segregate damaged, rotten and cracked fruits from those that are of acceptable quality standards. Only healthy, attractive, clean and bright fruits are selected. The grades are mostly based on the condition and the quality of the fruits and not specifically on their size as is commonly understood. This grading line serves to grade the fruits to be stored in the manual CA store and for those that are to be dispatched to the market. Cooling of CA store: The cooling runs are carried out in the CA store before storing the fruits in it. Page | 65
  • 66. Stacking: Stacking is done by stacker or reach truck. Fruits are stacked in crates till a certain height. A gap of 8 inch is maintained from all the sides for proper air circulation. Sealing: After stacking, the chamber is sealed air tight. RIB FILL paint is used to prevent any leakage from the walls. It forms a rubbery layer. Nitrogen flushing: After the chamber has been sealed air tight, nitrogen is flushed into it. Nitrogen is an inert gas and is used to replace the majority gases in the CA chamber, i.e. to reduce the O2 level, and reduce the rate of respiration. Storage: The fruits are stored as per requirement in the market. During storage sampling is carried out after a month of storage to check the condition of the fruit. The CA store is timely monitored for the temperature, pressure, CO2 concentration. Grading: Grading is again done before dispatching the fruits to check for any defects in the stored fruits. Dispatch: The fruits from the CA store are dispatched according to the market requirements. Monitoring Of Internal Conditions To maintain and monitor the internal atmospheric conditions of the chamber many devices are being used. Temperature sensors located in the store detect the inside temperature and display it for monitoring. A display external to the chamber provides information on the temperature inside. . A large cooling unit can be seen on the ceiling of the chamber which is responsible for the cool conditions inside. Excessive cooling may at times cause frosting in the cooling unit, so externally a pipeline can be seen passing around the chamber through which lukewarm water is circulated to cause defrosting of the chamber. Defrosting is done electrically in the Bahar CA store. A pneumatic tube inside the store is used to suck in the internal atmospheric gas sample and transfer it outside the chamber for its analysis so that conditions can be maintained close to requirement. Also an analyzer valve is present on the door of the store to which a manual analyzer can be fitted to obtain information regarding internal conditions. Externally an inclined Manometer is used to measure pressure inside the chamber. This manometer is calibrated in terms of mm of water column. If gas is leaking out of the chamber or external gases have found way into the chamber the pressure is bound to decrease or increase, Page | 66
  • 67. which is measured by this pressure measuring instrument, and can be corrected immediately. A sample door is present on the chamber door. When unlocked this door serves as an opening through which samples of apples are collected for testing their quality. All the required conditions of the store are controlled by means of a computer managed system that runs a software program for it. The controls can also be handled manually. For efficient running of CA system all the machines and control equipments used in FIL industry are found to have a backup available so that in case of a failure or breakdown in one machine the other can be used. The working and function of machinery used here is described below: Cooling System: It consists of the following sub units: Refrigerant: In the CA stores (Sada Bahar and Nav Bahar) Ammonia is used as a refrigerant. Ammonia has high heat transfer ability so it is preferred to be used as cooling agent in this store, while Freon is used in Nav Bahar. Compressor: High pressure is maintained in this part of the cooling system. Condenser: The function of this sub system is to condense the vapors under high pressure. Cooling Tower: Refrigerant is passed onto the cooling tower from where it is circulated into the store to produce cooling effect and thus decrease in temperature. Purger: The purger is used to remove impurity from gases. Figure. Purger Water Softener: A water softener has been provided to “soften” the water or in other words to reduce the alkalinity of the incoming water that has to be used for circulation in the defrosting line. Page | 67
  • 68. Defrosting Pump: Luke warm softened water is passed through is pumped up through defrosting pump into the defrosting lines in (Sada Bahar) and (Nav Bahar) store. In case of (Bahar) electrical heating coils are used for defrostin Carbon Dioxide Scrubber: A CO2 scrubber has the function of removing excess CO2 from air in the chamber to maintain CO2 within limits. It contains CMS (carbon molecular sieve) which traps CO2 molecules. Nitrogen Generators: This equipment generates N2 gas that is used for flushing of the chamber. Nitrogen is an inert gas and is used to replace the majority gases in the CA chamber. This generator has chemicals that accumulate atmospheric nitrogen once air comes in contact with these chemicals. Electrical Control System: Electric control system is PLC (programmable logic controlled). Figure: Electrical control system Generator: A generator is available in the facility to ensure uninterrupted power supply to the stores in case of power failure. LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR CA STORE (I) STARCH RATING TEST Page | 68