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Digital to Physical: ALM for Diverse
                        Sectors
          Dr Ben Wood, WMG, University of Warwick
                  b.m.wood@warwick.ac.uk
                     @benjaminmwood



© 2012
Agenda
   0845-0915   Registration, tea and coffee

   0915-0930   Welcome and Introductions

   0930-1100   Physical to Digital – Laser scanning and producing a CAD file

   1100-1115   Refreshments Break

   1115-1245   Digital to Physical – 3D printing and how to deal with ‘bad’ CAD

   1245-1330   Lunch

   1330-1500   Low Volume Manufacturing – The gap between prototype and product

   1500-1600   Adding Functionality – Update on latest polymer technologies

   1600 on     1 to 1s with the Polymer Innovation team – individual projects


© 2012
What are we going to talk about?




© 2012
Introductions

         – Dr Alex Attridge
           & Ercihan Kiraci


         – Dr Greg Gibbons


         – Dr Kylash Makenji

© 2012
Introductions

   •     Name
   •     Company
   •     Why you’re here
   •     What you would most like to get from today




© 2012
Physical to Digital

         Scanning technologies and
            creating useful data



© 2012
Physical to Digital
   • Contents
         – Why go from physical to digital?
         – Technologies for collecting data
           • Laser Scanning
           • X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT)
           • Structured Light and Photogrammetry
         – Laser scanning demo
         – Case study examples
© 2012
Why Physical to Digital?
   • There are a number of reasons:
         – Measurement/CAD comparison
         – Simulation/virtual testing
            • CFD for fluid flow or aerodynamic modelling
            • FEA for stress analysis
         – Create tooling from a physical prototype
         – Benchmarking competitor product
         – Reverse engineer to surface model or CAD


© 2012
Why Physical to Digital?




    Colour chart and measurements showing deviation from CAD

© 2012
Why Physical to Digital?




    Creation of an FE mesh for a fatigue crack specimen to help
    understand the effect of the crack on performance of the part
© 2012
Why Physical to Digital?




    Creation of a digital surface model from a 1/3 scale Le Manns
    Prototype class clay model, to enable a full-scale physical model
    to be machine cut for use as a plug for the bodywork mouldings


© 2012
Why Physical to Digital?




    Internal benchmarking of an automotive switchgear mechanism,
    carried out as part of a “switch feel” customer clinic study



© 2012
Why Physical to Digital?




    Reverse engineering to CAD of a suspension component from a
    classic rally car to improve strength and compatibility with
    modern suspension leg/damper technology

© 2012
Collecting data
   • Different technologies for capturing 3D
     surface geometry:
         – Laser scanning
         – X-Ray CT scanning
         – Structure light scanning (white/blue)
         – Photogrammetry
   • Different technologies for different
     applications

© 2012
Laser scanning
   •     Typically utilises Class 2 red laser light
   •     Move laser “stripe” over the surface to be measured
   •     “Stripe” is actually made up of hundreds of points
   •     Point cloud of data collected – x, y, z, co-ordinates
   •     Post-processing required but easy to create mesh




© 2012
Laser scanning




                                                      Point Cloud (XYZ)




   Accuracy 10µm – System Accuracy approx 40µm
   75 stripes/sec - 1000 points/sec data collection
   Digital Calibration for every point captured

© 2012
Multiple lasers




         Line Scanner   Cross Scanner

© 2012
Laser scanning
         Manual Measurement Arm
         (Faro, Nikon, Roma etc.)
                                    Optical CMM



                On-CMM laser scanning head




© 2012
Laser scanning
   •     Good for collecting complex surface geometry
   •     Software can identify and characterise features
   •     CMM or portable systems
   •     Simple to use – quick results
   •     Data captured not perfect – line of sight issues




© 2012
X-Ray CT scanning
   • Uses X-ray technology to create a digital 3D
     model of the object scanned
   • Similar concept to medical CT, but much higher
     powered and much more accurate
   • Limit to size and density of object to be scanned




© 2012
CT Scanning of an object to get Projection Images
  - Using XT 320 H Machine

                                       Object with a                            Projection Image
                                       cylindrical hole                         on screen
                                       inside



                                                                                Detector

                                                              Projection Image at                  Projection Image at
                                                              angle 2 deg.                        angle 1 deg.

  X-ray source
                                           Rotary table


                                  STL format export


                                 DICOM Image series export


                                 Point cloud data export




    Reconstructed 3D model visualization as                  3D object reconstruction by back-projecting the
    stack of images - Using visualization software           projection images - Using reconstruction software

© 2012
X-Ray CT scanning
   •     Excellent technology for internal inspection
   •     Typically good quality data generated
   •     Very large file sizes
   •     Struggles with big changes in density




© 2012
Structured light
                      Traditionally white light
                      More recently blue light
                      Projects pattern on to surface
                      Pattern is distorted and captured




© 2012
Structured light
           GOM
                              Phase Vision




                 Breuckmann




© 2012
Structured light
                      Often used to characterise panels,
                      clay models, people(!) etc.
                      Good for large surfaces
                      Not so good for smaller objects
                      Can take a while to set up




© 2012
Photogrammetry




                                Digital SLR
                    Approx 60 photographs
                     Cloud-based software
                          3D digital model

© 2012
Hands-on Demo
   • Laser Scanning
   • Software

   Down to the workshops!




© 2012
Digital to Physical

         Additive Layer Manufacturing




© 2012
Digital to Physical
   • Contents
         – Data generation for ALM
           • Data sources and examples
           • Data repair

         – System setup – an overview
         – System set-up - practical hands-on)
         – ALM – ‘the real deal’

© 2012
DATA GENERATION


   05/12/2012              30
© 2012
Data Generation
   • All systems use a ‘.STL’ file:
         – Surface triangulated mesh file representing the
           surface of a component

   • STL files can be generated from
         – Directly from export of 3D CAD
         – Surface scan data
         – Volumetric (e.g CT data)

   • Data from any of these methods may require pre-
     processing to be useable in ALM

© 2012
STL files from CAD
   • Use ‘export ‘or ‘save as’ function to create STL




© 2012
STL files from surface scan
   • Scan of iPhone 4 case:




© 2012
STL from CT/MRI scan




© 2012
Errors in STL files
     • Some STL files can be very poor quality
     • Particularly from scan or CT…
     …but can be poor CAD:
         –   Missing surfaces
         –   Gaps
         –   Intersecting surfaces
         –   Inverted triangle
             normals




© 2012
Errors in STL files
   • Most ALM systems will not tolerate this and will
     require a ‘perfect’ STL file
         – One single continuous surface
         – All surface normals are correct
   • Software is available to fix errors relatively easily




   05/12/2012
© 2012
SYSTEM SETUP – AN OVERVIEW


                                      37
© 2012
System Setup – Overview
    • STL file is the starting point for
      any ALM system
    • STL may contain colour
      information (color STL)
         – Currently only ZCorp systems
         – Mcor about to release colour
           system based on bonded paper
           sheets (Iris)
    • VRML colour files are also
      accepted in ZCorp systems


© 2012
System Setup – Overview
   • All system have proprietary software,
     e.g:
         – Insight (Stratsys – FDM)
         – Objet Studio (Objet - MJM)
         – Zprint (ZCorp – 3D Printing)

   • Functions available:
         – Operators on model
             • E.g. rescale, rotate, translate, copy
         – Support generation
         – Selection of build parameters
             • Usually defaults, but can ‘play’ on some
               systems
         – Obtain time, material usage information
             • Useful for quoting purposes

© 2012
System Setup – Overview
     • Some systems require a support
       structure to be generated
     • This is always necessary for non-powder
       bed based systems
     • Support acts as a surface to accept the
       next layer
     • The system interface software generates
       this automatically
     • Some control on the type of support is
       allowed, usually to minimise material
       usage
         – Density
         – Shape
© 2012
System Setup – Overview
   • Additional functionality is available with the ‘new’ multi-
     material printers, giving the ability to:
         – insert an assembly and define the type of material of each part in the
           assembly
         – overcoat with materials
         – choose glossy or matte surface finish




© 2012
ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING– THE
         REAL DEAL

                                       42
© 2012
Additive manufacturing– the real deal

   •     Materials
   •     Accuracy
   •     Resolution
   •     Sizes
   •     Time
   •     Costs
   •     ‘non added value’ activity

© 2012
Polymers
   •     Most common thermoplastics are:
          – SLS (PA, PS)
          – FDM (ABS, PLA, PC, PEEK)
   •     Most common thermosets are:
          – Acrylic (MJM)
          – Epoxy (SLA)
          – Wax-like (for investment casting)
   •     The HDT of FDM materials is equal to the IM grade
   •     The HDT of other polymers is usually lower than 500C
   •     High temperature polymers are available
          – PEEK (SLS)
          – PPSF, ULTEM (MJM)
   •     Transparency is available but not for FDM and SLS
          – Translucency is available for FDM (ABSi - Methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-butadiene-
            stryrene copolymer)
   •     Fire retardancy is available (most systems)
   •     Biocompatibility is available (non-implantable) for most systems



© 2012
Metals
   • Most metals processed using SLS
   • Wide range of commercial materials
         – Ti, Ti alloys, stainless steel, Inconels, CoCr, Maraging steel,
           tool steel, aluminium…
   • Now systems processing Ag, Au, Pt (EOS-Cookson
     Metals tie-up)
   • Mechanical properties usually approach or match
     those of wrought materials



© 2012
Accuracy, Resolution
   • Resolution and accuracy are not the same!
   • Accuracy and resolution are complex and are highly
     dependent on system and component size, and on quality of
     calibration
                          Accuracy               Resolution
                          x          y     z     x        y     z
                SLS       30         30    20    100      100   20
                metal
                SLS       100        100   100   50       50    50
                polymer
                MJM       20         20    16    40       40    16
                3DP       250        250   89    100      100   89

   05/12/2012
© 2012
Size
   • Polymers
         – Wide range of size capabilities (50mm-3m+)
         – Small bed sizes often have higher resolution
         – Large bed sizes often have faster build rates

   • Metals
         – Most metals systems have beds
           <300x300x300mm
         – Soon to be released have 500x500x300mm

© 2012
Time
   • Time is very difficult to assess from an STL file since:
   • Time is dependent upon:
         –   Part volume
         –   Part dimensions
         –   Part orientation
         –   Material used (even in the same process)
         –   Level of finishing required
         –   How much you want to pay (premium for queue jumping)




© 2012
Costs (using a bureau)
   • Not easy to assess just from an STL file since:
   • Cost is very much dependent upon:
         – Volume of the component (amount of material)
         – Part dimensions
         – Cost of the material
         – Amount of support material
         – Resolution required (number of slices)
         – Orientation required (taller the dearer)
         – Number of parts required (often cheaper per part to have
           multiples – especially for SLS)
         – Level of finish required

© 2012
Costs (in-house)
   • If you have system in-house, need to consider:
         –   Maintenance costs
         –   Material costs (including scrap, waste)
         –   Consumables costs
         –   Infrastructural costs
         –   Labour costs (set-up and clean-down)

   • Costs can vary widely depending on the system
         –   System - £500-£1m+
         –   Maintenance – £100 – £30k PA
         –   Material - £1 - £600 /kg
         –   Infrastructural - £0 - £100k +
         –   Labour - £5 - £200 per part

© 2012
Low Cost Systems
   • Recent huge rise in ultra-
     low cost systems
         – Makerbot, BFB, Cubify …
   •     Based on FDM technology
   •     £500 - £2,500
   •     Material costs ~£20/kg
   •     No dedicated computer
   •     No training
   •     Simple post-processing

© 2012
Low Volume Manufacturing:
              Bridging the Gap
         Dr Ben Wood & Dr Kylash Makenji
                      IIPSI



© 2012
Outline
   • Identifying the problem
         – How to go from prototype to production?
   • Direct manufacturing methods
   • Rapid Tooling
         – Indirect
         – Direct
   • Live demo of direct tooling


© 2012
The Problem


                                                          Injection Moulding

                                    Rotational
 Tooling                            Moulding
  Cost                                             Compression
                                                    Moulding

                     Low Volume
                 CNC Machining
                    Manufacturing
               ALM

           1        100         1000             10,000    100,000        1,000,000+

                                    Number of Parts
© 2012
What is Rapid Tooling?
     • Early definition of Rapid Tooling:
         “a process that allows a tool for injection moulding and die casting
         operations to be manufactured quickly and efficiently so the
         resultant part will be representative of the production material.” -
         Karl Denton 1996


     • With Rapid Tooling now covering a wider range of
       applications, this has generalised to:
         “a range of processes aimed at reducing both the cost and time for
         the manufacture of tooling.”




© 2012
Classification of Rapid Tooling

         • Indirect
            – Use of a Rapid Prototype (RP) pattern to manufacture a tool
              in a secondary operation


         • Direct
            – Directly produce the tool using a layer-additive process




© 2012
Indirect Rapid Tooling
         • Cast tooling
            – Cast resin tooling
            – Cast metal tooling
            – Cast ceramic tooling

         • Metal spray tooling
            – Kirksite thermal spray tooling
            – Rapid Solidification Process tooling
            – Sprayform tooling

         • Indirect laser sintered tooling
            – 3D LaserForm process

         • 3D Printed tooling
            – Extrude Hone Prometal




© 2012
Cast Resin Tooling
         • Obtained by two primary methods:
            – Room temperature vulcanised silicone
            – Rigid resin tooling

         • Room temperature vulcanised silicone
            – Silicone rubber tools for vacuum casting of
              (generally) polyurethane parts
            – RP model employed as master pattern
            – Multistage process
            – Resin parts vacuum cast or injected into
              tool
            – Expensive materials
            – Low volume (~30 parts) / extremely rapid
              (1-2 days)




© 2012
Cast Resin Tooling
         • Obtained by two primary methods:
             – Room temperature vulcanised silicone
             – Rigid resin tooling

         • Rigid resin tooling
             – Aluminium filled epoxy resin tools used for
               injection / blow moulding
             – As for RTV silicone, RP model used as
               master pattern
             – Multistage process
             – Difficult and slow to mould parts
             – Volumes up to ~500 / very rapid (3-5 days)




© 2012
Direct Rapid Tooling
         • Direct metallic tooling
             – Direct laser melted metallic tooling
                 • EOSint M DirectTool
                 • MCP Selective Laser Melting (SLM)


         • Direct polymeric tooling
             – 3D Printed mould inserts
                 • Object Connex 260
                 • Fortus FDM




© 2012
Laser Melted Metallic Tooling

         • Many similar processes, 2 most employed are:
            – DirectTool – EOS GmbH
            – Selective Laser Melting (SLM) – MCP Inc
         • DirectTool
             – Latest system EOSINT M270
             – Process:
                 • Direct laser melting of metal powder
                 • Ability to polish to mirror finish

             – Materials:
                 • DSH20 (tool steel)
                 • DS20 / 50 (20mm and 50mm steel)
                 • DM20 / 50 (20mm and 50mm bronze)
             – Very hard tooling possible (42HRc)
             – Very high accuracy (~50mm) / 20mm layers
             – Conformal cooling channels



© 2012
Laser Melted Metallic Tooling

         • Many similar processes, two most commonly employed are:
            – DirectTool – EOS GmbH
            – Selective Laser Melting (SLM) – MCP Inc
         • Selective Laser Melting
             – Latest system „Realizer‟
             – Process:
                  • Direct laser melting of metal powder
                  • Ability to polish to mirror finish

             – Materials:
                  • Any metallic powders 10-30mm
                  • Stainless steel most common

             – Very high accuracy (~50mm) / 50mm layers
             – Conformal cooling channels




© 2012
3D Printed Polymer Inserts
   • Manufacture a tool insert by ALM
         – Accurate
         – Good surface finish
         – Very rapid (30 mins-2 hours)




© 2012
3D Printed Polymer Inserts
   • Ready for mass production
         – Injection mould tooling
         – Lower cost ‘pocket’ tool
         – Can be used with wide range of inserts
   • Easy, quick and inexpensive to make changes




© 2012
Hands - On
         INJECTION MOULDING TOOL
         INSERTS

© 2012
Polymers




© 2012
Material Compatibility




© 2012
Process Comparison
                           Capital
            Process       Equipment   Production Rate   Tooling Cost    Part Volumes
                            Cost

          Compression
                            Low            Slow             Low          100 – 1 mill
           Moulding

         Vacuum Forming    Medium         Medium          Medium        10,000 – 1 mill


     Injection Moulding     High           Fast             High       10,000 – 100 mill


            Extrusion      Medium          Fast         Low – Medium      Med - High


         Blow Moulding     Medium         Medium          Medium       1,000 – 100 mill

           Rotational
                           Medium          Slow           Medium         100 – 1 mill
           Moulding



© 2012
Summary
   • Many potential manufacturing routes for low
     volume
         – Right choice depends on part and material
   • ALM can be used for much more than
     prototyping
         – Key to most rapid tooling methods




© 2012
Adding Functionality

         IIPSI Capabilities and State of the Art




© 2012
Outline
   • Shape memory polymers
         – Active disassembly
   • Printed and plastic electronics
         – Conductive polymers
         – Low cost applications
         – Integration
   • What would you like to see?


© 2012
Shape Memory Polymers
   • Can be ‘programmed’ to change shape when
     given a trigger
   • High material cost = niche applications


         Mould           Force into                 Set
                                                                      Return to
          part           temporary               temporary
                                                                    original shape
                           shape                   shape
                 Heat                  Cool                  Heat



                 FORCE                Restrain

© 2012
SMP Research Focus
                        Medical




  Aerospace/defence –
      morphing wings              Outer Space – Zero Gravity

© 2012
SMPs for SMEs!
   • ‘Active’ disassembly
         – Ideal for automotive, consumer electronics
   • Automatically release at end of life
         – Materials separation, recycling
   • Low complexity
         – Maximise added value




© 2012
PLASTIC AND PRINTED
         ELECTRONICS

© 2012
Conductive Polymers
   • Actual conductive polymers not common
         – Difficult to process, not like plastics
         – Normally dissolved in solvent
   • Applications in PV and EL/OLED
         – Useful as part of a printed or plastic electronic
           component




© 2012
Plastic and Printed Electronics
   • Growth area
         – Funding opportunities
   • Costs reducing
         – Expensive materials vs volume production
   • Key applications
         – Display technology
         – ‘Smart’ Packaging
         – IoT

© 2012
Plastic Electronics
   • Electroluminescence (EL)
         – Low energy, low heat lighting
         – Simple circuit

                      PEDOT-PSS transparent electrode       +ve
                           Zinc Sulphide Phosphor
    LIGHT                         Dielectric

                -ve    Reflective (silver) rear electrode
                                    Surface




© 2012
EL Applications




© 2012
Low Cost Plastic Electronics




                Airbrush Method

© 2012
Low Cost Plastic Electronics




              Screen Printing Type Method

© 2012
Low Cost Plastic Electronics




              Direct In-Mould Layer
                   Application

© 2012
Low Cost Plastic Electronics




            Post Mould Layer Application


© 2012
Hybrid 3D Printing
   • Bespoke system hybridising
     MJM with syringe deposition
         – 2 x 512, 14pl nozzle heads,
           individually addressed
         – High viscosity liquid dispensing
         – Continuous flow for deposition of
           resins with highly suspended solids
         – SmartPump for deposition of higher
           viscosity resins and pastes at
           extremely high resolution


© 2012
Hybrid 3D Printing
   • Integrated manufacture
         – Functional components
         – Electronic circuits
   • Facilitates adding of functionality and
     connectivity
         – Eg interactive books
         – Internet of Things (IoT)



© 2012
Summary
   • Complex circuits require expensive kit and
     specialist knowledge
   • Market is growing, costs coming down
         – Printing technology, roll-to-roll
   • Simple circuits achievable with low capital
         – Layer-by-layer deposition of materials
   • Future is in integration
         – IoT
         –   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zG2dvxSKEGU
         –   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kgw51_PtDSs



© 2012
What would you like to see in the IIPSI?

         OVER TO YOU!


© 2012

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Digital to Physical: 3D Printing for Diverse Sectors

  • 1. Digital to Physical: ALM for Diverse Sectors Dr Ben Wood, WMG, University of Warwick b.m.wood@warwick.ac.uk @benjaminmwood © 2012
  • 2. Agenda 0845-0915 Registration, tea and coffee 0915-0930 Welcome and Introductions 0930-1100 Physical to Digital – Laser scanning and producing a CAD file 1100-1115 Refreshments Break 1115-1245 Digital to Physical – 3D printing and how to deal with ‘bad’ CAD 1245-1330 Lunch 1330-1500 Low Volume Manufacturing – The gap between prototype and product 1500-1600 Adding Functionality – Update on latest polymer technologies 1600 on 1 to 1s with the Polymer Innovation team – individual projects © 2012
  • 3. What are we going to talk about? © 2012
  • 4. Introductions – Dr Alex Attridge & Ercihan Kiraci – Dr Greg Gibbons – Dr Kylash Makenji © 2012
  • 5. Introductions • Name • Company • Why you’re here • What you would most like to get from today © 2012
  • 6. Physical to Digital Scanning technologies and creating useful data © 2012
  • 7. Physical to Digital • Contents – Why go from physical to digital? – Technologies for collecting data • Laser Scanning • X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) • Structured Light and Photogrammetry – Laser scanning demo – Case study examples © 2012
  • 8. Why Physical to Digital? • There are a number of reasons: – Measurement/CAD comparison – Simulation/virtual testing • CFD for fluid flow or aerodynamic modelling • FEA for stress analysis – Create tooling from a physical prototype – Benchmarking competitor product – Reverse engineer to surface model or CAD © 2012
  • 9. Why Physical to Digital? Colour chart and measurements showing deviation from CAD © 2012
  • 10. Why Physical to Digital? Creation of an FE mesh for a fatigue crack specimen to help understand the effect of the crack on performance of the part © 2012
  • 11. Why Physical to Digital? Creation of a digital surface model from a 1/3 scale Le Manns Prototype class clay model, to enable a full-scale physical model to be machine cut for use as a plug for the bodywork mouldings © 2012
  • 12. Why Physical to Digital? Internal benchmarking of an automotive switchgear mechanism, carried out as part of a “switch feel” customer clinic study © 2012
  • 13. Why Physical to Digital? Reverse engineering to CAD of a suspension component from a classic rally car to improve strength and compatibility with modern suspension leg/damper technology © 2012
  • 14. Collecting data • Different technologies for capturing 3D surface geometry: – Laser scanning – X-Ray CT scanning – Structure light scanning (white/blue) – Photogrammetry • Different technologies for different applications © 2012
  • 15. Laser scanning • Typically utilises Class 2 red laser light • Move laser “stripe” over the surface to be measured • “Stripe” is actually made up of hundreds of points • Point cloud of data collected – x, y, z, co-ordinates • Post-processing required but easy to create mesh © 2012
  • 16. Laser scanning Point Cloud (XYZ) Accuracy 10µm – System Accuracy approx 40µm 75 stripes/sec - 1000 points/sec data collection Digital Calibration for every point captured © 2012
  • 17. Multiple lasers Line Scanner Cross Scanner © 2012
  • 18. Laser scanning Manual Measurement Arm (Faro, Nikon, Roma etc.) Optical CMM On-CMM laser scanning head © 2012
  • 19. Laser scanning • Good for collecting complex surface geometry • Software can identify and characterise features • CMM or portable systems • Simple to use – quick results • Data captured not perfect – line of sight issues © 2012
  • 20. X-Ray CT scanning • Uses X-ray technology to create a digital 3D model of the object scanned • Similar concept to medical CT, but much higher powered and much more accurate • Limit to size and density of object to be scanned © 2012
  • 21. CT Scanning of an object to get Projection Images - Using XT 320 H Machine Object with a Projection Image cylindrical hole on screen inside Detector Projection Image at Projection Image at angle 2 deg. angle 1 deg. X-ray source Rotary table STL format export DICOM Image series export Point cloud data export Reconstructed 3D model visualization as 3D object reconstruction by back-projecting the stack of images - Using visualization software projection images - Using reconstruction software © 2012
  • 22. X-Ray CT scanning • Excellent technology for internal inspection • Typically good quality data generated • Very large file sizes • Struggles with big changes in density © 2012
  • 23. Structured light Traditionally white light More recently blue light Projects pattern on to surface Pattern is distorted and captured © 2012
  • 24. Structured light GOM Phase Vision Breuckmann © 2012
  • 25. Structured light Often used to characterise panels, clay models, people(!) etc. Good for large surfaces Not so good for smaller objects Can take a while to set up © 2012
  • 26. Photogrammetry Digital SLR Approx 60 photographs Cloud-based software 3D digital model © 2012
  • 27. Hands-on Demo • Laser Scanning • Software Down to the workshops! © 2012
  • 28. Digital to Physical Additive Layer Manufacturing © 2012
  • 29. Digital to Physical • Contents – Data generation for ALM • Data sources and examples • Data repair – System setup – an overview – System set-up - practical hands-on) – ALM – ‘the real deal’ © 2012
  • 30. DATA GENERATION 05/12/2012 30 © 2012
  • 31. Data Generation • All systems use a ‘.STL’ file: – Surface triangulated mesh file representing the surface of a component • STL files can be generated from – Directly from export of 3D CAD – Surface scan data – Volumetric (e.g CT data) • Data from any of these methods may require pre- processing to be useable in ALM © 2012
  • 32. STL files from CAD • Use ‘export ‘or ‘save as’ function to create STL © 2012
  • 33. STL files from surface scan • Scan of iPhone 4 case: © 2012
  • 34. STL from CT/MRI scan © 2012
  • 35. Errors in STL files • Some STL files can be very poor quality • Particularly from scan or CT… …but can be poor CAD: – Missing surfaces – Gaps – Intersecting surfaces – Inverted triangle normals © 2012
  • 36. Errors in STL files • Most ALM systems will not tolerate this and will require a ‘perfect’ STL file – One single continuous surface – All surface normals are correct • Software is available to fix errors relatively easily 05/12/2012 © 2012
  • 37. SYSTEM SETUP – AN OVERVIEW 37 © 2012
  • 38. System Setup – Overview • STL file is the starting point for any ALM system • STL may contain colour information (color STL) – Currently only ZCorp systems – Mcor about to release colour system based on bonded paper sheets (Iris) • VRML colour files are also accepted in ZCorp systems © 2012
  • 39. System Setup – Overview • All system have proprietary software, e.g: – Insight (Stratsys – FDM) – Objet Studio (Objet - MJM) – Zprint (ZCorp – 3D Printing) • Functions available: – Operators on model • E.g. rescale, rotate, translate, copy – Support generation – Selection of build parameters • Usually defaults, but can ‘play’ on some systems – Obtain time, material usage information • Useful for quoting purposes © 2012
  • 40. System Setup – Overview • Some systems require a support structure to be generated • This is always necessary for non-powder bed based systems • Support acts as a surface to accept the next layer • The system interface software generates this automatically • Some control on the type of support is allowed, usually to minimise material usage – Density – Shape © 2012
  • 41. System Setup – Overview • Additional functionality is available with the ‘new’ multi- material printers, giving the ability to: – insert an assembly and define the type of material of each part in the assembly – overcoat with materials – choose glossy or matte surface finish © 2012
  • 42. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING– THE REAL DEAL 42 © 2012
  • 43. Additive manufacturing– the real deal • Materials • Accuracy • Resolution • Sizes • Time • Costs • ‘non added value’ activity © 2012
  • 44. Polymers • Most common thermoplastics are: – SLS (PA, PS) – FDM (ABS, PLA, PC, PEEK) • Most common thermosets are: – Acrylic (MJM) – Epoxy (SLA) – Wax-like (for investment casting) • The HDT of FDM materials is equal to the IM grade • The HDT of other polymers is usually lower than 500C • High temperature polymers are available – PEEK (SLS) – PPSF, ULTEM (MJM) • Transparency is available but not for FDM and SLS – Translucency is available for FDM (ABSi - Methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-butadiene- stryrene copolymer) • Fire retardancy is available (most systems) • Biocompatibility is available (non-implantable) for most systems © 2012
  • 45. Metals • Most metals processed using SLS • Wide range of commercial materials – Ti, Ti alloys, stainless steel, Inconels, CoCr, Maraging steel, tool steel, aluminium… • Now systems processing Ag, Au, Pt (EOS-Cookson Metals tie-up) • Mechanical properties usually approach or match those of wrought materials © 2012
  • 46. Accuracy, Resolution • Resolution and accuracy are not the same! • Accuracy and resolution are complex and are highly dependent on system and component size, and on quality of calibration Accuracy Resolution x y z x y z SLS 30 30 20 100 100 20 metal SLS 100 100 100 50 50 50 polymer MJM 20 20 16 40 40 16 3DP 250 250 89 100 100 89 05/12/2012 © 2012
  • 47. Size • Polymers – Wide range of size capabilities (50mm-3m+) – Small bed sizes often have higher resolution – Large bed sizes often have faster build rates • Metals – Most metals systems have beds <300x300x300mm – Soon to be released have 500x500x300mm © 2012
  • 48. Time • Time is very difficult to assess from an STL file since: • Time is dependent upon: – Part volume – Part dimensions – Part orientation – Material used (even in the same process) – Level of finishing required – How much you want to pay (premium for queue jumping) © 2012
  • 49. Costs (using a bureau) • Not easy to assess just from an STL file since: • Cost is very much dependent upon: – Volume of the component (amount of material) – Part dimensions – Cost of the material – Amount of support material – Resolution required (number of slices) – Orientation required (taller the dearer) – Number of parts required (often cheaper per part to have multiples – especially for SLS) – Level of finish required © 2012
  • 50. Costs (in-house) • If you have system in-house, need to consider: – Maintenance costs – Material costs (including scrap, waste) – Consumables costs – Infrastructural costs – Labour costs (set-up and clean-down) • Costs can vary widely depending on the system – System - £500-£1m+ – Maintenance – £100 – £30k PA – Material - £1 - £600 /kg – Infrastructural - £0 - £100k + – Labour - £5 - £200 per part © 2012
  • 51. Low Cost Systems • Recent huge rise in ultra- low cost systems – Makerbot, BFB, Cubify … • Based on FDM technology • £500 - £2,500 • Material costs ~£20/kg • No dedicated computer • No training • Simple post-processing © 2012
  • 52. Low Volume Manufacturing: Bridging the Gap Dr Ben Wood & Dr Kylash Makenji IIPSI © 2012
  • 53. Outline • Identifying the problem – How to go from prototype to production? • Direct manufacturing methods • Rapid Tooling – Indirect – Direct • Live demo of direct tooling © 2012
  • 54. The Problem Injection Moulding Rotational Tooling Moulding Cost Compression Moulding Low Volume CNC Machining Manufacturing ALM 1 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000+ Number of Parts © 2012
  • 55. What is Rapid Tooling? • Early definition of Rapid Tooling: “a process that allows a tool for injection moulding and die casting operations to be manufactured quickly and efficiently so the resultant part will be representative of the production material.” - Karl Denton 1996 • With Rapid Tooling now covering a wider range of applications, this has generalised to: “a range of processes aimed at reducing both the cost and time for the manufacture of tooling.” © 2012
  • 56. Classification of Rapid Tooling • Indirect – Use of a Rapid Prototype (RP) pattern to manufacture a tool in a secondary operation • Direct – Directly produce the tool using a layer-additive process © 2012
  • 57. Indirect Rapid Tooling • Cast tooling – Cast resin tooling – Cast metal tooling – Cast ceramic tooling • Metal spray tooling – Kirksite thermal spray tooling – Rapid Solidification Process tooling – Sprayform tooling • Indirect laser sintered tooling – 3D LaserForm process • 3D Printed tooling – Extrude Hone Prometal © 2012
  • 58. Cast Resin Tooling • Obtained by two primary methods: – Room temperature vulcanised silicone – Rigid resin tooling • Room temperature vulcanised silicone – Silicone rubber tools for vacuum casting of (generally) polyurethane parts – RP model employed as master pattern – Multistage process – Resin parts vacuum cast or injected into tool – Expensive materials – Low volume (~30 parts) / extremely rapid (1-2 days) © 2012
  • 59. Cast Resin Tooling • Obtained by two primary methods: – Room temperature vulcanised silicone – Rigid resin tooling • Rigid resin tooling – Aluminium filled epoxy resin tools used for injection / blow moulding – As for RTV silicone, RP model used as master pattern – Multistage process – Difficult and slow to mould parts – Volumes up to ~500 / very rapid (3-5 days) © 2012
  • 60. Direct Rapid Tooling • Direct metallic tooling – Direct laser melted metallic tooling • EOSint M DirectTool • MCP Selective Laser Melting (SLM) • Direct polymeric tooling – 3D Printed mould inserts • Object Connex 260 • Fortus FDM © 2012
  • 61. Laser Melted Metallic Tooling • Many similar processes, 2 most employed are: – DirectTool – EOS GmbH – Selective Laser Melting (SLM) – MCP Inc • DirectTool – Latest system EOSINT M270 – Process: • Direct laser melting of metal powder • Ability to polish to mirror finish – Materials: • DSH20 (tool steel) • DS20 / 50 (20mm and 50mm steel) • DM20 / 50 (20mm and 50mm bronze) – Very hard tooling possible (42HRc) – Very high accuracy (~50mm) / 20mm layers – Conformal cooling channels © 2012
  • 62. Laser Melted Metallic Tooling • Many similar processes, two most commonly employed are: – DirectTool – EOS GmbH – Selective Laser Melting (SLM) – MCP Inc • Selective Laser Melting – Latest system „Realizer‟ – Process: • Direct laser melting of metal powder • Ability to polish to mirror finish – Materials: • Any metallic powders 10-30mm • Stainless steel most common – Very high accuracy (~50mm) / 50mm layers – Conformal cooling channels © 2012
  • 63. 3D Printed Polymer Inserts • Manufacture a tool insert by ALM – Accurate – Good surface finish – Very rapid (30 mins-2 hours) © 2012
  • 64. 3D Printed Polymer Inserts • Ready for mass production – Injection mould tooling – Lower cost ‘pocket’ tool – Can be used with wide range of inserts • Easy, quick and inexpensive to make changes © 2012
  • 65. Hands - On INJECTION MOULDING TOOL INSERTS © 2012
  • 68. Process Comparison Capital Process Equipment Production Rate Tooling Cost Part Volumes Cost Compression Low Slow Low 100 – 1 mill Moulding Vacuum Forming Medium Medium Medium 10,000 – 1 mill Injection Moulding High Fast High 10,000 – 100 mill Extrusion Medium Fast Low – Medium Med - High Blow Moulding Medium Medium Medium 1,000 – 100 mill Rotational Medium Slow Medium 100 – 1 mill Moulding © 2012
  • 69. Summary • Many potential manufacturing routes for low volume – Right choice depends on part and material • ALM can be used for much more than prototyping – Key to most rapid tooling methods © 2012
  • 70. Adding Functionality IIPSI Capabilities and State of the Art © 2012
  • 71. Outline • Shape memory polymers – Active disassembly • Printed and plastic electronics – Conductive polymers – Low cost applications – Integration • What would you like to see? © 2012
  • 72. Shape Memory Polymers • Can be ‘programmed’ to change shape when given a trigger • High material cost = niche applications Mould Force into Set Return to part temporary temporary original shape shape shape Heat Cool Heat FORCE Restrain © 2012
  • 73. SMP Research Focus Medical Aerospace/defence – morphing wings Outer Space – Zero Gravity © 2012
  • 74. SMPs for SMEs! • ‘Active’ disassembly – Ideal for automotive, consumer electronics • Automatically release at end of life – Materials separation, recycling • Low complexity – Maximise added value © 2012
  • 75. PLASTIC AND PRINTED ELECTRONICS © 2012
  • 76. Conductive Polymers • Actual conductive polymers not common – Difficult to process, not like plastics – Normally dissolved in solvent • Applications in PV and EL/OLED – Useful as part of a printed or plastic electronic component © 2012
  • 77. Plastic and Printed Electronics • Growth area – Funding opportunities • Costs reducing – Expensive materials vs volume production • Key applications – Display technology – ‘Smart’ Packaging – IoT © 2012
  • 78. Plastic Electronics • Electroluminescence (EL) – Low energy, low heat lighting – Simple circuit PEDOT-PSS transparent electrode +ve Zinc Sulphide Phosphor LIGHT Dielectric -ve Reflective (silver) rear electrode Surface © 2012
  • 80. Low Cost Plastic Electronics Airbrush Method © 2012
  • 81. Low Cost Plastic Electronics Screen Printing Type Method © 2012
  • 82. Low Cost Plastic Electronics Direct In-Mould Layer Application © 2012
  • 83. Low Cost Plastic Electronics Post Mould Layer Application © 2012
  • 84. Hybrid 3D Printing • Bespoke system hybridising MJM with syringe deposition – 2 x 512, 14pl nozzle heads, individually addressed – High viscosity liquid dispensing – Continuous flow for deposition of resins with highly suspended solids – SmartPump for deposition of higher viscosity resins and pastes at extremely high resolution © 2012
  • 85. Hybrid 3D Printing • Integrated manufacture – Functional components – Electronic circuits • Facilitates adding of functionality and connectivity – Eg interactive books – Internet of Things (IoT) © 2012
  • 86. Summary • Complex circuits require expensive kit and specialist knowledge • Market is growing, costs coming down – Printing technology, roll-to-roll • Simple circuits achievable with low capital – Layer-by-layer deposition of materials • Future is in integration – IoT – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zG2dvxSKEGU – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kgw51_PtDSs © 2012
  • 87. What would you like to see in the IIPSI? OVER TO YOU! © 2012