SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Bob Parks, Executive Director
Smart Outdoor Lighting Alliance
www.SOLA.lighting
March 5, 2015
 Anthropogenic or man-made
 Artificial; not natural
 Occurring during natural dark
cycle
 Natural night brightness varies
due to moon phase cycle
(0.0001 - 0.3 lux at zenith)
WHAT IS LIGHT AT NIGHT?
 18.7% of Earth’s surface is subject
to artificial brightness of 10% or
more above natural
 61.8% of the United States
 75% of US population lives under
unnatural levels of LAN
 LAN in major cities is typically 100
to 200 times brighter than a natural
night sky


LIGHT AT NIGHT STATISTICS
Ecologically Responsible Outdoor Lighting - Presented by Bob Parks, Smart Outdoor Lighting Alliance
Ecologically Responsible Outdoor Lighting - Presented by Bob Parks, Smart Outdoor Lighting Alliance
Ecologically Responsible Outdoor Lighting - Presented by Bob Parks, Smart Outdoor Lighting Alliance
Ecologically Responsible Outdoor Lighting - Presented by Bob Parks, Smart Outdoor Lighting Alliance
 LAN creates winners and losers
 Attracts and repels
 Disrupts:
 Foraging
 Predation
 Migration
 Reproduction
 Communication


ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LAN
JP Stanley
Disruption of foraging patterns
 Increases predation risk
 Increases mortality on roads
 Bats fly farther and use more
energy to avoid lights
 Reduces body weight and
reproduction in females
MAMMALS
 Disrupts natural cycles of
reproductive and migration
 Birds fly into lighted buildings
 Off-shore drilling platforms & towers
lighting causes significant attraction
 Hydrocarbon flares attract and
incinerate night flying seabirds
BIRDS
Artificial light contributes to an
estimated
10 to 40 million
bird deaths annually in the
United States alone.
BIRDS
Jim Richardson
 Diurnal (day) species extend activity
and exploit prey attracted to lights
 Light attracts breeding frogs, who
stop calling
 LAN has profound impacts on
physiology, behavior and
development
REPTILES & AMPHIBIANS
 Reduces nesting habitat – Females
avoid areas near lighted beaches
 Hatching disorientation – Crawl towards
area with brightest horizon
 Which can often be roads or lighted
development
 Exhaustion/dehydration
 Increases mortality
 Increases predation
SEA TURTLES
Jelga
Fun Fact:
Great White sharks have now
learned to hunt seals at night
using city lights!
FISH
 Most attracted to white light
 Increases mortality at street lights
 Confuses species that use light for
communication (Fireflies)
 Interferes with normal migration
 Aquatic invertebrates – disrupts
behavior and increases predation risk
INVERTEBRATES
PLANTS
Affects:
 Germination
 Leaf growth
 Flower development
 Fruit development
 Leaf senescence
 Abscission
 Cessation of leaf production
Circadian Disruption
 LAN disrupts immune system –
suppresses melatonin – affects all
species of animals and plants
 Linked to insomnia, obesity, diabetes,
ADD, and cancer
 Photo ganglion cells have peak
sensitivity ~480nm (Blue)
ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LAN
Jim Richardson
natural cycles that rely upon rhythms of daylight and night darkness. In humans, the peak
sensitivity of this response is in the range of 459-484 nanometers (blue).[4] [5]
The graph shows the visible spectrum, the human photopic sensitivity which defines the lumen, the
human circadian sensitivity and the typical output of a blue-rich white-light LED light source.
Broad Spectrum White Light
 White LEDs start as blue
 Highest CCD LED is the most
efficacious and have the most blue
spectral power distribution (SPD)
 White light improves visibility
 However, improvement in visibility
drops off above 3500K CCT
ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LAN
Broad Spectrum White Light
 Efficacy vs. Ecological impact
 As LED efficacy improves, compromise
will become easier
 Generally, use lowest CCD to minimize
impact; however…
 SPD & melanopic lux is best metric
 Minimizing total lumens in the
environment more important
ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LAN
LED SPECTRUM
5500 K CCT
LED SPECTRUM
2700 K CCT
Properly Shielded Fixtures
 Direct light to the task area
 Reduce skyglow and light trespass
Light for Visibility
 Use just the illumination levels
necessary for the task
 Eliminate glare
 Reducing uniformity may improve
visibility by increasing contrast
BEST PRACTICES FOR ECOLOGICALLY
RESPONSIBLE OUTDOOR LIGHTING
Adaptive Controls:
 Allows dimming to match pedestrian/vehicle
traffic illumination requirements
 Employ timers/switches to turn off lighting
when no longer needed
 Increase energy savings by 50% +
 Reduce glare, energy costs and CO2
 Increase fixture life
BEST PRACTICES FOR ECOLOGICALLY
RESPONSIBLE OUTDOOR LIGHTING
Tvilight
Tvilight
Spectrum
 Narrow-band “true” amber and phosphor
converted “PC” amber (~590nm) LEDs
provide viable replacement for LPS
 PC amber LED has greater efficacy 70-80
LPW than true amber LED at 35-40 LPW
 “Turtle friendly” turns out to be best all
around light source for ecologically sensitive
areas
BEST PRACTICES FOR ECOLOGICALLY
RESPONSIBLE OUTDOOR LIGHTING
LED SPECTRUM
PC Amber
Dynamic Spectral Tuning
 Arrays of different LEDs in fixture allow for
programming a variety of correlated color
temperature (CCT) over time
 Locally or remotely controlled
 Provide white light during peak activity hours
for maximum visibility; smooth transition
later to lower CCT
BEST PRACTICES FOR ECOLOGICALLY
RESPONSIBLE OUTDOOR LIGHTING
80% of outdoor lighting is used for
Commercial & Public Exterior Lighting
 ~750 million Outdoor Lighting Fixtures*
Worldwide
 ~160 million Outdoor Lighting Fixtures*
in US
*Commercial & Public Exterior (Road,
Street, Parking + Buildings)
WORLD OUTDOOR LIGHTING FACTS
Total Wasted Energy is approx. 60-70%
overall from:
 Unwarranted (not needed) = 25%
 Over-lighting (excessive illumination) =
25%
 Not dimmed or on curfew = 25%
 Glare =15%
 Uplight = 10%
WORLD OUTDOOR LIGHTING FACTS
Approx. Wasted Energy =
1.1 PetaWatt Hours Annually
 The equivalent output of 500 power
plants running 24/7/365
 Could power ~ 7,750,000 homes
 Producing 750 million tons of CO2
 Cost = approximately $110 billion (US
dollars)
WORLD OUTDOOR LIGHTING FACTS
bparks@sola.lighting

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Ecologically Responsible Outdoor Lighting - Presented by Bob Parks, Smart Outdoor Lighting Alliance

  • 1. Bob Parks, Executive Director Smart Outdoor Lighting Alliance www.SOLA.lighting March 5, 2015
  • 2.  Anthropogenic or man-made  Artificial; not natural  Occurring during natural dark cycle  Natural night brightness varies due to moon phase cycle (0.0001 - 0.3 lux at zenith) WHAT IS LIGHT AT NIGHT?
  • 3.  18.7% of Earth’s surface is subject to artificial brightness of 10% or more above natural  61.8% of the United States  75% of US population lives under unnatural levels of LAN  LAN in major cities is typically 100 to 200 times brighter than a natural night sky   LIGHT AT NIGHT STATISTICS
  • 8.  LAN creates winners and losers  Attracts and repels  Disrupts:  Foraging  Predation  Migration  Reproduction  Communication   ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LAN JP Stanley
  • 9. Disruption of foraging patterns  Increases predation risk  Increases mortality on roads  Bats fly farther and use more energy to avoid lights  Reduces body weight and reproduction in females MAMMALS
  • 10.  Disrupts natural cycles of reproductive and migration  Birds fly into lighted buildings  Off-shore drilling platforms & towers lighting causes significant attraction  Hydrocarbon flares attract and incinerate night flying seabirds BIRDS
  • 11. Artificial light contributes to an estimated 10 to 40 million bird deaths annually in the United States alone. BIRDS Jim Richardson
  • 12.  Diurnal (day) species extend activity and exploit prey attracted to lights  Light attracts breeding frogs, who stop calling  LAN has profound impacts on physiology, behavior and development REPTILES & AMPHIBIANS
  • 13.  Reduces nesting habitat – Females avoid areas near lighted beaches  Hatching disorientation – Crawl towards area with brightest horizon  Which can often be roads or lighted development  Exhaustion/dehydration  Increases mortality  Increases predation SEA TURTLES Jelga
  • 14. Fun Fact: Great White sharks have now learned to hunt seals at night using city lights! FISH
  • 15.  Most attracted to white light  Increases mortality at street lights  Confuses species that use light for communication (Fireflies)  Interferes with normal migration  Aquatic invertebrates – disrupts behavior and increases predation risk INVERTEBRATES
  • 16. PLANTS Affects:  Germination  Leaf growth  Flower development  Fruit development  Leaf senescence  Abscission  Cessation of leaf production
  • 17. Circadian Disruption  LAN disrupts immune system – suppresses melatonin – affects all species of animals and plants  Linked to insomnia, obesity, diabetes, ADD, and cancer  Photo ganglion cells have peak sensitivity ~480nm (Blue) ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LAN Jim Richardson
  • 18. natural cycles that rely upon rhythms of daylight and night darkness. In humans, the peak sensitivity of this response is in the range of 459-484 nanometers (blue).[4] [5] The graph shows the visible spectrum, the human photopic sensitivity which defines the lumen, the human circadian sensitivity and the typical output of a blue-rich white-light LED light source.
  • 19. Broad Spectrum White Light  White LEDs start as blue  Highest CCD LED is the most efficacious and have the most blue spectral power distribution (SPD)  White light improves visibility  However, improvement in visibility drops off above 3500K CCT ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LAN
  • 20. Broad Spectrum White Light  Efficacy vs. Ecological impact  As LED efficacy improves, compromise will become easier  Generally, use lowest CCD to minimize impact; however…  SPD & melanopic lux is best metric  Minimizing total lumens in the environment more important ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LAN
  • 23. Properly Shielded Fixtures  Direct light to the task area  Reduce skyglow and light trespass Light for Visibility  Use just the illumination levels necessary for the task  Eliminate glare  Reducing uniformity may improve visibility by increasing contrast BEST PRACTICES FOR ECOLOGICALLY RESPONSIBLE OUTDOOR LIGHTING
  • 24. Adaptive Controls:  Allows dimming to match pedestrian/vehicle traffic illumination requirements  Employ timers/switches to turn off lighting when no longer needed  Increase energy savings by 50% +  Reduce glare, energy costs and CO2  Increase fixture life BEST PRACTICES FOR ECOLOGICALLY RESPONSIBLE OUTDOOR LIGHTING
  • 27. Spectrum  Narrow-band “true” amber and phosphor converted “PC” amber (~590nm) LEDs provide viable replacement for LPS  PC amber LED has greater efficacy 70-80 LPW than true amber LED at 35-40 LPW  “Turtle friendly” turns out to be best all around light source for ecologically sensitive areas BEST PRACTICES FOR ECOLOGICALLY RESPONSIBLE OUTDOOR LIGHTING
  • 29. Dynamic Spectral Tuning  Arrays of different LEDs in fixture allow for programming a variety of correlated color temperature (CCT) over time  Locally or remotely controlled  Provide white light during peak activity hours for maximum visibility; smooth transition later to lower CCT BEST PRACTICES FOR ECOLOGICALLY RESPONSIBLE OUTDOOR LIGHTING
  • 30. 80% of outdoor lighting is used for Commercial & Public Exterior Lighting  ~750 million Outdoor Lighting Fixtures* Worldwide  ~160 million Outdoor Lighting Fixtures* in US *Commercial & Public Exterior (Road, Street, Parking + Buildings) WORLD OUTDOOR LIGHTING FACTS
  • 31. Total Wasted Energy is approx. 60-70% overall from:  Unwarranted (not needed) = 25%  Over-lighting (excessive illumination) = 25%  Not dimmed or on curfew = 25%  Glare =15%  Uplight = 10% WORLD OUTDOOR LIGHTING FACTS
  • 32. Approx. Wasted Energy = 1.1 PetaWatt Hours Annually  The equivalent output of 500 power plants running 24/7/365  Could power ~ 7,750,000 homes  Producing 750 million tons of CO2  Cost = approximately $110 billion (US dollars) WORLD OUTDOOR LIGHTING FACTS